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The IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves consists of new titles as well as

reprints and revisions of recognized classics that maintain long-term archival

significance in electromagnetic waves and applications.

Donald G. Dudley

Editor

University of Arizona

Advisory Board

Robert E. ~ollin

Case Western University

Akira Ishimaru

University of Washington

Associate Editors

Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering, and Diffraction

Ehud Heyman

Tel-Aviv University

Differential Equation Methods

Andreas C. Cangellaris

University of Arizona

Integral Equation Methods

Donald R. Wilton

University of Houston

Antennas, Propagation, and Microwaves

David R. Jackson

University of Houston

Collin, R. E., Field Theory of Guided Waves, 2d. rev. ed., 1991

Tai, C. T., Generalized Vector and Dyadic Analysis:

Applied Mathematics in Field Theory, 1991

Elliott, R. S., Electromagnetics: History, Theory, and Applications, 1993

Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, 1993

Tai, C. T., Dyadic Green's Function in Electromagnetic Theory

Dudley, D. G., Mathematical Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory

ElectroDlagnetics

History, Theory, and Applications

Robert S. Elliott

Hughes Chair Professor of Electronlagnetics

University of California, Los Angeles

IEEE

'V

PRESS

Donald G. Dudley, Series Editor

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York

IEEE PRESS

445 Hoes Lane, PO Box 1331

Piscataway, NJ 088551331

1992 Editorial Board

William Perkins, Editor in Chief

K. K. Agarwal

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K. Hess

G. F. Hoffnagle

J. D. Irwin

A. Michel

E. K. Miller

J. M. F. Moura

J. G. Nagle

A. C. Schell

L. Shaw

M. Simaan

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D. J. Wells

Carrie Briggs, Administrative Assistant

Karen G. Miller, Production Editor

IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, Sponsor

APS Liaison to IEEE PRESS

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RomeLaboratory, ERI

Hanscom AFB

This book may be purchased at a discount from the publisher

when ordered in bulk quantities. For more informationcontact:

IEEE PRESS Marketing

Attn: Special Sales

PO Box 1331

445 Hoes Lane

Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331

Fax: (732) 981-9334

1993 by the Institute of Electrical and ElectronicsEngineers, Inc.

3 Park Avenue, 17th Floor, New York, NY 10016-5997

under the title Electromagnetics.

ALL rights reserved. No part of this book 111ay be reproduced in any form,

nor may it be stored in a retrievalsystem or transmittedin any[orm,

without written permissionfrom the publisher.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 0-7803-5384-6

IEEE Order Number: PP3723

The Library of Congress has catalogued the hard cover

edition of this title as follows:

Electromagnetics: history,theory,and applications/ by Robert

S. Elliott.

p. em.

IEEE Antennas and PropagationSociety,sponsor.

Includes bibliographicalreferencesand index.

ISBN 0-7803-1024-1

1. Electromagnetictheory. 1. IEEE Antennas and Propagation

Society. II. Title.

QC670.E42

1993

537-dc20

93-7061

CIP

TO THE CHILDREN

Table of Contents

Original Preface, xiii

Preface to the IEEE Edition, xvii

Glossary of Symbols, xix

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

2

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.10

2.11

2.12

2.13

2.14

2.15

2.16

2.17

2.18

2.19

Historical Survey-The Velocity of Light

Sound lVaves and Light Waves .

1

14

29

H isiorical Survey .

The Principle of Relativity and Its Classical I mplications,

A pplications of the Classical Velocity Transformation Law

Fizeau's Experiment with 11{ oving Water

The Michelson-Morley Experiment .

Ether Drag.

The Lorentz-FitzGerald Contraction l-Iypothesis.

Emission Theories.

The Interdependence of Space and Time

The Lorentz Transformation .

Length and Time Under the Lorentz Transformation

Proper Time and Proper Distance

Velocity

Relativistic Interpretation of the Fizeau Experiment

The Cedarholm-Townes Maser Experiment.

The Variation of M ass

M omentum and Energy .

The Transformation Law for Mass

The Transformation Law for Force

37

41

46

49

51

58

59

61

61

70

73

78

81

82

83

85

89

91

92

3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13

3.14

3.15

3.16

3.17

3.18

3.19

3.20

3.21

ELECTROSTATICS

IN FREE SPACE

Historical Survey .

Mathematical Formulation of the Inverse Square Law .

The Electric Field .

Electrostatic Potential.

Gauss'Law.

Electric Flux

A Conductor- Vacuum Interface

The Method of I mages

Poisson's Equation

Laplace's Equation

Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Rectangular Coordinates

Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Spherical Coordinates.

Green's Functions.

Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Two Dimensions unih. the Use of Conformal Mapping

The Schuiarz Transformation.

Capacitance

AIulticapacitor Systems

Electrostatic Stored Energy

The 111 axwell-McAlister Experiment

The Plimpton-Lawton Experiment

Historical Survey .

The Transjormaiion of Electric Force

The Fields Due to a Closed Circulating Charge System

4.4

The Biot-Savart Law .

The Magnetic Field Intensity.

4.5

4.6 The Force Between Currents .

4.7 The Time-Independent illagnetic Vector Potential Function

4.8 Ampere's Circuital Law

4.9 Boundary- Value Problems in 111 agnetostatics

4.10 Composite Fields

5.1

5.2

5.3

175

182

186

189

193

199

204

4.1

4.2

4.3

98

117

121

127

134

138

140

142

148

151

152

155

165

172

216

224

230

232

236

237

239

244

249

252

Historical Survey .

The Transformation Equations for Electric and Magnetic Fields.

The Transformation Equations for the Source Densities

256

264

267

Table of Contents

IX

5.4

Maxwell's Equaiion .

Integral Solutions of Maxwell's Equations in Terms of the Sources

Conditions at Infinity.

The Potential Functions

5.8 Magnetic Stored Energy

5.9

Poynting's Theorem

5.10 Solutions to the Wave Equation in Rectangular Coordinates-Unguided Waves

5.11 Rectilinear Guided Waves.

5.12 Solutions to the Wave Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

5.13 Solutions to the Wave Equation in Spherical Coordinates .

5.14 Inductance.

5.15 Transformation of the Integral Solutions to Forms Suitable for Waveguide

Problems

5.16 A Minkowskian Formulation of the Field Equations

268

5.5

5.6

5.7

272

275

279

283

285

291

297

303

306

309

315

319

DIELECTRIC MATERIALS

327

Historical Survey

330

The Electric M oment of a Neutral System of Charges

The Static 111acroscopic Electric Field Due to a Volume of Polarized Dielectric

331

Material

A Generalization of Do

339

6.4

342

The

Local

Field

6.5

344

Electronic Polarization

6.6

346

6.7 I onic Polarization .

351

Orientational

Polarization

6.8

354

Dielectric Susceptibility, Permittivity, and Relative Dielectric Constant.

6.9

356

6.10 The Static Dielectric Constant of Gases .

361

6.11 T he Static Dielectric Constant of Solids and Liquids .

366

6.12" The Clausius-Moesotii Equation.

369

6.13 Primary Static Charges in an Infinite, Homogeneous, Isotropic Medium:

370

6.14 Ferroelectric Crystals

376

6.15 Piezoelectrics

379

6.16 Time-Harmonic Fields and Complex Permittivity

380

6.17 Time-Harmonic Electronic Polarizability

6.18 Complex I onic Polarizabilitu; Time-Harmonic Permittivity of Non-Polar

382

M aterials .

383

6.19 Dipolar Relaxation

390

6.20 Dielectric Losses

393

6.21 lYI axwell' s Equations for Dielectric Materials

6.1

6.2

6.3

7

7.1

MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Historical Survey .

397

7.2

7.3

7.4

7Jj

7.6

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.10

7.11

7.12

7.13

7.14

7.15

7.16

7.17

Table of Contents

The Static M acroscopic M agnetic Field Due to a l ' olume of Polarized M ag404

netic 111aterial .

408

A Generalization of flo

410

The Local Field

411

Magnetic Susceptibility

414

Measurement of Susceptibility

416

Diamagnetism .

420

Permanent 1.1agnetic Moments

427

Paramagnetism

433

Properties of Ferromagnetic M aterials

436

The Weiss Theory of Ferromagnetism

440

The Weiss Field Constant and the Exchange Integral

442

Ferromagnetic Domains

445

A ntiferromagnetism

451

Ferrimagnetism

454

Time- T1 arying Phenomena

464

Maxwell's Equations for M agnetic 1.1aterials

CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS

8.1

8.2

Historical Survey .

Classification of Conductive Properties Under the Band Theory

8.3 Free-Electron Theory of 111 etals-Ohm'sLaw

8.4 Ohm's Law-Alternate Derivation

8.5 The JJ1ean Time Between Electron-Lattice Interactions.

8.6 A1ean Free Path

8.7 Joule's Law

8.8 The Debye Theory of Specific Heat

8.9 The Temperature Dependence of the Resistivity of AI etals .

8.10 Thermal Conductivity of Metals and the Wiedemann-Franz Law.

8.11 Conductivity of Semiconductors

8.12 M axwell's Equations for Conductive 111 edia.

467

473

478

482

485

486

489

490

494

496

500

509

APPENDICES

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

Classical Doppler Sh~ft [rom a 1110ving Source in the Presence of aMoving

Ether

Some Properties of Bessel Functions

The Associated Legendre Equation

Composition of General Sources .

Generalization of the Field Transformation Equations ,

Reduction of the Vector Green's Formula for E .

The Wave Equations for A and cI>

Vector Wave Solutions in Spherical Coordinates

Green's Functions for Rectangular Waveguide .

513

515

519

524

530

532

534

537

539

540

Table of Contents

K

L

M

N

A rbitrary Dipole Distribution

The Dynamic Macroscopic Scalar Potential Function Due to a Volume of

Polarized Dielectric Material.

The Damping Constant of a Freely Oscillating Dipole.

T he Average M agnetostatic Field I ntensity Inside a Sphere Containing an

A rbitrary Distribution of Current Loops

xi

544

547

550

552

MATHEMATICAL SUPPLEMENT

I

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

Taylor's Series

Historical Survey .

Mean Value Theorems

Taylor's Series for One Variable

Taylor's Series for Several Variables

557

558

560

561

Vectors

564

Historical Survey .

568

V.2 Scalars and Vectors

569

The Addition Law for Vectors

V.3

572

The Multiplication of Vectors by Scalars

V.4

572

Resolution into Components .

V.5

,576

V.6 Multiplication of Vectors-The Dot Produ.ct

579

The Equation of a Plane.

V.7

580

Multiplication of Vectors-The Cross Product.

V.8

584

T he Derivative of a Vector

V.9

587

V.lO Tangent Lines and Tangent Planes.

5S9

V.Il Generalized Coordinates .

594

V.12 Elementary Geometry in Generalized Coordinates

V.13 Addition, Subtraction, and M uliiplication in Generalized (Jrthogonal

598

Coordinates

598

V..14 Gradient

603

V.I5 Divergence.

606

V.16 The Laplacian Operator

607

V.I7 The Divergence Theorem.

607

V.I8 Curl

612

V.19 Stokes' Theorem .

612

V.20 Vector Identities .

613

V.2l Green's Integral Theorems

614

V.22 Solenoidal and I rrotational Vector Fields

615

V.23 Complex Vectors.

616

Summary of Important Vector Relations

II

V.l

SUBJECT

INDEX, 625

Original Preface

has evolved as a result of a change in curriculum which took place at

the author's institution six years ago. At that time a required junior offering in engineering was converted from being a course in electrical machinery to being an introductory

exposition of field theory. Prior to that change, the students first encountered electromagnetic field theory in a two-semester elective sequence open to first-year graduate

students and advanced seniors. The first semester of the senior-graduate sequence had

been devoted principally to the development of the theory in a conventional manner;

each of the major areas was introduced by an experimental postulate-electrostatics

by Coulomb's law, magnetostatics by the Biot-Savart law, and electrornagnetics by

Faraday's emf law. The second semester of the sequence was concerned with applications, notably to transmission lines, waveguides, cavities, and antennas.

Updating the junior course pre-empted much of the material in the first semester

of the senior-graduate sequence and provided the opportunity to choose among several

alternatives. Elimination of the first semester of the senior-graduate sequence seemed

unwise, because electromagnetic theory is a subject of sufficient subtlety to justify a

second exposure. Following along the same path taken in the junior course and merely

digging deeper seemed an inefficient use of the students' time in face of the realization

that all of their time has become pre111iu111. Institution of a problem-solving course was

also considered, and admittedly many educators favor this as a way to solidify the

students' understanding of Maxwell's equations. However, it was felt that one junior

course in electromagnetics was not sufficient background to provide a suitable interface

with a meaningful course in boundary value problems,

Fortunately, a third alternative was available, and has been tried with gratifying

success. This alternative retains the scope of the senior-graduate sequence but begins

with a study of special relativity. With this as a basis, it is possible to develop all of

electromagnetic theory from a single experimental postulate founded on Coulomb's

law, An enriched understanding of magnetism results, and the Biot-Savart law is a

consequence rather than a postulate. The Lorentz force law is seen to be a transformation of Coulomb's law occasioned by the relativistic interpretation of force. Upon

accepting the Lorentz force law as fundamental, one is able to derive Faraday's emf

law and Maxwell's equations as additional consequences. This procedure provides the

further satisfaction of demonstrating that the fields contained in the Lorentz force

law and in Maxwell's equations are one and the same, a conclusion not possible in the

conventional development of the subject.

THIS TEXTBOOK

xiv Preface

A major advantage of this approach is the inclusion of special relativity, an intellectual discipline of growing importance to engineers as well as to scientists. It seems

almost a redundancy to argue that a subject which gets to the heart of the concepts of

space and time-r-concepts 011 which all physical measurements are based-deserves to

be included in the basic core of a science curriculum. Presumably the reason why a

serious, detailed treatment of special relativity has not been widely found at the 10,\\Ter

levels of curricula is that it is customarily based on Maxwell's equations and therefore

treated as an advanced graduate topic. But this need not be so and indeed special

relativity, which affects all branches of physics, 111ay properly be considered 1110re

fundamental than electromagnetics. The postulates on which special relativity is based

are not electrical in nature, and the mathematics needed to develop the theory is not

complex. Thus there is no compelling pedagogical reason for deferring the study of

special relativity until after a mature grasp of Maxwell's equations has been secured.

Accordingly, the first semester of the senior-graduate sequence has beC0111e a course

which begins with special relativity and ends with the theory of electromagnetic waves

in general media: the second semester is still devoted to applications. Each course

meets four times a week for fifteen weeks and this textbook is designed to fill the

needs of the first semester. Both courses are populated by first-year graduate students

and advanced seniors in about the ratio t\VO to one. The first semester has been taught

essentially in the manner just described for the last five years.

The textbook will be found to consist of eight chapters, a group of appendices, and a

mathematical supplement. The latter contains sections on Taylor'S series and vector

analysis and it is presumed that the student is at least somewhat familiar with this

material. It is provided for reference or remedial work as needed. The appendices contain derivations which, for brevity, have been avoided in the Blain text.

The first chapter is concerned with the phenomenon of light, with emphasis on its

wave properties and velocity. Contrasts are made between light and other wave

phenomena such as sound, and the behavior of each in moving media is described in

order clearly to point up the dile111111a which led to the special theory. The second

chapter deals with the special theory of relativity itself, and includes discussions of the

crucial experiments and the classical attempts to explain them. The Lorentz equations

are established and followed by derivations of the transformation laws for velocity,

mass, and force. S0111e discussion of relativistic mechanics is provided to enhance C01l1

prehension of the new concepts.

Chapter 3 contains a conventional treatment of electrostatics in free space and includes discussions of electric force, potential, flux, Gauss' law, and the equations of

Poisson and Laplace. Considerable space is devoted to the solution of boundary-value

problems and capacitance is introduced as well as the concept of electrostatic stored

energy.

The fourth chapter employs a Lorentz coordinate transformation to convert the

static system of charges treated in Chapter 3 to a rigidly translating system of charges

having the features of a steady current. Use of the force transformation equations then

yields the Lorentz force law and permits definition of a magnetic field. The Biot-Savart

law is derived, as is Ampere's circuital law. The mathematical discussion is facilitated by

introduction of the vector potential function.

Chapter 5 employs a second Lorentz transformation to convert the steady electric

and magnetic fields discussed in the third and fourth chapters into time-varying fields

as seen by a moving observer. These fields are defined to conform to the Lorentz force

Preface xv

law and it is then shown that they satisfy Maxwell's equations. Frorn this point the

chapter proceeds conventionally-general solutions of Maxwell's equations are established using the vector Green's theorem and conditions at infinity are explored. The

potential functions are introduced and Poynting's theorem is proved. Inductance is

defined and the chapter concludes with consideration of solutions to the homogeneous

wave equation in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical geometries.

The last three chapters are devoted to generalizations of the constitutive parameters

E (permittivity), J.L (permeability), and (J (conductivity). The electrical behavior of

materials is explained in terms of equivalent electric and magnetic 1110111ents and electron-lattice interactions, and the dependence of the constitutive parameters on frequency and temperature is included. Maxwell's equations are generalized so as to be

applicable in material media as well as free space.

This brief outline of the contents points up the fact that the approach adopted is to

develop a complete electromagnetic theory for free space before undertaking any

consideration of material media. There are several advantages to this procedure:

First, the unity of development in Chapters 3, 4, and 5, with the force between charges

as the underlying link, is not diluted as it would be otherwise; second, by deferring

the discussions of material media, 1110re general inspection of the constitutive pararneters is possible, including time-varying effects.

The ability to proceed from Coulomb's law as the single electrical postulate and,

with the aid of special relativity, to deduce a complete electromagnetic theory was first

demonstrated by Professor Leigh Pagel of Yale in 1912. He later incorporated this

approach into the textbook Eleciroduruimics co-authored with Adams. The present

development differs from the earlier treatment by Page and Adams in that more estensive consideration of electrostatics and magnetostatics is undertaken. Major

differences in the form of the mathematical derivations also will be found in the two

approaches.

The chapters on electrical properties of materials are intended to illuminate the

meaning of the symbols E, J.L, and (J which occur in Maxwell's equations. In preparing

these chapters, the author has been helped particularly by Dekker's Solid State Physics

and Kittel's Introduction to Solid State Physics.

The reader will observe that each chapter begins with an historical survey related

to the ideas contained in that chapter. This has been done in the belief that not all

technical textbooks should be devoid of historical material, and further that many

readers find scientific history interesting and are thus additionally motivated to grasp

the technical aspects of the subject. Without the historical background, the reader of

a technical exposition often is left with a bland reaction to his first encounter with a

new physical concept. Yet, 1110re often than not, there is behind this concept a rich

heritage of thought, as outstanding human minds have struggled to identify the concept and clarify it. Awareness of this heritage instills added respect for each new

principle and reveals an important lesson which all scientific history teaches-that

complete understanding is rarely attained and that the struggle for clarity is still

going on.

The literature contains many excellent treatises of scientific history, and the author

is indebted to these sources for background material. Particular mention should be

given to Whittaker's A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity whieh has also

1 L. Page, "A Derivation of the Fundamental Relations of Electrodynamics from Those of Electrostatics," Am J Sci, 34, 57-68, 1912.

xvi

Preface

been used as a guide in establishing chronology. An effort has been made to achieve a

contextual relationship between the historical material and the technical expositions

which follow. Such blending is not normally possible in works devoted exclusively to

the historical aspects of a technical subject. The reader will also note that extensive

use has been made of direct quotations from the writings of scientific discoverers. It is

hoped that this adds to the sense of reality in the reconstruction of the event and gives

SOBle insight to the character of the discoverer.

In all chapters but the first and third, the historical survey is brief and limited to

the discovery of principal ideas. The first chapter is extensively historical and traces

the evolution of thought as to whether light is corpuscular or wavelike and whether

its velocity is finite or infinite. Light is perhaps the least tangible of physical entities

and its behavior in a VaCUUl11 roots the special theory of relativity. It was felt that a

lengthy discourse on the phenomenon of light would enhance understanding of the

later discussion of how light behavior gave rise to relativity theory: In the third chapter,

more than usual space is devoted to the establishment of the inverse square law, the

justification being that this law forms the sole experimental basis for the subsequent

development of electromagnetic theory.

All historical sections in all chapters are marked with an asterisk and can be omitted

without loss of continuity by the reader solely interested in technical exposition. It

has been found that these sections make suitable outside reading assignments and need

not occupy excessive classroom time.

The pedagogical problem of repetition in the teaching of electrornagnetics at several

levels also exists in physics curricula, and the present approach may find some favor

in physics as well as engineering. All of the formulas developed are relativistically

exact and the emphasis on force as the fundamental link makes this approach a

natural avenue to the study of relativistic particle dynamics.

The possible interest of another group of readers also has been considered in the

preparation of this text. Practicing engineers and scientists who have been in industry

a number of years, and who wish to update or renew their knowledge of electrical

theory, may find a fresh approach to the subject more rewarding than a reacquaintance

with a conventional treatment. For such self-study, it is desirable to provide a profusion of illustrative examples of varied difficulty. An effort has been made to do this

through the introduction of a broad spectrum of practical illustrations, including

applications to antennas, transmission lines, waveguides, unbounded propagation, and

scattering. The problems at the ends of the chapters are also numerous and graduated

and it is hoped thereby that this text is sufficiently self-contained to satisfy the need

of the reader for whom formal instruction is not available.

Rationalized MI{S units have been used consistently throughout the text, and

tables of constants, units, and conversion factors have been provided on the inside

of the back cover. A glossary of symbols will be found in the frontispiece. Timeharmonic quantities have been represented through use of the factor ei wt . Those readers

who are more comfortable with the notation e- i wt need only replace j by -i in any of

the resulting expressions of interest.

The author will be grateful to anyone who brings errors to his attention.

R.S.E.

Los Angeles

Ala-y, 1966

THIS TEXTBOOK first appeared in 1966, and although it has been out of print for some years, the

continuing demand has caused it to become something of a collector's item. The primary

appeals seem to be (1) the historical material that introduces each chapter, and, (2) the

development, via special relativity, of a complete electromagnetic theory based on Coulomb's

Law as the sole experimental postulate. However, it is hoped that the extensive elaboration of

electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics in chapters three, four, and five will

continue to find favor. The final three chapters on dielectric, magnetic, and conductive

materials are devoted mainly to basic concepts, thereby avoiding, at least partially, the onus of

being dated.

The path of presentation in this text has been to develop electrostatics fully, then make a

relativistic transformation of Coulomb's Law to obtain the Lorentz Force Law, in the process

introducing the concept of a time-independent magnetic field, from which a complete

magnetostatic theory emerges. A second relativistic transformation leads to time-varying

sources, Maxwell's Equations, and a full electrodynamic theory. However, an alternate

approach that appeals to some readers uses a single relativistic transformation of Coulomb's

Law to obtain Maxwell's Equations, thereby leap-frogging over magnetostatics, a subject to

which one can return conventionally by reducing Maxwell's Equations to the case of

time-independent sources and fields. This alternate approach is developed in the article

"Relativity and Electricity," IEEE Spectrum, pp. 140-152, March 1966.

The author wishes to express his gratitude to the IEEE PRESS for re-issuing Electromagnetics and trusts that their faith in this project will not go unrewarded.

Los Angeles

R. S. Elliott

Glossary of Symbols

ONLY the principal uses are listed. An effort has been made to attach a single meaning

to a symbol unless it is used in widely separated and disconnected developments.

a, b

A

ace,

A

)

A

b

B

(B

Q3

c

C

C

e, ([

d

D

D

e

E

E

t

f, F

j, g

F,G

acceleration

radii

area

amplitude of oscillation

magnetic vector potential function

field pattern

four-dimensional vector potential function

time-averaged magnetic field

magnetic field

a factor of the magnetic field

Brillouin function

velocity of light

contour, complex constant

capacitance

contours in complex plane

coefficients of capacitance

diameter, distance

length, diameter

electric flux density

proton charge, N apierian base

time-averaged electric field

energy

electric field

a factor of the electric field

force

scalar functions

vector functions

xx Glossary of Symbols

~

Planck's constant

11 = h/27f

H

sc

11101nent of inertia

I

I

current

s:

k

k

Ie, f

K

t

l, L

.e

Ff

momentum quantum numbers

total angular momentum

exchange integral

Bessel functions

Boltzmann constant

vector propagation constant

propagation constants or wave numbers

constant

length

distances, lengths

self-ind uctance

Langevin function

magnetic moment

electronic mass, index

Jl;J

M

mutual inductance

m

1Ft,

magnetic intensity

areal current density

c9

In,

J

J,L,S

n;

gravitational acceleration

gJ

I n, Y n,

field tensor

masses

normal direction

n, N

NA

Avogadro's number

number of moles

observer

pressure, index

Pi;'

coefficient of potential

Glossary of Synlbols

point, power

CP

Poynting vector

Legendre functions

q, Q

r, ,

r, f),

cylindrical coordinates

Q>

spherical coordinates

position vector

resistance

CR

S

S

torque

relative speed

substitution variables

potential energy

V

V

volume

voltage

WF

jv

time

u

v,

surface

u

u, v

m == u

charge

== CRejl/>

x, y, Z

x, Y, Z

jy == Re j

Z

0',

0,

velocity

substitution variable

Fermi energy

complex variable

Cartesian coordinate variables, field point coordinates

Cartesian coordinate axes

complex variable

atomic number

polarizability

{3

angles, parameters

l'

small increments

Dirac function

Kronecker delta

phase d ifference

permittivity

proper distance

impedance of free space

XXI

angles

angles

K

v

~

~, '1],

II

lineal charge density

wa velength, rnean free path

permeability, permanent dipole moment

frequency

displacemen t

source point coordinates

product

(J

summation

acoustic power density

scalar functions

potential functions

dielectric and magnetic susceptibilities

electric flux

angular frequency, angular velocity

JI

solid angle

directional position of source point

unit vector

del operator

three-dimensional Laplacian operator

four-dimensional Laplacian operator

ElectroInagnetics

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