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Metals with Variable Charge

Most transition metals (3-12) and Group 4A (14) metals form 2 or more positive ions, except Zn 2+ , Ag + , and Cd 2+ , which form only one ion.

Metals with Variable Charge

The names of transition metals with two or more positive ions (cations) use a Roman numeral after the name of the metal to identify the ion charge.

Naming Ionic Compounds with Variable

Charge Metals

Naming FeCl 2

Step 1 Determine the charge of the cation from the anion. Analyze the Problem.

Naming FeCl 2

Step 2 Name the cation by its element name and use a Roman numeral in parentheses for the charge.

Fe 2+ = iron(II) Step 3 Name the anion by using the first syllable of its element name followed by ide . Cl = chloride Step 4 Write the name for the cation first and the

name for the anion second. iron(II) chloride

Examples of Names of Compounds with Variable Charge Metals

Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

Writing the Formula for Iron(III) Oxide

 Metal Nonmetal Ion Iron(III) oxide Group Transition 6A (16) Symbol Fe 3+ O 2–

Learning Check

Write the correct name for CuO.

Write the correct formula for copper(I) nitride.

Polyatomic Ions

A polyatomic ion

is a group of atoms.

has an overall ionic charge. Examples:

NH 4 + ammonium SO 4 2 sulfate PO 4 3 phosphate

OH

CO 3 2

hydroxide

carbonate

Names and Formulas of Common Polyatomic Ions

Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

Polyatomic ions

must be associated with an ion of opposite charge.

form ionic bonds with ions of opposite charge to achieve charge balance.

Example:

charge balance:

Ca 2+ calcium

NO 3 nitrate ion

Ca(NO 3 ) 2 calcium nitrate

Name K 2 SO 4

 Step 1 Identify the cation and polyatomic ion (anion). Cation: K + Anion: SO 4 2− Step 2 Name the cation, using a Roman numeral if needed. K + = potassium ion Step 3 Name the polyatomic ion. Step 4 SO 4 2− = sulfate ion Write the name or the compound, cation first and the polyatomic ion second.

K 2 SO 4 = potassium sulfate

Learning Check

Name each of the following compounds.

1. Cu(ClO 3 ) 2

2. PbCO 3

3. Ba 3 (PO 3 ) 2

Step 1

Step 2

Solution

Identify the cation and polyatomic ion (anion).

1. Cu(ClO 3 ) 2

2. PbCO 3

3. Ba 3 (PO 3 ) 2

cation

Cu 2+

Pb 2+

Ba

2+

polyatomic ion ClO 3

CO 3 2 PO 3 3

Name the cation using a Roman numeral, if necessary.

1. Cu(ClO 3 ) 2

2. PbCO 3

3. Ba 3 (PO 3 ) 2

Solution

 Step 3 Name the polyatomic ion. polyatomic ion 1. Cu(ClO 3 ) 2 chlorate 2. PbCO 3 carbonate 3. Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 phosphate Step 4 Write the name or the compound, cation first and the polyatomic ion second. compound name

1. Cu(ClO 3 ) 2

2. PbCO 3

3. Ba 3 (PO 3 ) 2

copper(II) chlorate lead(II) carbonate barium phosphite

Write the Formula for

Aluminium Hydroxide

Step 1
Identify the cation and polyatomic ion
(anion).
Step 2
Al 3+ and OH −
Balance the charges.
Step 3
Write the formula, cation first, using the
subscripts from charge balance.
Al(OH) 3

Break Time!!

Covalence - Formation of H 2

In the simplest covalent molecule, H 2 , the H atoms

increase attraction as they move closer.

share electrons to achieve a stable configuration.

form a covalent bond.

Electron-Dot Formulas of Covalent Molecules

In a fluorine (F 2 ) molecule, the F atoms

share one of their valence electrons.

acquire an octet.

form a covalent bond.

Elements That Exist as Diatomic Molecules

These seven elements share electrons to form diatomic, covalent molecules.

Electron-Dot Formulas for Some Covalent Compounds

Guide to Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for NH 3

 Step 1 Determine the arrangement of atoms. In NH 3 , N is the central atom and is bonded to three H atoms. Step 2 Determine the total number of valence electrons.
 H N H H
Total valence electrons for NH 3 =
8 e−

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for NH 3

Step 3

Attach each bonded atom to the central atom with a pair of electrons.

H

N

H

H

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for NH 3

Step 4

Place the remaining electrons using single or multiple bonds to complete the octets.

8 valence e 6 bonding e = 2 e remaining

Use the remaining 2 e to complete the octet around the N atom.

H

N

H

H

or

 H N H

H

Learning Check

Draw the electron-dot formula for CCl 4 .

Step 1

Solution

Determine the arrangement of atoms. In CCl 4 , C is the central atom and is bonded to four Cl atoms.

 Cl Cl C Cl Cl

Step 2

Solution

Determine the total number of valence electrons.

Total valence electrons for

Step 3

Solution

Attach each bonded atom to the central atom with a pair of electrons.

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

Cl

Step 4

Solution

Place the remaining electrons, using single or multiple bonds to complete the octets. 32 valence e 8 bonding e = 24 e remaining

Use the remaining 24 e to complete the octets around the Cl atoms.

Cl
Cl
C
Cl
Cl

or

Cl
Cl
C
Cl
Cl

Single and Multiple Bonds

In many covalent compounds, atoms share two or

three pairs of electrons to complete their octets.

In a single bond, one pair of electrons is shared.

In a double bond, two pairs of electrons are shared.

In a triple bond, three pairs of electrons are shared.

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for CS 2

Step 1

Determine the arrangement of atoms. In CS 2 , C is the central atom and is bonded to two S atoms.

S

C

S

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for CS 2

Step 2

Determine the total number of valence electrons.

Total valence electrons for

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for CS 2

Step 3

Attach each bonded atom to the central atom with a pair of electrons.

A pair of bonding electrons (single bond) is

placed between each S atom and the central C

atom.

S

C

S

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for CS 2

Step 4

Place the remaining electrons using single or multiple bonds to complete the octets. 16 valence e - 4 bonding e = 12 e remaining

The remaining 12 electrons are placed as six lone pairs of electrons on both S atoms. However, this does not complete the octet for

the C atom.

S

C

S

Draw the Electron-Dot Formula for CS 2

Step 4 Continued: Double and Triple Covalent

Bonds: To complete the octet for the C atom, it needs to share an additional lone pair from each of the S atoms, forming a double bond with each S

atom.
S
C

C

S
 S
or
S
C
S

A Nitrogen Molecule has a Triple Bond

In a nitrogen molecule, N 2 ,

each N atom shares 3 electrons,

each N atom attains an octet, and

the sharing of 3 sets of electrons is called a triple bond.