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Chapter 3:Coordinaiton and Response 2014

3.1 Coordination and response


Diagram 4.1 shows the transmission pathway of information from receptors in the ear
to effectors U.

No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Name structures R and S in Diagram 4.1 2


R: sensory / afferent neurone
S: motor /efferent neurone

(b)

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State the function of R 1


P Sensory / R neuron conducts the impulse from the receptor to (its axonal end in) the central
nervous system.

(c)

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Based on Diagram 4.1 describes briefly the pathway of transmission of information from the
moment you hear the sound of the ringing telephone until you pick up the phone.
F1 receptor detects stimulus
P1 (is stimulated to) trigger nerve impulses in afferent neuron
P2 (nerve impulses) are carried to the central nervous system
P3 (the central nervous system) integrates and interprets the information
P4 then send new impulses
P5 are carried by motor/efferent neuron to effectors//effectors produces responds

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3.2 The role of human Nervous system


No
(a)

Marking scheme

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Organisation of nervous system

(b)

(c)

(d)

Explain what would happen if structure P:afferent neurone is broken down 3


F-impulse cannot transmit form receptor to CNS /Brain &Spinal cord
E1-Brain cannot interpreted/integrates the impulse/information
E2-Stimulus cannot detects

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The neurons
Diagram shows the pathway of transmission of information from receptor to the effectors
Name the part labelled P,Q,R and S
P:afferent neurone
Q:effector
R:receptor
S:efferent nuerone

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Based on diagram, Describe the transmission of information 3


F-Coordination starts with the stimulus and end with the response
E1-Receptor detect stimulus and trigger nerve impulse
E2-afferent neurone transmit nerve impulse to central nervous brain
E3-Central nervous /brain &nervous interprete/integrate the impulse /information
E4-Impuls transmit to effectors along efferent neurone to produce response

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Explain why transmission of nerve impulse travels in one direction 2


F-Impulse travel form dendrite to axon terminal in a neurone//impulse travel form terminal
axon to dendrite in a synapse
E1-to make sure /to cause impulse travel in one direction

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No

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(a)

Essay enhancement corner


Diagram shows three types of neurons in human being .During types of neuron must be
coordinated to react on stimulus

Ahmad is a Johor state goal keeper .Explain how Ahmad able to push the ball away from the
goal post area in the penalty kick 10
P1-(moving ball is an external stimulus
P2-receptor in the eye pick up /detect the ball /stimulus
P3-the receptor trigger/generate nerve impulses
P4-The nerve impulse transmit from the afferent neuron to interneuron in the brain
P5-The brain interprets the nerve impulse (from interleukins that the ball is moving to goal
keeper/Ahamad)
P6-The brain decides what to do stimulus (to catch or push away the coming ball)//coordinate
response
P7-Nervw impulse are transmitted from interneuron to efferent neuron across the synapse
P8-Nerves impulse then transmit to muscle (effectors
P9-The muscle (in arm /leg) carry out the response
P10-Ahmad able to push away the ball form goal post
P11-impukse is transmitted across the synapse
P12-Between afferent neuron and interneuron//interneuron//interneuron and efferent neuron

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No

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(a)

The Spinal cord and its function


The line X and Y cuts across part of central nervous system connecting to the sensory receptors
of the fingers
In space provided, draw cross section of a labeled diagram through X and Y of central
nervous system 3

D: Able to draw traverse section though spinal cord1


L Able to label grey mater and white matter correctly 1+1
(b)

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The nuerones
Diagram 4.2 shows gap P between the axon terminal and dendrite terminal of two neurones.

State two differences between X and Z.


X Afferent neurone
P1 - Transmit impulses from the receptor to central nervous system
P2- The cell body is located in the middle of the neurone
P3- Has long dendrite
P4-Has short axon
Y- Efferent neurone
P5-Transmit impulses from the central nervous system to the effector
P6- The cell body is located at the end of the neurone
P7- Has short dendrite
P8-Has long axon

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The transmission of information across synapse


No

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(a)

(b)
(c)

Name gap P
Synapse

Name one example of chemical substances which is released across P


Neurotransmitter / acetylcholine/noradrenaline/dopamine/serotonin

Diagram 4.2 shows the transmission of information across structure T.

Explain the role of P in transmission of nerve impulses.


1

F -P is synaptic vesicle

E1 contains neurotransmitters

E2 which transmit the nerve impulses//convert an electrical signal to chemical signal

E3 diffuse across W / synaptic cleft /synapse

E4 requires / using energy provided by mitochondria //active transport


(d)

If the chemical substances release from P across W is reduced due to a neurodegerative disease,
explain its effect to a persons health.
F due to lack of acytalcholine in the brain

E1 the person may suffer from Alzheimers disease

E2 causes loss of reasoning/ability to care for oneself/intellectual ability/ memory/ speak/


write// confusion

E3 can be inherited

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No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows a structure of a synapse


Nerve impulse

Axon of neurone P
Synaptic knob
Dendrite of neurone R

Explain how the nerve impulse is transmitted across the synapse/ Explain the transmission of a
nerve impulse from neurone P to neurone R across Q.8
P1 Q is a synapse/ synaptic cleft.
P2 The transmission of information across a synapse involves the conversion of electrical

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signal into chemical signal in the form of neurotransmitter.


P3 Neurotransmitter is produced in vesicles in the axon terminal called synaptic knob.

P4 Synaptic knob contains abundant mitochondrion to generate energy for the nerve

transmission.
P5 When an impulse arrived at the synaptic knob, the vesicles release the

neurotransmitters into the synapse.


1

P6 The neurotransmitters molecules diffuse across the synapse


P7

to the dendrite of another neurons.

P8

Reaching R, impulse is converted back into electrical signal.

P9

The transmission of impulse in one way direction

P10 since the vesicle containing neurotransmitter is only found in pre-synaptic membrane.

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No

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(b)

Explain the effect of a pain killer drug on the transmission of nerve impulses.
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P1- Nerve impulses reach axon terminal / synaptic knob


P2- Energy from mitochondria
P3- Vesicles containing neurotransmitter
P4- Merged / fused with (pre-synaptic) membrane
P5- Releases neurotransmitters
P6- Into synapse
P7- Drugs Neutralised / blocked / disintegrate the neurotransmitters
P8- No / less neurotransmitters reach dendrite / next neurone
P9Explain the transmission of impulse from one neurone to another neurone. 4
Pt..1 When an impulses arrives in the axon terminal
Pt. 2 it stimulates (synaptic) vesicles to move towards and bind with the presynaptic membrane
Pt. 3 The vesicles fuse / release the neurotransmitter into the synapse
Pt. 4 The neurotransmitter molecules across the synapse to the dendrite of another neurone
Pt. 5 Stimulated to trigger a new impulses which travels along the neurone
There are molecule that will not be reabsorbed, for example, drugs. Alcohol is an example of a
strong depressant drug that interferes with coordination and judgment .Explain why alcohol
abuse is dangerous to a driver
P1-block the release of neurotransmitters
P2-it will slow down the transmitter of impulses through synapse
P3-slow down the coordination between nerve ,eyes and muscle

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Voluntary action and involuntary action Disease of nervous system


Aspect

Marking scheme

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Involuntar
y action
&reflex
arc
Labeling

Name then part label P,Q and R in the spaces provided in diagram 3
P-Brain
Q-spinal cord
R: Peripheral nervous system/Spinal nerve

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Diagram shows the nerve pathway of a reflex arc when the hand touches a ho iron

On the diagram Label S ,T ad U in the space provided


S: Interneurone
T: Motor neurone//efferent neurone
U:Sensory neurone
State the stimulated receptor in this event.
Pain receptors

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Aspect
Arrange

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Based on the diagram ,complete the reflex arc for the impulse pathway in diagram 5.3

Note:
2-synapse
1-interneurone
Drawing
Skill

2
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Figure 5 shows the reflex arc that occurs when the finger is accidentally
Pricked with a needle. Complete the above figure by drawing the appropriate neurons
involved in the reflex action. 2

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3 Neurone -2m
2 nuerone-1m

A boy steps on a thorn when running in a field,he retracts his leg immediately. Draw
and label

Criteria
Functional diagram (d) -3neurones,receptor and effector
Labelling
5-6
3-4
Arrow (direction of impulse) (a)
Total

Marks

2
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4

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Aspect
Drawing
Skill

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Diagram 4.1 shows the cross section of the spinal cord and the reflex arc.

On diagram 4.1 draw the arrow on X, Y and Z to show the direction of the nerves
impulses on the reflex arc.
Importance
Difference

State the importance of reflex action to us.


To protect the body against injuries
Differentiate between the above reflex action with the voluntary action. 1
The reflex action is governed by the spinal chord whereas the voluntary action is
governed by the cerebrum.

Explain the difference transmission of impulse in voluntary action and involuntary


action 2

Explanatio
n

Voluntary action

Involuntary action

F-Impulse transmit form the brain to


skeletal muscle

Impulse transmit form the medulla


ablongata to smooth muscle /cardiac
muscle/gland

E-Example kicking ball

Example heartbeat /peristalsis

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Explain how the arm will react in that situation.


P1. The receptor receives nerve impluse
P2. The nerve travels along the afferent
P3. And is transferred to the efferent neurone
P4. At the axon terminal of the efferent neurone, the nerve impulse is transferred to
muscle cell causing them to contract.

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P5-the arm bend and move away form the hot object

Explain why the brain is not involved in controlling this reflex action.
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F1 : The reflex arc is short


F2 : Which allows effectors to respond fast to dangerous situations

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Aspect
Essay

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Diagram shows a reflex that involves neurone X and Y

Describe the reflex action 4


P1-the receptor at the terminal of x stimulated by the heat

P2-the receptor generates a nerve impulse

P3-The nerve impulse travels along X /afferent neurone to the spinal cord

P4-In the spinal cord, the nerve impulse is transmitted to an interneurone

P5-From the interneuron, the nerve impulse is transmitted to an efferent


neurone/neurone Y

P6-Nerve impulse travels along efferent neurone/Y and reach the effectors/muscle
tussue/fingers

P7-Muscle contract to withdraw the hand/finger Any 4

Diagram show coordinating system in the human body Diagram 8.1 shows a reflex are
and diagram 8.2 shows the regulation of the blood glucose level

Describe the reflex action in Diagram 8.1


P1-Automatic response to a stimulus

P2-Control by spinal cord

P3-Short pathway impulse does not enter the brain

P4-When the tip of finger touches sharp object pain receptor will be stimulated and
produced nerve impulse

P5-The impulse travels in the sensory neurone into the grey matter of spinal cord

P6-Impulse from interneuron travel into motor neurone to effectors

P7-Effector will produce the respond (hand withdrawn from the shard object)

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Aspect
Essay
(knee-jerkreflex)

Marking scheme
In an accident, a motorist was seriously injured and was sent to a nearby hospital. A
doctor is going to do a knee jerk test to examine the patients nerve system.

D-1
L-1
P1 -The knee jerk action involves two types of neurons named afferent and efferent

Marks

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neurons.
P2 -As the hammer strike, the force stretches the quadriceps muscle and stimulates the

stretch receptors in the muscles triggering a nerve impulses


P3- Afferent neurons transmit the information to the efferent neuron in the spinal cord
P4 - The efferent neurons transmit the information to the quadriceps muscle as an
effector and the muscle contracts thus swing the leg forward

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P5 - If the patient is able to swing the leg forward, it indicates that the patients nerve
1

system is still functioning


P6 -If there is no response, it shows that the patients nervous system fails to function
properly

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Aspect
Predict

Disease of
nervous
system

Marking scheme

Marks

If efferent neurone is injured and damaged, predict what will happen to the person. 1
1. The nerve impulse will be sent from afferent neurone to the effectors
2. The effector / muscles will not contract
3. The hand will not be removed immediately from the needle.
(Any one )

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Explain the possible effects if the parts of X (afferent neurone) in the spinal cord is
damaged.
Loss of some touch sensations

A disease related to the nervous system which usually affect the elderly people is
caused by lack of the chemical substances in (c) ( ii)
Explain the disease .
F Alzhemeir`s disease
P1- lack of acetylcholine
P2- brain shrinkage
P3- show loss of intelligence/loss of memory/ mild confusion/poor concentration
Any 2 OR
F2 Parkinson disease
P4 Lack of neurotransmitter / dopamine // hardening of cerebral arteries
P5 tremors / weakness of the muscle / muscle cannot function Any 2

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Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases are related to nervous system. Explain the causes
and the effects of the diseases on victims
Alzheimers
Caused by
- the shrinkage of brain tissues
and lack of neurotransmitter.
- usually affects the elderly

Effect:
- Loss of intelligent
- Loss of memory
- Poor concentration

Parkinsons
Caused by
- the reduced level of
neurotransmitter in the brain
caused tremors and weakness of
the muscles
- the hardening of the
cerebral arteries
Effect:
- The muscle cannot function
smoothly and become stiff and
jerky in their action

2
4

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Aspect
Disease of
nervous
system

Marking scheme

Marks

Both Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease afflict around 500,000 individuals


annually with their eroding and life-sapping effects
Source, Jontly79,streetdirectory.com editorials
Compare Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease
Alzheimers
Parkinsons
Similarities
A neurological disease
Usually affects the elderly
Differences
Leading to deterioration/damage of the
Causing tremors weakness of the
nervous system functions
muscles
Leading by deterioration /damage of the Causing tremors/weakness of the
nervous system functions
muscles
Caused by the shrinkage of brain
Caused by reduced level of
tissues/and lack of
neurotransmitter in the brain
neurotransmitters/acetylcholine
Symptoms are loss of intelligence/loss
Symptoms are the muscle cannot
of memory/mild confusion /poor
functions smoothly/muscle become
concentration
stiff and jerky in their actions
Can be inherited
Not inherited

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3.3 The role of hormones in human


The need of endocrine system
No
Marking scheme
Difference
Compare and contrast this two coordinating systems
(Nervous&
Endocrine system
Nervous system
Endocrine )
Message transported in the form of
Message transported in the form of
impulse
electrochemical charges
Hormone travel in blood stream
Impulse travel in the neurone
/without duct
Slow response
Immediate response
Long term effects
Short effects
All endocrine gland are not directly
Two neurone consecutive neurone
interrelated
are connected though synapse

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No
Difference
(Nervous&
Endocrine )

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The endocrine system and the nervous system play importance roles in maintaining
homeostasis. Both systems often work together. For example ,certain part of nervous system
stimulate or inhibit the release of hormone promote and inhibit the generation or nerve
impulse .Hence despite having the nervous system the body needs the endocrine system

Based on the statement, explain the difference between the endocrine system and the
nervous system 10
Nervous system
Aspect
Endocrine system
Stimulus
Internal stimulus
External stimulus

No

Sensory organs

Receptors

Sensory cells

Electrical and chemical

Impulse//nature of impulse

Chemical// hormones

Neuroine and synapse

Medium of transport

Blood

Rapid/fast
Specific locations, organs

Speed of transmission of Slow


impulse
Target organ
Various organs

Quick and short

Response

Long lasting

Marking scheme
The role of coordination and response are carried out by two different system as shown in
diagram, 7.2(a) and 7.2(b)

Describe both system based on the structure and function


F1 Nervous system
P1 Consists of brain, spinal cord and neurons
P2 Stimulates by external stimuli
P3 Send information in the form of electrical impulses
P4 Impulse is transmitted via neurons to effectors
F2 Endocrine system
P5 Consists of endocrine glands // glands without ducts
P6 Stimulates by internal stimuli
P7 Send information in the form of chemical impulses/ hormones
P8 Hormones is transported by blood to target organ

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The human endocrine system


No
(a)

(b)

(c)

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Diagram 4.1 shows the endocrine system in the body of a human.

Name the hormones secreted by gland P and Q


P : Thyroxine
Q : ADH // FSH // LH

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Some people have their gland P grows two or three times its size.
(i) Name the condition mentioned above
Goiter

(ii) Suggest how to overcome the above problem.


Taking enough iodine in our diet label adrenal gland with letter S correctly.

Based on the diagram, explain how hormone R is responsible for the difference of physical
appearance if individual X and Y3
E1-Hormoane R stimulate growth
E2-Lack of hormone R cause stunted growth in Y
E3-Over secretion of hormone cause gigantism

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No

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(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Name hormone P and R


P:Thyroxin hormone
R:Growth hormone

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Hormones Q stimulate the development of follicle in the ovary and spend in the testis. Identify
hormone Q
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

The presences of hormone Q causes the secretion or hormone Y which affect the development
of uterus
Estrogen hormone
The pituitary gland is known as \master gland .Explains why
F-Its secreted hormones which control the activities of other endocrine glands to secrete their
hormones
E-FSH control the secretion of estrogens in ovary (or any other suitable examples)

(e)

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The pituitary gland is regarded as the master endocrine gland.

P1 - because it secretes several hormones that control other endocrine glands


P2 - for example, TSH is secreted to stimulate thyroid gland to release thyroxine
//accept any correct hormones and their function

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The involvement of both the nervous system and the system in a flight or fight situation
No
(a)

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Diagram shows an emergency situation faced by Abu

Explain the condition between the system shown in diagram, 7.2(a) and 7.2(b) to respond
toward the situation
P1 Stimuli is detected by hypothalamus
P2 Hypothalamus sends impulse through sympathetic nervous system to the effector / heart /
respiratory muscle / blood vessel
P3 Hypothalamus send nerve impulse to adrenal medulla
P4 Adrenal medulla secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline
P5 Both hormones are sent to target organ / heart / respiratory muscle /blood vessel through
blood
P6 These two system cooperate each other
P7 Causes increase in blood glucose level
P8 Causes blood vessel constrict to increase the blood pressure
P9 Causes respiratory muscle to contract and relax faster// increase breathing rate
P10 Causes heart to pump faster // increase heart rate
P11 To transport more oxygen and glucose to the skeletal muscle & brain
P12 Brain more alert to mobilise body into immediate action /run away from the dog

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No
(b)

Marking scheme
Diagram 7.2 shows the sequence of organs and tissue that responded when a man was attacked
by a robber

Explain the involvement of nervous system and endocrine system in this situation
P1The receptors / eyes detect stimulus
P2Sent nerve impulse to brain
P3Integration and interpretation of information
P4Sent nerve impulse to adrenal gland
P5Secretes adrenaline
P6Transported by blood (to liver, lungs and heart)
P7(In the liver,) glycogen converted into glucose
P8Increase breathing rate
P9Increase ventilation rate // gaseous exchange in the lungs
P10- Increase heartbeats
P11- More blood / glucose / oxygen (in skeletal muscles)
P12- More cellular respiration
P13- More energy released
P14- For muscles contraction // To respond / fight back / run away
(c)

When a man is chased by a fierce dog ,he is experiencing flight or fight situation
Explain how the nervous system nd the endocrine system of the man coordinate to respond to
this situation
P1-the receptor in the eye detect the dog
P2-Nerve impulses are generated and transmitted to the brain via an afferent neurone
P3-The hypothalamus in the brain is stimulated
P4-It actives the sympathetic nervous system to generate nerve impulses
P5-Nerve impulses are transmitted to the adrenal medulla to stimulate secretion of adrenaline
P6-Adrenaline carried /transported by circulatory system to targeted organs
P7-Adnernaline promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
P8-(Adrenaline) increases the breathing rate
P9-More oxygen will be taken into the body
P10-(Adrenaline) increases the rate of heartbeat/blood pressure
P11-Rate of the blood flow increase
P12-More glucose and oxygen will be supplied to the muscle
P13-More energy produced by the muscles/metabolic rate increase
P14-Body has enough energy to face the flight or flight situation
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No
(d)

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A boy saw fierce dog barking and running toward him .The boy ran away and finally
climbed up the big tree
Explain how the endocrine system and nervous system both work together to bring about
immediate response of the boy in the above situation
P1- Light enters the retina and the image of the fierce dog is formed
P2- Nerve impulse s generated by the sensory nerves at the retina
P3- The nerve impulse are transmitted
the brain /central nervous system to be
analysed/interpreted
P4- Sound waves enter the cochlea in the ears
P5- The nerve impulse are generated and transmitted to the brain /central nervous system to be
analysed /interpreted
P6- The hypothalamus is activated to send the nerve impulse to the adrenal medulla
P7- Adrenal medulla secretes adrenaline into the blood stream
P8- Adrenaline will increase the metabolic rate
P9- It stimulated the heart beat beat faster
P10- And also breathing rate
P11- and increase the conversion of glycogen to glucose
P12- Finally send more oxygen and glucose to the brain and skeletal muscles
P13- The brain is highly alert to mobilise the various parts of the body for immediate action
P14- The skeletal muscle become energised to flee immediately form danger to run away from
danger /to climb a big tree
P15- This reaction is celled fight-or-fight action
P16- These changes will prepares the boy to respond to the dangerous situation /threatening
situation
Any 10

(c)

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10

A mother and her young child were involved in an accident. The child was pinned under
their car. Upon seeing her child under the car to free her child
Using your biology knowledge, explain how the endocrine and nervous systems coordinate the
mothers response in such situation
When the mother sees her child under the car
P1-the receptor in the eyes/retina detect the stimulus
P2-and trigger a nerve/stimulus impulse
P3-a nerve impulse is sent /transmitted to the central nervous system (CNS)Spinal cord /brain
/interneurone
P4-Through afferent neurone
P5-Across a synapse
P6-The CNS/Spinal cord /brain /internuerone sends a nerve /response impulse to the adrenal
glands
P7-Through efferent neurone(across synapse)
P8-Adernal glands are stimulated to produce /Secrete adrenaline
P9-Adrenaline cause the heart to beat faster/ventilation breathing rate increase//blood pressure
increase//glycogen converts to glucose
P10-and cellular respiration rate to be higher
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P11-More energy is produced


P12-for muscle contraction (hence, the mother is able to lift the car to free her child)

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After watching a horror movie at a cinema, Salim went back to his home. On
the way home, he saw a monster exactly the same as he watched in the movie.
He was very shocked and frightened. So he ran away as fast as he could.
Explain the involvement of both the nervous system and the endocrine system in that critical
situation.
P1 - The situation is called fight or flight situation
P2 - Nerve impulses from the eyes (receptors) travel to the brain
P3 - The information is interpreted and the brain sends nerve
impulses to the adrenal glands
P4 - The adrenal glands are stimulated to release adrenaline
P5 - The hormone increases the heartbeat rate, blood pressure
and blood flow to the muscle
P6 - The breathe become faster and deeper
P7 - metabolic activity and glucose level in blood increase
P8 - The skeletal muscles become more energized and enable
a person to fight off an attacker or flee immediately

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3.4 Homeostasis in human


Aspect

Marking scheme

Definition

What is meant by
(i) Internal environment
P1-(physical and Chemical) condition within our body
P2-Extracellular fluid that surround our body cells
P3-Example are body temperature, blood glucose level, pH, blood osmotic potential and
blood pressure
P1&any other P
MAX 2
(ii)Homeostasis
P4-A process of maintaining internal environment/physical and chemical condition in
our body at a constant value
P5-through corrective mechanism based on negative or positive feedback
P6-which revert the internal environment back to normal condition of there is a change
P4& any other P
MAX 2

Importance

Marks

Explain the important of kidney in maintaining human health


P1-to eliminate waste product/urea/toxic waste/ excess salt water form the blood
P2-to maintain the normal osmotic pressure in blood /constant internal environment
P3-To maintain the optimal physical /chemical condition in the internal environment

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Aspect

Marking scheme

The
nephron

Marks
: Bowmans capsule

Distal convoluted tubule

Loop of Henle:
N
Name the organ in the human body where the structure in Diagram 4 could befound?1
Kidney
Name the structure on right side
Nephron

Name the processes that occur in parts inJ, K and M at the nephron3
J:Ultrafiltration
K: Reabsorption
M: Secretion

1
1
1

Name the Blood vessel P and Q


P: Renal artery
Q: Renal Vein

1
1

State one difference in the content of P and Q in excretion


P has more nitrogenous waste product /urea/uric acid/salt than Q

Name two blood components found in renal artery but not in the part labeled J.
Red blood cell
Plasma proteins

1
1

Label P and Q
P-Glomerulus
Q-Bowman Capsule

1
1

State the characteristic of Q


P1-Have very large surface area
P2-Have many podocyte (that enable the ultrafiltration occur tremendously)

1
1

Suggest a reason for the component difference in above


Both components are large (to move through small pores in the capillaries wall and
inner wall of bowmans capsule

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Aspect

Marking scheme

Ultrafiltration

Name the process take place in J


Ultrafiltration
Describe the process mentioned above
P1-Blood under high hydrostatic pressure
P2-Because the diameter of afferent arteriole is larger than efferent arteriole
P3-force the fluid filtrate into capsule bowmans
P4-Form the glomerular filtrate
Explain the formation fluid J
P1-(by) ultrafiltration
P2-( due to ) hydrostatic force
P3-Some blood component except red blood cell platelet and plasma protein enter J
Explain what happen to the filtrate that flows from J to L?
From J to K where
F1 : Glomerular filtrate become more concentrated
El : Reabsorption of water into the blood capillaries by osmosis
F2 : Glomerular filtrate does not contain glucose and amino acids
E2 : Reabsorption of all glucose and amino acids by active
transport into the blood capillaries
From K to L where
F3 : Glomerular filtrate has a higher concentration of urea
E3 : Urea not reabsorbed from filtrate but water reabsorbed from filtrate
F4 : Glomerular filtrate low in salt
E4 : Reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions into blood capillaries by active
transport
Explain why the glucose and amino acid can found in glomerular filtrate but absent
in urine
P1-Because all the glucose and amino acid will reabsorb in the (proximal convoluted
tubule)
P2-Through active transport

Reabsorbtion

Different

Marks

Explain one different between the content in fluid J an L


P1-In J /Bowmans capsule has higher glucose/amino acid/ vitamin/ minerals/ water//
In F has lower glucose/amino acid/vitamin/minerals/water
P2-Because reabsorption occur in proximal convoluted fluid
Give the different between the content A(renal artery) and B (renal vein)
P1-Urea in A ismore compare in B
P2-Oxygen in A is more in A compare in B
P3-water in a is less compare in B
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Describe the urine formation.


Aspect

Marking scheme
P1 The formation of urine involves three main processes :
ultrafiltration, reabsorption and secretion

Ultrafiltration

Marks
1

P1-(Blood enters the glomerulus),ultrafiltration takes place whereby the high


pressure forces fluid through the filtration membrane /glomerulus into capsular

space/bowmans capsule
1

P2-The fluid is called glomerular filtrate


P3-Glomerular filtrate contains water/glucose/amino acids/irea/mineralslts/other

small molecule but does not contain red blodd cells and plasma protein
P4-useful substance are reabsorbed (form the filtrate into the blood _while toxic

compounds water /any solutes in excess are removed (as urine )


Reabsorption

P5-in proximal convoluted tubule,sodium ions and chloride ions are pumped into
1
1

capillary network
P6-reabsorbed of glucose and amino acids by active transport
P7-in the loop of Henle ,water sodium ,chloride ions are reabsorbed
P8-at distal convoluted tubule and more water, sodium and chloride ions are

1
1

reabsorbed
P9-at collecting duct ,99% of water has been reabsorbed (into blood stream )and 1%

of water leaves the body as urine


Secretion

P10-occurs at distal convoluted tubule


P11-waste/exces substances/hydrogen ions /potassium ions /ammonia/urea/creatine

1
1

/toxin /drug are eliminated


P12-by adjusting the amount of ions the kidney regulate the chemical
composition ./water content any10-\

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Essay enhancement corner


No
(a)

Marking scheme
Diagram 12.3 shows a part of a nephron structure.

Marks

Bowmans
capsule
Proximal
convoluted
tubule

Collecting
duct

Loop of
Henle
Distal
convoluted
tubule

Label and complete Diagram 12.3 above. State the role of a nephron.
2
1
1

D-1
L-1
P1 - A nephron is a basic structural and the functional unit of the kidney
P2 - It is responsible for the actual purification of blood in producing urine
(b)

Base on the Table 6.2, explain why the concentration of solutes in the plasma, glomerular
filtration and urine of the adult are differ.10

Describe the formation of the glomerular filtrate


E1 : When blood enters the glomerulus, ultrafiltration takes place
E2 : because blood from the aorta reaches the nephron/glomerulus at high pressure
E3 : and due to the different between the diameter of the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole
E4 : The high pressure forces fluid through the filtration membrane into capsular space forming

glomerular filtrate

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No

Marking scheme

Marks

(c)

Base on Diagram 6.1 , describe briefly the formation of the glomerular filtrate 4

Process Y = ultrafiltration
A process whereby
F1 water and solutes from glomerulus being forced to filter through the membrane of
Bowmans capsule

F2 - by the high hydrostatic pressure

1
1

F3 - forming glomerular filtrate that contains water, glucose, amino


and other small molecules
(d)

acids, urea, mineral salts

Diagram shows the structure of nephron in the human Kidney

Explain the process that occurs at P 4


F1-Ultrafiltration (process take place)
E1-Diameter of efferent arteriole is smaller than afferent arteriole
E2-Higher hydrostatic pressure occurs in glomerulus
E3-The fiuld and solute in the glomerulus is filtered out through the capillary wall into the
lumen of Bowmans capsule
E4-The glomerular filtrate has the same composition as the plasma component except it does
not contain (of larger component such as ) red blood cell and plasma proteins

1
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1

4
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No
(e)

Marking scheme
Table 6 .2 shows the concentration of solutes in the blood plasma, glomorular filtration and
urine of an adult.
Concentration of solutes (g/dm3)

Solute
Blood plasma

Glomerular filtrate

Urine

Glucose

1.0

1.0

0.0

Amino acid

1.5

1.5

0.0

Protein

80.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.3

20.0

3.2

3.2

1.6

Urea
Sodium ion, Na

Diagram 7.1 shows part of the circulatory system and a nephron in human kidney.
F1 Glucose reabsorb by facilitated diffusion into blood capillary
E1 Glucose needed by our body
F2 Acid amino reabsorb by facilitated diffusion
E2 Acid amino is needed for body growth / tissue repair
F3 Protein is a big molecule and cannot move via membrane plasma.
E3 Protein is still circulate in blood capillary.
F4 Urea is secreted substances and cannot move back to blood capillary
E4 Water is reabsorb by osmosis and the concentrate of urea increase.
F5 Sodium ion is move back to blood capillary via active transport
E5 Sodium is importance for maintain the blood pressure.
(f)

Marks

1
1
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1
1
1
1
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1
1

Table 7.1 shows the concentration of solutes in the blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and urine
of an adult.

Based on Table 1, explain why the concentration of solutes in the blood plasma, glomerular
filtrate and urine of the adult are differ.
F1 : Concentration of glucose / amino acid / urea / sodium ions in the blood plasma and
glomerular filtrate are the same.

E1 : All glucose / amino acid / urea / sodium ions enter the Bowmans capsule / nephron / are in

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the glomerular filtrate


E2 : through ultrafiltration.
F2: No glucose / amino acid in the urine.

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1

E4 : All glucose / and amino acid are reabsorbed from the proximal convoluted tubule /
nephron

E3 : Able to pass through the wall of blood capillaries / Bowmans capsule.

E5 : by facilitated diffusion / active transport into the (peritubular) capillaries // blood


capillaries

1
1

F3 : Less sodium ions in the urine than in the blood plasma / glomerular filtrate.
E6 : Some sodium ion have been reabsorbed from the Nephron (by active transport into the
peritubular capillaries // blood capillaries)
F4 : No protein in the glomerular filtrate / urine.

1
1
1

E7 : They are large molecules.


E8 : Unable to pass through the wall of blood capillaries / Bowmans capsule.

1
1

F5 : Very high content of urea in the urine.


E9 : Secretion of urea into the nephron at the distal convoluted tubules

Any ten points


(g)

Table 3 shows the concentration of some substances in the blood plasma. glomerular filtrate and
urine of an adult.
Substances in fluid
Concentration of substance in fluid
Blood plasma
Glomerulus filtrate
Urine produced
entering the
kidney
glomerulus
Glucose
1.0
1.0
0.0
Amino Acid
1.5
1.5
0.0
Protein
80.0
0.0
0.0
Urea
0.3
0.3
20.0
Sodium ion
3.2
3.2
3.3
Based on 'l'ablc 3, explain the difference in the concentration of urea in the blood plasma,
glomerular filtrate and urine.4
F1 Concentration of urea in blood plasma is 0.3 g/dm3 which is same as in glomerular filtrate
El : Ultrafiltration in Bowman's capsule
E2: High pressure of blood forces out fluid from blood plasma Contain urea and other solutes
into Bowman's capsule
F-2: Concentration of urea in urine is 20 g/dm3 which is much higher than in the glomerular
filtrate
E3: Active secretion urea from blood into glomerular filtrate at distal convoluted tubule and
collecting duct
E4: Reabsorption of water from glomerular filtrates at distal Convoluted tubule and collecting
duct

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No

Marking scheme

Marks

(a)

Table shows the cmposition of human blood and urine


Chemical substances
Percentage in blood %
Percentage in urine%
Water
97
95
Plasma membrane
8
0
Glucose
0.10
0
Urea
0.03
2.0
Explain the differences between the percentage od chemical substances in blood and urine 10
F1-Percntge of water in blood is higher than in urine
P1-In the proximal convuluted tubule
P2-The Na + are pumped into the capillary//some salts are reabsorbed by a active trasnport
P3-The movement os solutes into the capillary network decrease the solute concentration in the
capillary Network
P4-As a result, water diffuse into blopod capillaries by osmosis from the proximal convuluted
tubule/loop of Henle /diatal convuluted tubule /collecitng duct
F2-Percentage of plasma protien is higher in blood compared to urine //percantage of plasma
protien is nil in urine
P5-Size of plasma protiens are larger /too large which cannot be filtered out diffused out during
ultrafiltration
F3-Percentage of gluscose is high in blood but nil in urine
P6-All glucose are reabsorbed by active transport at proximal conculuted tubue
F4-Percentage of Urea is higher in urine than in blood
P7-Urea is actively transported from the blood capillary to the distal onvulted tubule
P8-By active secretion process
F5-Urea is filtered but not reabsorbed into then blood
P9-selctive reabsorbption
Any 10

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No
(b)

Marking scheme

Marks

Table shows the content of component in R and S in Diagram

Based on the table


Explain why the content of R and S are different 10
F1-Glucose /oxygen present in the R and s
E1-There is high hydrostatic pressure at the arterial and of the capillaries
E2-Glucose .oxygen force out form the R to S
E3-able to pass through the wall of blood capillaries
F2-No albumen /platlets/erthrocyres in the S
E4-Large molecule .components
E5-Unable to pass through the capillary wall
F3-Leucocytes present in the R and S
E6-because leucocytes ooze through the opening in the capillary wall
F4-Urea present in the R and S
E7-Diffuse form the body cells through the into R any 10
(c)

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10

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1

In a study carried out, an individual X drinks a glass of glucose solution. Table 4.2 shows the
changes in the concentration of blood glucose in individual X

Based on table 4.2 , explain the role of gland R in regulating the person blood
glucose concentration from 0 minute to 90 minutes.
P1 : From 0 to 60 minutes, the blood glucose level increases more than the normal level
P2 : Islet cells in gland R is stimulated to secrete insulin
P3 : Insulin stimulates the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen (in the liver)
P4 : This cause the glucose level to return to the normal level at the 90th minute
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The role of kidney in homeostasis


No

Marking scheme

Marks

(a)

What is the function of osmoregulation ?


E1-Kidney regulate salts /solutes and water level in the blood
E2-To maintian a constant water potential in the body/regulates the osmotic pressure of the
blood
(b)

(c)

(d)

1
1
2

Explain the consequence of kidney failure


P1-The blood osmotic pressure and blood volume cannot be maintianed
P2-Leads to the accumulatioon of toxic waste and excess minerals in the body

1
1

Indivudul Y drinking excess water


State the blood osmotic pressure after drinking excess water
Osmotic pressure in plasma prouten decraese//water potential increase

Epxlain Hypothalamus and gland M response to the condition after drinking excess water
Hypotalamus
E1-Osmoreceptor (in hypotalamus ) detect the chnge /less stimulated
Gland M:
E2-Pituitary gland /galnd M is less/not stmulated /trigger
E3-Hence less hormone P/ADH secreted
E4-Less water reabsorbed

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No

Marking scheme

(e)

If individul Y consume food which high in salt, adrenal gland will secreted hormone Q
State the hormone Q
Hormone Q: Aldosterone hormone
Kidney function may e impaired by excessive blood loss,vcertain piosons or infection disease
which can lead to kidney failure

(f)

Marks

1
1

Explain the effects if more antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted to the targeted organ as
shown in the diagram 3
E1-More ADH will increase the permeability of distal; convoluted tubule and collecting duct
E2-More water is reabsorb into the blood capillary
E3-Urine become less and more concentrated

1
1
1

Explain how the machanism of hormone Q to restore the osmotic prssure back to normal level
E1-(adrenal gland less stimulated ),Less aldosterone nproduced
E2-Less salt is reabsorbed /most of it will be secreted though urine

1
1

(g)

(h)

(i)

Explain the effects of drinking a large amount of water on the quality and quantity of the urine
of a healthy person.4
F : More urine is produced and more dilute/ less concentrated
El: Blood osmotic pressure drops below normal range osmoreceptors in hypothalamus less
stimulated
E2: less antidiuretic hormone secreted from pituitary gland
E3: Distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct less permeable to water
E4: Less water is absorbed into the blood
E5: Aldosterone from adrenal gland cause reabsorption of , sodium ions in blood
Explain how antidiuretic hormone control water absorption in the convoluted tubule and
collecting duct
P1-If blood osmotic pressure lower than normal level, It can be detected by osmoreceptor cell in
hypothalamus
P2-Hypothalamus will produce less ADH (and send to kidney)
P3-Convuluted tubule and collecting duct become less permeable to water

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P4-Less water will be absorb by the tubule thus


P5-Osmotic pressure of blood increase back to normal pressure
OR
P1-If blood osmotic pressure higher than normal level, It can be detected by osmoreceptor cell
in hypothalamus
P2-Hypothalamus will produce less ADH (and send to kidney)
P3-Cnvulted tubule and collecting duct become more permeable to water
P4-more water will be absorb by the tubule thus
P5-Osmotic pressure of blood become normal again
(j)

Discuss the effects of drinking a large amount of water on urine.2


P1-Osmoreceptor in the hypothalamus is less stimulated, less ADH hormone is secreted
P2-The distal tubule and the collecting duct are not permeable to water
P3-Less water is absorbed in the blood
P4-A large amount of urine is produced, making it dilute

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1
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1

Essay enhancement corner


Aspect
Osmo
-regulation
Process

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows human kidney

Describe the role of hormone in regulation of blood osmotic pressure by kidney 10


When someone takes more salt in his meal:
P1-Increase in blood osmotic pressure is detected by the receptor
P2-Rceptor triggers impulse
P3-and the impulse are sent to pituitary gland
P4-Pituitrary gland secretes ADH into the blood stream
P5-ADH stimulates the wall of distal convoluted and collecting duct to become more
permeable to water
P6-Water will be reabsorbed into the blood stream
P7-Blood osmotic pressure decrease back to normal
When Blood osmotic pressure of a person decrease
P8-when his drink too much
P9-Adrenal gland at kidney wil be stimulate to serrate aldosterone tubule and collecting
duct to become preamble to slat
P11-Salt will be absorbed into the blood stream
P12-Blood osmotic pressure increases back to normal
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Aspect

Marking scheme

Marks

Osmo
-regulation
Process

Describe the process at Q in osmoregulation of blood osmotic pressure


E1-when the osmotic pressures of blood decrease, the osmoreceptor cells in the
hypothalamus are detect the change
E2-The pituitary gland is not secreted ADH /Adrenal gland stimulated to released
aldosterone
E3-Less water reabsorbed .more salt reabsorbed
E5-When the osmotic pressure of blood increases. The osmoreeceptors cell in the
hypothalamus are detect the change
E2-The pituitary gland is secreted ADH /Adrenal gland not stimulated to released
aldosterone
E3-Causes the structure Q /collecting duct to become permeable to water/not permeable
to salts
E4-more water reabsorbed/no salts reabsorbed
Describe how the structure of the kidneys is adapted to enable them to play a role
inhomeostasis
F1-(each kidney) contains hundreds of thousand/a large number of nephrones /nearly
oen million nephrones
P1-To filter substance form the blood efficiently
F2-(each kidney) has ureter
P2-to carry away the urine /solution of waste dissolved in water /creatinine/toxin and
drugs
F3-(each kidney)has rich capillary network
P3-Ultrafiltration /reabsorption can take place efficiently
F4-Has Bowmans capsule.Proximal convoluted tubule /loop of Henle/distal convoluted
tubule /collecting duct
P4-Ultrafiltration /reabsorption /secretion

1
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1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Diagram 7.1 shows the negative feedback mechanism in regulating the water balance in
human blood.

Explain the corrective mechanism when the osmotic pressure of blood increase 6
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P1- Water content in the blood is low // Blood is hypertonic


P2- Detected by osmoreceptor
P3- In hypothalamus
P4- Send nerve impulse to pituitary gland
P5- Secretes ADH
P6- Transported by blood to kidney
P7- Distal convoluted tubule / collecting duct of nephron
P8- More permeable towards water
P9- More water reabsorbed by blood (and less urine produced)

Kidney
failure

A man takes too much salty food during lunch .His urine becomes less and
concentrated.Epxlain why4
F-Blood osmotic pressure increase
P1-Detected by osmoreceptor in hypothalamus
P2-impulse is sent to adrenal gland and pituitary gland
P3-Adrenal gland secrete les aldosterone and pituitary gland secretemore ADH
P4-Cell lining of distal convulted tubule and cd less premeable to salt and more
premeable to water
P5-Less reabsorption of salt and more reabsoorption of water into blood vessel
En. Kamal was informed by his doctor that his left kidney fail to function.By using
your biology knowledge, explain the effect of his kidney failure on his health and
give a suggestion to overcome this problem6
F1 - less efficient in filtration of waste products and excess water in blood plasma
P1- as a result, urea uric acid/ creatinine / salt concentration will be increase
P2 - increase the blood pressure
F1 - use haemodialysis machine / kidney transplant
F2 - to replace the function of kidney; filtrate all the waste product and excess water
En Hamah was informed by his doctor that his left kidney fail to function .By using our
biology knowledge, explain the effect of his failure on his health d give a suggestion to
overcome this problem
F1-less efficient in filtration of waste product and excess water in blood plasma
P1-As a result urea, uric acid/creatinine/salt concentration will be increase
P2-Increase the blood pressure
Suggestion:
F1-Use haemodialysis machine /kidney transplant
F2-to replace the function of kidney; to filter all the waste product and excess water
Explain the condition of the patient before undergoing this treatment (Haemodialysis)
F1-the kidneys are malfunction /stop function /kidney failure
P1-Blood contains of high amount of waste materials/Urea/toxic waste/salts
P2-Blood constituents/osmotic pressure higher than normal
If the kidney is severe enough and the patient does not want want to use dialysis
machine ,give suggestion of treatment and explain briefly about the treatment
F1-Kidney transplant
P1-Failed kidneys replaced with working form donor
P2-Donors kidney has to match recipient body

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Aspect
Dialysis

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows a simplified version of a kidney dialysis machine

State the definition of Haemodialysis


F1-Filtering blood using artificial kidney/kidney machine means that replace a failed
kidney
Describe how the, machine is used to remove waste product such as urea form a person
with kidney failure
P1-Blood form the patient vein is passed though a machine
P2-Which contains a dialyser /dialysis solution
P3-Dialysis tubing has a semi premaeble membrane
P4-concentration of waste molecule /urea in blood is higher than in the dialysis
s0olution //there is concentration gradient between the blood and dialysis solution
P5-waste molecule /urea/excess salts diffuses through membrane form blood to dialysis
solution
P6-Dialysis solution is continuously being replaced //essential substances remain in the
blood
P7-Plasma protein /red blood cells are not able to diffuse through membrane of dialysis
tubing
P8-Because the size is bigger /too big
P9-The direction of the flow of blood is opposite to the direction of dialysis solution
P10-To ensure the waste molecule /urea is continuously being removed form the blood
to dialysis solution
Explain briefly how the machine functions
E1-A patient bloods passed/converted through (several) narrow/series of tubes
E2-Made of a partially-permeable dialysing membrane
E3-The pores in the dialysing membrane allow small particles such as glucose/ions/urea
to pass through
E4-but not big particle such as blood cells /plasma proteins
E5-The narrows)tubes are immersed in a dialysis fluid
E6-Dialysis fluid ,which has a same composition as tissue fluid
E7-the dialysis fluid contains glucose and ions but not waste products such as urea
E8-As useful substances are present in equal concentration s occurs
E9-However any excess are tissue fluid constituents, such as potassium ions and
phosphate ions, will be lost form the blood
E10-There is a net l0oss from the blood of waste product, such as urea, as these are not
found in the dialysis fluid
E11-The cleansed blood is return to the patient
Analysis skill: able to list explanation by sequence and systematic
Give one consequence if both kidney to malfunction
P1-toxin waste product/urea accumulate in blood
P2-Ionic level in blood will become increasing
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The regulation of blood sugar level


No

Marking scheme

Marks

The regulation of blood sugar level

Name organ Z
Pancrease

State Hormone X and Hormone Y secreted by organ z


Hormone X: glucagon
Hormone Y: insulin

1
1

A man found that his urine shown positive result when tested with Benedict solution
State the health problem faced by the man mentioned above
Diabetes mellitus

Khairi suffers form diabetes insipidus produces a large amount of urine .Explain how this
problem is related to the imbalance of hormone in his body2
P1-Lacking in ADH /antidiriuretic hormone
P2-Less absorption of water in the distal convoluted tubule/collecting duct//distal convoluted
tubule/collecting duct less permeable to water

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No
(a)

Marking scheme
The adult later suffers from diabetes but does not take his regular injection of insulin.
Explain the changes that might occur to the content of his urine and suggest a laboratory
experiment to confirm the content of the urine
Able to explain changes that might occur to the content of the adults urine.
E1 : excess glucose is found in his urine
E2 : glucose cannot be converted into glycogen
E3 : Excess glucose will not be reabsorbed from the nephron // proximal convoluted tubules
E4 : into ( peritubular) capillaries // blood capillaries
Any three points
Able to suggest a laboratory experiment to confirm the content of the urine
F1 : (The laboratory experiment to be conducted) is the Benedicts test.
P1 : (In a test tube) , add about 1 ml of urine sample with 1 ml of Benedicts solution
P2 : The mixture is heated (in a water bath) for 5 minutes
P3 : Observe the presence of brick red precipitate to confirm the presence of glucose in the
urine
Any three points

Marks

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(b)

Diagram 6.1 shows the negative feedback mechanism that regulated the blood glucose level in
human being
(i) Explain briefly the meaning of negative feedback mechanism
P1-It is corrective mechanisms (which reverses the original change and bring the system
back to the normal
P2-When the blood glucose level decreases, It will increase and finally back to normal /vice
versa
(ii) Describe how the hormones X and Y regulate the blood glucose level in humans
P1-Hormone X and Y produced by pancreas
P2-Hormone X /glucagons is secreted by alpha cells whereas hormone Y /insulin is
secreted by Beta Cells
P3-If the blood sugar level is lower than normal,more hormone X /glucogon is secreted
into the blood stream
P4-The hormone X /glucagon is transported by the blood to the liver
P5-Hormone X/Glucagon causes/stimulates the liver to breakdown glycogen to glucose
P6-This causes the level of glucose to rise and back to the normal
P7-If the blood sugar level is higher than normal,more hormone Y/Insulin is secreted into
the blood stream
P4-Hormone Y/Insulin causes/stimulates the liver to breakdown glycogen to glucose
P6-This causes the level of glucose to rise and back to the normal

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No
(c)

(d)

Marking scheme

Marks

Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal environment.The blood normal sugar


concentration in human is 75-110mg/100ml 10
P1-(The islet cells in the )pancreas secretes insulin
P2-and glucogon
P3-directly into blood stream
P4-if the blood levl increase/more than 110 mg /100 ml ,insulin convert excess glucose to
glycogen
P5-in the liver
P6-insulin stimulate uptake of glucose by liver/muscle /adipose cell for respiration
P7-for cell respiration //to obtain energy
P8-Blood sugar level decrease to normal range
P9-if blood sugar level degrease/less than mg/100ml, glucagon convert glycogen to glucose
P10-Glucagon promotes lipid breakdown
P11-torlease fatty acid /energy
P12-blood sugar level increase to normal range any 10

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Explain how the body of a healthy person restores the blood sugar level to normal if the level
drops too low.
P1 - The islet cells in the pancreas are stimulated to release glucagon
P2 - Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen to glucose
P3 - This restores the blood sugar level to normal
P4 - Glucagon also promotes lipid breakdown
P5 - This releases fatty acids that can be metabolized to generate energy
P6 - This restores the blood sugar level to the normal range

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The regulation of body temperature


No
(a)

(b)

Marking scheme

Marks

A worker enters a cold room that stores frozen meat. Explain how the regulation of the worker
body temperature occurs 6
P1-When the environment is too cold, the stimuli is detected by receptors I the skin
P2-Impulse is sent to brain /hypothalamus
P3-Hypothalamus sent impulse to the effectors
P4-Vasoconstraction of arterioles in the skin, Less blood flows to the skin
P6-So less heat is lost (to surrounding)
P7-Erector muscle contract. Hairs raise up so trap more heat
P8-Adnernal gland secrete adrenaline whereas thyroid gland secretes thyroxin to increase
metabolic rate
P9-shivering takes place, this results in increased the production of heat

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Diagram 4.3 shows a person who is sweating under a hot sun

State what will happen to his blood osmotic pressure in the persons body.
The blood osmotic pressure increases

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Explain how gland Q involves in returning the osmotic pressure of the blood to normal levels.3
P1 : The osmoreceptor detects the increase in the osmotic blood pressure
P2 : Gland P is stimulated to release more ADH
P3: ADH is transported by blood to the kidneys
P4 : ADH increases the permeability of the wall of distal convoluted tubule and collecting
ducts
P5 : More water is reabsorbed from the filtrate into the blood

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No
(c)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram 7.1, 7.2,7.3 and 7.4 shows four different environmental conditions.

Describe the regulatory mechanism carried out to maintain the body temperature at 36.7 in both
condition above. 6
Hot Condition
F1-erector muscle relax so that hair is lowered
P1-A Thin air is trapped by the hair
P2-Heat can be lost easily
F2-Blood capillaries in the dermis of the skin dilate//Vasodilation
P3-More blood flows near surface of skin
F3-Sweat glands secrete sweat actively
P4-When sweat evaporates,It absorb heat from the skin
F4-Less thyroxine and adrenaline are produce
P5-Bodys metabolic rate decrease//Less heat is generated within the body
4 F & Corresponding P
Cold condition
F1-Erecvtor muscle contract so that hair is raised
P1-A thick layer of air is trapped by the hair
P2-THhe layer of air acts as an insulator to prevent loss of heat form the body
F2-Blood capillaries in the dermis of skin constrict//vasoconstriction
P2-Less blood flows near the surface of the skin
F3-Skeletal muscle contract involuntary //shivering
P3-Genertaes heat to raise the body temperature
F4-More throxine and adrenaline are secreted
P4-Bodys metabolic rate increase//more heat is generated
4F&corresponding P

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No
(d)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows the organ involvees in homeostasis

Does the organ shows in diagram 9.2 can regulate the human body temperature? Give your
reason
Evaluate: yes
Reason:When the body temperature falls
F1-(cold) receptors/thermoreceptor detects the change of the body temperature falls
E1-Afferent neurone transmitted the nerve impulse to the hypothalamus
E2-Hypothalamus acts as the temperature regulatory centre
E3-Nerve impulse is transmitted form the hypothalamus to the skin (by efferent neurone to
produce response by negative feedback mechanism)
F2-Hairs erector muscle are stimulated to contract
E4-Hiars become erect
E5-A thick layer of air is trapped
E6-Less hest loss (to the environment by radiation /conduction n)
F3-Sweat glands inactive
E7-Less sweat produced
E8-Rate of evaporation (very ) low
E9-Heat is conserved
F4-Vasoconstriction occurs //blood vessel constrict
E10-Less blood flows close to the body surface
E11-Heat loss (by radiation/conduction )is reduced
E12-Body temperature increase back to normal any 9OR
When the body temperature high
F1-(warm) receptors/thermoreceptor detects the change of the body temperature high
E1-Afferent neurone transmitted the nerve impulse to the hypothalamus
E2-Hypothalamus acts as the temperature regulatory centre
E3-Nerve impulse is transmitted form the hypothalamus to the skin (by efferent neurone to
produce response by negative feedback mechanism)
F2-Hairs erector muscle are stimulated to relax
E4-Hairs lie flat
E5-very little layer of air is trapped
E6-More haea hest loss (to the environment by radiation /conduction)
F3-Sweat glands active
E7-more sweat produced
E8-Rate of evaporation (very ) high
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E9-Heat is lost form the skin .colling the skin


F4-Vasoconstriction occurs //blood vessel dilate
E10-More blood flows close to the body surface
E11-Heat loss (by radiation/conduction )is incraesed
E12-Body temperature decrease back to normal any 9
(e)

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10

Diagram shows the mechanism of thermoregulation in human

Based on diagram, explain how the mechanism of thermoregulation acts10


M1-Changes in the environmental temperature are detected by thermoreceptors in the skin
//changes in the blood temperature are detected by thermoreceptor in the hypothalamus
M2-These thermoreceptors transmit nerve impulse to the thermoregulation centre in the
hypothalamus
M3-The hypothalamus/thermoregulation centre sends nerve impulse /electrical signals to the
effectors
F1-smooth muscle in the arterioles in the skin rlax ,causing vasodilation
E1-More blood is carried to the surface of body, where heat is loss by convection and radiation
F2-The sweat glands secrete sweat onto the surface of the skin where it evaporates
Water has a high latent heat of evapoeration ,so this process takes heat from the body and the
body cools
F3-the hairs erector muscles relax, lowering the skin hairs
E3-only a thin layer of air is trapped between the hairs. Heat lost through conduction and
radiation is increased
F4-The skeletal muscle do not contract and relax involuntarily
E4-there is no shivering and no unnecessary generation of heat
F5-The adrenal gland /thyroid glands secrete less adrenaline /thyroxine
E5-The bodys metabolic rate is reduced .this reduced the generation of respiratory heat
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No
(f)

(g)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows a cross section of human ski n in two condition X and Y

Based on the diagram,


(i) State the condition Z an Y
Condition X:
Cold condition //low temperature//any suitable example condition low temperature
Condition Y:
Warm condition //high temperature//any suitable condition of high temperature

1
1

(ii) Explain how the arteriole responds to both condition 8


Condition X
E1-The smooth muscle around the arteriole contract/vasoconstriction occurs
E2-the decrease the amount of blood flowing through the skin
E3-The arteriole is located further away form skin surface
E4-Reducing the heat lost (by radiation /conduction) via surface

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Condition Y
E1-The smooth muscle around the arteriole relax /vasodilation occur
E2-this increase the amount the mount of blood flowing through the skin
E3-the arteriole is located near the skin surface
E4-Increasing the heat lost ( by radiation /conduction via blood)

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Explain how the above effectors involved in the regulation of temperature


Sweat gland
P1-Sweating does not occur body heat is covered

10

Erector muscle
P2-contracts

Hairs
P3-hiars is raised to trap an insulating layer/heat

Blood vessel no marks


P5-Vasoconstracution /contraction of arterioles occurs
P6-amount of blood flowing though skin decreases
P7-reduce the amount heat to be lost
Any 6

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No
(h)

Marking scheme

Marks

Figure shows a thirsty athlete who has just completed a 5 Km run

Explain how osmoregulation takes place in her body 10


E1-Running cause an increased in body temperature
E2-sweating occurs to reduce body temperature
E3-Lost of water form the body increase the blood osmotic pressure
E4-increase osmotic pressure detected by osomoreceptors
E5-in hypothalamus of brain
E6-Pituitary gland s stimulated to secrete Antiduiretic hormone (ADH)
E7-ADH is transported by blood to the kidney
E8-ADH increased the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubule to
water
E9-Reabsorbtion of water increased in both tubules
E10-Increase in water reduced the blood OP
E11-Medulla oblongata is also stimulated to produce a feeling of thirst

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3.5 Practicing a healthy lifestyle


No

Marking scheme

Marks

(a)

Drug can later brain function and the rate at which neuron release neurotransmitters .These are
different types of drug which are stimulus depressants. There are different types of drug which
are stimulants,depressants,hallucinogens and narcotic
Based on the statement, state and explain briefly the effect of any two drugs
Drug -1
Effect-1
Type of drug
Mark scheme
D1-cacine
Stimulants
E1-Block the removal of pleasure-inducing neurotransmitters
D2-Transquiliser
Depressants
E2-slow down the transmission of impulses
Hallucinogens D3-LcD
E3-cause user to see, hear and perceive things that do not exist
D4-Herion //morphine
Narcotic
E4-Induce felling of euphoria/block pain signals/slow down
Any 2D+2E
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No
(b)

Marking scheme

Marks

Drugs and alcohol are being widely used on everyday life


Write evaluation report concerning the above statement
Able to state advantages of drugs in medical:
F1-Produce medicine /pill
F2-steriod drug used by sport athlete

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Reject:
1. used in producing cheese/yogurt
2. beer.wine
3. produce vinegar
Advantages Drug in human physiology
F3-Depressant-psychiatry
F4-Depressant to relief pain

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Advantages Alcohol used in life


F5-production of perfume
F6-Used in medical as antiseptic

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Disadvantages used of drugs in human life


F7-Intrfere nervous system leads to lengthen reflex time
F8-Liver failure/cirrhosis

1
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Disadvantage of alcohol on human physiology


F9-alter brain function
F10-Impair vision, coordination

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Analyse skill: able to state at least two point of advantages and disadvantages
Evaluate skill: able to rationalize/justify whether drugs and alcohol give good impact or not to
human

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3.6 Plant Hormones


No
(a)

(b)
(c)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows an experiment to study the effect of chemical substances T in coleoptiles


towards the plumule growth of a plant

Name the chemical substance T in coleoptiles of the plants seed


Auxin

State another one part in plant where chemical T can be found


Root tips/young leave/embryo in seed

In Another experiment, a group of student have removed the coleoptiles of a seed and placed it
on agar block before placing it back on the cut plumule as shown in diagram

Draw a possible observation for the growth of plumule in the box in diagram 4.2 1
(d)

Explain how chemical substances T named in (A) causing observation as drawn in above
E1-Chemical substance t /auxins produced in the coleoptiles tip dissolve into agar-agae block
E2-Then dissolve in the removed bud tip tissue
E3-Stimulate elongation of Plumule

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In another experiment, the shoot tips of young pea seedling with chemical substance T while
another shoot tips acts as control. All shoot tips are incubated over a period of 48 hours .The
results are shown in diagram

Based on the graph explain the difference between the treatment of chemical substance T and
the control on the shoot tips 2
E1-The mean length of the treatment shoot tips at the end of 48 hours is longer than the control
shoot tips
E2-Becuase the rate of elongation is higher with the present of chemical substance T /auxin

1
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Essay enhancement corner


No

Marking scheme

(a)

Marks

Tropism involves the growth movement of certain parts of the


plant towards or away from the stimulus
Explain the mechanism involved in 10
Positive Phototropism of shoots
P1-When a shoot is exposed to light form one direction ,auxins whch are produced in the shoot
tip
P2-Move into the zone of elongation
P3-At the zone of elongation .mnore auxin move to the shaded side away from the light
P4-Resulting in a higher concentration of auxins in the shaded region than in the region
exposed to light
P5-The cells on the shaded region of shoot elongate more than the cells on the other region
P6-As a result, the shot grows and bend towards the direction of the light any 5P
Positive geotropism of roots
P7-auxins are produced at the root and move to the lower side of root
P8-due to the pull of gravity
P9-More auxins accumulate on the lower side of root, resulting in a higher concentration of
auxin on the lower side

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(b)

P10-Ahigh concentration of auxin in the root inhibits elongation of cells


P11-Hence the cell on the lower side of the root gro slower than the cell on upper side
P12-As a result, the grows and bends downwards, toward the pull of gravity Any 5
(i) Explain the terms phototropism and geotropism.
Phototropism
P1 growth movement/ growth of plants towards light
P2 growth towards a source of light is called positive
phototropism
P3 growth away from the source is termed negative phototropism

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Geotropism
P1 The response of plants towards gravity
P2 The root shows positive geotropism.
P3 The shoot shows negative geotropism
(c)

(d)

10

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Beside stimulating the shoot elongation ,chemical substance T also has other function .Explain
how chemical substances t being used in :
(i)Propagation of plant through stem cutting method
E1-Chemical substance T /auxin stimulate growth of adventitious roots form the stem
E2-This will promotes the growth of nw plants form the stem cutting
(ii)Parthenocarpy
E1-Treat flowers that hav not been pollinated with substance T auxin
E2:This will induc the development of fruit without fertilization (Parthenocarpy)

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A mango farmer picked ten basket of immature mangoes for sale .Give one suggestion to make
all the mangoes ripen on the same time1
Keep the upripe mangoes together with ripe fruit /bananas//spray the unripe mangoes with
ethylene
Diagram 4.1 shows the effect of light on the growth of the pant shoot

Name the type of response of the plant shoot toward light


Describe the response
Type of response:
Tropism/phototropism
Description:
P1-The plant shoot grows/bends
P2-Toward light

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No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram 4.shows the direction of growth of the plumule and the radical of a seedling which is
placed in a horizontal position during germination
Explain why
(i) The plumule grows toward direction X
E1-Auxin stimulates/promotes cell elongation at the shoot (tips)
E2-More auxin is distributing at the darker /lower side of the shoot (tip compring to the
bright/upper side)
E3-(so at the darker /lower side ) the rate of cell elongation is higher (than the bright /upper
side)
E4-The shoot (tips)grows/bends toward light /away form gravity
(ii) the radical grows toward direction Y
E5-(High concentration of) auxin inhibits cell elongation at radical/root( tip)
E7-More auxin is distributed at the lower /darker side of the root (tip comparing to the upper
/brighter side)
E8-So the root grows/bends downward toward gravity/away form light

(b)

(c)

(d)

State one difference in the role of auxin in shoot tips compared to root tips1
P1-At shoot (tips, high concentration of ) auxin stimulates cell elongation ) but at root
tip)auxin inhibits cell elongation
Explain one importance of the response to the plant
F1-Positive phototropism //negative Geotropism
E1-Enables the plants to receive maximum amount of sunlight for photosynthesis//any suitable
explanation
OR
F1-Negative Phototropism//Positive Geotropism
E1-Enables the root (Hairs) to absorb nutrients/mineral salts from the soil//any suitable
explanation

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Diagram shows the direction of growth of plumule and the radical of a seedling which is placed
in a horizontal position during germination

State the type of response of the plumule and the radicle .Explain the importance of the
response to the plant 4
Plumule :Positive phototropism //negative geotropism,
Importance : Enable plant to get maximum sunlight for photosynthesis
Radicle :Positive geotropism //negative phototropism
Importance :enable roots to get absorb water photosynthesis

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Base on diagram, Explains why the plumule grow toward direction x and the radical grows
toward direction X and radical grows toward direction Y
Plumule
P1-Auxin stimulate, promo cell elongation at the shoot tip

1
1

P2-More auxin is \distributes at the darker lower side of the shoot compare to the bright /upper
side
P3-So st the darker/lower side the rate of cell elongation is higher than the bright /upper side

1
1

P4-The shoot grows/bend towards light /away form the gravity


Radicle
P5-High concentration od auxin inhibits cell elongation at radical /root tip
P6-More auxin is distributed at the lower /darker of the root compare to the upper /bright side
P7-So at the lower/darker side of the root tip the rate of cell elongation is slower than the
brighter /upper side
P8-So the root grows/bends downward toward gravity/away form light
(e)

Explain the role of auxins in tropism.


P1 Phototropism is controlled by auxins

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P2 When a plant is given light from all directions/uniform light,


the distribution of auxins in the shoot meristem is uniform
P3 hence, elongation of cells takes place evenly in all direction,

1
1
1

P4 resulting in the plant/ coleoptile grow upwards.


P5 when the plant is given unilateral light, auxins will be
accumulated to the shaded side

P6 As a result, cells on the shaded side of the stem elongate


more than those on the exposed side.

P7 Thus, the shoot bends in the direction of light


P8 this explains why the shoot is positively phototropic.

1
1

P9 As for the root, a high concentration of auxins inhibits


growth

P10 Cells on the exposed side elongates more than those on


the shaded side.
P12 hence, the root grows away from light.

P13 this explains why the root is negatively phototropic

10
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No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Type of plant Hormone


Plants, Like animals must respond to conditions and charges in the environment inured
to survive. In plants, response is controlled by chemical called plants hormones or plant
growth regulators. A Plant hormone is a chemical substance which is produced by a
plant influence the growth and development of the plant

Based on the statement above, state and explain the use of hormones in agricultural 4
1

F1-Auxin

P1-Promotes the growth of adventitious root


P2-Induce the development of fruit without fertilization /parthenocapy/fruit without seed
P3-Kill the dicot weeds

(b)

P4-Prevent young developing fruit from falling off prematurely

1
1

P5-Gardeners use auxins to stimulate growth of fruits/to delay the ripening

F2-Ethylene

P6-Promoting the ripening of fruit//the unripe imported fruit will be exposed to ethylene gas for
sale

State three types of hormones and its uses in agriculture


P1 Auxins
E1 is used to promote the growth of crop plants, induce parthenocarpy and as herbicides.
P2 Gibberellins
E2 are used to promote growth and parthenocarpy.
P3 Cytokinins
E3 are used together with Auxins to promote growth.
P4 Ethylene
E4 (a gaseous plant hormone) is used to promote the ripening of fruits.

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