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JIS

F 0090-1 999
Ship's safety signs
Introduction A ship is the integration of industrial products manufactured by' assembling a variety of parts
from suppliers in diverse fields. For these products, safety signs are used to protect operators and other related

persons agamst hazards wrth speclfic relauon to Product Lrabihty (slmplified to "PL"). Uses of safety signs in

forms differing from product to product and from manufacturer to manufacturer are considered to hamper
understandings by those related persons, causing confusions among them. This Japanese Industrial Standard
has been established to promote standardization ofsafety signs used in ships and to help those persons concerned

understand them.

l. Scope This Japanese Industna] Standard speclfies the safety slgns fitted to ships mobile offshore
dnllmg umts and equrpment camed onboard (heremafier referred to as "ships"). This Standard includes the
objectives of safety signs, definitions of terms, symbols and colours used for safety signs, and guidelines for
design (forms and materials), fixing positions and fixing procedures for safety signs.

The safety signs that are made obligatory under laws and regulations shall be considered to be outside this
Standard, and priority shall be given to them.
2.

Reference standard The following standard shall form part of this Standard

when being

referred

The latest edition of the standard (including supplements) shall be applied.

the reto

JIS Z 9101 Safety colours and safety signs


3.

Definitions The following definitions shall apply to the major terms used in this Standard.

a)

safety sign The sign that conveys general safety aiert messages obtained by combining colours

and

shapes, and conveys specific safety alert messages by adding pictorials (1) or text messages (2).
Note (1) (2): (See 5:2..2 and 5.2.3)

b)

safety colour The colour that has features (3) with safety significance.
Note (3) :

The definitions of the features of safety colours shall be in accordance with Annex A to JIS Z 9 10 1 .

4. Basic matters related to safety signs


4.1 Objectives of safety signs The objectives of safety signs fitted to ships are to alert persons to existing
or potential hazards, and all or part of the following elements a) through d) shall be included in a safety sign.

a) Class of hazards
"DANGER", "WARNING", "CAUTION." (See 4.2)
b) Type of hazards
Flammablc material, high temperature, high voltage, etc.

c) Consequences when alert is ignored


Fire, burn, electric shock, etc.

d) Measures to avoid hazards


Operational instructions and prohibitions

4.2 Class of hazards and definitions Hazards assigned to ships' safety signs are classified into the
following three classes using safety alert signal words according to the degree ofhazard and probability:

a) DANGER This indicates an extreme hazard that may lead to a death or serious injuries, ifnot avoided.
This shall be used for the situation of an extreme hazard and should not be used excessiveiy (4).

b) WARNING This indicates a hazard that may probably lead to a death or serious injuries, ifnot avoided
(4) .

c) CAUTION This indicates a hazard that may probably cause light or medium injuries, ifnot avoided (4).
Note (4).: The safety alert signal words ~DANGER", "WARNlNG- and "CAUTION" shall be used only when
there is a hazard, which directly affects human bodies. They shall, however, not be used when a

hazard may lead to damage to properties only, without endangering human bodies. Operational
safety signs for use when only physical damage is expected are shown in Annex 5 for reference.

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4.3 Recipients of safety alert of safety signs The recipients of safety alert of safety signs shall be as
follows:

a) Ship and ship machinery operating persounel (those engaged in direct operations of ships, ship
machinery and equipment, and supervisors)(hereinafter referred. to as "operators").
Persons related to carriage and installation of ship machinery and equipment

Persons related to operations and maintenance of ship machinery and equipment

b) Persons other than operators (s)


Note (5):

In the case of ships, operators are, in many cases, Iimited specialists, which differ in terms of
occupational characteristics from those operators of consumer goods, and, therefore, use of technical

terms may be permitted to some degrees. If, however, there are possibilities that persons other than
ship machinery and equipment operators might have access to hazards, it is preferred that safety signs
are in readily understandable messages (refraining from using special ship terms).

5.

Safety signs

5.1 General precautions for safety signs


a) Location Safety signs shall be securely fitted at conspicuous places in the vicinity of locations where
hazards exist or in the proximity ofthe inlet of a space where hazards exist.
If thcre are a plurality of hazards of the identical element and it is diffrcult to fix safety signs individually

to each ofthem, they may be displayed in an integrated mauner.

b) Conspicuousness Safety signs shall be in a geometric shape and size so that they can be understood at
one sight, and be compatible with ships, ship machinery and equipment. Colours of safety signs for use
are either in red, orange-red or yellow and it is preferred that colours in the same colorimetric group are
not used for shipboard paintings.

c) Effectiveness Safety signs shall, as part ofaship, be effective throughout the service life ofthe ship. It
is necessary that they do not detach from the ship's structure or do not become obscure by discoloration,
and it is preferred that their service life is the same as the ship's service life. When the maintenance of
their durability is difficult due to heat, stain or others, safety signs shall be dealt with as those consumable

items, and renewals should be made obligatory. Explanatory notes in this regard shall be stated in
Operator's Manuals.
d) Number of safety signs Safety signs shall be limited to cases where reasonable security of safety is
structurally difficult, and it is preferred that their number is not excessive.

5.2 Composition of safety signs Safety signs sha]1 be composed of either all or part of the following a)
through d):
a)

safety alert signal words (hereinafier referred to as "signal words")

b)

safety alert symbols (hereinafter referred to as "alert symbols")

c)

hazard description/avoidance pictorials (hereinafter referred to as "pictorials")

d)

text message

5.2.l

Alert symbols Alert signals correspond to the three signal words: "DANGER" "WARNlNG" and

"CAUTION
,,

Alert symbols used for ships' safety signs and prohibition/instruction symbols are as given in Tables 1

and 2.

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Table I Alert symbols used forsafety signs

Table 2 Prohibrtron/mstructlon srgns used for safety srgns

5.2.2 Pictorials Pictorials are graphic presentations of the type and result of a hazard and its avoidance

method, and are used without or in combination with text messages. Pictorials help operators visually
understand the content of hazard, and therefore, it is preferred to use pictorials as far as practicable.

When a plurality of hazards coexist, priority shall be given to the higher hazard.

Examples of pictorials applied to ships' safety signs are shown in Attached Fig. l.

5.2.3 Text messages Text messages describe the type and result ofahazard and its avoidance method. Text
messages shall be short, simple and clear, and hazard avoidance method shall be described in an imperative
sentence. Ifdescribing text messages is difficult due to the limited space available or the need ofusing multiple
languages, detailed explanations may be stated in Operator's Manuals providing that it is so noticed (see 5.5).

5.3 Formats and dimensions of safety sign Safety signs shall, in principle, be divided into the following
three panels.

a) Signal panel (S) Alert symbols and signal words are included.
b) Pictoriai panel (P) Pictorials are included.

c) Message panel (M) Text messages are included.


5.3.1 Basic formats and dimensions of safety signs The basic formats and dimensions of safety signs are
shown in Fig. l.

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Cham f er i ng

80

Unit:

mm

Chamfering
80

Corner radius

s7 Comer radius

Fig. I Basic formats and dimensions of safety signs

5.3.2 Modification of formats and dimensions The formats and dimensions ofsafety signs may be modified
as appropriate according to conditions such as the type and size of a ship.

a) The dimensions of a safety sign shall be such that it is understandable within the operating range of a ship.
As a rule of thumb, the area of a safety sign shall be as shown below in accordance with JIS Z 9 1 O I :

A~

L2

2000

where
A : minimum area of safety sign (m2)

L: maximum distance (m) from a place safety sign is understandable, L ~ 50 m


b) When all signals, messages and pictorials that are shown in 5.2 a) through d) are difficult to be displayed
in the divided three panels due to the ship's size and restrictions at the location of safety signs, they may

be modified as necessary, either by omitting or integrating panels in the smaller size according to the
methods shown in the foliowing I ) through 5).

l) Two panels (s + M) Use the signa] panel and message panel, omitting the pictorial panel. (See
Fig. 2)

2) Two panels (s + p) Use the signal panel and pictorial panel, omitting the message panel. (See Fig.
3)

In this case, the type and the consequence of a hazard, and the route of evacuation shall be clear
only through the pictorial panel alone.

3) Two panels (P + M) Use the pictorial panel integrated (6) with alert symbols, omitting the signal

panel. (See Fig. 4)

4) Two panels (s + p and M) Use the signal panel in combination with pictorials and text message.
(See Fig. 5)

5) One panel (P or P and M) Use pictorials (6) jntegrated with alert symbols only, or use pictorials
(6) integrated with alert symbols and text message in combination only. (See Fig. 6)
Note (6): In the case of integration of alert symbois and pictorials, the exclamation mark shall be
substituted with a pictorial.

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Signal panel (S)

Signal panel (S)

Pictorial (P)

Message (M)

Pictorial (P)

Message (M)
Fig. 2 2-panel sign (s + M)

Fig. 3 2-panel sign (s + p)

Fig. 4 2-panel sign (P + M)

Signal panel (S)

Pictorial (P) alone or

Pictorial (P) and

Pictorial (P) and Message (M)

Message (M)

(Signal words may be deseribed)

Fig. 5 2-panel sign (S + p and M) Fig. 6 l-panel sign (P or P and M)


5.4

Colours of safety signs The colours of safety signs shall conform to the following requirements:

a)

Hue Hue shall conform to JIS Z 9101.

DANGER:
WARNlNG:

Red
Orange red

CAUTION :

Yellow

Prohibition:

Re d

Obligatory action: Blue


Safety :

b)

Green

The colours of background, characters, pictorials and perimeter within each panel shall be as given in

Table 3.
Examples ofsafety signs applicab]e to ships are shown in Annex 2 for reference.

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Notes:
(')
(g)

For indicating fires or explosions, Ted may bc used.

When a signal panel is not provided, pictorials integrated with alert symbols shall be used. Ifasignal
panel is provided, alert symbois integrated with pictorials may not be used, but pictorials only.

(9 )

f lO\

\l

The slash line in a circle symbol and the crossing symbol shall be in red as well.

When indicating a fire or an explosion, white may be used.

5.5 Language for use The language that is instructed by the shipowner, taking into account the trade areas
of a ship and the nationality of crewmembers, shall be used.

When a plurality of languages are used, the number of languages shall be limited to two so that text
messages can be suffilciently scrutinized, Ifit is necessary to use three or more languages, ships' safety signs
shall be such that alert symbols are provided in combination with a text message stating that "Read Operator's
Manua]" or pictorials ofthe same implication, and provide detailed expianations in the Manual.

Explanatory notes on the safety information in an Operator's Manual are shown in Annex 4.

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E~t~ L *a)~~ ~~ ~t~Se~~ ~ ~~~

~~"<
t~,*h, ~#~L*~~~~til~1lr
e$r~[:~~ ~ Ir S ; ~ .

(~)

Vet Inbetr,ebmhme ,,te


8etr,eb-ntdtu,,g und
Steterlleft$,dnwelse le$e,,
und be8errten.

C~

Ure ie ,Ivret d'enlreten et


le$ eQR$elts de $ecur,te

avant
le nrf$e Q marehe et
en lentr compte pendot ie
fenclto,,nement.

(~~) Cafetul$y rQd Opefator'$

t,oud bfQe handl$ng

1,1e mGehlne. Ob$etve


In$truclton$ and $8tety
nJte$ wtle,, ope.aang.

Fig. 7
6.

Example of a safety sign without text message with a notation of "Read Operator's Manual"

Materials of safety signs The materials of safety signs shall be adequate for their fitted positions and

enviroamental conditions.
The materials of safety signs are shown in Annex 3 for reference.

Reference standards:

ISO 3864 Safety colours and safety signs

ISO 6309 Fire protection Safety signs


ISO 9244 Earth-moving machinery - Safety signs and hazard pictorials General principles
ISO 1 1634 Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn and garden equipment - Safety signs
and hazard pictorials - Genera] principles

IEC 60417-1 Graphical symbo]s for use on equipment Part I : Overview and application

JIS B 0139 Copying machines - Graphic symbois


JIS Z 9104 Safety signs General specification

BS 5378

Safety signs and colours

ANSI Z 535.3 Criteria for Safety Symbo]s


Zaidan Hojin Kadenseihin Kyokai Dantai Kikaku (Guidelines for indicating safety signs for home appliances)

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Annex I (Reference) Examples of pictorials applied to ships'


safety signs
This Annex (Reference) supplements matters

related to

the requirements

specified in the

body text of the

Japanese Industrial Standard, but is not part of it.

Annex l
No.

Table 1

Alert si ns

Meaning

Pietorial

Reference
stan d ard s

1. Alert in general
l.1

Unspecified alert in general - This is used as a suffix to class of

ISO 3864

hazard ("DANGER", "WARNlNG", "CAUTION") and type of


hazard.

e
2. Chemical hazards
2.l

Toxicity

ISO 3864

Toxic gases or poisonous fumes

ISO 9244

'A'

2.2
*u.~.~~

ISO I 1684

'~i:_,:~~! r~e~'J:.~'1:.

'. ~~:'a~:f;~~~.;ilY:#,*-.~'

2.3

X._+'

Oxygen deficiency, respiration difficulty

Corrosiveness

2.4

ISO 3864

4L
~5a
-,.

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Annex I Table I Alert si


No .

Pictorial

ns cont'd
Meaning

Reference
standards

2.5

Corrosiveness

ISO I1684

Caution, eiectric shock

ISO 3864
ISO 9244

3. Electrical hazards
3. 1

ISO I 1684

3,2

Caution, electric shock

ISO I1684

Caution, electric shock

ISO I1684

li
3.3

~, e

4. CautiQn, falting hazards, slippery surfaces


4. 1

Falling from high place

ISO 3864

4.2

Slippery surfaces

ISO I1684

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Note (1):

When panel background is white, red may be used for pictorials.

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Annex l
No.

Table 5

Information si

Pictorial

ns on safet

conditions

Mean ing

Reference
standard

Stowed location of first=aid kit

direction of location

(this may be used in right-]eft direction, up-down direction and


oblique direction)

Emergency exit

ISO 3864

ISO 3864
ISO 6309

ISO 6309

(being symmetric, this can be used both ways)

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Annex 2 (Reference) Examples of ship's safety signs


This Annex (Reference) supplements matters related to the requiren]ents ofthe body text ofthis Standard, but
not constitutes part ofthe requirements.

1. Format examples of safety srgns (see 5 3 of the body text) Format examples of shlp s safety srgns

concernmg "DANGER" WARNlNG" and "CAUTION" are shown in Annex 2 Fig. 1,1 through Fig. 1.6,
Annex 2 Fig, 2.1 through Fig. 2.5, Annex 2 Fig. 3.1 through Fig, 3.6 respectively. Safety signs that are
suitable for the intended application shall be seiected and used.

Dimensions of a safety sign may be modified as necessary according to the intended application.

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a)

DANGER

IGNITION HAZARD

NO OPEN FLAME

Annex 2 Fig. 1.1

Basic form of 3-panel sign - Vertical configuration (S + p + M)

IGNITION HAZARD

NO OPEN FLAME

Annex 2 Fig. 1.2

Basic form of 3-panel sign - Horizontal configuration (s + p + M)

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FLAMMABLE
IGNITION

HAZARD
NO OPEN

Annex 2 Fig. 1.5 One-panel

F LAME

situplified One-panel
simplified sign - Vertical

configuration

(P & M)

IGNITION HAZARD

Annex 2 Fig. 1.4 2-panel


sirnplified sign - Vertical

configuration (s + p &

NO OPEN FLAME

M)

Annex 2 Fig. 1.3 2-panel


simplified sign - Vertical

configuration (P + M)

Annex 2 Fig. 1.6

2-panel simplified sign - Vertical configuration (P + p)

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b)

WARNING

Caution, electric shock

supply
Turn
off power
switch
during inspection

with
Dodoor
not
operate
open
Annex 2 Fig. 2.1

Basic form of 3-panel sign - Vertical configuration (s + p + M)

Caution, electric shock

suTurn
off power
pply switch
during inspection

with
Dodoor
not
operate
open
Annex 2

Fig. 2.2

Basic form of 3-panel sign - Horizonta] configuration (S + p + M)

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Caution, electric shock

o Turn off power


supply switch

durmg mspection
e Do not operate

with door open

Annex 2

Fig. 2.3

2-panel simplified sign - Vertical configuration (P + M)

Caution, electric

shock

VOLTAG E

Tum off power su pply switch

Caution, electnc

during inspecton

shock

Do not operato with door o pen

Turn off power su pply switch


during inspection

Annex 2 Fig. 2.5

One-panel simplified sign -

Vertical configuration (P & M)

e Do not operate with door


o pen

Annex 2 Fig. 2.4

2-panel simplified simplified

sign -Vertical configuration

(S + p & M)

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c)

CAUTION

CAUTI ON

,~))flill)1)fll)),

Caution, burn
e Hand protection

must be worn
during inspection

Annex 2

Fig. 3.l

Basic format of 3-panel sign - Vertical configuration (S + p + M)

CAUTION
Caution, burn

e Gloves must be

,)))i;ifl)f)fll)),

worn for hand


protection

during
ins pection
Annex 2

Fig. 3.2

Basic format of 3-panel sign - Horizontal configuration (s + p + M)

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~-HIGH TEMP.
Caution, burn

worn
Gloves
mustAnnex
be2 Fig. 3.5 One-pane]
for hand
protection during

ins pection

simplified sign -

Vertical configuration

(P & M)

Caution, burn

Annex 2 Fig. 3.4 2-panel


silnplified sign - Vertical

Gloves must be worn


M)
for hand protection

configuration (S + p &

during inspection

Annex 2 Fig. 3.3 2-panel


simplified sign -

Vertical configu ration

(p + M)

Annex 2 Fig. 3.6

2-panel simplified sign - Vertical configuration (P + p)

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Annex 3 (Reference) Materials of ships' safety signs


This Annex (Reference) supplements matters related to the requirements of the body text and Annexes of the
Standard and does not constitute part of this Standard.

Materials that are appropriate for ships' safety signs are given in Annex 3 Table l.

It is preferable that materials suitable for their installed positions and ambient working conditions are selected

and used from among those given in the table.

Legend:

Symbols in the table show:

@i

Excellent

O : Good
A : Ord inary

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Annex 4 (Reference) Safety information to be given in Operator's Manuals


This Annex (Reference) supplements matters related to the requirements of the body text of the Standard and
does not constitute part of the requirements.

The safety information given in Operator's Manuals is as important as ships' safety signs themselves or even

more.
Because safety signs are provided with limited spaces, it is necessary that detailed explanations on a]ert ofrisk

of danger and means to avoid risks be stated in Operator's Manuals.


l.

General description At the beginning ofthe Operator's Manual, the following safety information shall

be stated:

a) Definitions of signal words


b) Explanatory notes on safety alert symbols and pictorials used in ships and Operator's Manuals.
c) Important safety alert messages Descriptions on latent defects of a ship, risk of hazards caused by
human errors in handling equipment, hazards that may lead to operators' injuries, and means to avoid such
''
risks ofhazard ("Safety precautions , For,' ensuring
safe operations" etc.)

d) Ship's safety signs and their installed locations

e) How to obtain spare safety signs


2.

Supplementary descriptions All risks even those not covered by safety signs and unsafe behaviors

shall be included, and safety alerts shall be issued in each caption ofthe Operator's Manual.

a) At the beginning of each chapter, safety alert descriptions related to the given chapter shaU be provided.

b) In the explanation of each operation, safety a]ert descriptions relative to specific operations sha[1 be
provided.
3.

Alert descriptions Alert descriptions shali, as in the case ofsafety signs, include the following matters

a) through d), where emphases shall be made by using alert symbols, framing etc., to attract the attention.

a) Class of hazard
b) Type of hazard
c)

Consequences when alert is ignored

d) Means to avoid hazard

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Annex 5 (Reference) Operational caution signs


This Annex supp]ements matters related to the requirements of the body text of the Standard and does not
constitute part ofthe requirements ofthe Standard.
l.

Operational caution signs for physical damage For operational cautions when physical damage such

as serious damage to or failure of ships are anticipated in the absence of direct bodily injuries, it is preferable to

call the attention of operators or related other persons using "NOTICE ,

" "OPERATIONAL NOTICE" and safety

alert signs using "f' or "A." In this case, an exclamation mark or pictorials shall not be used inside the safety
alert triangle.

2.

General operational caution signs It is preferable that a perTnanent operational caution sign indicating

general cautions relative to operations including the following matters is fitted on product:

a) Operations shall be done by professional engineers.


b) Operations shall be done correctly according to Operator's Manuals.
c) Operator' s Manuais and safety signs shal] be retained securely.

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Annex 6 (Reference) Safety assessment of ships and safety measures


This Annex (Reference) supplements matters related to the requirements of body text and annexes

of the

Standard and does not constitutes part of the requirements.

The basic principle of ships is that they can be used safely. For securing the safety of ships, priority shall,
therefore, be given to design assessments and countermeasures for safety, and it is preferable to limit safety alert

descriptions only when solutions are difficult merely by design considerations or when security of ships' safety is

difficult merely through design efforts. It is desirable to make the number of safety alert signs for ships, in
particular, as fewer as possible.

Ships' safety assessments and safety measures shall be developed by the following procedures.

l.

a)

Safety assessments of ships (Hazard analysis)


Checks on hazards in ships (physieal elements) Detecting hazards in ships (including latent ones) and

predictable operational hazards (inc]uding human errors) and checking in accordance with Anuex 6
Attached Table I .

b)

Checks on operational unsafe behaviours (human errors) Criteria for hazards vary from operator to
operator and environmental conditions, but the values given in Annex 6 Attached Table 2 shall be taken as
reference values as a rule of thumb.

2.

Improving safety in design

a)

Realizing intrinsie safety features of ships Priority shall be given to eliminating hazards in ships and
securing the safety of ships.

b)

Adding protection and safety devices If securing the intrinsic safety of ships is difficult, protections
and safety devices shall be provided.

3.

Indication of safety alerts

operational hazards, caution sha]l

For hazards, which cannot be removed merely by design considerations, and

be called by installing operational alert signs and by providing alert

descriptions in Operator's Manuals.


4.

Examples of ships' safety assessments and safety measures Examples of ships'

safety assessments

and safety measures (example of diesel engine) are given in Annex 6 Attached Table 3.

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Annex 6 Attached Table 2

29

Criteria for hazards

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'!~

e
e
\e
e,
~o
\o
~o

Notes: *

When installed.

**

Integrated display acceptable

30

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e
e,

~o

31

~o
~e
~o

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e,
~:,

\e
~)
~o

32

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