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Math 122, Midterm CheatSheet

Peter Chang October 16, 2015

1

Groups

1.1 Laws of Composition

Law of Composition is a map:

S × S S

Associative law is more fundamental because function compositions are associative.

Identity for a law of composition: e S such that

ea = ae = a

An element a S is invertible if b S such that:

ab = ba = 1

1.2 Groups and Subgroups

Group:

(ab)c = a(bc)

1 G

a G a 1 G

Abelian group is a group whose law of composition is commutative.

The order of a group G:

|G| = number of elements of G

Cancellation Law:

General Linear Group:

ab = ac or ba = ca b = c

GL n = {n × n invertible matrices A}

Permutation: if M is a map from T to T , the invertible map f : T T is called a permutation of T

Symmetric Group: ﬁnite group of order n!:

S n is the group of permutations of the indices 1, 2,

Subgroup: A subset H of group G such that:

a H,

b H ab H

1 H

a H a 1 H

1

, n

Circle group: set of complex number of absolute value 1 (C × )

Special linear Group: subgroup of GL n (R)

SL n (R) : set of real n × n matrices A with determinant 1

Every group has trivial subgroup (identity) and the subgroup G itself

1.3 Subgroups of the Additive Group of Integers

Subgroup of Z + : (integers divisible by a)

Za = {n Z|n = ka for some

k Z}

Theorem: If S is a subgroup of Z + , then S is either the trivial subgroup {0} or has the form Za with

a the smallest positive integer in S.

Greatest Common Divisor: if ints a and b generate the subgroup S = Za + Zb, then S = Zd for the greatest common divisor d of a and b.

Relatively Prime: two nonzero ints a, b are relatively prime if their gcd: 1: iﬀ there are integers r and

s such that ra + sb = 1.

Least Common Multiple: integer m such that Za Zb = Zm

Theorem: if d = gcd(a, b) and m = lcm(a, b), then ab = dm.

1.4 Cyclic Groups

Cyclic Subgroup, H =< x > generated by x G:

H

=

, x 2 , x 1 , 1, x, x 2 ,

}

Theorem: S: set of integers k such that x k = 1 for < x >; then:

S Z +

x r = x s iﬀ x rs = 1 r s S

if S

= {1},

then S = Zn (n = | < x > |)

Order of cyclic group is smallest positive integer n such that x n = 1

1.5 Homomorphisms

Homomorphism ϕ : G G : for all a, b G:

Important examples:

ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b)

det : GL n (R) R ×

σ : S n → {±1}

ϕ(n) = a n

Trivial homomorphism: ϕ : G G that maps all elts of G to id G

Inclusion map i : H G deﬁnes i(x) = x if H G

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ϕ(1 G ) = 1 G , ϕ(a 1 ) = (ϕ(a)) 1

Image, Kernel (each subgroups of G , G, kernel is a normal subgroup):

imϕ = {x G |x = ϕ(a) for some a G}

Important examples:

Left Coset: if H G, a G:

kerϕ = {a G|ϕ(a) = 1}

ker(det) = SL n (R)

ker(σ) = A n

aH = {g G|g = ah for some h H}

Theorem: If ϕ : G G is a homomorphism, and a, b G, K = kerϕ, then the following are equivalent:

ϕ(a) = ϕ(b)

a 1 b K

b aK

aK = bK

A homomorphism is injective iﬀ K = {1}.

Normal Subgroup: a subgroup N of G is a normal subgroup, if for a N , g G, gag 1 N

Center is always a normal subgroup of G:

Z = {z G|zx = xz x G}

Example: center of SL 2 (R) is I, I; Center of symmetric group of n 3 is trivial.

1.6

Isomorphisms

Isomorphism ϕ : G G is a bijective group homomorphism

If ϕ is an isomorphism, so is ϕ 1

The groups isomorphic to a given group G form the isomorphism class of G

Authomorphism: an isomorphism from a set to itself

Examples of Aut:

Conjugation by g:

ϕ(x) = gxg 1

Conjugacy: gxg 1 is the conjugate of x by g; x and x are conjugate if x = gxg 1 for some g G

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1.7

Equivalence Relations and Partitions

Partition: a partition of set S is a subdivision into disjoint, nonempty subsets

Equivalence Relation:

a b, b c a c (transitive)

a b b a (symmetric)

a, a a (reﬂexive)

Theorem: An equivalence relation on set S determines a partition of S, and conversely

Equivalence Class:

C a = {b S|a b}

For any equivalence relation, there is a natural surjective map:

π : S S

Fibre: any map f : S T gives equivalence relation: a b if f (a) = f (b); the ﬁbres of the map f is:

f 1 (t) = {s S|f(s) = t}

Equivalence Relation deﬁned by a Homomorphism: two elements are “congruent” iﬀ their cosets are equal.

a b if ϕ(a) = ϕ(b)

K = kerϕ, then ﬁbre of ϕ that contains a G is aK, which partition G, corresponds to image of ϕ

1.8 Coset

Left Coset of H:

aH = {ah|h H}

Cosets are equivalence classes for the congruence relation, and partition the group G

Theorem: the three are equivalent:

a b if b = ah for some

h H

b = ah for some h H

b aH

aH = bH

Index: number of left cosets of a subgroup:

[G : H]

Theorem: All left cosets have the same order: because multiplication by a is a bijective map

Counting Formula:

|G| = |H|[G : H]

Lagrange’s Theorem: if H G, then |H| divides |G|

Theorem: If |G| = p, a prime order, then if a G, G =< a > therefore forming just one isomorphism class

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Since left cosets of kernel are ﬁbres, which have bijectvie correspondence with the image:

[G : kerϕ] = |imϕ|

If ϕ : G G is a homomorphism of ﬁnite groups:

|G| = |kerϕ| · [G : kerϕ] = |kerϕ| · |imϕ|

|kerϕ| divides |G|

|imϕ| divides |G|, |G |

Right Coset: If a subgroup is normal, the left and right cosets are equal:

H is a normal subgroup

g G, gHg 1 = H

g G, gH = Hg

Theorem: If H G, g G, then gHg 1 G

Theorem: If G has just one subgroup H of order r, that is normal

If G is ﬁnite, indices of left/right cosets are the same.

1.9 Modular Arithmetic

If n divides, b a, (b = a + nk)

a b modulo n

The congruence classes are the cosets of the subgroup Zn

a + H = {a + kn|k Z}

The set of congruence classes modulo n = Z/Zn

1.10 Correspondence Theorem

Correspondence Theorem: Let ϕ : G → G be a surjectvie homomorphism with kernel K; there is a bijective correspondence between subgroups of G and subgroups of G that contain K:

{subgroups of G that contain K} ↔ {subgroups of G}

1.11 Product Groups

Product Set: set of pairs of elements (a, a ), with:

(a, a ) · (b, b ) = (ab, a b )

Product Group: product of G and G : G × G

If r and s are relatively prime, a cyclic group of order rs is isomorphic to the product of a cyclic group of order r and a cyclic group of order s

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1.12

Quotient Groups

Quotient Group: the set of cosets of a normal subgroup:

G/N is the set of cosets of N G

Theorem:

law of

composition on G that makes this set into a (quotient) group, such that π : G G deﬁned by

π(a) = a is a surjective homomorphism whose kernel is N

Let N

be the normal subgroup of G,

G the set

of cosets of

N ,

then

there is

a

Theorem: N is a normal subgroup of G; then, (aN )(bN ) is also a coset: abN (Normality is crucial!)

First Isomorphism Theorem: if ϕ : G G is a surjective group homomorphism with kernel N , the

quotient group G = G/N is isomorphic to the image G . To be precise, let π : G G be the canonical

map, then there is a unique isomorphism ϕ : G G such that ϕ = ϕπ

Corollary: if ϕ : G G is a homomorphism with kernel N and image H , then the quotient group G is isomorphic to H

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2

Vector Spaces

2.1 Fields

Field: A ﬁeld F is a set together with two laws of composition:

 F × F → (+)F F × F → (×)F

called addition and multiplication, such that:

1. Addition makes F into an abelian group F + , with identity = 0

2. Multiplication is commutative, so it makes the set of nonzero elements of F into abelian group F × with identity = 1

3. Distributive law: a, b, c F , a(b + c) = ab + ac

Finite Field: ex. prime ﬁeld: Z/pZ is a ﬁeld

Cancellation Law: for a, b, c F p ,

1. ab = 0 a = 0 or b = 0

2. a

= 0 and ab = ac then b = c

F p = {0, 1,

, p 1} = Z/pZ

Theorem: if p is a prime integer, F p is a ﬁeld of order p (multiplicative inverse exists) Equivalently, if a is not divisible by p, there is an integer b such that ab 1 modulo p

General Linear Group over Finite Fields:

GL n (F p ) = {n × n invertible matrices with entries in F p }

SL n (F p ) = {n × n invertible matrices with entries in F p with det = 1}

Theorem: The characteristic of any ﬁeld F is either zero or a prime number (characteristic: how many times you have to add 1 to get back to 0)

Theorem: For p a prime integer, F

×

p

is a cyclic group of order p 1

2.2 Vector Spaces

Vector Space: A vector space V over a ﬁeld F is a set together with two laws of composition:

2. Scalar Multiplication: F × V V : (c, v) cv

V : (v, w) v + w

with the following rules:

1. Addition makes V into an abelian group V + with identity 0

2. 1v = v v V

3. (ab)v = a(bv) a, b F, v V j

4. (a + b)v = av + bv, a(v + w),

a, b F , v, w V

Examples: if V = C, F = R; the set of real polynomials p(x) = a n x n + ··· + a 0 ; the set of continuous

real-valued functions on the real line; the set of solutions to the diﬀerential equation d 2 y

dt 2

7

= y

Subspace: W V is a subspace if it is a nonempty subset closed under addition and scalar multipli- cation, and includes a zero vector. It is a proper subspace if it is neither trivial nor V . (Kernel is a subspace!)

If W is a proper subspace of R 2 , and w a nonzero vector in W , then W consists only of the scalar multiples cw. Distinct proper subspaces have only the zero vector in common.

Isomorphism from V to V

ϕ(v + w) = ϕ(v) + ϕ(w) and ϕ(cv) = (v)

2.3 Bases and Dimension

Linear Combination: for S = (v 1 ,

v n ) (a hypervector), the linear combination of S is:

w = c 1 v 1 + ··· + c n v n

(c i F)

Span: the set of all vectors that are linear combinations of S = (v 1 , called the span of the set (smallest subspace that contains S)

Column Space: the column space of an m × n matrix wwith entries in F is the supspace of F m spanned by the columns of the matrix

Theorem: If A is m × n matrix, B is a column vector, then AX = B has a solution iﬀ B is in the column space of A

Linear Independence: an ordered set of vectors S = (v 1 , linear relation SX = 0 except for the trivial case X = 0

Basis: A basis of a vector space is a set of vectors that is linearly independent and also spans V

A vector space is ﬁnite dimensional if some ﬁnite set of vector spans it

Theorem: If V is a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space, S is a subspace spanning V , L is an independent subset of V , then we can obtain a basis by adding elements of S to L, or by deleting elements from S

The empty set is independent; the span of the empty set is the zero space {0}

Dimension: The dimension of a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space is the number of vectors in a basis

, v n ) is linearly independent if there is no

, v n ) forms a subspace of V ,

2.4 Computing With Bases

Theorem: Every vector space V of dimension n over a ﬁeld F is isomorphic to the space F n of column vectors

Change of Basis: If B, B are the old basis, new basis, respectively, P is the basechange matrix:

B = BP

2.5 Direct Sums

Sum: If W 1 ,

w i W)

W k are subspaces of V , the set of vectors v that can be written as a sum: (where

v = w 1 +

w k

Then the sum of the subspaces (or the span) is denoted as:

W 1 +

W k = {v V |v = w 1 + ··· + w k ,

with w i W}

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Independence: the subspaces W 1 ,

W k are independent if no sum is zero, except the trivial sum:

w 1 +

w k = 0 implies w i = 0 i

Direct Sum: If W i sums to V and independent:

If W 1 + ··· + W k = V and W 1 ,

V = W 1 ⊕ ··· ⊕ W k

, W k are independent

If V is the direct sum, every vector in V can be written only in a unique way

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3

Linear Operators

3.1 Dimension Formula

Linear Transformation: (analogous to a homomorphism) T : V W is a map that is compatible with:

T(c 1 v 1 + c 2 v 2 ) = c 1 T(v 1 ) + c 2 T(v 2 )

Nullspace: The kernel of a linear transformation

Dimension Formula: (rank-nullity Theorem) for T : V W

dim(kerT ) + dim(imT ) = dimV

The image of T is the column space if T is left multiplication by a matrix

If determinant is nonzero, the nullspace is {0} and rank = n; if determinant is zero, rank < n

3.2 Matrix of Linear Transformation

Theorem: T : F n F m is a linear transformation between spaces of column vectors, and let the

, a mj ) t . Let A be the m × n matrix whose columns are

coordinate vector of T (e j ) be A j = (a 1j ,

A 1 ,

, A n . Then T acts on vectors in F n as multiplication by A.

3.3 Linear Operators

Linear Operators: Linear transformations T : V V that map a vector space to itself

Example: Left multiplication by a square n × n matrix with entries in F deﬁnes a linear operator on the space F n of column vectors

Rotation Matrix: Deﬁnes a counterclockwise rotation of the plane through angle θ

R =

cosθ

sinθ

sinθ

cosθ Theorem: Let K, W denote the kernel and image of a linear operator T on V :

The following conditions are equivalent:

1. T is bijective

2. K = {0}

3. W = V

The following conditions are equivalent:

1.

2.

3.

V

K W = {0}

K

= K W

+ W = V

Chenge of Basis: Let A be the matrix of linear operator T wrt basis B; let B be a new basis such that B = BP , then:

A = P 1 AP

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3.4

Eigenvectors

T-Invariance: A subspace W of V is T invariant if it is carried to itself by the operator:

TW W

Eigenvector: an eigenvector v of a linear operator T is a nonzero vector:

T (v) = λv

where λ is the eigenvalue

If v is an eigenvector of T , with eigenvalue λ, the subspace W spanned by v will be T -invariant, because T (cv) = cλv

Eigenvector is a basis of a one-dimensional invariant subspace

The matrix of T wrt a basis B = {v 1 ,

Positive matric: Matrix whose entries are all positive; they always have a positive eigenvector

, v n } is diagnoal iﬀ each basis vector v j is an eigenvector

3.5 Characteristic Polynomial

Singular Operator: a lienar operator that is not invertible

The following are equivalent:

1. T is a singular operator

2. T has a zero eigenvalue

3. If A is the matrix of T , then detA = 0

Characteristic Polynomial: of a linear operator T is the polynomial

p(t) = det(tI A)

The eigenvalues of a linear operator are the roots of its characteristic polynomial

Theorem: the characteristic polynomial of an n × n matrix A has the form:

p(t) = t n (trace A)t n1 + · · · + (1) n (detA)

The characteristic polynomial, the trace, and the determinant are independent of the basis

Theorem: If λ 1 ,

λ n are the eigenvalues of n × n complex matrix A, then:

detA = λ 1

λ n

trace(A) = λ 1 + ··· + λ n

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4

Applications of Linear Operators

4.1 Orthogonal Matrices and Rotations

 • Dot Product: If X = (x 1 , , x n ) t , Y = (y 1 , y n ) t , then (X · Y ) = x 1 y 1 + •

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x n y n

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Lecture Notes Confusing Concepts

5.1 Matrices

Pivot: ﬁrst non-zero element in each row

Row-Echelon Form:

1. Pivot has entry 1

2. Pivot of each row is right of previous row

3. Pivot has 0s above

1

Example: 0

0

0

1

0

3

2

0

Elementary Row Operations (E i )

2. Row Swap

3. Row Scale

If M is the REF of M , then M = I or M has bottom row of all 0s

5.2 Groups

S n is non-Abelian for n 3

O n (R) GL n (R) Aut(R n )

Euclidean Theorem: The only subgroups H Z are those of the form nZ

Group Action: G acts on a set S, if g G, we have a bijection f (g) : S S and f (gh) = f (g)f (h) Alternate deﬁnition: a map G × X X: (g, x) π(g)x such that π(e)x = x and π(g 1 g 2 )x = π(g 1 )[π(g 2 )x]

Example: if S = {1,

, n}, then Aut(S) = S n , and f : G S n is called the permutation representa-

tion of G GL n (R) acts on the set S = R n , G acts on itself by left translation or conjugation

Orbit: orbit of s is everything that can be reached from s by an action of something in G

Orbit of

s = {s = g(s) for some g G}

S = Orbit s (disjoint union)

Center: If f : G Aut(G) such that g h ghg 1 , then

ker(f ) = Z(G) = {g G : gh = hg g G}

Stabilizer:

G x = {g G|g(x) = x}

For the group action by conjugation, f (g) : G G is a group isomorphism

If H G is stable under conjugation, it is a normal subgroup of G

Simple: If the only normal subgroups of G are G and {e}, we say G is simple

A n is simple for n 5

H is a normal subgroup of G iﬀ H is a union of conjugacy classes

The kernel of a homomorphism f : G G is a normal subgroup of G; in fact, every normal subgroup is the kernel of some group homomorphism

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5.3

Equivalence Relation

Examples of Equivalence Relation:

1. Orbits of a group action

2. Fibres of a map of sets (S S ): if image = T S then f ibre(t) = S t

G = G t

3. Homomorphism of groups (f (s) = f (s ))

For f : G G , ﬁbres give equivalence relation, s s iﬀ s sH Or equivalently, s s iﬀ s 1 s H and the cosets sH are all isomorphic as sets to H

Lagrange’s Theorem: |G| = |H|[G : H]

If |G| is prime, then the only subgroups of G are {e} and G

5.4 Cosets

If H is a normal subgroup of G, gH = Hg

Group Law on G/H:

aH · bH = (ab)H

Then, the surjective homomorphism f : G G/H with ker(f ) = H is deﬁned

If G is abelian, then every H G is normal, and G/H is an abelian group

Theorem: Any cyclic group G is isomorphic to either (Z + ) if it is inﬁnte, or (Z/Zn, (+)) if it is ﬁnite of order n

The only simple abelian groups are Z/Zp for prime p

(Burnside) For every nonabelian ﬁnite simple group G, |G| is divisible by at least 3 primes

(Feit-Thompson) For every nonabelian ﬁnite simple group G, |G| is even

Example: GL 3 (Z/Z2) is simple of order 168 = 2 3 · 3 · 7

Deﬁne: the classes with multiplicative inverses ( modulo n):

(Z/Zn) = {classes relatively prime to n}

Euler’s Theorem: if p is prime, (Z/pZ) = Z/pZ − {0} is the cyclic group of order p 1

5.5 Fields

For any ﬁeld, F , there is a group homomorphism f :

Z F

0 0

1 1

n = 1 + ··· + 1 1 F + ··· + 1 F

ker(f ) = dZ, such that either d = 0 and f is an injection, or d is a prime number

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S V

is a basis for V if it satisﬁes one of :

1. S spans V , but no smaller subset of V spans V

2. S is linearly independent, but no larger subset of V is linearly independent

3. S spans V and is linearly independent

Quotient Space: V /W :

1. Quotient group on cosets v + W of W in V :

(v + W) + (v + W)

= (v + v ) + W

2. Scalar multiplication on cosets:

c(v + W ) = cv + W

dim(V ) = dim(W ) + dim(V /W )

T : V W is a linear isomorphism and {v 1 ,

Theorem: A linear map T : V W is completely determined by the vector T v 1 ,

, v n } is a basis of V iﬀ {T v 1 ,

Tv n } is a basis of W

, Tv n in W for

{v 1 ,

, v n } a basis of V

If dimV = n, there is a linear isomorphism V F n

Hom(V, W ) = {all linear maps T : V W } is isomorphic to F mn

T + S(v) (in )Hom(V, W ) = T v + Sv (in )W

If V = W , we call Hom(V, V ) = End(V ), and Aut(V ) End(V )

V

There may be cases where there are no eigenvectors at all

= W V /W as V /W is not a subspace

5.6 Change of Basis

B = P 1 AP

det(A) = det(B) even if basis changed

T : V V is a linear isomorphism iﬀ det(T )

G = GL(V ) is a group of all invertible T : V V under composition

For det : GL(V ) F , this is a surjective group homomorphism

= 0 in F

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