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Artin Algebra CheatSheet

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Artin Algebra CheatSheet

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Math 122, Midterm CheatSheet

Peter Chang October 16, 2015

1

Groups

1.1 Laws of Composition

• Law of Composition is a map:

S × S → S

• Associative law is more fundamental because function compositions are associative.

• Identity for a law of composition: e ∈ S such that

ea = ae = a

• An element a ∈ S is invertible if ∃b ∈ S such that:

ab = ba = 1

1.2 Groups and Subgroups

• Group:

(ab)c = a(bc)

1 ∈ G

∀a ∈ G ∃a ^{−}^{1} ∈ G

• Abelian group is a group whose law of composition is commutative.

• The order of a group G:

|G| = number of elements of G

• Cancellation Law:

• General Linear Group:

ab = ac or ba = ca → b = c

GL _{n} = {n × n invertible matrices A}

• Permutation: if M is a map from T to T , the invertible map f : T → T is called a permutation of T

• Symmetric Group: ﬁnite group of order n!:

S _{n} is the group of permutations of the indices 1, 2,

• Subgroup: A subset H of group G such that:

a ∈ H,

b ∈ H → ab ∈ H

1 ∈ H

a ∈ H → a ^{−}^{1} ∈ H

1

, n

•

Circle group: set of complex number of absolute value 1 (C ^{×} )

• Special linear Group: subgroup of GL _{n} (R)

SL _{n} (R) : set of real n × n matrices A with determinant 1

• Every group has trivial subgroup (identity) and the subgroup G itself

1.3 Subgroups of the Additive Group of Integers

• Subgroup of Z ^{+} : (integers divisible by a)

Za = {n ∈ Z|n = ka for some

k ∈ Z}

• Theorem: If S is a subgroup of Z ^{+} , then S is either the trivial subgroup {0} or has the form Za with

a the smallest positive integer in S.

• Greatest Common Divisor: if ints a and b generate the subgroup S = Za + Zb, then S = Zd for the greatest common divisor d of a and b.

• Relatively Prime: two nonzero ints a, b are relatively prime if their gcd: 1: iﬀ there are integers r and

s such that ra + sb = 1.

• Least Common Multiple: integer m such that Za ∩ Zb = Zm

• Theorem: if d = gcd(a, b) and m = lcm(a, b), then ab = dm.

1.4 Cyclic Groups

• Cyclic Subgroup, H =< x > generated by x ∈ G:

H

=

, x ^{−}^{2} , x ^{−}^{1} , 1, x, x ^{2} ,

}

• Theorem: S: set of integers k such that x ^{k} = 1 for < x >; then:

S ⊂ Z ^{+}

x ^{r} = x ^{s} iﬀ x ^{r}^{−}^{s} = 1 → r − s ∈ S

if S

= {1},

then S = Zn (n = | < x > |)

• Order of cyclic group is smallest positive integer n such that x ^{n} = 1

1.5 Homomorphisms

• Homomorphism ϕ : G → G ^{} : for all a, b ∈ G:

• Important examples:

ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b)

det : GL _{n} (R) → R ^{×}

σ : S _{n} → {±1}

ϕ(n) = a ^{n}

• Trivial homomorphism: ϕ : G → G ^{} that maps all elts of G to id _{G}

• Inclusion map i : H → G deﬁnes i(x) = x if H ⊂ G

2

• ϕ(1 _{G} ) = 1 _{G} , ϕ(a ^{−}^{1} ) = (ϕ(a)) ^{−}^{1}

• Image, Kernel (each subgroups of G ^{} , G, kernel is a normal subgroup):

imϕ = {x ∈ G ^{} |x = ϕ(a) for some a ∈ G}

• Important examples:

• Left Coset: if H ⊂ G, a ∈ G:

kerϕ = {a ∈ G|ϕ(a) = 1}

ker(det) = SL _{n} (R)

ker(σ) = A _{n}

aH = {g ∈ G|g = ah for some h ∈ H}

• Theorem: If ϕ : G → G ^{} is a homomorphism, and a, b ∈ G, K = kerϕ, then the following are equivalent:

ϕ(a) = ϕ(b)

a ^{−}^{1} b ∈ K

b ∈ aK

aK = bK

• A homomorphism is injective iﬀ K = {1}.

• Normal Subgroup: a subgroup N of G is a normal subgroup, if for ∀a ∈ N , ∀g ∈ G, gag ^{−}^{1} ∈ N

• Center is always a normal subgroup of G:

Z = {z ∈ G|zx = xz ∀x ∈ G}

Example: center of SL _{2} (R) is I, −I; Center of symmetric group of n ≥ 3 is trivial.

1.6

Isomorphisms

• Isomorphism ϕ : G → G ^{} is a bijective group homomorphism

• If ϕ is an isomorphism, so is ϕ ^{−}^{1}

• The groups isomorphic to a given group G form the isomorphism class of G

• Authomorphism: an isomorphism from a set to itself

• Examples of Aut:

Conjugation by g:

ϕ(x) = gxg −1

• Conjugacy: gxg ^{−}^{1} is the conjugate of x by g; x and x ^{} are conjugate if x ^{} = gxg ^{−}^{1} for some g ∈ G

3

1.7

Equivalence Relations and Partitions

• Partition: a partition of set S is a subdivision into disjoint, nonempty subsets

• Equivalence Relation:

a ∼ b, b ∼ c → a ∼ c (transitive)

a ∼ b → b ∼ a (symmetric)

∀a, a ∼ a (reﬂexive)

• Theorem: An equivalence relation on set S determines a partition of S, and conversely

• Equivalence Class:

C _{a} = {b ∈ S|a ∼ b}

• For any equivalence relation, there is a natural surjective map:

π : S → S

• Fibre: any map f : S → T gives equivalence relation: a ∼ b if f (a) = f (b); the ﬁbres of the map f is:

f ^{−}^{1} (t) = {s ∈ S|f(s) = t}

• Equivalence Relation deﬁned by a Homomorphism: two elements are “congruent” iﬀ their cosets are equal.

a ≡ b if ϕ(a) = ϕ(b)

• K = kerϕ, then ﬁbre of ϕ that contains a ∈ G is aK, which partition G, corresponds to image of ϕ

1.8 Coset

• Left Coset of H:

aH = {ah|h ∈ H}

• Cosets are equivalence classes for the congruence relation, and partition the group G

• Theorem: the three are equivalent:

a ≡ b if b = ah for some

h ∈ H

b = ah for some h ∈ H

b ∈ aH

aH = bH

• Index: number of left cosets of a subgroup:

[G : H]

• Theorem: All left cosets have the same order: because multiplication by a is a bijective map

• Counting Formula:

|G| = |H|[G : H]

• Lagrange’s Theorem: if H ⊂ G, then |H| divides |G|

• Theorem: If |G| = p, a prime order, then if a ∈ G, G =< a > therefore forming just one isomorphism class

4

• Since left cosets of kernel are ﬁbres, which have bijectvie correspondence with the image:

[G : kerϕ] = |imϕ|

• If ϕ : G → G ^{} is a homomorphism of ﬁnite groups:

|G| = |kerϕ| · [G : kerϕ] = |kerϕ| · |imϕ|

|kerϕ| divides |G|

|imϕ| divides |G|, |G ^{} |

• Right Coset: If a subgroup is normal, the left and right cosets are equal:

H is a normal subgroup

∀g ∈ G, gHg ^{−}^{1} = H

∀g ∈ G, gH = Hg

• Theorem: If H ⊂ G, g ∈ G, then gHg ^{−}^{1} ∈ G

• Theorem: If G has just one subgroup H of order r, that is normal

• If G is ﬁnite, indices of left/right cosets are the same.

1.9 Modular Arithmetic

• If n divides, b − a, (b = a + nk)

a ≡ b modulo n

• The congruence classes are the cosets of the subgroup Zn

a + H = {a + kn|k ∈ Z}

• The set of congruence classes modulo n = Z/Zn

1.10 Correspondence Theorem

• Correspondence Theorem: Let ϕ : G → G be a surjectvie homomorphism with kernel K; there is a bijective correspondence between subgroups of G and subgroups of G that contain K:

{subgroups of G that contain K} ↔ {subgroups of G}

1.11 Product Groups

• Product Set: set of pairs of elements (a, a ^{} ), with:

(a, a ^{} ) · (b, b ^{} ) = (ab, a ^{} b ^{} )

• Product Group: product of G and G ^{} : G × G ^{}

• If r and s are relatively prime, a cyclic group of order rs is isomorphic to the product of a cyclic group of order r and a cyclic group of order s

5

1.12

Quotient Groups

• Quotient Group: the set of cosets of a normal subgroup:

G/N is the set of cosets of N ∈ G

• Theorem:

law of

composition on G that makes this set into a (quotient) group, such that π : G → G deﬁned by

π(a) = a is a surjective homomorphism whose kernel is N

Let N

be the normal subgroup of G,

G the set

of cosets of

N ,

then

there is

a

• Theorem: N is a normal subgroup of G; then, (aN )(bN ) is also a coset: abN (Normality is crucial!)

• First Isomorphism Theorem: if ϕ : G → G ^{} is a surjective group homomorphism with kernel N , the

quotient group G = G/N is isomorphic to the image G ^{} . To be precise, let π : G → G be the canonical

map, then there is a unique isomorphism ϕ : G → G ^{} such that ϕ = ϕπ

• Corollary: if ϕ : G → G ^{} is a homomorphism with kernel N and image H ^{} , then the quotient group G is isomorphic to H ^{}

6

2

Vector Spaces

2.1 Fields

• Field: A ﬁeld F is a set together with two laws of composition:

F |
× F → (+)F |

F |
× F → (×)F |

called addition and multiplication, such that:

1. Addition makes F into an abelian group F ^{+} , with identity = 0

2. Multiplication is commutative, so it makes the set of nonzero elements of F into abelian group F ^{×} with identity = 1

3. Distributive law: ∀a, b, c ∈ F , a(b + c) = ab + ac

• Finite Field: ex. prime ﬁeld: Z/pZ is a ﬁeld

• Cancellation Law: for a, b, c ∈ F _{p} ,

1. ab = 0 → a = 0 or b = 0

2. a

= 0 and ab = ac then b = c

F _{p} = {0, 1,

, p − 1} = Z/pZ

• Theorem: if p is a prime integer, F _{p} is a ﬁeld of order p (multiplicative inverse exists) Equivalently, if a is not divisible by p, there is an integer b such that ab ≡ 1 modulo p

• General Linear Group over Finite Fields:

GL _{n} (F _{p} ) = {n × n invertible matrices with entries in F _{p} }

SL _{n} (F _{p} ) = {n × n invertible matrices with entries in F _{p} with det = 1}

• Theorem: The characteristic of any ﬁeld F is either zero or a prime number (characteristic: how many times you have to add 1 to get back to 0)

• Theorem: For p a prime integer, F

×

p

is a cyclic group of order p − 1

2.2 Vector Spaces

• Vector Space: A vector space V over a ﬁeld F is a set together with two laws of composition:

1. Addition: V × V

2. Scalar Multiplication: F × V → V : (c, v) → cv

→ V : (v, w) → v + w

with the following rules:

1. Addition makes V into an abelian group V ^{+} with identity 0

2. 1v = v ∀v ∈ V

3. (ab)v = a(bv) ∀a, b ∈ F, ∀v ∈ V j

4. (a + b)v = av + bv, a(v + w),

∀a, b ∈ F , ∀v, w ∈ V

• Examples: if V = C, F = R; the set of real polynomials p(x) = a _{n} x ^{n} + ··· + a _{0} ; the set of continuous

real-valued functions on the real line; the set of solutions to the diﬀerential equation ^{d} ^{2} ^{y}

dt ^{2}

7

= −y

• Subspace: W ⊂ V is a subspace if it is a nonempty subset closed under addition and scalar multipli- cation, and includes a zero vector. It is a proper subspace if it is neither trivial nor V . (Kernel is a subspace!)

• If W is a proper subspace of R ^{2} , and w a nonzero vector in W , then W consists only of the scalar multiples cw. Distinct proper subspaces have only the zero vector in common.

• Isomorphism from V to V ^{}

ϕ(v + w) = ϕ(v) + ϕ(w) and ϕ(cv) = cϕ(v)

2.3 Bases and Dimension

• Linear Combination: for S = (v _{1} ,

v _{n} ) (a hypervector), the linear combination of S is:

w = c _{1} v _{1} + ··· + c _{n} v _{n}

(c _{i} ∈ F)

• Span: the set of all vectors that are linear combinations of S = (v _{1} , called the span of the set (smallest subspace that contains S)

• Column Space: the column space of an m × n matrix wwith entries in F is the supspace of F ^{m} spanned by the columns of the matrix

• Theorem: If A is m × n matrix, B is a column vector, then AX = B has a solution iﬀ B is in the column space of A

• Linear Independence: an ordered set of vectors S = (v _{1} , linear relation SX = 0 except for the trivial case X = 0

• Basis: A basis of a vector space is a set of vectors that is linearly independent and also spans V

• A vector space is ﬁnite dimensional if some ﬁnite set of vector spans it

• Theorem: If V is a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space, S is a subspace spanning V , L is an independent subset of V , then we can obtain a basis by adding elements of S to L, or by deleting elements from S

• The empty set is independent; the span of the empty set is the zero space {0}

• Dimension: The dimension of a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space is the number of vectors in a basis

, v _{n} ) is linearly independent if there is no

, v _{n} ) forms a subspace of V ,

2.4 Computing With Bases

• Theorem: Every vector space V of dimension n over a ﬁeld F is isomorphic to the space F ^{n} of column vectors

• Change of Basis: If B, B ^{} are the old basis, new basis, respectively, P is the basechange matrix:

B ^{} = BP

2.5 Direct Sums

•

Sum: If W _{1} ,

w _{i} ∈ W)

W _{k} are subspaces of V , the set of vectors v that can be written as a sum: (where

v = w _{1} +

w _{k}

Then the sum of the subspaces (or the span) is denoted as:

W _{1} +

W _{k} = {v ∈ V |v = w _{1} + ··· + w _{k} ,

with w _{i} ∈ W}

8

• Independence: the subspaces W _{1} ,

W _{k} are independent if no sum is zero, except the trivial sum:

w _{1} +

w _{k} = 0 implies w _{i} = 0 ∀i

• Direct Sum: If W _{i} sums to V and independent:

If W _{1} + ··· + W _{k} = V and W _{1} ,

V = W _{1} ⊕ ··· ⊕ W _{k}

, W _{k} are independent

• If V is the direct sum, every vector in V can be written only in a unique way

9

3

Linear Operators

3.1 Dimension Formula

• Linear Transformation: (analogous to a homomorphism) T : V → W is a map that is compatible with:

T(c _{1} v _{1} + c _{2} v _{2} ) = c _{1} T(v _{1} ) + c _{2} T(v _{2} )

• Nullspace: The kernel of a linear transformation

• Dimension Formula: (rank-nullity Theorem) for T : V → W

dim(kerT ) + dim(imT ) = dimV

• The image of T is the column space if T is left multiplication by a matrix

• If determinant is nonzero, the nullspace is {0} and rank = n; if determinant is zero, rank < n

3.2 Matrix of Linear Transformation

• Theorem: T : F ^{n} → F ^{m} is a linear transformation between spaces of column vectors, and let the

, a _{m}_{j} ) ^{t} . Let A be the m × n matrix whose columns are

coordinate vector of T (e _{j} ) be A _{j} = (a _{1}_{j} ,

A _{1} ,

, A _{n} . Then T acts on vectors in F ^{n} as multiplication by A.

3.3 Linear Operators

• Linear Operators: Linear transformations T : V → V that map a vector space to itself

• Example: Left multiplication by a square n × n matrix with entries in F deﬁnes a linear operator on the space F ^{n} of column vectors

• Rotation Matrix: Deﬁnes a counterclockwise rotation of the plane through angle θ

R =

cosθ

sinθ

−sinθ

cosθ

• Theorem: Let K, W denote the kernel and image of a linear operator T on V :

– The following conditions are equivalent:

1. T is bijective

2. K = {0}

3. W = V

– The following conditions are equivalent:

1.

2.

3.

V

K ∩ W = {0}

K

= K ⊕ W

+ W = V

• Chenge of Basis: Let A be the matrix of linear operator T wrt basis B; let B ^{} be a new basis such that B ^{} = BP , then:

A ^{} = P ^{−}^{1} AP

10

3.4

Eigenvectors

• T-Invariance: A subspace W of V is T − invariant if it is carried to itself by the operator:

TW ⊂ W

• Eigenvector: an eigenvector v of a linear operator T is a nonzero vector:

T (v) = λv

where λ is the eigenvalue

• If v is an eigenvector of T , with eigenvalue λ, the subspace W spanned by v will be T -invariant, because T (cv) = cλv

• Eigenvector is a basis of a one-dimensional invariant subspace

• The matrix of T wrt a basis B = {v _{1} ,

• Positive matric: Matrix whose entries are all positive; they always have a positive eigenvector

, v _{n} } is diagnoal iﬀ each basis vector v _{j} is an eigenvector

3.5 Characteristic Polynomial

• Singular Operator: a lienar operator that is not invertible

• The following are equivalent:

1. T is a singular operator

2. T has a zero eigenvalue

3. If A is the matrix of T , then detA = 0

• Characteristic Polynomial: of a linear operator T is the polynomial

p(t) = det(tI − A)

• The eigenvalues of a linear operator are the roots of its characteristic polynomial

• Theorem: the characteristic polynomial of an n × n matrix A has the form:

p(t) = t ^{n} − (trace A)t ^{n}^{−}^{1} + · · · + (−1) ^{n} (detA)

• The characteristic polynomial, the trace, and the determinant are independent of the basis

• Theorem: If λ _{1} ,

λ _{n} are the eigenvalues of n × n complex matrix A, then:

detA = λ _{1}

λ _{n}

trace(A) = λ _{1} + ··· + λ _{n}

11

4

Applications of Linear Operators

4.1 Orthogonal Matrices and Rotations

• |
Dot Product: If X = (x |
, x |
= (y |
y |

(X · Y ) = x |
||||

• |

12

x _{n} y _{n}

5

Lecture Notes Confusing Concepts

5.1 Matrices

• Pivot: ﬁrst non-zero element in each row

• Row-Echelon Form:

1. Pivot has entry 1

2. Pivot of each row is right of previous row

3. Pivot has 0s above

1

Example: 0

0

0

1

0

3

2

0

• Elementary Row Operations (E _{i} )

1. Row Addition

2. Row Swap

3. Row Scale

• If M ^{} is the REF of M , then M ^{} = I or M ^{} has bottom row of all 0s

5.2 Groups

• S _{n} is non-Abelian for n ≥ 3

• O _{n} (R) ⊂ GL _{n} (R) ⊂ Aut(R ^{n} )

• Euclidean Theorem: The only subgroups H ⊂ Z are those of the form nZ

• Group Action: G acts on a set S, if ∀g ∈ G, we have a bijection f (g) : S → S and f (gh) = f (g)f (h) Alternate deﬁnition: a map G × X → X: (g, x) → π(g)x such that π(e)x = x and π(g _{1} g _{2} )x = π(g _{1} )[π(g _{2} )x]

• Example: if S = {1,

, n}, then Aut(S) = S _{n} , and f : G → S _{n} is called the permutation representa-

tion of G GL _{n} (R) acts on the set S = R ^{n} , G acts on itself by left translation or conjugation

• Orbit: orbit of s is everything that can be reached from s by an action of something in G

Orbit of

s = {s ^{} = g(s) for some g ∈ G}

S = ∪ Orbit s (disjoint union)

• Center: If f : G → Aut(G) such that g → h → ghg ^{−}^{1} , then

ker(f ) = Z(G) = {g ∈ G : gh = hg ∀ g ∈ G}

• Stabilizer:

G _{x} = {g ∈ G|g(x) = x}

• For the group action by conjugation, f (g) : G → G is a group isomorphism

• If H ⊂ G is stable under conjugation, it is a normal subgroup of G

• Simple: If the only normal subgroups of G are G and {e}, we say G is simple

• A _{n} is simple for n ≥ 5

• H is a normal subgroup of G iﬀ H is a union of conjugacy classes

• The kernel of a homomorphism f : G → G ^{} is a normal subgroup of G; in fact, every normal subgroup is the kernel of some group homomorphism

13

5.3

Equivalence Relation

• Examples of Equivalence Relation:

1. Orbits of a group action

2. Fibres of a map of sets (S → S ^{} ): if image = T ⊂ S ^{} then f ibre(t) = S _{t}

G = ^{} G _{t}

3. Homomorphism of groups (f (s) = f (s ^{} ))

• For f : G → G ^{} , ﬁbres give equivalence relation, s ∼ s ^{} iﬀ s ^{} ∈ sH Or equivalently, s ∼ s ^{} iﬀ s ^{−}^{1} s ^{} ∈ H and the cosets sH are all isomorphic as sets to H

• Lagrange’s Theorem: |G| = |H|[G : H]

• If |G| is prime, then the only subgroups of G are {e} and G

5.4 Cosets

• If H is a normal subgroup of G, gH = Hg

• Group Law on G/H:

aH · bH = (ab)H

• Then, the surjective homomorphism f : G → G/H with ker(f ) = H is deﬁned

• If G is abelian, then every H ⊂ G is normal, and G/H is an abelian group

• Theorem: Any cyclic group G is isomorphic to either (Z ^{+} ) if it is inﬁnte, or (Z/Zn, (+)) if it is ﬁnite of order n

• The only simple abelian groups are Z/Zp for prime p

• (Burnside) For every nonabelian ﬁnite simple group G, |G| is divisible by at least 3 primes

• (Feit-Thompson) For every nonabelian ﬁnite simple group G, |G| is even

• Example: GL _{3} (Z/Z2) is simple of order 168 = 2 ^{3} · 3 · 7

• Deﬁne: the classes with multiplicative inverses ( modulo n):

(Z/Zn) ^{∗} = {classes relatively prime to n}

• Euler’s Theorem: if p is prime, (Z/pZ) ^{∗} = Z/pZ − {0} is the cyclic group of order p − 1

5.5 Fields

• For any ﬁeld, F , there is a group homomorphism f :

Z → F

0 → 0

1 → 1

n = 1 + ··· + 1 → 1 _{F} + ··· + 1 _{F}

• ker(f ) = dZ, such that either d = 0 and f is an injection, or d is a prime number

14

•

S ⊂ V

is a basis for V if it satisﬁes one of :

1. S spans V , but no smaller subset of V spans V

2. S is linearly independent, but no larger subset of V is linearly independent

3. S spans V and is linearly independent

• Quotient Space: V /W :

1. Quotient group on cosets v + W of W in V :

(v + W) + (v ^{} + W)

= (v + v ^{} ) + W

2. Scalar multiplication on cosets:

c(v + W ) = cv + W

• dim(V ) = dim(W ) + dim(V /W )

• T : V → W is a linear isomorphism and {v _{1} ,

• Theorem: A linear map T : V → W is completely determined by the vector T v _{1} ,

, v _{n} } is a basis of V iﬀ {T v _{1} ,

Tv _{n} } is a basis of W

, Tv _{n} in W for

{v _{1} ,

, v _{n} } a basis of V

• If dimV = n, there is a linear isomorphism V → F ^{n}

• Hom(V, W ) = {all linear maps T : V → W } is isomorphic to F ^{m}^{n}

• T + S(v) (in )Hom(V, W ) = T v + Sv (in )W

• If V = W , we call Hom(V, V ) = End(V ), and Aut(V ) ⊂ End(V )

• V

• There may be cases where there are no eigenvectors at all

= W ⊕ V /W as V /W is not a subspace

5.6 Change of Basis

• B = P ^{−}^{1} AP

• det(A) = det(B) even if basis changed

• T : V → V is a linear isomorphism iﬀ det(T )

• G = GL(V ) is a group of all invertible T : V → V under composition

• For det : GL(V ) → F ^{∗} , this is a surjective group homomorphism

= 0 in F

15

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