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1

Accident Survey

1.1 Introduction

This chapter surveys impact and explosion in various fields ranging from the domestic environment to military warfare. It covers hurricane and tornado disasters, aircraft accidents and explosions in cars, houses and military estab- lishments. Cases of impact on the ground, in water and in the air are given. The work is supported by numerous tables and photographs.

1.2 Wind, Hurricane and Tornado Generated Missiles

Wind, gales, hurricanes and tornadoes have caused disasters in a number

of countries. There is always one country somewhere affected by them at any given time in any year. The great hurricane of 1987 (120 miles h 1 ) in England

and severe gales

and many others have caused death and damage. The extent of the damage to structures ran hundreds of thousands. Cars and boats were lifted into the air and dropped on other vehicles, others were damaged by structural mis- siles from nearby buildings or by falling trees. The storms caused widespread flooding, uprooted trees, damaged buildings, bridges and pylons and stressed air-sea rescue services to the limit as ships foundered in huge seas. In Charleston, South Carolina, USA, where sea water was swept 10 miles inland, a 16 m (50 ft) yacht hit the side of a car parked in a downtown area. The same hurricane “Hugo”, as shown in Fig. 1.1, continued to ravage Puerto Rico, forcing three planes at the airport to be twisted by multiple and repeated impacts. The costs in all three incidents ran into billions and many thousands were killed or injured. Missiles were ejected from a school building after the passage of hurricane “Hugo”. In October 1989, hurricane-force winds in the UK caused an 18.3 m (60 ft) steel chimney to collapse on a car. The same hurricane caused two cars to collide in France, and in other Western countries 170 vehicles collided and 27,500 houses, buildings, bridges and other structures

in 1990 (100 miles h 1 ), hurricane “Hugo” (138 miles h 1 )

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1 Accident Survey

USA Atlantic Gulf of Ocean Mexico Hurricane Hugo St Thomas Turks and Cuba St Kitts
USA
Atlantic
Gulf of
Ocean
Mexico
Hurricane
Hugo
St Thomas
Turks and
Cuba
St Kitts
Caicos Islands
Virgin
Islands
Montserrat
Antigua
Puerto
Haiti
Dominican
Jamaica
Rico
Republic
Guadeloupe
The Bahamas
Caribbean Sea
Dominica

Fig. 1.1. The direction taken by hurricane “Hugo”

were damaged and many building components were ejected as missiles with speeds ranging from 5 miles h 1 to 1,500 miles h 1 . Table 1.1 gives useful data on hurricanes, tornadoes, typhoons, blizzards and storms.

1.2.1 Wind Storm Statistics

Wind storms come within the natural disasters normally designated under hydro meteorological disasters. Table 1.2 gives data on the basis of particular contents.

1.3 Impact and Explosion at Sea

Much can be said on the subject of impact and explosion at sea. As for other incidents or accidents, it is extremely difficult to keep records of their daily or monthly occurrence. In December 1989, the 13,141 tonne North Sea ferry Hamburg collided with the 10-year-old roll-on roll-off cargo vessel Nordec Stream (8,026 tonnes) at the mouth of the River Elbe, about 25 miles off the coast of West Germany. The number of casualties was lower. In the same period two helicopters were lost, one of them was on traffic and weather surveillance duties and the other was the North Sea Chinook helicopter car- rying platform workers. In November 1988, the 3,500 tonne Swedish vessel SAMO smashed into the 120-year-old 250 m swing bridge near Goole. Heavy iron girders on one of the approach spans were buckled. Two of the bridge’s five approach spans were pushed up to 10 m out of line, leaving just 50 mm of pier support to prevent one 30 m section falling into the river. The costs

1.3 Impact and Explosion at Sea

3

Table 1.1. Hurricanes, tornadoes, typhoons, blizzards and storms in the USA and other countries

Date

Place

Deaths

Notable Tornadoes in the USA

 

18/3/1925

Montana, Illinois, Indiana Rock Springs, Texas Arkansas, Poplar Bluff, Missouri St Louis, Missouri Hill & Ellis Co, Texas Alabama (series of tornadoes) Mississippi, Georgia Gainesville, Georgia Charleston, S Carolina Central to NE Mississippi Rogers & Mayes Co, Oklahoma Ohio, Pennsylvania, W Virginia Maryland Oklahoma, Arkansas Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas Bunker Hill & Gillespie, Illinois Louisiana, Arkansas Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee (series) Waco, Texas Michigan, Ohio Worcester and vicinity, Massachusetts Vicksburg, Mississippi Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas Kansas, Missouri Northwestern Wisconsin St Louis, Missouri

689

12/4/1927

74

9/5/1927

92

29/9/1927

90

6/5/1930

41

21/3/1932

268

5/4/1936

455

6/4/1936

203

29/3/1938

32

16/3/1942

75

27/4/1942

52

23/6/1944

150

12/4/1945

102

9/4/1947

169

19/3/1948

33

3/1/1949

58

21/3/1952

208

11/5/1953

114

8/6/1953

142

9/6/1953

90

5/12/1953

38

25/5/1955

115

20/5/1957

48

4/6/1958

30

10/2/1959

21

5

to 6/5/1960

SE Oklahoma, Arkansas Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin Jackson, Mississippi Mississippi, Alabama Illinois, Michigan Midwest Mississippi Mississippi delta

30

11/4/1965

271

3/3/1966

57

3/3/1966

61

21/4/1967

33

15/5/1968

71

23/1/1969

32

21/2/1971

110

26

to 27/5/1973

South midwest (series)

47

3

to 4/4/1974

Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia Texas, Oklahoma Grand Island, Nebraska (series)

350

4/4/1977

22

10/4/1979

60

3/6/1980

4

2

to 4/3/1982

South midwest (series) S Illinois

17

29/5/1982

10

18

to 22/5/1983

Texas N Carolina, S Carolina

12

28/3/1984

67

21

to 22/4/1984

Mississippi

15

 

(continued)

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1 Accident Survey

Table 1.1. (continued)

Date

Place

Deaths

26/4/1984

Series Oklahoma to Minnesota New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Ontario (series) Saragosa, Texas

17

31/5/1985

90

22/5/1987

29

Hurricanes (H), typhoons (T), blizzards and other storms

11

to 14/3/1888

Blizzard, eastern USA H, Galveston, Texas H, Louisiana, Mississippi T, Hong Kong

400

Aug–Sept 1900

6,000

21/9/1906

350

18/9/1906

10,000

11

to 22/9/1926

H, Florida, Alabama H, Cuba

243

20/10/1926

600

6

to 20/9/1928

H, S Florida H, Dominican Republic H, Long Island, New York, New England

1,836

3/9/1930

2,000

21/9/1938

600

11

to 12/11/1940

Blizzard, USA, northeast, midwest

144

15

to 16/10/1942

H, Bengal, India

40,000

9

to 16/9/1944

H, N Carolina to New England T, Philippines H (“Carol”), northeast USA

46

22/10/1952

300

30/8/1954

68

5

to 18/10/1954

H (“Hazel”), eastern USA, Haiti

347

12

to 13/10/1955

H (“Connie”), Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland

43

7

to 21/8/1955

H (“Diane”), eastern USA H (“Hilda”), Mexico

400

19/9/1955

200

22

to 28/9/1955

H (“Janet”), Caribbean

500

1

to 29/2/1956

Blizzard, Western Europe

1,000

25

to 30/6/1957

H (“Audrey”), Texas to Alabama

390

15

to 16/2/1958

Blizzard, Western Europe

171

17

to 19/9/1959

T (“Sarah”), Japan, S Korea

2,000

26

to 27/9/1959

T (“Vera”), Honshu, Japan

4,466

4

to 12/9/1960

H (“Donna”), Caribbean, eastern USA

148

11

to 14/9/1961

H (“Carla”), Texas H (“Hattie”), British Honduras

46

31/10/1961

400

28

to 29/5/1963

Windstorm, Bangladesh

22,000

4

to 8/10/1963

H (“Flora”), Caribbean

6,000

4

to 7/10/1964

H (“Hilda”), Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia T (“Winnie”), N Philippines T (“Ruby”), Hong Kong and China

38

30/6/1964

107

5/9/1964

735

11

to 12/5/1965

Windstorm, Bangladesh

17,000

1

to 2/6/1965

Windstorm, Bangladesh

30,000

7

to 12/9/1965

H (“Betsy”), Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana Windstorm, Bangladesh

74

15/12/1965

10,000

4

to 10/6/1966

H (“Alma”), Honduras, southeast USA H (“Inez”), Caribbean, Florida, Mexico T (“Billie”), southwest Japan

51

24

to 30/9/1966

293

9/7/1967

347

5

to 23/9/1976

H (“Beulah”), Caribbean, Mexico, Texas

54

1.3 Impact and Explosion at Sea

5

Table 1.1. (continued)

Date

Place

Deaths

12

to 20/12/1967

Blizzard, southwest USA

51

18

to 28/11/1968

T (“Nina”), Philippines H (“Camille”), Mississippi, Louisiana H (“Celia”), Cuba, Florida, Texas H (“Dorothy”), Martinique T (“Georgia”), Philippines T (“Sening”), Philippines T (“Titang”), Philippines Cyclone, Bangladesh T (“Rose”), Hong Kong

63

17

to 18/8/1969

256

30/7 to 5/8/1970

31

20

to 21/8/1970

42

15/9/1970

300

14/10/1970

583

15/10/1970

526

13/11/1970

3,000,000

1/8/1971

130

19

to 29/6/1972

H (“Agnes”), Florida to New York T (“Theresa”), Philippines Monsoon rains in India Storm Dinah, Luzon Island, Philippines T (“Gilda”), Japan, South Korea

118

3/12/1972

169

June–Aug 1973

1,217

11/6/1974

71

11/7/1974

108

19

to 20/9/1974

H (“Fifi”), Honduras Cyclone levelled Darwin, Australia

2,000

25/12/1974

50

13

to 27/9/1975

H (“Eloise”), Caribbean, northeast USA T (“Olga”), floods, Philippines T (“Thelma”), T (“Vera”), Taiwan T (“Rita”), Philippines H (“David”), Caribbean, eastern USA H (“Allen”), Caribbean, Texas T (“Irma”), Luzon Island, Philippines Monsoon rains in India H (“Alicia”), southern Texas T (“Ike”), southern Philippines Cyclone, Bangladesh H (“Juan”), southeast USA T (“Nina”), Philippines Tsunami, Hurricanes etc. U.S.A, Indian Ocean

71

20/5/1976

215

25

and 31/7/1977

39

27/10/1978

c.400

30/8 to 7/9/1979 4 to 11/8/1980

1,100

272

25/11/1981

176

June 1983

900

18/8/1983

17

2/9/1984

1,363

25/5/1985

10,000

26/10 to 6/11/1985

97

25/11/1987

650

5/1/2007 to 2/1/2008

51,000

exceeded £2.2 million. On 21 October 1988, the 6,300 tonne Greek cruiser Jupiter collided with an Italian oil tanker less than 1 mile out of Piraeus harbour at 14.30 GMT. A 3 m hole was created. People were injured. The impact/collision occurred at the side of the ship. After all possible lives had been saved, the ship was allowed to sink. The collision between the cruise boat Marchioness, a 26.6 m long luxury vessel, and the Thames sand dredger Bowbelle, 1,880 tonnes and 76 m long, occurred on 20 August 1989. The accident happened at the point where the Thames passes through the heart of the city of London. Both were travel- ling down river, eastwards when the collision took place near Cannon Street Rail Bridge. The cruise boat Marchioness, carrying between 110 and 150 passengers, sank within minutes. A number of causalities were reported within 24 h of the collision. The Marchioness was brought to the surface by two cranes mounted on platform barges.

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1 Accident Survey

Table 1.2. Wind statistics based on individual contents

Wind storms (1994–2006) Africa

America

Asia

Eastern

150

Caribbean

169

Eastern

295

Middle

50

Central

153

South-Central

290

Northern

70

Northern

152

South-East

283

Southern

75

Southern

24

Western

160

Western

85

Total

430

Total

508

Total

1,028

Europe

Oceania

 

Eastern

92

Australia-New Zealand

100

Northern

56

Melanesia

65

Southern

169

Micronesia

50

Western

432

Polynesia

40

Total

749

Total

255

In the last five decades, the total number of explosions which have occurred in sea-going vessels, including pleasure boats, merchant ships, warships, sub- marines and others, is around 100,000. In the two World Wars alone the number is 51% of this total value and does not include war damage. The human loss runs into hundred thousands. Table 1.3 gives a list of impor- tant sea-going vessels destroyed either by collision or by explosions, excluding war-damaged ones.

1.4 Car Collisions and Explosions

Car accidents statistics vary from country to country, taking into considera- tion both cars hitting other cars and other objects. Table 1.4 provides useful information on car accidents in chosen countries over a number of years. It is interesting to note that, owing to an increase in terrorist activity in 1980– 1989, the number of cars blown up by bombs placed underneath or nearby reached 170,000 in 150 countries of the world. The greater part of this total was contributed by Beirut, Afghanistan, Indian Punjab, Northern Ireland and some South American countries.

1.5 Train Collisions and Impacts

Trains are subject to accidents. They collide with both one another and other objects. The causes are numerous, mostly signal failure, derailment and human error. Trains can also be subject to missile and rocket attack and can be destroyed by bombs and other detonators. Even trees and other heavy objects such as boulders, pylons and short-span bridge deck components can crash into them. Trains have collided with public vehicles at level crossings on a number

1.5 Train Collisions and Impacts

7

Table 1.3. Impacts, collisions and explosions of sea-going vessels

Date

Vessel/location

Deaths

March 1854

City of Glasgow; British steamer missing in North Atlantic Arctic; US (Collins Line) steamer sunk in collision with French steamer Vesta near Cape Race Pacific; US (Collins Line) steamer missing in North Atlantic Austria; German steamer destroyed by fire in North Atlantic Anglo-Saxon; British steamer wrecked at Cape Race Sultana; a Mississippi River steamer blew up near Memphis, Tennessee, USA Stonewall; steamer burned on Mississippi River below

480

27/9/1854

285–351

23/1/1856

188–286

23/9/1858

471

27/4/1863

238

27/4/1865

1,450

27/10/1869

200

Cairo, Illinois, USA 25/1/1870 City of Boston; British (Inman Line) steamer vanished

177

19/10/1870

between New York and Liverpool Cambria; British steamer wrecked off Northern Ireland Mary Celeste; US half-brig sailed from New York for Genoa; found abandoned in Atlantic 4 weeks later in mystery of sea; crew never heard from; loss of life unknown Northfleet; British steamer foundered off Dungeness,

196

7/11/1872

22/1/1873

300

England 1/4/1873 Atlantic; British (White Star) steamer wrecked off Nova Scotia

585

23/11/1873

Ville du Havre; French steamer sunk after collision with British sailing ship Loch Earn Schiller; German steamer wrecked off Scilly Isles

226

7/5/1875

312

4/11/1875 Pacific; US steamer sunk after collision off Cape Flattery 3/9/1878 Princess Alice; British steamer sank after collision on Thames River, Canada

236

700

18/12/1878

Byzantin; French steamer sank after Dardanelles collision Victoria; steamer capsized in Thames River, Canada Cimbria; German steamer sunk in collision with British steamer Sultan in North Sea Wah Yeung; British steamer burned at sea Duburg; British steamer wrecked, in the China Sea Ertogrul; Turkish frigate foundered off Japan Utopia; British steamer sank in collision with British ironclad Anson, off Gibraltar Elbe; German steamer sank in collision with British steamer, Craithie, in North Sea Reina Regenta; Spanish cruiser foundered near Gibraltar Maine; US battleship blown up in Havana Harbor, Cuba

210

24/5/1881

200

19/1/1883

389

15/11/1887

400

17/2/1890

400

19/9/1890

540

17/3/1891

562

30/1/1895

332

11/3/1895

400

15/2/1898

260

4/7/1898 La Bourgogne; French steamer sunk in collision with British sailing ship Cromartyshire off Nova Scotia

549

26/11/1898

Portland; US steamer wrecked off Cape Cod

157

(continued)

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1 Accident Survey

Table 1.3. (continued)

Date

Vessel/location

Deaths

15/6/1904

General Slocum; excursion steamer burned in East River, New York City, USA Norge; Danish steamer wrecked on Rockall Island, Scotland Sirio; Italian steamer wrecked off Cape Palos, Spain Matsu Maru; Japanese steamer sunk in collision near Hakodate, Japan Waratah; British steamer, Sydney to London, vanished General Chanzy; French steamer wrecked off Minorca, Spain Libert´e; French battleship exploded at Toulon

1,030

28/6/1904

620

4/8/1906

350

23/3/1908

300

1/8/1909

300

9/2/1910

500

25/9/1911

285

5/3/1912 Principe de Asturias; Spanish steamer wrecked off Spain 14 to 15/4/1912 Titanic; British (White Star) steamer hit iceberg in North Atlantic

500

1,503

28/9/1912

Kichemaru; Japanese steamer sank off Japanese coast

1,000

29/5/1914

Empress of Ireland; British (Canadian Pacific) steamer sunk in collision with Norwegian collier in St. Lawrence

1,014

River, Canada 7/5/1915 Lusitania; British (Cunard Line) steamer torpedoed and sunk by German submarine off Ireland

1,198

24/7/1915

Eastland; excursion steamer capsized in Chicago River, USA Provence; French cruiser sank in the Mediterranean Principe de Asturias; Spanish steamer wrecked near Santos, Brazil Hsin Yu; Chinese steamer sank off Chinese coast Mont Blanc, Imo; French ammunition ship and Belgian steamer collided in Halifax Harbor, Canada Kiang-Kwan; Chinese steamer sank in collision off Hankow Kawachi; Japanese battleship blew up in Tokayama Bay Princess Sophia; Canadian steamer sank off Alaskan coast Cheonia; French steamer lost in Straits of Messina, Italy Valbanera; Spanish steamer lost off Florida coast, USA Hong Kong; steamer wrecked in South China Sea Nitaka; Japanese cruiser sank in storm off Kamchatka, USSR Principessa Mafaida; Italian steamer blew up off Parto Seguro, Brazil Vestris; British steamer sank in gale off Virginia, USA Morro Castle; US steamer, Havana to New York, burned off Asbury Park, New Jersey, USA Squalus; US submarine sank off Portsmouth, New

812

26/2/1916

3,100

3/3/1916

558

29/8/1916

1,000

6/12/1917

1,600

25/4/1918

500

12/7/1918

500

17/1/1919

398

17/1/1919

460

9/9/1919

500

18/3/1921

1,000

26/8/1922

300

25/10/1927

314

12/11/1928

113

8/9/1934

134

23/5/1939

26

Hampshire, USA 1/6/1939 Thetis; British submarine sank in Liverpool Bay, England

99

1.5 Train Collisions and Impacts

9

Table 1.3. (continued)

Date

Vessel/location

Deaths

18/2/1942

Truxtun and Pollux; US destroyer and cargo ship ran aground and sank off Newfoundland Curacao; British cruiser sank after collision with liner

204

2/10/1943

338

Queen Mary 17 to 18/12/1944 Three US Third Fleet destroyers sank during typhoon in

790

Philippine Sea

19/1/1947

Himera; Greek steamer hit a mine off Athens 392

16/4/1947

Grandcamp; French freighter exploded in Texas City Harbor, starting fires Chinese army evacuation ship exploded and sank off South Manchuria Kiangya; Chinese refugee ship wrecked in explosion south of Shanghai Noronic; Canadian Great Lakes cruiser burned at Toronto dock Hobson and Wasp; US destroyer and aircraft carrier collided in Atlantic Princess Victoria; British ferry sunk in storm off North-

510

Nov 1948

6,000

3/12/1948

1,100+

17/9/1949

130

26/4/1952

176

31/1/1953

134

26/9/1954

ern Irish coast Toya Maru; Japanese ferry sank in Tsugaru Strait, Japan 1,172

26/7/1956

Andrea Doria and Stockholm; Italian liner and Swedish liner collided off Nantucket Eshghabad; Soviet ship ran aground in Caspian Sea

51

14/7/1957

270

8/7/1961

Portuguese ship ran aground off Mozambique 259

8/4/1962

Dara; British liner exploded and sank in Persian Gulf Thesher, US Navy atomic submarine sank in North Atlantic Voyager, Melbourne; Australian destroyer sank after col- lision with Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne off New South Wales Yarmouth Castle; Panamanian registered cruise ship burned and sank off Nassau Forrestal; US aircraft carrier caught fire off North Vietnam Dakar; Israeli submarine vanished in Mediterranean Sea Minerve; French submarine vanished in Mediterranean

236

10/4/1963

129

10/2/1964

82

13/11/1965

90

29/7/1967

134

25/1/1968

69

27/1/1968

52

Sea May 1968 Scorpion; US nuclear submarine sank in Atlantic near

99

2/6/1969

Azores Evans; US destroyer cut in half by Australian carrier Melbourne, South China Sea Eurydice; French submarine sank in Mediterranean near Toulon Namyong-Ho; South Korean ferry sank in Korea Strait Motor launch capsized off Bangladesh

74

4/3/1970

57

15/12/1970

308

1/5/1974

250

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1 Accident Survey

Indian subcontinent

47

47

17

30

50

40

39

40

39

43

30

16

16

13

13

35

25

25

45

45

45

15

15

15

15

51

41

11

31

Gulf

17

40

10

30

30

20

9

20

13

30

13

50

10

60

30

40

50

16

26

12

32

15

15

25

35

11

21

31

11

Table 1.4. Data on car accidents (in thousands) in a number of countries

France

97

107

93

99

170

110

96

109

130

110

90

80

90

133

100

110

79

99

95

92

95

105

145

135

75

75

95

115

101

81

USA

164

290

100

360

90

350

110

310

159

250

330

159

300

210

310

219

333

353

139

245

235

215

275

295

255

235

325

151

211

161

UK

247

267

237

277

244

264

264

256

239

246

253

243

248

266

248

246

259

270

259

299

252

255

265

262

265

272

262

292

292

272

261

1987

1977

1967

1984

1974

Year

1964

1980

1979

1978

1988

1983

1986

1970

1976

1973

1960

1963

1959

1966

1969

1958

1968

1982

1985

1975

1972

1962

1965

1981

1971

1961

Indian subcontinent

30

10

9

15

12

15

11

Gulf

20

15

15

75

15

31

71

France

79

39

89

116

110

100

110

133

65

75

45

115

125

155

115

135

115

61

171

131

131

USA

130

100

110

100

150

40

100

110

133

75

85

135

115

35

75

135

131

91

131

131

161

131

UK

217

167

147

157

184

134

124

178

186

196

216

219

199

196

148

196

196

172

192

152

205

181

1956
1957

1946
1947

1936
1937

1926
1927

1953
1954

Year

1943
1944

1933
1934

1949
1950

1948

1939
1940

1929
1930

1928

1938

1951
1952

1955

1945

1941
1942

1931
1932

1935

1.5 Train Collisions and Impacts

11

of occasions. Hundreds of such cases have occurred. Recent ones are included for the reader’s perusal. In the month of October 1989, 10 people were killed and 65 injured when the first 10 bogies of the Howrah bound Indian Toofan Express were derailed. The bogies were badly damaged and came in contact with live wires after severe impact with electricity poles. Eight bogies were overturned and one fell into a ditch. In August 1989 a train in Mexico was derailed and fell into the river, causing 100 deaths. It is a classical example of an object impacting a water surface. In May 1989, 75 deaths were reported in the Karnataka Express accident in India caused, presumably, by mechanical defects of one of the coaches. The train was on its way from Bangalore to Delhi. The 30 tonne locomotives were pulling 20 coaches (a 10,000 tonne load) along a steel track at a speed exceed- ing 100 km h 1 . After derailment and impact, the wreckage of the express train is shown in Fig. 1.2. The past few years have been grim ones for the Indian railways. This accident is one of three major tragedies in three years. The other two occurred in Mancherial (Andhra Pradesh) and Perumon in Kerala in July 1988, causing 55 and 105 deaths, respectively. The size and scope of the operations of the Indian railways are awesome. Accidents are due

of the Indian railways are awesome. Accidents are due Fig. 1.2. Karnataka express train derailment and

Fig. 1.2. Karnataka express train derailment and impacting objects. (courtesy of the Front Line, India)

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1 Accident Survey

Bournemouth

train Basingstoke train Haslemere train Fig. 1.3. The Clapham train disaster
train
Basingstoke
train
Haslemere train
Fig. 1.3. The Clapham train disaster

to lack of administration and to an overwhelming increase in traffic – around 13,000 trains carry 10.3 million people daily through all manner of terrain and in all kinds of weather. The Clapham (London) disaster is well remembered. This accident hap- pened on 12 December 1988. The cause of the crash was established as faulty wiring on signaling equipment. The Basingstoke, Bournemouth and Hasle- mere trains were involved. The Bournemouth train ran into the back of the Basingstoke train. As illustrated in Fig. 1.3 the on-coming Haslemere train prevented worse carnage by absorbing the impact of the Bournemouth car- riages and preventing some of them from overturning. In one year alone, more than 800,000 accidents were reported in 120 countries. On March 1989, two London-bound trains collided outside Purley station. The bogies acted as an impactor on a nearby house, causing serious damage to the house lying under the embankment. On the same day a rail crash in Glasgow (Scotland) at the junction between a branch line and a main line resulted in injuries to a number of people. There has been a spate of accidents since 1984. In England, 15 people were injured when two express trains collided outside Newcastle upon Tyne Central station on 30 November 1988; in the same month a driver was killed and 18 passengers hurt when a commuter train crashed at St. Helens, Merseyside. In October 1987, four people died when a train fell into the swollen River Towey, in Wales, after a bridge collapsed. Fourteen were injured in the same month when two trains collided at Forest Gate on London’s Liverpool Street Line. On 26 July 1986, nine people died when a passenger train hit a van on a level crossing at Lockington, Yorkshire, UK. In September 1986, 60 people

1.6 Aircraft and Missile Impacts, Crashes and Explosions

13

were hurt and one killed in a collision between two express trains at Colwich, Staffordshire, UK. In December 1984, two people were killed when a passenger train hit a tanker train in Salford, UK. Other major accidents have included 49 killed at Hither Green, south- east London, in November 1967, 90 killed at Lewisham, southeast London, in December 1965 and 112 killed at Harrow, northwest London, in October 1952. Britain’s worst rail crash was on 22 May 1915 when a troop train and a passenger train collided at Gretna Green, killing 227 people. Another example of impact and direct collision occurred on the London – Bristol railway line when a passenger train overturned after hitting a derailed stone-quarry train near Maidenhead, Berks, England. Later in the morning a mail van crashed into the parapet, sending masonry tumbling onto the tracks. The Paddington – Penzance train was too close to stop and ran into the same rubble. The worst train disaster in Europe occurred on 12 December 1917 at Modane, France, killing 543 passengers. In 1972, 60 people died in a crash near the Punjab town of Liaquatpur. In the nation’s worst rail disaster, 225 people were killed and about 400 injured in Southern Pakistan, when a crowded passenger express train ploughed into a stationary freight train, destroying seven packed carriages. The collision occurred on 3 January 1990. The 16-carriage Zakaria – Bahauddin express with 1,500 passengers, was travelling at 635 miles h 1 when it smashed into the freight train. Trains in Pakistan, as in India, are always overcrowded and rail traffic has increased rapidly without a corresponding increase in investment. Many rail accidents have occurred in the past, the ones described here are exceptional and recent. Table 1.5 gives a historical view of US train accidents.

1.6 Aircraft and Missile Impacts, Crashes and Explosions

Aircraft crashes are not uncommon. They happen for various reasons which will be elucidated later on in this section. To begin with, a few recent crashes, with and without explosions, will be discussed. On 19 October 1988, the first Indian Airlines Boeing 737 aircraft, on rou- tine flight from Bombay to Ahmedabad, inexplicably crashed into a stream 4 km short of the airport. It killed all but five of the 134 passengers. A chrono- logical breakdown of the flight is given in Fig. 1.4. One hour later and 3,000 km away, a Vayudoot Fokker slammed into a hill near Guwahati, killing all 34 pas- sengers. In the same year, two high-tech 2000S two trisonic MIG-25s and two Soviet-built transport AN-12 and AN-32 aircraft crashed while on various missions. Table 1.6 lists information on notable aircraft disasters. Table 1.7 summarizes accident data for various aircraft until the end of 2006. If the aircraft does not break up in the air, it generally hits the ground at a certain angle. A typical example of a tangled wreckage of a Gulfstream Turbo

14

1 Accident Survey

Table 1.5. Notable US train disasters

Date

Location

Deaths

29/12/1876

Ashtabula, Ohio Mays Landing, New Jersey Chatsworth, Illinois Mud Run, Pennsylvania Atlantic City, New Jersey Laurel Run, Pennsylvania Eden, Colorado New Market, Tennessee Florence, Colorado Atlantic City, New Jersey Washington DC Volland, Kansas Fowler, Indiana New York Colton, California Salem, Michigan Wellington, Washington DC Victoria, Missouri Waco, Colorado IRT subway, Times Square, New York Saugus, Montana Harney, Nevada Little Falls, New York Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio Wayland, New York Frankford Junction, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Between Rennert and Buie, N Carolina High Bluff, Tennessee Near Stockton, Georgia Dewey, Indiana Bagley, Utah Michigan, North Dakota Naperville, Illinois Green Mountain Manchester, New York East Corning, New York Ligonier, Pennsylvania Tipton Ford, Missouri Lebanon, Missouri Amherst, Ohio Kellyville, Oklahoma Shepherdsville, Kentucky Ivanhoe, Indiana Nashville, Tennessee Brooklyn, New York

92

11/8/1880

40

10/8/1887

81

10/10/1888

55

30/7/1896

60

23/12/1903

53

7/8/1904

96

24/9/1904

56

16/3/1906

35

28/10/1906

40

30/12/1906

53

2/1/1907

33

19/1/1907

29

16/2/1907

22

23/2/1907

26

20/7/1907

33

1/3/1910

96

27/10/1925

21

5/9/1926

30

24/8/1928

18

19/6/1938

47

12/8/1939

24

19/4/1940

31

31/7/1940

43

29/8/1943

27

6/9/1943

79

16/12/1943

72

6/7/1944

35

4/8/1944

47

14/9/1944

29

31/12/1944

50

9/8/1945

34

25/4/1946

45

21/3/1910

55

25/8/1911

29

4/7/1912

39

5/7/1912

23

5/8/1914

43

15/9/1914

28

29/3/1916

27

28/9/1917

23

20/12/1917

46

22/6/1918

68

9/7/1918

101

1/11/1918

97

1.6 Aircraft and Missile Impacts, Crashes and Explosions

Table 1.5. (continued)

15

Date

Location

Deaths

12/1/1919

South Byron, New York Dunkirk, New York Onawa, Maine Porter, Indiana Woodmont, Pennsylvania Sulpher Spring, Missouri Humble, Texas Lockett, Wyoming Hackettstown, New Jersey Gallitzin, Pennsylvania Rockville Centre, New York Coshocton, Ohio Richmond Hill, New York Woodbridge, New York Wyuta, Wyoming Woodstock, Alabama Conneaut, Ohio Los Angeles, California Swampscott, Massachusetts Springer, New Mexico Vroman, Colorado Elizabethport, New Jersey Bakersfield, California Steelton, Pennsylvania Everett, Massachusetts Salem, Illinois Chicago, Illinois Chicago, Illinois (elevated train) Essex, Maryland

22

1/7/1919

12

20/12/1919

23

27/2/1921

37

5/12/1921

27

5/8/1922

34

13/12/1922

22

27/9/1923

31

16/6/1925

50

18/2/1947

24

17/2/1950

31

11/9/1950

33

22/11/1950

79

6/2/1951

84

12/11/1951

17

25/11/1951

17

27/3/1953

21

22/1/1956

30

28/2/1956

13

5/9/1956

20

11/6/1957

12

15/9/1958

48

14/3/1960

14

28/7/1962

19

28/12/1966

13

10/6/1971

11

30/10/1972

45

4/2/1977

11

4/1/1987

16

Commander impacting the ground. Table 1.8 is an extensive list of aircraft disasters due to ground impact. At Ramstein Airshow in Germany (12 August 1988), during the ill-fated Freccie tri-colour display, the two sets of aircraft interlocked as they formed the heart-shaped loop in a manner shown in Fig. 1.5. The letter scheme gives the step-by-step revelation of the disaster. Such mid-air collisions have occurred in the past. A total of 1,476 aircraft were involved in such collisions from 19 December 1946 to September 1989. Table 1.9 gives data on mid-air collisions of some of the well known aircraft. Bird strikes of aircraft, according to the research carried out at Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA, are related to the jet noise. Table 1.10 lists the number of aircraft subject to bird strikes over a 10-year period or so. On 8 June 1989, a MIG-29 at the Paris airshow hit the ground 90 m (300 ft) from the crowd. A sheet of flame shot from the starboard engine,

16

1 Accident Survey

IC 113’s FLIGHT TO DISASTER (OCT 19, ‘88) 6.50 am Dalaya radios tower : “I
IC 113’s FLIGHT TO DISASTER
(OCT 19, ‘88)
6.50 am
Dalaya radios
tower : “I am inbound.
6.47 am
5.55 am
6.41 am
6.35 am
Will
call in when
6.52
am
Control tower gives
Captain O.M. Dalaya
runway
sight.”
feet500
Control tower radios
IC 113 with 134 people
on board deports from
Bombay 10 minutes late.
Delaya saying :
“IC 113 where are you ?
Dalaya radios tower
and says “I am
outbound” meaning
he is commencing
the standard P-loop
turn to line aircraft
radios Ahmedabad
control tower
and says : “We are
approaching”.
Request position.”
with runway.
clearance to IC 113
to descend. ‘Fasten
seat belts’ sign
switch on inside
the aircroft.
But gets no reply.
Normal
Flight Path.
Control
Tower
6.55 am
7.45 am
Eyewitnesses see
aircraft looming
Fire brigade
overhead, hit high
reaches spot
tension wires and
clip trees
before crashing.
and begins
km4
rescue operations.
IndianFig.
(courtesy of India Today and Front1.4.
Airlines IC
Line,113’s
flight
India)route
AirportAhmedabad
feet1,700

1.6 Aircraft and Missile Impacts, Crashes and Explosions

17

Table 1.6. Notable aircraft disasters

Date

Aircraft

Site of accident

6/5/1937

German zeppelin Hindenburg US Air Force B-24 US Army B-25

Burned at mooring, Lakehurst, New Jersey, USA Hit school, Freckelton, England Hit Empire State building, New York City, USA Crashed near Port Deposit, Michigan, USA Fell burned, Moses, Lake Washington, USA Karachi, Pakistan Crashed, burned near Tokyo Exploded, crashed near Longmont, Colorado, USA Crashed in Atlantic off Asbury Park, New Jersey, USA Collided over Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Collided over New York City, USA Vanished in Western Pacific

23/8/1944

28/7/1945

30/5/1947

Eastern Airlines DC-4

20/12/1952 US Air Force C-124

3/3/1953

Canadian Pacific Comet Jet US Air Force C-124 United Airlines DC-6B

18/6/1953

1/11/1955

20/6/1956 Venezuelan

30/6/1956

Super-Constellation TWA Super-Constellation,

United DC-7 16/12/1960 United DC-8 jet, TWA Super-Constellation

16/3/1962

Flying tiger Super-Constellation Air France Boeing 707 jet Air France Boeing 707 jet

3/6/1962

Crashed on take off from Paris, France Crashed in storm, Guadeloupe, West Indies Crashed in Pacific off British Columbia, Canada Crashed after take off from Montreal, Canada Crashed at Cairo airport, Egypt Crashed on Mont Blanc, France/Italy border Plunged into Tokyo Bay Crashed on Mount Fuji, Japan Crashed into village in South Vietnam Crashed at Nicosia, Cyprus Collided in air, Hendersonville, North Carolina, USA Crashed on take off, Windhoek, Southwest Africa Crashed in storm near Dawson, Texas, USA Crashed after take off from Maracaibo, Venezuela Crashed near Athens, Greece, in storm Crashed into sea on take off from

22/6/1962

3/6/1963

Chartered Northwest

Airlines DC-7 29/11/1963 Trans-Canada Airlines

 

DC-8F

20/5/1965

Pakistani Boeing 720-B Air India Boeing 707 jetliner

24/1/1966

4/2/1966

All-Nippon Boeing 727 BOAC Boeing 707 jetliner

5/3/1966

24/12/1966 US military chartered CL-44

20/4/1967

Swiss Britannia turboprop Piedmont Boeing 727, Cessna 310 South African Airways Boeing 707 Braniff International Electra Venezuelan DC-9

19/7/1967

20/4/1968

3/5/1968

16/3/1969

8/12/1969

Olympia Airways DC-6B Dominican DC-9

15/2/1970

 

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (continued)

18

1 Accident Survey

Table 1.6. (continued)

Date

Aircraft

Site of accident

3/7/1970

British chartered jetliner Air Canada DC-8

Crashed near Barcelona, Spain Crashed near Toronto International Airport, Canada Crashed after take off from Cuzco, Peru Crashed in mountains near Huntington, West Virginia, USA Collided over Morioka, Japan

5/7/1970

9/8/1970

Peruvian turbojet

14/11/1970 Southern Airways DC-9

30/7/1971

All-Nippon Boeing 727 and Japanese Air Force

F-86

4/9/1971

Alaska Airlines Boeing 727 East German Illyushin-62

Crashed into mountain near Juneau, Alaska Crashed on take off, East Berlin, Germany East German airline crashed near Moscow

14/8/1972

13/10/1972 Aeroflot Illyushin-62

3/12/1972

Chartered Spanish airliner Crashed on take off, Canary Islands

29/12/1972 Eastern Airlines

Crashed on approach to Miami

22/1/1973

Lockhead Tristar Chartered Boeing 707

International Airport Burst into flames during landing,

21/2/1973

Libyan jetliner

Kano Airport, Nigeria Shot down by Israeli fighter planes

10/4/1973

British Vanguard

over Sinai, Egypt Crashed during snowstorm at Basel,

3/6/1973

turboprop Soviet supersonic TU-144

Switzerland Exploded in air near Goussainville, France

11/7/1973

Brazilian Boeing 707

Crashed on approach to Orly airport, Paris

31/7/1973

Delta Airlines jetliner

Crashed, landing in fog at Logan Airport,

23/12/1973 French Caravelle jet

Boston, USA Crashed in Morocco

3/3/1974

Turkish DC-10 jet

Crashed at Ermenonville near Paris, France

23/4/1974

Pan American 707 jet

Crashed in Bali, Indonesia

1/12/1974

TWA-727

Crashed in storm, Upperville, Virginia, USA

4/12/1974

Dutch chartered DC-8

Crashed in storm near Colombo, Sri Lanka

4/4/1975

Air Force galaxy C-5B

Crashed near Saigon, South Vietnam, after take off

24/6/1975

Eastern Airlines 727 jet

Crashed in storm, JFK Airport,

3/8/1975

Chartered 707

New York City, USA Hit mountainside, Agadir, Morocco

10/9/1976

British Airways Trident,

Collided near Zagreb,

19/9/1976

Yugoslav DC-9 Turkish 727

Yugoslavia Hit mountain, southern Turkey

13/10/1976 Bolivian 707 cargo jet

Crashed in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

1.6 Aircraft and Missile Impacts, Crashes and Explosions

Table 1.6. (continued)

19

Date

Aircraft

Site of accident

13/1/1977

Aeroflot TU-104

Exploded and crashed at Alma-Ata, Central Asia Collided on runway, Tenerife, Canary Islands Crashed on Madeira Hijacked, then exploded in mid-air over Straits of Johore Crashed after take off at Evansville, Indiana, USA Exploded, crashed into sea off Bombay, India Collided in air, San Diego, California Crashed near Colombo, Sri Lanka Crashed after take off at O’Hare International Airport, Chicago, USA Collided over Ukraine

27/3/1977

KLM 747, Pan American

747

19/11/1977

TAP Boeing 727 Malaysian Boeing 737

4/12/1977

13/12/1977

US DC-3

1/1/1978

Air India 747

25/9/1978

Boeing 727, Cessna 172

15/11/1978 Chartered DC-8

25/5/1979

American Airlines DC-10

17/8/1979

Two Soviet Aeroflot

jetliners 31/10/1979 Western Airlines DC-10

Skidded and crashed at Mexico City

26/11/1979 Pakistani Boeing 707 28/11/1979 New Zealand DC-10

Airport Crashed near Jidda, Saudi Arabia Crashed into mountain in Antarctica

14/3/1980

Polish Illyushin 62

Crashed making emergency landing, Warsaw, Poland

19/8/1980

Saudi Arabian Tristar

Burned after emergency landing,

1/12/1981

Yugoslavian DC-9

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Crashed into mountain in Corsica

13/1/1982

Air Florida Boeing 737

Crashed into Potomac River after take off

9/7/1982

Pan-Am Boeing 727

Crashed after take off in Kenner,

11/9/1982

US Army CH-47 Chinook

Louisiana, USA Crashed during air show in Mannheim,

1/9/1983

helicopter South Korean Boeing 747

Germany Shot down after violating Soviet airspace

27/11/1983 Colombian Boeing 747

Crashed near Barajas Airport,

19/2/1985

Spanish Boeing 727

Madrid, Spain Crashed into Mount Oiz, Spain

23/6/1985

Air India Boeing 747

Crashed into Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland

2/8/1985

Delta Airlines jumbo jet

Crashed at Dallas Fort Worth

12/8/1985

Japan Airlines Boeing 747

International Airport, USA Crashed into Mount Ogura, Japan

12/12/1985

Arrow Air DC-8

Crashed after take off in Gander,

31/3/1986

Mexican Boeing 727

Newfoundland Crashed northwest of Mexico City

31/8/1986

Aeromexico DC-9

Collided with Piper PA-28 over Cerritos, California, USA

20

1 Accident Survey

Table 1.7. Accident data for a number of aircraft prior to 1988

Type

Total number

Airbus

24

Boeing 707/720 series

122

Boeing 727

157

Boeing 737

120

Boeing 747

100

Boeing 757

3

DHC-4

8

Douglas DC-3/C47

213

Douglas C54/DC-4

32

Douglas DC-7

7

Douglas DC-8

74

Douglas DC-9

105

Douglas DC-10

70

Fairchild Fokker/Fairchild

10

F-27

98

F-28

24

Gulfstream

15

Hawker Siddeley Trident

51

Hawker Siddeley BAe 748 series

71

Jetstream

13

Lockheed L-188 Electra

25

Lockheed L-382B Hercules

20

Lockheed L-18 Lodest

21

Lockheed L-1011 Tristar

33

Lockheed Volga

10

Miscellaneous

313

Sovict aircraft, Illusion

97

Vickers Vicount

40

indicating compressor failure. The aircraft rolled over to its right and plunged downwards. The British Midland Boeing 737–400 is one of the world’s newest and most sophisticated passenger aircraft. It was fresh from Boeing’s Seattle factory, with only 518 flying hours on the clock. It was the latest version of the world’s most popular jetliner. Either of the 10 tonne CFM56-3C power plants could have held the plane aloft as long as fuel lasted. At around 400 m from the airport, while travelling at approximately 150 miles per hour, the two engines were in trouble and the plane crashed on the M1 motorway and hit trees as it limped into East Midlands airport, with a loss of 44 lives. The engine on the crashed 737–400s, a CFM56–3, is fitted to all Boe- ing 737–300s, which are operated by 39 airlines or aircraft leasing companies worldwide.

1.6 Aircraft and Missile Impacts, Crashes and Explosions

21

Table 1.8. Aircraft impact at ground level

Date

Aircraft

Location

15/1/1976

DC-4

Bogota, Colombia, South America Loja, USA Malabo Mehrabad, Iran Acapulco, Mexico Isparta, Italy Mosher, Iran Hot Springs, USA Mount Kenya Greece Victoria, Australia Trujillo Palm Springs, USA Terrace airport, British Columbia, Canada Sarajevo, Yugoslavia Bainaha Valley, Indonesia Edavli, India Colombia, South America Aramoun, Lebanon Ethiopia El Bolson, Argentina Cuenca, Ecuador Alaska, USA Manidar, Iran San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina Cercedilla, Spain Evansville, USA Salt Lake City, USA Cuenca, Ecuador Cerro Grenada, Colombia, South America Tota, Colombia, South America Muscat, Oman Mexico City, Mexico Rubio, Venezuela Steamboat Spring, USA Rodez, France Alaska, USA Ngadirejo Sukapur, Indonesia Ecuador Mount Sebayat, Indonesia Rio de Janeiro, Argentina Panvel, India Frobisher Bay, North-Western Territory Cagliari, Italy Klamath Falls, USA

20/1/1976

HS748

1/6/1976

TU-154

1/8/1976

Boeing 707

7/8/1976

Falcon

19/9/1976

Boeing 727

22/9/1976

DHC-6

26/9/1976

Gulfstream

4/10/1976

DC-7C

23/11/1976

YS-11A

30/11/1976

DC-3

30/12/1976

DC-4

6/1/1977

Gates Lear

14/1/1977

DHC-6

18/1/1977

Gates Lear

29/3/1977

DHC-6

5/4/1977

DC-3

10/4/1977

DC-3

13/5/1977

AN-12

20/7/1977

DC-3

7/8/1977

DHC-6

4/9/1977

Viscount

6/9/1977

DHC-6

23/10/1977

DC-3

21/11/1977

BAC 1–11

11/12/1977

He111

13/12/1977

DC-3

18/12/1977

DC-8

29/12/1977

Viscount

28/1/1983

DC-3

14/8/1978

C-46

27/8/1978

DC-6

9/9/1978

21/11/1978

DC-3

4/12/1978

DHC-6

28/1/1979

F-27

28/1/1979

DHC-6

6/3/1979

F-28

23/4/1979

Viscount

11/7/1979

F-28

26/7/1979

Boeing 707

4/8/1979

HS748

29/8/1979

DHC-6

14/9/1979

DC-9

14/9/1979

DC-7C

(continued)

22

1 Accident Survey

Table 1.8. (continued)

Date

Aircraft

Location

21/11/1979

Arava

Navarino Island, Chile Mount Erebus, Antarctica Cerro Toledo, Colombia, South America Colombia, South America Ankara, Turkey Teheran, Iran Kenai, Alaska, USA Cemonyet, Indonesia Florianopolis, Brazil Slave Lake, Alberta Tenerife Yacuiba, Bolivia Southern Angola Tadzhikistan Mexico City Majorca Bursa, Turkey Medellin, Colombia Guyana Spokane, Washington, USA Laguna Soliz, South America Oaxaca, Mexico Madagascar Mangalore, India Florencia, Colombia, South America Paipa, Colombia, South America Felt, Oklahoma, USA Acapulco, Mexico Ajaccio, Corsica Lorica, Colombia, South America Narssarssuma Panay Island, Philippines Cuginamarca, Colombia, South America Qeuate, Colombia, South America Guilin, China Kassel Fortaleza, Brazil Del Norte, Colorado Valladolid Graskop, South Africa ME Bibala, Angola Villavicencio Pueblo Hailey, Idaho, USA Detroit, USA

28/11/1979

DC-10

19/12/1979

DC-4

19/12/1979

DHC-6

23/12/1979

F-28

21/1/1980

Boeing 727

22/1/1980

DHC-6

23/1/1980

CASA 212 Boeing 727 B-26 Invader Boeing 727

12/4/1980

24/4/1980

25/4/1980

2/6/1980

F-27

8/6/1980

Yak-40

12/6/1980

Yak-40

1/8/1980

DC-8

13/8/1980

Lear 35 CASA 212

28/8/1980

24/11/1980

DC-3

18/1/1981

Skyvan Beech 99

20/1/1981

6/4/1981

DC-3

20/5/1981

Convair 440

24/7/1981

DHC-6

19/8/1981

HS748

26/8/1981

Viscount EMB110 Bandeirante Learjet

2/9/1981

1/10/1981

9/11/1981

DC-9

1/12/1981

DC-9

18/12/1981

DHC-6

11/1/1982

Learjet

9/2/1982

DC-3

19/2/1982

DC-6

26/3/1982

Viscount

26/4/1982

Trident

19/5/1982

Citation

8/6/1982

Boeing 727

25/8/1982

CV440

1/9/1982

DHC-4

12/10/1982

DC-3

29/11/1982

AN-26

29/11/1982

DHC-6

7/12/1982

Metro

3/1/1983

Challenger

11/1/1983

DC-8

1.6 Aircraft and Missile Impacts, Crashes and Explosions

Table 1.8. (continued)

23

Date

Aircraft

Location

16/1/1983

DC-3

Bay City, USA Manaus Airport Uruzgan North of Sabha City, Indonesia Newark, New Jersey, USA Indianapolis, USA Khartoum, Sudan Millhaven, Georgia Labe, Guinea Cuenca, Ecuador Dundo, Angola Uberaba Madrid, Spain Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Lokon Mountain, Indonesia Quthing, Lesothe Poza Rica, Mexico Macae, Brazil Pass Valley, Indonesia Mealy Mountain, USA Inverness, Scotland En route Bhojpur, India La Paz, Bolivia Buga, Colombia, South America Andes, Colombia, South America Mount Oiz, Bilbao, South America Florencia, Colombia, South America Salta, Uruguay Phuket, Thailand Fitoy, France Harrison, Arkansas Oro Negro, Venezuela Rock Springs, Texas Mount Ogura, Japan Sardinia Homer City, Pennsylvania, USA Juneau, Alaska, USA Santa Elena, Guatemala Manado, Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia – Sarevena, Indonesia Port Ellen, Islay, Scottish Highlands Dembidollo, Ethiopia Mont de la Plage

22/2/1983

Boeing 737

10/3/1983

14/3/1983

Boeing 707

30/3/1983

Learjet 25

6/4/1983

Learjet 35

16/4/1983

HS748

23/6/1983

Lockheed 18

1/7/1983

IL-62

11/7/1983

Boeing 737

27/8/1983

Hercules

7/10/1983

EMB-110

27/11/1983

Boeing 747

18/12/1983

Airbus A300

24/1/1984

CASA C212

3/4/1984

DHC-6

5/5/1984

Beech 200

28/6/1984

Bandeirante

15/8/1984

DC-3

11/10/1984

DHC-6 Twin Otter Bandeirante DHC-6 Twin Otter

19/11/1984

20/11/1984

22/12/1984

DHC-6

1/1/1985

Boeing 727

22/1/1985

Bandeirante

22/2/1985

DHC-6

18/2/1985

Boeing 727

28/2/1985

F-28

11/4/1985

HS125

15/4/1985

Boeing 737

22/4/1985

DC-6

21/5/1985

Citation 501

27/5/1985