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ElectroInagnetics

IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves


The IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves consists of new titles as well as
reprints and revisions of recognized classics that maintain long-term archival
significance in electromagnetic waves and applications.

Donald G. Dudley
Editor
University of Arizona

Advisory Board
Robert E. ~ollin
Case Western University
Akira Ishimaru
University of Washington

Associate Editors
Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering, and Diffraction
Ehud Heyman
Tel-Aviv University
Differential Equation Methods
Andreas C. Cangellaris
University of Arizona
Integral Equation Methods
Donald R. Wilton
University of Houston
Antennas, Propagation, and Microwaves
David R. Jackson
University of Houston

Series Books Published


Collin, R. E., Field Theory of Guided Waves, 2d. rev. ed., 1991
Tai, C. T., Generalized Vector and Dyadic Analysis:
Applied Mathematics in Field Theory, 1991
Elliott, R. S., Electromagnetics: History, Theory, and Applications, 1993
Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, 1993

Future Series Titles


Tai, C. T., Dyadic Green's Function in Electromagnetic Theory
Dudley, D. G., Mathematical Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory

ElectroDlagnetics
History, Theory, and Applications

Robert S. Elliott
Hughes Chair Professor of Electronlagnetics
University of California, Los Angeles

IEEE

'V
PRESS

IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves


Donald G. Dudley, Series Editor

IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, Sponsor


The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York

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This is the IEEE edition of a book published by McGraw-Hill Book Company


under the title Electromagnetics.
ALL rights reserved. No part of this book 111ay be reproduced in any form,
nor may it be stored in a retrievalsystem or transmittedin any[orm,
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edition of this title as follows:

Elliott, Robert Stratman (date)


Electromagnetics: history,theory,and applications/ by Robert
S. Elliott.
p. em.
IEEE Antennas and PropagationSociety,sponsor.
Includes bibliographicalreferencesand index.
ISBN 0-7803-1024-1
1. Electromagnetictheory. 1. IEEE Antennas and Propagation
Society. II. Title.
QC670.E42
1993
537-dc20
93-7061
CIP

TO THE CHILDREN

Table of Contents
Original Preface, xiii
Preface to the IEEE Edition, xvii
Glossary of Symbols, xix

1
1.1
1.2
1.3

2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19

THE PHENOMENON OF LIGHT

Historical Survey-The Nature of Light.


Historical Survey-The Velocity of Light
Sound lVaves and Light Waves .

1
14
29

THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

H isiorical Survey .
The Principle of Relativity and Its Classical I mplications,
A pplications of the Classical Velocity Transformation Law
Fizeau's Experiment with 11{ oving Water
The Michelson-Morley Experiment .
Ether Drag.
The Lorentz-FitzGerald Contraction l-Iypothesis.
Emission Theories.
The Interdependence of Space and Time
The Lorentz Transformation .
Length and Time Under the Lorentz Transformation
Proper Time and Proper Distance
Velocity
Relativistic Interpretation of the Fizeau Experiment
The Cedarholm-Townes Maser Experiment.
The Variation of M ass
M omentum and Energy .
The Transformation Law for Mass
The Transformation Law for Force

37
41
46
49

51
58

59
61
61
70
73
78

81

82
83
85

89
91
92

viii Table of Contents

3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21

ELECTROSTATICS

IN FREE SPACE

Historical Survey .
Mathematical Formulation of the Inverse Square Law .
The Electric Field .
Electrostatic Potential.
Gauss'Law.
Electric Flux
A Conductor- Vacuum Interface
The Method of I mages
Poisson's Equation
Laplace's Equation
Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Rectangular Coordinates
Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates
Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Spherical Coordinates.
Green's Functions.
Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Two Dimensions unih. the Use of Conformal Mapping
The Schuiarz Transformation.
Capacitance
AIulticapacitor Systems
Electrostatic Stored Energy
The 111 axwell-McAlister Experiment
The Plimpton-Lawton Experiment

Historical Survey .
The Transjormaiion of Electric Force
The Fields Due to a Closed Circulating Charge System
4.4
The Biot-Savart Law .
The Magnetic Field Intensity.
4.5
4.6 The Force Between Currents .
4.7 The Time-Independent illagnetic Vector Potential Function
4.8 Ampere's Circuital Law
4.9 Boundary- Value Problems in 111 agnetostatics
4.10 Composite Fields

5.1
5.2
5.3

175
182
186
189
193
199
204

MAGNETOSTATICS IN FREE SPACE

4.1
4.2
4.3

98
117
121
127
134
138
140
142
148
151
152
155
165
172

216
224

230
232

236
237
239
244
249
252

ElECTROMAGNETICS IN FREE SPACE

Historical Survey .
The Transformation Equations for Electric and Magnetic Fields.
The Transformation Equations for the Source Densities

256
264
267

Table of Contents

IX

5.4

Maxwell's Equaiion .
Integral Solutions of Maxwell's Equations in Terms of the Sources
Conditions at Infinity.
The Potential Functions
5.8 Magnetic Stored Energy
5.9
Poynting's Theorem
5.10 Solutions to the Wave Equation in Rectangular Coordinates-Unguided Waves
5.11 Rectilinear Guided Waves.
5.12 Solutions to the Wave Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates
5.13 Solutions to the Wave Equation in Spherical Coordinates .
5.14 Inductance.
5.15 Transformation of the Integral Solutions to Forms Suitable for Waveguide
Problems
5.16 A Minkowskian Formulation of the Field Equations

268

5.5
5.6
5.7

272
275
279
283
285

291

297
303

306
309
315
319

DIELECTRIC MATERIALS

327
Historical Survey
330
The Electric M oment of a Neutral System of Charges
The Static 111acroscopic Electric Field Due to a Volume of Polarized Dielectric
331
Material
A Generalization of Do
339
6.4
342
The
Local
Field
6.5
344
Electronic Polarization
6.6
346
6.7 I onic Polarization .
351
Orientational
Polarization
6.8
354
Dielectric Susceptibility, Permittivity, and Relative Dielectric Constant.
6.9
356
6.10 The Static Dielectric Constant of Gases .
361
6.11 T he Static Dielectric Constant of Solids and Liquids .
366
6.12" The Clausius-Moesotii Equation.
369
6.13 Primary Static Charges in an Infinite, Homogeneous, Isotropic Medium:
370
6.14 Ferroelectric Crystals
376
6.15 Piezoelectrics
379
6.16 Time-Harmonic Fields and Complex Permittivity
380
6.17 Time-Harmonic Electronic Polarizability
6.18 Complex I onic Polarizabilitu; Time-Harmonic Permittivity of Non-Polar
382
M aterials .
383
6.19 Dipolar Relaxation
390
6.20 Dielectric Losses
393
6.21 lYI axwell' s Equations for Dielectric Materials
6.1
6.2
6.3

7
7.1

MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Historical Survey .

397

7.2
7.3
7.4
7Jj
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17

Table of Contents
The Static M acroscopic M agnetic Field Due to a l ' olume of Polarized M ag404
netic 111aterial .
408
A Generalization of flo
410
The Local Field
411
Magnetic Susceptibility
414
Measurement of Susceptibility
416
Diamagnetism .
420
Permanent 1.1agnetic Moments
427
Paramagnetism
433
Properties of Ferromagnetic M aterials
436
The Weiss Theory of Ferromagnetism
440
The Weiss Field Constant and the Exchange Integral
442
Ferromagnetic Domains
445
A ntiferromagnetism
451
Ferrimagnetism
454
Time- T1 arying Phenomena
464
Maxwell's Equations for M agnetic 1.1aterials
CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS

8.1
8.2

Historical Survey .
Classification of Conductive Properties Under the Band Theory
8.3 Free-Electron Theory of 111 etals-Ohm'sLaw
8.4 Ohm's Law-Alternate Derivation
8.5 The JJ1ean Time Between Electron-Lattice Interactions.
8.6 A1ean Free Path
8.7 Joule's Law
8.8 The Debye Theory of Specific Heat
8.9 The Temperature Dependence of the Resistivity of AI etals .
8.10 Thermal Conductivity of Metals and the Wiedemann-Franz Law.
8.11 Conductivity of Semiconductors
8.12 M axwell's Equations for Conductive 111 edia.

467
473
478
482
485
486
489
490
494
496
500
509

APPENDICES

A
B

C
D
E
F
G

H
I

Fringe Shift versus Rotation of the M ichelson-Morley Apparatus


Classical Doppler Sh~ft [rom a 1110ving Source in the Presence of aMoving
Ether
Some Properties of Bessel Functions
The Associated Legendre Equation
Composition of General Sources .
Generalization of the Field Transformation Equations ,
Reduction of the Vector Green's Formula for E .
The Wave Equations for A and cI>
Vector Wave Solutions in Spherical Coordinates
Green's Functions for Rectangular Waveguide .

513
515
519
524
530
532
534
537
539
540

Table of Contents
K

L
M
N

The Average Electrostatic Field Intensity Inside a Sphere Containing an


A rbitrary Dipole Distribution
The Dynamic Macroscopic Scalar Potential Function Due to a Volume of
Polarized Dielectric Material.
The Damping Constant of a Freely Oscillating Dipole.
T he Average M agnetostatic Field I ntensity Inside a Sphere Containing an
A rbitrary Distribution of Current Loops

xi

544

547
550
552

MATHEMATICAL SUPPLEMENT

I
8.1

8.2
8.3
8.4

Taylor's Series
Historical Survey .
Mean Value Theorems
Taylor's Series for One Variable
Taylor's Series for Several Variables

557
558
560
561

Vectors
564
Historical Survey .
568
V.2 Scalars and Vectors
569
The Addition Law for Vectors
V.3
572
The Multiplication of Vectors by Scalars
V.4
572
Resolution into Components .
V.5
,576
V.6 Multiplication of Vectors-The Dot Produ.ct
579
The Equation of a Plane.
V.7
580
Multiplication of Vectors-The Cross Product.
V.8
584
T he Derivative of a Vector
V.9
587
V.lO Tangent Lines and Tangent Planes.
5S9
V.Il Generalized Coordinates .
594
V.12 Elementary Geometry in Generalized Coordinates
V.13 Addition, Subtraction, and M uliiplication in Generalized (Jrthogonal
598
Coordinates
598
V..14 Gradient
603
V.I5 Divergence.
606
V.16 The Laplacian Operator
607
V.I7 The Divergence Theorem.
607
V.I8 Curl
612
V.19 Stokes' Theorem .
612
V.20 Vector Identities .
613
V.2l Green's Integral Theorems
614
V.22 Solenoidal and I rrotational Vector Fields
615
V.23 Complex Vectors.
616
Summary of Important Vector Relations

II

V.l

AUTHOR INDEX, 621


SUBJECT

INDEX, 625

Original Preface
has evolved as a result of a change in curriculum which took place at
the author's institution six years ago. At that time a required junior offering in engineering was converted from being a course in electrical machinery to being an introductory
exposition of field theory. Prior to that change, the students first encountered electromagnetic field theory in a two-semester elective sequence open to first-year graduate
students and advanced seniors. The first semester of the senior-graduate sequence had
been devoted principally to the development of the theory in a conventional manner;
each of the major areas was introduced by an experimental postulate-electrostatics
by Coulomb's law, magnetostatics by the Biot-Savart law, and electrornagnetics by
Faraday's emf law. The second semester of the sequence was concerned with applications, notably to transmission lines, waveguides, cavities, and antennas.
Updating the junior course pre-empted much of the material in the first semester
of the senior-graduate sequence and provided the opportunity to choose among several
alternatives. Elimination of the first semester of the senior-graduate sequence seemed
unwise, because electromagnetic theory is a subject of sufficient subtlety to justify a
second exposure. Following along the same path taken in the junior course and merely
digging deeper seemed an inefficient use of the students' time in face of the realization
that all of their time has become pre111iu111. Institution of a problem-solving course was
also considered, and admittedly many educators favor this as a way to solidify the
students' understanding of Maxwell's equations. However, it was felt that one junior
course in electromagnetics was not sufficient background to provide a suitable interface
with a meaningful course in boundary value problems,
Fortunately, a third alternative was available, and has been tried with gratifying
success. This alternative retains the scope of the senior-graduate sequence but begins
with a study of special relativity. With this as a basis, it is possible to develop all of
electromagnetic theory from a single experimental postulate founded on Coulomb's
law, An enriched understanding of magnetism results, and the Biot-Savart law is a
consequence rather than a postulate. The Lorentz force law is seen to be a transformation of Coulomb's law occasioned by the relativistic interpretation of force. Upon
accepting the Lorentz force law as fundamental, one is able to derive Faraday's emf
law and Maxwell's equations as additional consequences. This procedure provides the
further satisfaction of demonstrating that the fields contained in the Lorentz force
law and in Maxwell's equations are one and the same, a conclusion not possible in the
conventional development of the subject.
THIS TEXTBOOK

xiv Preface
A major advantage of this approach is the inclusion of special relativity, an intellectual discipline of growing importance to engineers as well as to scientists. It seems
almost a redundancy to argue that a subject which gets to the heart of the concepts of
space and time-r-concepts 011 which all physical measurements are based-deserves to
be included in the basic core of a science curriculum. Presumably the reason why a
serious, detailed treatment of special relativity has not been widely found at the 10,\\Ter
levels of curricula is that it is customarily based on Maxwell's equations and therefore
treated as an advanced graduate topic. But this need not be so and indeed special
relativity, which affects all branches of physics, 111ay properly be considered 1110re
fundamental than electromagnetics. The postulates on which special relativity is based
are not electrical in nature, and the mathematics needed to develop the theory is not
complex. Thus there is no compelling pedagogical reason for deferring the study of
special relativity until after a mature grasp of Maxwell's equations has been secured.
Accordingly, the first semester of the senior-graduate sequence has beC0111e a course
which begins with special relativity and ends with the theory of electromagnetic waves
in general media: the second semester is still devoted to applications. Each course
meets four times a week for fifteen weeks and this textbook is designed to fill the
needs of the first semester. Both courses are populated by first-year graduate students
and advanced seniors in about the ratio t\VO to one. The first semester has been taught
essentially in the manner just described for the last five years.
The textbook will be found to consist of eight chapters, a group of appendices, and a
mathematical supplement. The latter contains sections on Taylor'S series and vector
analysis and it is presumed that the student is at least somewhat familiar with this
material. It is provided for reference or remedial work as needed. The appendices contain derivations which, for brevity, have been avoided in the Blain text.
The first chapter is concerned with the phenomenon of light, with emphasis on its
wave properties and velocity. Contrasts are made between light and other wave
phenomena such as sound, and the behavior of each in moving media is described in
order clearly to point up the dile111111a which led to the special theory. The second
chapter deals with the special theory of relativity itself, and includes discussions of the
crucial experiments and the classical attempts to explain them. The Lorentz equations
are established and followed by derivations of the transformation laws for velocity,
mass, and force. S0111e discussion of relativistic mechanics is provided to enhance C01l1
prehension of the new concepts.
Chapter 3 contains a conventional treatment of electrostatics in free space and includes discussions of electric force, potential, flux, Gauss' law, and the equations of
Poisson and Laplace. Considerable space is devoted to the solution of boundary-value
problems and capacitance is introduced as well as the concept of electrostatic stored
energy.
The fourth chapter employs a Lorentz coordinate transformation to convert the
static system of charges treated in Chapter 3 to a rigidly translating system of charges
having the features of a steady current. Use of the force transformation equations then
yields the Lorentz force law and permits definition of a magnetic field. The Biot-Savart
law is derived, as is Ampere's circuital law. The mathematical discussion is facilitated by
introduction of the vector potential function.
Chapter 5 employs a second Lorentz transformation to convert the steady electric
and magnetic fields discussed in the third and fourth chapters into time-varying fields
as seen by a moving observer. These fields are defined to conform to the Lorentz force

Preface xv
law and it is then shown that they satisfy Maxwell's equations. Frorn this point the
chapter proceeds conventionally-general solutions of Maxwell's equations are established using the vector Green's theorem and conditions at infinity are explored. The
potential functions are introduced and Poynting's theorem is proved. Inductance is
defined and the chapter concludes with consideration of solutions to the homogeneous
wave equation in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical geometries.
The last three chapters are devoted to generalizations of the constitutive parameters
E (permittivity), J.L (permeability), and (J (conductivity). The electrical behavior of
materials is explained in terms of equivalent electric and magnetic 1110111ents and electron-lattice interactions, and the dependence of the constitutive parameters on frequency and temperature is included. Maxwell's equations are generalized so as to be
applicable in material media as well as free space.
This brief outline of the contents points up the fact that the approach adopted is to
develop a complete electromagnetic theory for free space before undertaking any
consideration of material media. There are several advantages to this procedure:
First, the unity of development in Chapters 3, 4, and 5, with the force between charges
as the underlying link, is not diluted as it would be otherwise; second, by deferring
the discussions of material media, 1110re general inspection of the constitutive pararneters is possible, including time-varying effects.
The ability to proceed from Coulomb's law as the single electrical postulate and,
with the aid of special relativity, to deduce a complete electromagnetic theory was first
demonstrated by Professor Leigh Pagel of Yale in 1912. He later incorporated this
approach into the textbook Eleciroduruimics co-authored with Adams. The present
development differs from the earlier treatment by Page and Adams in that more estensive consideration of electrostatics and magnetostatics is undertaken. Major
differences in the form of the mathematical derivations also will be found in the two
approaches.
The chapters on electrical properties of materials are intended to illuminate the
meaning of the symbols E, J.L, and (J which occur in Maxwell's equations. In preparing
these chapters, the author has been helped particularly by Dekker's Solid State Physics
and Kittel's Introduction to Solid State Physics.
The reader will observe that each chapter begins with an historical survey related
to the ideas contained in that chapter. This has been done in the belief that not all
technical textbooks should be devoid of historical material, and further that many
readers find scientific history interesting and are thus additionally motivated to grasp
the technical aspects of the subject. Without the historical background, the reader of
a technical exposition often is left with a bland reaction to his first encounter with a
new physical concept. Yet, 1110re often than not, there is behind this concept a rich
heritage of thought, as outstanding human minds have struggled to identify the concept and clarify it. Awareness of this heritage instills added respect for each new
principle and reveals an important lesson which all scientific history teaches-that
complete understanding is rarely attained and that the struggle for clarity is still
going on.
The literature contains many excellent treatises of scientific history, and the author
is indebted to these sources for background material. Particular mention should be
given to Whittaker's A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity whieh has also
1 L. Page, "A Derivation of the Fundamental Relations of Electrodynamics from Those of Electrostatics," Am J Sci, 34, 57-68, 1912.

xvi

Preface

been used as a guide in establishing chronology. An effort has been made to achieve a
contextual relationship between the historical material and the technical expositions
which follow. Such blending is not normally possible in works devoted exclusively to
the historical aspects of a technical subject. The reader will also note that extensive
use has been made of direct quotations from the writings of scientific discoverers. It is
hoped that this adds to the sense of reality in the reconstruction of the event and gives
SOBle insight to the character of the discoverer.
In all chapters but the first and third, the historical survey is brief and limited to
the discovery of principal ideas. The first chapter is extensively historical and traces
the evolution of thought as to whether light is corpuscular or wavelike and whether
its velocity is finite or infinite. Light is perhaps the least tangible of physical entities
and its behavior in a VaCUUl11 roots the special theory of relativity. It was felt that a
lengthy discourse on the phenomenon of light would enhance understanding of the
later discussion of how light behavior gave rise to relativity theory: In the third chapter,
more than usual space is devoted to the establishment of the inverse square law, the
justification being that this law forms the sole experimental basis for the subsequent
development of electromagnetic theory.
All historical sections in all chapters are marked with an asterisk and can be omitted
without loss of continuity by the reader solely interested in technical exposition. It
has been found that these sections make suitable outside reading assignments and need
not occupy excessive classroom time.
The pedagogical problem of repetition in the teaching of electrornagnetics at several
levels also exists in physics curricula, and the present approach may find some favor
in physics as well as engineering. All of the formulas developed are relativistically
exact and the emphasis on force as the fundamental link makes this approach a
natural avenue to the study of relativistic particle dynamics.
The possible interest of another group of readers also has been considered in the
preparation of this text. Practicing engineers and scientists who have been in industry
a number of years, and who wish to update or renew their knowledge of electrical
theory, may find a fresh approach to the subject more rewarding than a reacquaintance
with a conventional treatment. For such self-study, it is desirable to provide a profusion of illustrative examples of varied difficulty. An effort has been made to do this
through the introduction of a broad spectrum of practical illustrations, including
applications to antennas, transmission lines, waveguides, unbounded propagation, and
scattering. The problems at the ends of the chapters are also numerous and graduated
and it is hoped thereby that this text is sufficiently self-contained to satisfy the need
of the reader for whom formal instruction is not available.
Rationalized MI{S units have been used consistently throughout the text, and
tables of constants, units, and conversion factors have been provided on the inside
of the back cover. A glossary of symbols will be found in the frontispiece. Timeharmonic quantities have been represented through use of the factor ei wt . Those readers
who are more comfortable with the notation e- i wt need only replace j by -i in any of
the resulting expressions of interest.
The author will be grateful to anyone who brings errors to his attention.
R.S.E.
Los Angeles

Ala-y, 1966

Preface to the IEEE Edition


THIS TEXTBOOK first appeared in 1966, and although it has been out of print for some years, the

continuing demand has caused it to become something of a collector's item. The primary
appeals seem to be (1) the historical material that introduces each chapter, and, (2) the
development, via special relativity, of a complete electromagnetic theory based on Coulomb's
Law as the sole experimental postulate. However, it is hoped that the extensive elaboration of
electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics in chapters three, four, and five will
continue to find favor. The final three chapters on dielectric, magnetic, and conductive
materials are devoted mainly to basic concepts, thereby avoiding, at least partially, the onus of
being dated.
The path of presentation in this text has been to develop electrostatics fully, then make a
relativistic transformation of Coulomb's Law to obtain the Lorentz Force Law, in the process
introducing the concept of a time-independent magnetic field, from which a complete
magnetostatic theory emerges. A second relativistic transformation leads to time-varying
sources, Maxwell's Equations, and a full electrodynamic theory. However, an alternate
approach that appeals to some readers uses a single relativistic transformation of Coulomb's
Law to obtain Maxwell's Equations, thereby leap-frogging over magnetostatics, a subject to
which one can return conventionally by reducing Maxwell's Equations to the case of
time-independent sources and fields. This alternate approach is developed in the article
"Relativity and Electricity," IEEE Spectrum, pp. 140-152, March 1966.
The author wishes to express his gratitude to the IEEE PRESS for re-issuing Electromagnetics and trusts that their faith in this project will not go unrewarded.
Los Angeles

R. S. Elliott

Glossary of Symbols
ONLY the principal uses are listed. An effort has been made to attach a single meaning
to a symbol unless it is used in widely separated and disconnected developments.

a, b
A

ace,

A
)

A
b
B
(B

Q3

c
C

C
e, ([
d
D
D

e
E
E

t
f, F
j, g

F,G

acceleration
radii
area
amplitude of oscillation
magnetic vector potential function
field pattern
four-dimensional vector potential function
time-averaged magnetic field
magnetic field
a factor of the magnetic field
Brillouin function
velocity of light
contour, complex constant
capacitance
contours in complex plane
coefficients of capacitance
diameter, distance
length, diameter
electric flux density
proton charge, N apierian base
time-averaged electric field
energy
electric field
a factor of the electric field
force
scalar functions
vector functions

xx Glossary of Symbols
~

spectroscopic splitting factor

universal gravitational constant, Green's function


Planck's constant

11 = h/27f
H

sc

a factor of the magnetic intensity

11101nent of inertia

I
I

current

lineal current density

s:
k
k

Ie, f
K

t
l, L

.e

four-dimensional areal current density

Ff
momentum quantum numbers
total angular momentum
exchange integral
Bessel functions
Boltzmann constant
vector propagation constant
propagation constants or wave numbers
constant
length
distances, lengths
self-ind uctance

orbital angular momentum


Langevin function
magnetic moment
electronic mass, index

Jl;J
M

magnetic moment density

mutual inductance

m
1Ft,

magnetic intensity
areal current density

c9
In,

reduced Planck's constant

J
J,L,S

n;

gravitational acceleration

gJ

I n, Y n,

field tensor

masses

refractive index, index

normal direction

n, N
NA

volume particle density

Avogadro's number
number of moles
observer

momentum, dipole moment

pressure, index

Pi;'

coefficient of potential

Glossary of Synlbols

point, power

dipole moment density

CP

Poynting vector
Legendre functions

q, Q

r, ,
r, f),

radial distance, radius of curvature

cylindrical coordinates

Q>

spherical coordinates

position vector

distance from source point to field point

ideal gas constant

resistance

CR

amplitude of cornplex number

S
S

spin angular momentum

absolute temperature, kinetic energy

torque

relative speed
substitution variables
potential energy

V
V

volume

voltage

WF

jv

time

u
v,

surface

u
u, v

m == u

charge

== CRejl/>

x, y, Z
x, Y, Z
jy == Re j
Z
0',

0,

velocity

substitution variable
Fermi energy
complex variable
Cartesian coordinate variables, field point coordinates
Cartesian coordinate axes
complex variable
atomic number
polarizability

{3

angles, parameters

l'

ratio of specific heats, internal field constant

small increments
Dirac function
Kronecker delta
phase d ifference
permittivity
proper distance
impedance of free space

XXI

xxii Glossary of Symbols


angles
angles
K

v
~

~, '1],

II

reciprocal of contraction factor


lineal charge density
wa velength, rnean free path
permeability, permanent dipole moment
frequency
displacemen t
source point coordinates
product

volume density of charge or 111aSS

(J

surface charge density, conductivity


summation

period of oscillation, lifetime, proper time


acoustic power density
scalar functions
potential functions
dielectric and magnetic susceptibilities

electric flux
angular frequency, angular velocity

JI

solid angle
directional position of source point
unit vector
del operator
three-dimensional Laplacian operator
four-dimensional Laplacian operator

ElectroInagnetics