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CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS ON ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES IN THE NARRATIVE TEXTS OF


STUDENTS TEXTBOOKS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

A GRADUATING PAPER
Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (S.Pd.I) in the English
Department of English of Education Faculty State Islamic Studies Institute
(STAIN) Salatiga

BY:
DINA FITRIA AMALIA
113 08 076

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FACULTY


STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE (STAIN) SALATIGA
2013
i

MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS


STATE INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No.02, Phone. 0298 323706 Salatiga 50721
Website: www.stainsalatiga.ac.id E-mail: administrasi@stainsalatiga.ac.id

DECLARATION

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and Most Merciful.

Hereby the writer fully declares that this Graduating Paper is made by the
writer and it is not containing materials written or has been published by other
people except the information from references and also the writer is capable of
accounting for this Graduating Paper if in future this is can be proved of
containing others ideas, or in fact, the writer imitates the others graduating
paper.
In addition, the writer really hopes that this declaration can be understood
for all human being.

Salatiga, September 14th 2013


The Writer

Dina Fitria Amalia


NIM. 11308076

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MOTTO
Always Think Positive

DEDICATION
This research is dedicated for
My Beloved Father, Mother, and Brother

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Alhamdulillahirabbil alamin, thanks to Allah because the writer could
complete this research as one of the requirements for getting Educational Islamic
Studies (S,Pd.I) in English Department of Educational Faculty of State Islamic
Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga in 2013.
This research would not have been completed without supports, guidance,
advice, and help from individuals institution. Therefore, I would like to express
deep appreciation to:
1.

Mr. Dr. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag, the Rector of State Islamic Studies Institute
(STAIN) Salatiga.

2.

Mr. Suwardi, M.Pd the Chair Person of Education Faculty of State Islamic
Studies Institute (STAIN) Salatiga.

3.

Mrs. Maslihatul Umami, S.Pdi, M.A the Head of the English Department
State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) Salatiga.

4.

Mrs. Rr Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari, M.Pd, the consultant of this research.


Thanks for suggestion and recommendation for this research from beginning
until the end.

5.

All lecturers of English department, the researcher deeply thanks to you all
for your advice, knowledge, and kindness.

6.

All of staffs who help the writer in processing the research administration.

7.

All of the librarians who help the writer in finding the research references.

8.

My parents who always support and advice me.

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9.

The deeply thanks is also sent to all of my best friends (Ria, Niken, Saniah,
etc) with whom struggle for this completing the graduating paper.

10.

To all of my friends in TBIC of English Departmentwho support the writer


always.

Salatiga, September 10th 2013


The writer

Dina Fitria Amalia


113 08 076

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE ...................................................................................................................... i
DECLARATION .................................................................................................... ii
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES .................................................................. iii
PAGE OF CERTIFICATION ............................................................................... iv
MOTTO .................................................................................................................. v
DEDICATION ...................................................................................................... vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ...................................................................................... vii
TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................ ix
LIST OF TABLE .................................................................................................. xi
ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... xii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study ..................................................................................1
B. Problems Statement ..........................................................................................5
C. Objectives of Study ...........................................................................................5
D. Benefits of the Study .........................................................................................6
E. Limitation of the Problem .................................................................................7
F. Clarification of the Key Term ...........................................................................7
G. Previous Research Review ................................................................................9
H. Graduating Paper Outline................................................................................12

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CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


A. The Notion of Contrastive Analysis (CA) ....................................................13
B. English Prefixes and Suffixes .......................................................................18
C. Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes..................................................................23
D. Narrative Text ...............................................................................................25
E. Textbook .......................................................................................................28
F. Theory of Authentic Material .......................................................................30
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Type of Research ..........................................................................................32
B. Object of the Research ..................................................................................34
C. Method of Collecting Data ...........................................................................36
D. Technique of Analysis Data .........................................................................36
CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS
A. Analysis of English Prefix and Suffix ..........................................................39
B. Analysis of Indonesian Prefix and Suffix .....................................................49
C. Analysis the Differences and Similarities Kinds between
English and Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes..............................................72
D. Pedagogical Implication ...............................................................................75
CHAPTER V : CLOSURE
A. Conclusions ..................................................................................................77
B. Suggestions ...................................................................................................78
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIXES

LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1 Type of English Prefix ...........................................................................39


Table 4.2 Words of Prefixes in Texts.....................................................................40
Table 4.3 Negation Prefixes in the Black Cat Text................................................40
Table 4.4 Negation Prefixes in the History of Jack and the Beanstalk Text ..........41
Table 4.5 Negation Prefixes in the Faithfull Lovers Text......................................41
Table 4.6 Types of English Suffix .........................................................................42
Table 4.7 Words of Suffixes in Texts ....................................................................42
Table 4.8 Nominal Suffixes in Sentence ................................................................44
Table 4.9 Adjectival Suffixes in Sentence .............................................................46
Table 4.10 Adverbial Suffixes in Sentence ............................................................47
Table 4.11 Types of Indonesian Prefix ..................................................................50
Table 4.12 Words of Forming Verb Prefixes in Texts ...........................................50
Table 4.13 Words of Forming Adjective Prefixes in Texts ...................................52
Table 4.14 Words of Forming Noun Prefixes in Texts ..........................................52
Table 4.15 Words of Forming Numeral Prefixes in Texts .....................................52
Table 4.16 Forming Verb Prefixes in Sentences ........................................................ 53
Table 4.17 Forming Adjective Prefixes in Sentence ..............................................63
Table 4.18 Forming Noun Prefixes in Sentence ....................................................64
Table 4.19 Forming Numeral Prefixes in Sentence ...............................................66
Table 4.20 Types of Indonesian Suffix ..................................................................69
Table 4.21 Indonesian Suffixes in Texts ................................................................70
Table 4.22 Forming Noun Suffixes In Sentence ....................................................70
Table 4.23 the Differences of English and Indonesian Prefixes ............................72
Table 4.24 the Similarities of English and Indonesian Suffixes ............................74

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ABSTRACT
Amalia, Dina Fitria (2013): CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS ON ENGLISH AND
INDONESIAN PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES IN THE NARRATIVE TEXTS OF
STUDENTS TEXTBOOKS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL.
This study is aimed describing the kinds of the English and Indonesian
prefixes and suffixes mostly found in the narrative text of students textbooks for
senior high school and finding their similarities and differences. The writer used
descriptive qualitative research and contrastive methodology to find out the valid
data. After investigating the data, the writer found several findings based on the
analysis of the type of English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes. There are
four types of English prefix; quantified, locative, temporal, and negation prefixes.
In the narrative texts the writer found four words included as negation prefixes.
English suffixes have four types; nominal, verbal, adjectival, and adverbial
suffixes. There were eighteen words indicated as nominal suffixes, there is no
word categorized as verbal suffixes, fourteen words as adjectival suffixes, and
twenty two as adverbial suffixes. On the other hand, the Indonesian prefixes had
five prefixes; forming verb is seventy five words, forming adjectival is eleven
words, forming noun is five words, forming numeral is twenty one words, and
there is no word as forming interrogative. There were five types of Indonesian
suffixes (forming, verb, adjective, noun, numeral, and interrogative). In the
narrative texts, the writer only found thirteen words categorized as suffix forming
noun. The writer found the differences and similarities both of them; it depends on
their kinds. In English suffixes have adverbial suffixes but there were no in
Indonesian suffixes. However in Indonesian suffixes have types suffixes that
forming numeral and interrogative, and in English suffixes do not have these
types. The same types of English and Indonesian suffixes are both of them have
suffixes that forming noun, verb and adjective.
Keywords: Contrastive Analysis, English and Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes.

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The first chapter of this graduating paper is introduction. This chapter
explains about the background of the study, problems statement, and objectives of
the study, benefits of the study, and limitation of the problem, clarification of the
key term, previous research review, and graduating paper outline.
A. Background of the Study
Language has tens of thousands of words. Even the speaker of every
language is not aware about that. Words are a crucial part of linguistic
knowledge and constitute a component of grammars, but one can learn
thousands of words in a language and still not know the language. Anyone
who has tried to communicate in a foreign country by merely using a
dictionary knows this is true. On the other hand, without words we would be
unable to convey our thoughts through language or understand the thoughts of
others.
To convey our mind in spoken or writen clearly, people need
understanding about the component of language such as structure of sentence,
word, etc. According to Venhaar (2006: 10), the branches of linguistic that
called morphology is identifying basic unit of language as grammatical
unit. It means that words as the units that are analyzed as one morpheme or
more can be studied in the morphology.
According to Fromklin (2007: 77) the study of the internal structure of
words, and of the rules by which words are formed is morphology. From this
explanation the writer can conclude that words have internal structure, which
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is rule-governed. In this branch of linguistic can be known about parts of a


word. A word can consist of one morpheme, two morphemes, and more than
two morphemes.
Based on Fromklin (2007:77), the linguistic term for the most
elemental units of grammatical form is morpheme. The word is derived from
the Greek word morphe, meaning form. From the statement above the
writer can conclude that morpheme is the smallest bit of language that has its
own meaning, either a word or a part of a word.
When talking about morphology, absolutely the students also study
about the parts of word or the structure of word. As stated by Mullany and
Stockwell (2010: 6) word is the smallest meaningful of language in the
spoken or written. A word can be produced from root, morpheme, and can be
added by affix.
Affix is categorized as bound morpheme because it cannot stand alone
and should be attached to the root or stem or base. It is also same with prefix
and suffix, because they are the types of affix. According to Broukal (2002:
139- 179), prefix is a form added in front of a word or word root to change its
meaning, and suffix is a combination of letters added to the end of a word or
word root. Suffixes are used either to form new words or show the function of
a word. From the definition can be known that both prefix and suffix can
create a new word. Besides that when prefix and suffix are added in a word so
it may change the meaning of a word, and word classes.

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The nature of affix precedes or follows other morphemes. Thus, un(unexpected, undress, unhappy), pre- (premarital, prejudge, pre-school), and
bi- (bipolar, bisexual, bilingual) are prefixes. They occur before other
morphemes. Some morphemes occur only as suffixes, following other
morphemes. The examples of English suffix morphemes are ing (sleeping,
eating, running), -er (singer, performer, reader), and ly (friendly, motherly,
manly). Those constitute some examples of prefixes and suffixes.
Morphemes are the minimal linguistic sign in all languages, and many
languages have prefixes and suffixes, but each language may differ in how
they use and name their morphemes. For example in Indonesian language,
affix is studied also in the structure of word but Indonesian people usually
call affix imbuhan, prefix is called awalan, and suffix is called
akhiran. Some examples of Indonesian prefixes and suffixes as follow: me(memakan, meminum, menulis), ber- (berjalan, bermalam, berambisi), ke(kekasih, ketua, kehendak). Those are the example of Indonesian prefixes.
Then, the examples of the suffixes are an (kampungan, cantikan, jalanan), iah (alamiah, jasmaniah, rohaniah), -if (efektif, produktif, konsumtif).
From the definition above, the writer can conclude that between
English and Indonesian affixes, prefixes, and suffixes are almost same. Other
similarities between them, it can change the meaning of words, word classes
and function of word root and the meaning can be different with the word
root or the base. However, both also have differences. It may occur in the
using of prefix and suffix in a word, the meaning and the function of word

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after adding prefix and suffix. From the explanation above, the writer would
like to compare and to analyze the similarities and the differences between
English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes in this research.
Fisiak (1981), Jackson (1981) as mentioned in Fauziati (2002: 63)
said that a branch of linguistics which seeks to compare two or more
languages or subsystems of languages with the aims at describing the
similarities and differences between them is contrastive linguistic. It can be
concluded that the nature of contrastive linguistic is to describe the
similarities and differences between two or more languages. It means by
describing the similarities and differences can help students in the studying
foreign language easier than before.
The goal of the comparison is to describe those languages may be for
the sake of the languages themselves, or may be to contribute to the task of
foreign language teaching. According to Fisiak (1981), Jackson (1981) as
mentioned in Fuziati (2002: 63) one of the techniques associated with
contrastive linguistic is contrastive analysis. It is generally defined as a
systematic, comparison of selected linguistic features of two or more
languages.
From the discussion above, the writer concludes that by contrasting
two languages can be known more about the differences and similarities of
both the languages. It makes easier studying foreign language. Thus, the
writer takes courage to write a graduating paper about contrasting English and
Indonesian prefixes and suffixes, but then more specific. The prefixes and

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suffixes are only in the narrative texts and taken from students textbooks for
senior high school. Therefore, the writer takes the title Contrastive Analysis
on English and Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes in the Narrative Texts of
The Students Textbooks for Senior High School.

B. Problems Statement
Based on the background of the study, the writer formulates the
problem as follows:
1.

What kinds of the English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes mostly
found in the narrative text of students textbooks for senior high school?

2.

What are the similarities and differences kinds between English and
Indonesian prefixes and suffixes in the narrative text of students
textbooks for senior high school?

3.

What is the pedagogical implication of the result of this study toward


English language teaching?

C. Objectives of the Study


The objectives of this analysis especially are to get information about:
1.

To describe the kinds of the English and Indonesian prefixes and


suffixes mostly found in the narrative text of students textbooks for
senior high school.

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2.

To find out the similarities and differences kinds of the English and
Indonesian prefix and suffix in the narrative text of students
textbooks for senior high school.

3.

To know the pedagogical implication of the result of this study toward


English language teaching.

D. Benefits of the Study


The writer hopes that this analysis produces benefits for theoretical and
practical as follows:
1.

Theoritically for :
a.

The writer and the teacher can be more understanding about


English and Indonesian prefix and suffix and narrative texts.

b.

The reader can improve the ability in English by comparing the two
languages (English and Indonesian).

c.

To be one of source information to the next writers that is the


problem related to this research for instance research about another
prefix and suffix.

2.

Practically for :
a.

The writer and the teacher can be easier to understand contrastive


analysis between English and Indonesian prefix and suffix.

b.

The student can apply prefix and suffix in the text.

c.

The reader can deepen the knowledge about the English and
Indonesian prefix and suffix.

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E. Limitation of the Problem


To have specific research, the writer has restricted this study in order
to make it easier to be analyzed. This study analyzes the English and
Indonesian prefix and suffix. To limit the study, the writer only takes prefixes
and suffixes in the narrative texts of students textbooks for senior high
school.

F. Clarification of the Key Terms


To avoid any mistakes in interpreting the tittle of this research, it is
regarded necessary to explain the term relating to it.
1.

Contrastive analysis
A branch of linguistics which seeks to compare two or more
languages or subsystems of languages with the aims at describing the
similarities and differences between them is contrastive linguistic
(Fauziati, 2002: 63). One of the techniques associated with contrastive
linguistic is Contrastive Analysis. According to Crystal (1992) as
quoted by James (2006: 17) Contrastive analysis is the study of foreign
language learning, the identification of points of structural similarity
and differences between two languages.
From the definiton above, it means that the main point of
contrastive analysis is comparison. By comparing two or more
languages can be learned the similarities and differences about the
languages. By understanding the similarities and differences of

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languages, it is highly expected can help the students in the studying


foreign language.
2.

Prefix
Carter (2007: 471) states that a morpheme is the smallest unit of
meaning. Some words consist of just one morpheme; some consist of
several. Morpheme divided into two parts; free morpheme and bound
morpheme. Bound morpheme cannot stand alone and should be
attached to the root or stem or base. It such a prefix, a form added in
front of a word or word root to change its meaning (Broukal, 2002:
139).

3.

Suffix
Suffix is also categorized as bound morpheme, such a prefix.
However, it is rather different. Broukal (2002: 179) states that a suffix
is a combination of letters added to the end of a word or word root.
Suffixes are used either to form new words or show the function of a
word.

4.

Narrative text
A Narrative is a type of spoken or written text that tells a story of
one character or more who face certain situations. There are various
kinds of narratives such as fairy stories, mysteries, science fictions,
romance, horror, etc. This type of text can be found in short story
books, magazines, novels, movies etc. narrative is popular because they
present a plot which consists of complications and resolutions.

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Sudarwati and Grace (2007: 62) state that narrative text is the text
or paragraph that explains about actual or imaginary experiences in
difference ways. The purpose of narrative text is to amuse or entertain
the readers.
5.

Textbook
In teaching and learning, teacher and student need guiding book to
make easily transferring the subject material. Muslich (2010: 50)
defines textbook is book of subject material or specific subject that
formed systematically in selection based on certain purpose, orientated
learning, and students development.

G. Previous Research Review


This subject discusses the previous study which is related to this
research. The writer presents two previous studies to determine originality of
this research.
The first is Contrastive Analysis between English and Indonesian
Verb Phrase written by Siti Toyibatun in 2011. She was the student of State
Islamic Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga. This study focused on analyzing
English and Indonesian verb phrase. She used the qualitative research was to
find out the object of her study, that was English and Indonesian verb phrase
and their similarities and differences. She got the data of English and
Indonesian verb phrase from some books. One of the English books entitled
A Practical English Grammar written by A.J Thomson and A.V Martinet, and

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the Indonesian book entitled Tata Bahasa Baku Indonesia written by Anton
M. Moueliono and Soenjono Pardjowidjojo.
In her result of research, she gave some example of verb phrase. First
the examples English verb phrases were can take, may phone, could stay,
must practice, have cut, have lived, are playing, am going, is loved, was
opened, will be finished. Second the example of Indonesian verb phrases were
bersenam setiap pagi, bekerja keras, menulis kembali, dapat mengajukan,
berdagang kain, bertani dan beternak. In the conclusion, she explained the
differences and similarities. The difference of English and Indonesian verb
phrase was in the function of the verb phrase. English verb phrase has
function as a predicate but Indonesian verb phrase has function not only as a
predicate but also as subject, object, complement, and adverb. The similarity
both of them was in the form of verb phrases that could be made from two or
more words.
The second previous study of this research, entitled Contrastive
Analysis between English and Indonesian Adverb of Place written by
Muhammad Nur DaI in 2006. He was the student of State Islamic Institute
(STAIN) of Salatiga. This study focused on analyzing English and Indonesian
adverb of place. He used the qualitative research was to find out the object of
his study, that was English and Indonesian adverb of place and their
similarities and differences. He got the data of English and Indonesian adverb
of place from some books. One of the English books is written by Marcella

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Frank entitled Modern English. The Indonesian book entitled Tata Bahasa
Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia written by Gorys Keraf.
He mentioned the research finding of his study. He compared and
analyzed English and Indonesian adverb of place. He explained that the
example of English adverbs of place are here, there, upstairs, away, inside,
down, in, and out, indoors, outdoors. Indonesian adverbs of place were di
sini, ke sana, ke situ, dari sini, dari situ, and sampai. He concluded that
between English and Indonesian adverb of phrase had similarities and
differences. That is English and Indonesian adverb of phrase has similar kind;
single word and prepositional phrase. However in English adverb of phrase
still has type; prepositional phrase of place pronounced and written as single
words, but in Indonesian there is no prepositional phrase in single words.
From both of the previous researches, the writer tries to analyze
Contrastive Analysis on English and Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes in the
Narrative Text of Students Textbooks for Senior High School. Here, the
writer wants to compare the English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes in
narrative text, and then determine accurately the valid similarities and the
differences of this research with the researches above.
That makes this research is different with the previous researches is
the previous researches are only describing the differences and similarities of
the object without identify their finding in the texts. Whereas this research is
not only to find out the kinds of prefixes and suffixes, both similarities and

xxiii

differences, but also find out their application in the narrative texts taken from
senior high school textbooks.

H. Graduating Paper Outline


This research is written systematically in order that easier to read and
understand. This research is divided five chapters and each chapter has several
sub-chapters.

Chapter I is the introduction. It explains about the background of the


study, problem statement, objective of the study, benefits of the study, and
limitation of the problem, clarification of key term, previous research review,
and graduating paper outline.
Chapter II is the theoretical framework. It explains the notion of
contrastive analysis, English prefixes and suffixes, Indonesian prefixes and
suffixes, narrative text, and textbook.
Chapter III is the research methodology. It is included the type of
research, and object of the research, method of collecting data, and technique
of analysis data.
Chapter IV is the data analysis. This chapter describes the data analysis
between English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes in narrative text of
students textbook for senior high school, and analysis of the similarities and
differences kinds between English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes.
Chapter V is the closure that consists of conclusion and suggestion.

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CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Theoritical framework is a frame or reference of data analysis in the next
chapter. In this chapter the writer explains about the notion of contrastive
analysis, English prefixes and suffixes, Indonesian prefixes and suffixes, narrative
text, and textbook.

A.

The Notion of Contrastive Analysis (CA)


Contrastive analysis (CA) was first proposed by Charles C. Fries as a
crucial part of the foreign language teaching methodology (Fauziati 2002:
63). According to Al-Sibai (2004: 1) CA was born as a result of a simple
assumption. That is because arising the same errors that students made in
the task gradually and the teachers could predict what mistakes the majority
of learners would make. Thus, the writer explains more information about
contrastive analysis bellow.
1.

Definition of Contrastive Analysis (CA)


Raji (2012: 1) explains that contrastive analysis is a branch of
language which focuses on the study of two or more different
languages, with the aim of describing their similarities and differences.
Platt (1992: 17) also states that contrastive analysis describes
similarities and differences among two or more languages at such as
level phonology, grammar, and semantics. CA is not only comparing
the element and system of linguistic in the L1 and L2 but also
describing the background culture of both languages so the result can be
used in teaching foreign language or target language.
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The writer can conclude that the main point of contrastive


analysis is comparing the objects, and finds the similarities and
differences of the object. In other word contrastive analysis is the study
of linguistic in teaching second language. Especially, CA also can be
used by the teachers to solve the difficulties and speaking problem that
student made in learning foreign language.

2.

The Procedure of Contrastive Analysis


Whitman as mentioned in Fauziati (2002: 68) notes that
contrastive analysis involves four different procedures: description,
selection, contrast, prediction. The first procedure of contrastive
analysis is complete description of the two of languages to be
compared. The language practitioner can use the tools formal grammar
for the clear comparison. It means that description in contrastive
analysis to be foundation in the comparison of two or more languages.
The second procedure is the selection. Selection means choosing
the elements of the two languages (L1 and L2) which will be compared
or analyzed. This step can be said the step which have done to specify a
topic or part of language that will be compared.
The third procedure is the contrast. It is the hurt of Contrastive
analysis. Here is the most difficult step. In the contrast, language
practitioner stars comparing the elements of language that have been
selected. That is by mapping the elements of the two languages.

xxvi

The last procedure is the prediction. After contrasting, it is time


to predict elements of the languages for purposes of language teaching
at schools. It means that contrastive analysis can predict the students
mistakes.
The writer can conclude that the steps which have been
described above, it can have a positive impact on teaching and learning
process. However, by the contrastive analysis the teachers can found the
solving problems of students in learning second language or foreign
language.
3.

Theory of Contrastive Analysis


Contrastive analysis is often called contrastive linguistic.
Contrastive Linguistic is a branch of linguistics that compares between
two languages synchronically so the similarities and differences are
clear. According to Pranowo (1996: 42) the use of contrastive analysis
in language teachings are based on some theoretical assumptions
namely:
a)

The most effective materials language teachings are the materials


which based on the description of the language itself.

b)

By contrasting and comparing the L1 and L2 that will be learnt,


one can predict and describe many particular patterns that cause
the difficulties and easy of language learning.

xxvii

From the explanation above can be concluded that if students


want to study language easily, they have to know also all of thing
related with the language learned. Besides that by predicting the
mistakes in learning language by using contrastive analysis also can
find the solving problem.
A linguist, Lado as quoted by Pranowo (1996: 42-43) suggests
that contrasting should be done to phonology, grammatical structures,
vocabulary systems, and systems of language writing.
The first is contrasting phonology. It includes sound system,
transferring of sound system (variant, interjection, intonation, and its
connectivity to other phonemes).
The second is contrasting grammatical structure. It is different
from grammar. Grammatical structure is a compulsory languages
construction taken by the native speaker in communication. It might be
because there are divergences between grammar in written and spoken
languages. The other elements of grammatical structure are ordering the
words, inflections, correlating of forms, intonation, word impression,
and junctures.
The third is contrasting of vocabulary system. It is accomplished
on the form, the meaning, and its distribution. This contrasting is
usually cause by the change of some vocabularies appropriate to
situation, velocity of speaking, and so on.

xxviii

The last is contrasting of language writing system. This is


important too. Actually, the biggest problem of language learner is at
the time whilst they study about written language.
4.

Contribution of Contrastive Analysis (CA)


Guntur Tarigan (1996: 50) states that CA has some important
contributions in the teaching learning process, for example:
a.

Constructing language teaching materials. This is the basic aspect


of comparing two languages.

b.

Constructing the system of pedagogical language. This is based on


the linguistic theory being used.

c.

Arranging the class property in which the first language is used to


help in the second language learning.
This proves that contrastive analysis also has important role in

learning proses and has the advantage. It is not only help the students in
studying foreign language becomes easier but also the teachers can
know the students difficulties and mistakes in learning foreign or target
language. There are solutions to overcome the difficulties and error of
the students. One of the solutions to solve the difficulties and errors of
the students in learning target language is contrastive analysis.
Therefore, contrastive analysis can be used as an alternative solution in
second language teaching.

xxix

B.

English Prefixes and Suffixes


Before understanding prefixes and suffixes, it never hurts to know
first about word and morpheme. Plag (2002: 25) introduces the crucial
notion of morpheme as the smallest meaningful unit. Some words consist of
just one morpheme; some consist of several. Morpheme divided into two
parts; free morpheme and bound morpheme. He explains that morpheme
which can stand alone and has lexical meaning is free morpheme. Whereas
bound morpheme cannot stand alone and should be attached to the root or
stem or base.
Some of the morphemes are attached to the beginning or the end of
words. These are affix. Affix is a standard set of letters attached to a root
word that creates a new word. An affix is not able to be used alone in
language but must be attached to another unit such as a root word, Swan
(2005: 419). An affix is not able to be used alone in language but must be
attached to another unit such as a root word. The word affix is a general
term for a prefix, a suffix. According to Carter (2007: 471) affixes attached
to the beginning of words are prefixes; those attached to the ends of words
are suffixes.
1.

Prefixes
Based on the explanation above, prefixes are free morphemes
which added in the beginning of words. Plag (2002: 123-127) states
that the prefixes can be classified semantically into the following
groups. Those are:

xxx

a)

Quantified Prefixes
There is a large group that quantify over their base words
meaning, for example, uni- (unilateral, unification), bi- (bilateral,
bifurcation) and di- (disyllabic), multi- (multi-purpose, multilateral) and poly- (polysyllabic, polyclinic), semi- (semiconscious, semi-desert), micro- (micro-surgical, microwave),
macro- (macroeconomics, macro-biotic), hyper- (hyperactive,
hypermarket) and over- (overestimate, overtax).

b) Locative Prefixes
There are numerous locative prefixes such as
(circumnavigate,

circumscribe),

counterexample),

endo-

counter-

(endocentric,

circum-

(counterbalance,

endocrinology),

epi-

(epiglottis, epicentral), inter- (interbreed, intergalactic), intra(intramuscular, intravenous).

c)

Temporal Prefixes
There are temporal prefixes expressing notions like ante(antechamber,
premedical),

antedate),
post-,

pre-

(preconcert,

(post-structuralism,

modern) and neo- (neoclassical, Neo-Latin).

xxxi

predetermine,

post-modify,

post-

d) Negation Prefixes
The fourth group consists of prefixes expressing negation a(achromatic,

asexual),

de-

(decolonize,

deplete),

dis-

(disassociate, disconnect), in- (illegal, irregular), non- (nonbiological, non-commercial), un- (unhappy, unsuccessful).

2.

Suffixes
Suffix is also categorized as bound morpheme, such a Prefix.
However, it is rather different. Broukal (2002: 179) states that a Suffix
is a combination of letters added to the end of a word or word root.
Suffixes are used either to form new words or show the function of a
word. Plag (2002: 109-123) divided suffix into several types, they are:
a)

Nominal Suffixes
In Plag (2002: 109) nominal suffixes are often employed to
derive abstract nouns from verbs, adjectives and nouns. Such
abstract nouns can denote actions, results of actions, or other
related concepts, but also properties, qualities and the like.
Another large group of nominal suffixes derives person nouns of
various sorts. Very often, these meanings are extended to other,
related senses so that practically each suffix can be shown to be
able to express more than one meaning, with the semantic
domains of different suffixes often overlapping.

xxxii

There are the examples of nominal suffixes. They are: age


(marriage, coverage), -al (approval, arrival), -ance (and with its
variant ence/-ency/ancy) (performance, independence), -ant
(applicant,

defendant),

-ee

(employee,

interviewee),

-er

(performer, actor), -ess (stewardess, waitress), -ful (cupful,


handful), -ing (running, building), -ion (education, connection), ist (novelist, scientist), -ment (development, treatment), -ness
(happiness, darkness), -ship (friendship, relationship).

b) Verbal Suffixes
There are four suffixes which derive verbs from other
categories (mostly adjectives and nouns), -ate, -en, -ify and -ize.
The examples of them are: -ate (dominate, irritate), -en
(harden, lengthen), -ify (identify, magnify), -ize (feminize,
Americanize).

c) Adjectival Suffixes
Adjectival suffixes are the suffixes that can form adjective
meaning. The word that can change into adjective is noun and
verb. Suffixes form adjectival meaning from verb is able, -ive.
From noun into adjectival meaning, the suffixes are al, -ed, ful, -ic, -ing, -ish, -less, -ly, -ous, -y.

xxxiii

This is the examples of these suffixes in a word. From verb


into adjectival meaning, able (avoidable, readable), -ive
(offensive, productive). Example of a word which has
adjectival meaning from noun by adding suffixes; al
(informal, criminal), -ed (air-minded, bearded), -ful (grateful,
helpful), -ic(al) (heroic, economical), -ing (surprising, boring),
-ish (foolish, childish), -less (hopeless, priceless), -ly (manly,
daily), -y (noisy, dirty), -ous (ambitious, nervous).

d) Adverbial Suffixes
There are three suffixes which form adverb meaning. That
is the examples of them, -ly (slowly, aggressively), -wise
(clockwise, weather-wise).

C.

Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes


A large number of the words used in the Indonesian language are
formed by combining root words with affixes and other combining forms.
Knowing how affixes are used is the key to understanding the meanings of
derived words and in learning to read Indonesian language. If you know the
meaning of a root word and the rules for each type of affix, you will be
better able to understand and predict the meanings of the words derived
from that root word.

xxxiv

Sometimes, a root word needs to add an affix so that can be used.


This affixes can change the meaning, kind, and function of words becomes
other words that different function with the root word. It is such English
affixes, Indonesian affixes is also classified into seven groups, which are
prefix, suffix, infix, simulfiks, konfiks, superfiks, combination affix.
However, this research only focuses on prefix and suffix.
1.

Prefixes
Kridalaksana (1992: 28) define prefixes are affix that added in
front of the root word. The kinds of prefixes are:
a) Forming Verb
The examples of Prefixes that form verbs are: me- (memakai,
membuat), ber- (berpikir, berdagang), per- (perbagus, peristri),
ter- (terkenal, terpesona), ke- (ketawa, kebaca).
b) Forming Adjective
The examples of it are: se- (seberat, sekecil), ter- (terpanas,
tersembunyi), ber- (berambisi, bersatu), me- (merakyat, mendua),
pe- (pemalas, pendendam).
c) Forming Noun
Some prefixes that form noun are ke-, pe-, se-. Those are examples
the prefixes in a word, ke- (kehendak, kekesih), pe- (penulis,
penyanyi), se- (sekantor, sealiran).

xxxv

d) Forming Numeral
There are two Prefixes in this type. That is ke- (kedua, keenam),
and ber- (berlima, bertiga).
e) Forming Interrogative
This type is used for asking question. The Prefix me- (mengapa) is
the only one Prefix which included in this type.

2.

Suffixes
Kridalaksana (1992: 28) define Suffixes are affix that added in the
end of the root word. The kinds of Suffixes are:
a) Forming Verb
This prefix can change the root word to be verb meaning. The
example of this type is suffix in (bikinin, doain).
b) Forming Adjective
There are eight suffixes which derive adjective form. That is an
(cantikan, kampungan), -al (individual, material), -il (idiil,
prinsipil), -iah (alamiah, jasmaniah), -if (efektif, produktif), -is
(teknis, praktis), -istis (optimistis, materialistis), -i (kimiawi,
manusiawi).
c) Forming Noun
The example Suffixes that form noun are an (tulisan, manisan,
daratan), -at (muslimat, hadirat), -si (politisi, kritisi), -in (hadirin,
muslimin), -ir (importir, eksportir), -us (politikus, kritikus), -is

xxxvi

(connected with suffix -isme) (such as kapitalis, kapitalisme), -or


(koruptor, diktator), -tas (kualitas, universitas).
d) Forming Numeral
Suffix -an in word puluhan and ratusan constitute the example of
this type.
e) Forming Interrogative
Ini surat apaan sih!, the word apaan is attached suffix an that
form interrogative meaning.

D.

Narrative Text
Genre is a word used in functional grammar and is also often called
text type. Text types may be fictional (made up) or factual (information
reports). Many kinds of genre or text type those are, narrative, descriptive,
report, recount, procedure, news item, discussion, analytical exposition, and
explanation.
A narrative text is a text or paragraph in the form of stories. A
chronology of events become emphasizing in the narrative text, Mafrukhi
(2008: 14). Therefore the characteristics of the paragraphs of narrative are
the character and storyline. There are various kinds of narratives such as
fairy stories, folktales, legend, fable, mysteries, science fictions, romance,
horror, etc. This type of text can be found in short story books, magazines,
novels, movies, textbooks etc. Narrative is popular because they present a
plot which consists of complications and resolutions.

xxxvii

Sudarwati and Grace (2007: 62) state that the function of narrative
text is to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experiences
in difference ways. Narrative text has generic structure or text organization
and language features. They are:
1.

The Generic Structure of Narrative Text


Sudarwati and Grace (2007: 62) explain the generic structure of
narrative text. They are orientation, complication, resolution.
a)

Orientation
The position is in the beginning or introduction. Orientation
introduces main characters, setting and time. The opening
paragraph introduces characters / participants of the story and sets
the scene (it answers the questions who, when, what and where).

b)

Complication
The position is in the middle of text. The problem happens among
the characters. It is about the problems which involve the main
characters in the story developed.

c)

Resolution
The position is in the ending of text. It is about how the
problems in the story are solved (better or worse). Here, the
main characters find ways to solve the problems.

xxxviii

2.

Language Features of Narrative Text


Sudarwati and Grace (2007: 62) mention the language features of
narrative text those are:
a) The use of noun phrases (a beautiful princess, a huge
temple)
b) The use of connective (first, before that, then, finally)
c) The use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the
garden, two days ago)
d) The use of simple past tense (he walked away from the
village)
e) The use of action verbs (sleep, walk, wake up)
f) The use of saying verbs (say, tell, ask)
g) The use of thinking verbs, feeling verbs, and verbs of
senses (she felt hungry, she thought she was clever, she
smelt something burning)

E.

Textbook
In educational world, books are the important part of education. By
books, the process of education can be done well. The teachers are able to
organize the learning process in effectively and efficiently by using books.
Also in learning process, students can study maximally by using the same
books with their teacher. Therefore, a school usually use textbook because
the teachers believe that by using textbook students can study easier, and it

xxxix

is able to make good communication between teachers and students in the


class. Chambliss and Calfee (1998) as quoted from Muslich (2010: 50)
explain clearly that textbook is the tool of student to understand and study
about everything that read and to understand world (outer themselves).
From statement above, it is proven that textbook has big influence
for students. Textbook can be a tool to increase also the students
knowledge. Students can use the textbook to learn their material at home if
their teacher has not finished explain at school. It means that the textbook is
one of the teachers major tools in guiding learning.
Schorling and Batchelder (1956) as mentioned from Muslich (2010:
54) give four characteristics of good textbook. That is:
1.

Recommended by professional teachers to be the good quality


textbooks

2.

The material in the textbooks appropriate with the purpose of


education, students and societies requirement.

3.

There are a lot of texts, assignments, and drill materials.

4.

Contain illustration of material.

The writer concludes that textbook has important role in learning


process. By the textbook, learning process in classroom can be done
disciplinary because teacher and student will get guiding material clearly.

xl

From the characteristics above, it is expected can help students and


teachers in the learning process. While, Hubert and Harl as mentioned in
Muslich (2010: 55-56) textbook has many benefits. The benefits are for
teachers, for students, and for societies.
1.

For Teachers
Textbook consist of some material and crucial problem of every
subject. It can help the teachers in teaching planning. Besides that there
are many learning tools, such as pictures, diagram, and map. By many
learning tools, teachers can create new method of learning for students
so that the students do not feel bored in class. In fact, textbook can
make the teachers feel free, because they do not need to look for
material by themselves. Therefore, they can do other activities.

2.

For Students
For students, Textbook will influence students personality.
Although between a student and other students is different influence.
By reading Textbook, it can motivate the students thinking and doing
positive thing.

3.

For Societies
The benefit for society is especially for parents. By textbook,
parents can accompany their children when they do their assignment.
Also parents can know the childrens understanding about material in
school maximally or not. In this case, if the understanding of material
has no maximally, parents know what they have to do for their children.

xli

F. Theory of Authentic Material


Authentic material also called authentic text, according to Nunan
(1988: 228) as mentioned in Erkaya (2005: 3) authentic text is any material
which has not specifically been produced for the purposes of language
teaching. Authentic materials are not created specifically to be used in the
classroom, but they make excellent learning tools for students clearly
because they are authentic.
It means that authentic material can be a reference for students or
teacher in learning process. Then, authentic materials help the students
bridge the gap between the classroom and the outside world.
Berardo (2006:64) states that the main advantages of using authentic
materials in the classroom therefore include:
a.

Having a positive effect on student motivation

b.

Giving authentic cultural information

c.

Showing the students about real language

d.

Relating more closely to students needs

e.

Supporting a more creative approach to teaching


From the explanation above, it can be concluded that authentic

materials give motivation for students in class. Using authentic material can
create students interest when use authentic materials because they are real
text or material. Besides that, the teachers can make the learning process
more colorful than before.

xlii

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Wardi Bachtiar (1997:1) research is a logical and systematic search for
new and useful information on a particular topic. It is a finding investigation of
scientific solutions and social problems through objective and systematic analysis.
He also states Research methodology is a set of knowledge about procedure of
collecting data systematically and logically which related with some problems to
be processed, analyzed, made conclusion, and found the solving problem.
In this research method of study is expanded in to four points, namely (a)
Type of Research (b) Object of Research (c) Method of Collecting Data (d)
Technique of Analysis Data. The explanation of each point will be discussed
further into wide explanation.
A. Type of Research
The type of research conducted by the writer was descriptive
qualitative research. The writer used documentation and literary data as a
form to describe the prefixes and suffixes of a word. The writer collected the
data, analyzed them and conclude them without making generalization.
According to Creswell (1994:1) qualitative research is defined as an inquiry
process of understanding a social or human problem, based on building a
complex, holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of
informants, and conducted in a natural settings.
Bodgan and Biklen state that descriptive method is collecting the
qualitative data, analyzing it and writing the result (in Creswell, 1994:171). In
line with that statement (Bodgan and Taylor in Moleong, 2004:4) state that
xliii

the steps of descriptive method are collecting data, analyzing data and
drawing conclusion.
The first step was collecting data. Some activities had done by the
writer to collect the data in this research. From looked for English and
Indonesian senior high school textbooks, read all of them, and then tried to
separate the narrative texts from the other texts.
The second step was analyzing data. From the step one the writer had
separated the narrative texts from other texts in the textbooks. Therefore, in
this step the writer looked for the words which added by prefix or suffix from
the narrative texts. After that, these words were classified based on the kinds
of English and Indonesian prefix and suffix.
The third step was drawing conclusion. After classifying all of the
words, the writer tried to make conclusion. From the classifying words, the
writer could find the similarities and differences between English and
Indonesian prefix and suffix in a word and made the conclusion in this
research.
Beside used qualitative and descriptive research, the writer also used
contrastive methodology so that could find the valid data. Pranowo (1996: 45)
contrastive analysis methodology is the work step of contrastive analysis
which describes the term of contrastive analysis. Contrastive analysis is
staged into 4 phases:
a.

Describing the structure of Language 1 (L1) and language 2 (L2)

xliv

b.

Selecting the element of differences and similarities of the two


languages (L1 and L2)

c.

Contrasting the differences of the two language systems

d.

Predicting the learning difficulties and language errors based on the


result of contrasting above
The first rule in Contrastive Analysis depends on a good description

and detail about language. In this material, the theoretical analysis of


languages will be compared or contrasted from the structure of L1 and L2.
The second criteria from contrastive analysis are predicting the possible
interferences of the two languages.

B. Object of the Research


The objects of this research were the English and the Indonesian
prefixes and suffixes. The prefixes and the suffixes were found in the English
and Indonesian narrative texts. The amounts of narrative text in the English
textbooks were seven texts, and from the Indonesian textbooks were totally
five texts. The title of the English and Indonesian narrative texts as follows:
1.

The Title of English Narrative Texts


a) Thumbelina from Look Ahead (An English Course for Senior High
School Student Year X).
b) The Golden Snail from Look Ahead (An English Course for Senior
High School Student Year X).

xlv

c) The Stronger Man from Look Ahead (An English Course for
Senior High School Student Year XI).
d) The Black Cat from Look Ahead (An English Course for Senior
High School Student Year XI).
e) Ockok the Owl and Wak the Hawk from Look Ahead (An English
Course for Senior High School Student Year XII).
f)

The Faithful Lovers from Look Ahead (An English Course for
Senior High School Student Year XII).

g) The History of Jack and the Beanstalk from Look Ahead (An
English Course for Senior High School Student Year XII).

2.

The Title of Indonesian Narrative Texts


a) Legenda Badhong Gatutkaca from Mahir Berbahasa Indonesia
(Senior High School Student Year X).
b) Hikayat Si Miskin dan Hikayat Marakarma from Pelajaran Bahasa
dan Sastra Indonesia (Senior High School Student Year XI).
c) Terjadinya Selat Bali from Pelajaran Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia
(Senior High School Student Year XI).
d) Hikayat Muhasyodak from Mahir Berbahasa Indonesia (Senior
High School Student Year XII).
e) Asal Usul Gunung Saba Mpolulu from Mahir Berbahasa Indonesia
(Senior High School Student Year XII).

xlvi

C. Method of Collecting Data


There are many ways to collect the data, such as: documentation,
observation, test, interview, and questionnaire. In this case, the writer used
documentation through reading the material and note taking technique.
According to Suharsimi (2010: 274) a documentation method is finding data
that related by using book, transcript, newspaper, magazine, ancient
inscription, notes of a meeting, agenda, etc.
In this research, the writer used the documentation to collect the data.
The data was taken from English and Indonesian textbooks of senior high
school students. The writer took some texts in these textbooks especially
narrative texts. English narrative texts that the writer analyzed were seven
texts from three textbooks. Beside that there were five Indonesian narrative
texts that analyzed. All of the data were collected on April for a month.

D. Technique of Analysis Data


In analyzing the data, Tesch (1990) provided eight steps to consider,
Creswell (1994: 155):
1. Read through all the transcriptions carefully.
2. Pick one document and ask what it is about.
3. When the researcher has completed the task from much information then
make a list of all topics.
4. Abbreviate the topics as code.
5. Reducing the total list of categories by grouping topics.
xlvii

6. Make a final decision on the abbreviation for each category.


7. Assemble the data material belonging to each category in one place and
perform a preliminary analysis.
8. If necessary, the researcher will recode the existing data.
The writer needed some procedure that should be done to analyze the
data. These steps were selecting and categorizing.
1. Selecting
In this step the writer sellected the textbooks firstly. The English
textbooks entitle Look Ahead for senior high school student year X, XI,
XII

were chosen because this textbook contained many example of

narrative texts. The Indonesian textbooks that the writer selected were
Pelajaran Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia for senior high school student
year XI, and Mahir Berbahasa Indonesia for senior high school student
year X, XII. It also had the example of narrative text. Besides that, all of
the textbooks also gave the explanation of narrative is very clearly.
2. Categorizing
After selecting the textbooks, then the writer separated the
narrative texts with other text types contained in the English and
Indonesian textbooks. Then, from the narrative texts the writer separated
the words that added by prefix and suffix with the other words. After that,
the words were classified based on the kinds of English and Indonesian
prefix and suffix and listing the data. Finally, the writer tries to find out the
similarities and the differences among them and takes the conclusion.

xlviii

CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS
In this fourth chapter, the writer is going to analyze the data through
categorized the data into their kinds of English and Indonesian prefix and suffix.
As the second analysis, the writer analyzed the differences and similarities of
English and Indonesian prefix and suffix.
A. Analysis of the English Prefix and Suffix
Here the writer analyzed the words in the narrative text of students
senior high school textbooks and present the analysis in the form of table. The
analysis based on the kinds of English prefixes and suffixes.
A.1 Prefix
The first analysis is the English prefixes and their kinds. There were
four types of prefixes; quantified prefixes, locative prefixes, temporal prefixes
and negation prefixes. The writer showed the data of prefixes as the table
below.
Table 4.1 Types of English Prefix
No

Types of Prefix

Total in Number

Quantified Prefixes

Locative Prefixes

Temporal Prefixes

Negation Prefixes

xlix

From all of the English data of prefixes, the writer did not find the
words that categorizing in the quantified, locative, and temporal prefixes in
the narrative texts. The prefixes data that have found in seven narrative texts
was only categorizing as negation prefixes as the table below.
Table 4.2 Words of Prefixes in Texts
No

Title of Text

English Prefixes

The Black Cat

Nothing, dislike

The History of Jack and the Beanstalk

Disposition

The Faithfull Lovers

Nobody

From the seven texts, the writer found four words as negation prefixes
in the three texts; the Black Cat, the History of Jack and the Beanstalk,
and the Faithfull Lovers. Here is the detailed information of negation
prefixes:
Table 4.3 Negation Prefixes in the Black Cat Text
Type of prefixes
Negation

Word
Nothing

Paragraph
5th

Sentence
There was suddenly nothing

Prefixes

left.
Dislike

7th

I soon began to dislike the cat


because it often stared at me
with a strange and hatred look.

Table 4.4 Negation Prefixes in the History of Jack and the Beanstalk
Text
Type of

Word

Paragraph

Sentence

prefixes
1st

Negation Disposition

His follies were not owing to a

Prefixes

bad disposition but his mother


had never checked on him.

Table 4.5 Negation Prefixes in the Faithfull Lovers Text


Type of

Word

Paragraph

Sentence

prefixes
Negation Nobody

12nd

Meanwhile,

Prefixes

the

chiefs

daughter

mourned for her lover as for a husband


and nobody could comfort her.

A.2 Suffixes
The second analysis is the type of English suffixes. There are four
types of suffixes; nominal suffixes, verbal suffixes, adjectival suffixes and
adverbial suffixes. The writer showed the suffixes data in the table form.
Table 4.6 Types of English Suffix
No

Types of Suffix

Total in Number

Nominal Suffixes

18

Verbal Suffixes

li

Adjectival Suffixes

14

Adverbial Suffixes

22

The table below mentions the words that found by the writer in the
seven narrative texts as nominal, adjectival, and adverbial suffixes.
Table 4.7 Words of Suffixes in Texts
No

Title of Text

Types of English Suffixes


Nominal

Thumbelina

The

Golden Princess,

Snail

The

Adverbial

Muddy

Hardly

Beautiful,

Secretly,

suffering, fiance golden, thirsty, suddenly,


meeting

Adjectival

Stronger

The Black Cat

Suspicion

touching

sadly, happily

Trashy

Fairly

Horrible,

Peacefully,

suspicious,

nearly

Man
4

Ockok

the Handful

Owl and Wak


the Hawk
6

The

Faithfull Hunter,

Lovers

lover, Beautiful,

Suddenly,

mourning,

mysterious,

fortunately,

obstruction

curious

greedily

lii

The History of Consequence,

Enormous,

Instantly,

Jack and the attention,

delicious,

fiercely,

Beanstalk

direction,

quickly,

thickness,

surprisingly,

appearance

suddenly,
loudly, really,
happily,

The table below is the detailed information of nominal suffixes,


adjectival suffixes and adverbial suffixes in the narrative texts:
1)

Nominal Suffixes
There were eighteen words that added suffixes and classified in
nominal suffixes as the table below.
Table 4.8 Nominal Suffixes in Sentence

No

Title of text

Word

Paragraph
1st

The Golden Princess


Snail

Sentence

Dewi

Galuh

Candra

Kirana was a princess


from the Kingdom of
Daha.
5th

Princess

I am the princess of
Daha

5th

Suffering

liii

She

prayed,

wishing

that

Galuh

Candra

kiranas suffering will


end soon.
6th

Fiance

Raden

Inu

Kertapati

heard the news that his


fiance was thrown out
from the palace.
7th

Meeting

The meeting was very


touching.

Suffering

The

Black Suspicion

7th

Her suffering was over.

10th

The fourth day after the

Cat

death of my wife, the


police

came

to

my

house because of my
neighbors suspicion.

12th

Ockok

the Handful

Owl

and

away! Instead, he bent

Wak

the

down and picked up a

Hawk

But Wak did not go

handful of sand and


threw

it

into

his

brothers eyes.

The

3rd

Hunter

He was a good hunter

Faithfull

but he was poor and

Lovers

had a mean family.

liv

9th

Lover

The lover drank the


water at a draught.

11th

Mourning

There

was

mourning

great

over

the

death of the five young


men and for the lost
lover.

Obstruction

11th

Canoes

had

to

be

portaged at great labor


around the obstruction.

The History Consequence

1st

The consequence of her

of Jack and Attention

blind partiality was that

the

Jack did not pay the

Beanstalk

least

attention

to

anything she said.


3rd

Butcher

As he was going along,


Jack met a butcher.

4th

Direction

She fiercely kicked the


beans away and they
flew in all directions
with

some

being

scattered in the garden.

lv

5th

Thickness
Appearance

The stalks were of an


immense thickness and
had so entwined that
they formed a ladder
almost like a chain in
appearance.

2)

Verbal Suffixes
The data of verbal suffixes did not find in all of the English narrative
texts.

3)

Adjectival Suffixes
The writer found some words that classified as adjectival suffixes
amount of fourteen words and showed in the table below.
Table 4.9 Adjectival Suffixes in Sentence

No

Title of text

Thumbelina

Word

Paragraph
5th

Muddy

Sentence
At the bottom of the
garden,

there

stream

with

banks,

and

was

muddy
that

was

where the old toad lived


with her son.

1st

The Golden Beautiful


Snail

She was kind and very


beautiful.

lvi

2nd

Golden

There she was cursed


and turned into a golden
snail.

5th

Beautiful

Suddenly

the

snail

turned into a beautiful


girl.
6th

Thirsty

After walking for hours,


he became thirsty.

7th

Touching

The meeting was very


touching.

The

5th

Trashy

Then, the general said, I

Stronger

see it no use picking and

Man

choosing among such a


trashy lot.

The

5th

Black Horrible

Cat

I was terrified and could


not

forget

such

horrible sight.
12th

Suspicious

The

police

were

suspicious and they tore


the wall down.

5th

The Faithful Beautiful


lovers

Before they started, they


sat down to smoke and
rest beside a beautiful

lvii

lake at the foot of a


green knoll that rose
from its shore.

Mysterious

5th

The knoll was covered


with green grass and
somehow as they look at
it they had a feeling that
there

was

about

it

something
that

was

mysterious and uncanny.


6th

Curious

One

of

the

lovers

friends was so curious


about it that he ventured
into the knoll.

6th

The History Enormous


of Jack and
the

room.
6th

Delicious

Beanstalk

4)

He was in an enormous

He started to eat the


delicious food.

Adverbial Suffixes
There were twenty two words that found by the writer as the
adverbial suffixes as the table below.

lviii

Table 4.10 Adverbial Suffixes in Sentence


No

Title of text

Thumbelina

Word

Paragraph
3rd

Hardly

Sentence
Why, the pretty little
thing is hardly as big as
my thumb!

5th

The Golden Secretly


Snail

Then, she secretly hid


behind the door.

5th

Suddenly

Suddenly

the

snail

turned into a beautiful


girl.
5th

Sadly

Galuh Ajeng is very


cruel,

said

Nyai

Dadapan sadly.
7th

Happily

My

dear

Kirana!

he

Candra
cried

happily.

The

10th

Fairly

The general looked at

Stronger

him, then burst into a

Man

laugh, Fairly caught!

The

1st

Black Peacefully

Cat

But in order to die


peacefully must tell my

lix

story.
5th

Suddenly

There

was

nothing

suddenly

left,

but

strange thing happened.


8th

Nearly

It got between my feet


and nearly made me
trip down the stairs.

7th

The Faithful Suddenly


Lovers

But,

suddenly

they

stopped.

Fortunately

8th

Fortunately, the lovers


friend came to help
him.

9th

Greedily

When the lover saw the


river, he walked to the
river, sprang in, and
lying down in the water
with his head toward
land, drank greedily.

4th

The History Instantly

The bargain was struck

of Jack and

instantly and the cow

the

exchanged

Beanstalk

beans.
4th

Fiercely

for

the

She fiercely kicked the


beans away and they

lx

flew in all directions


with

some

being

scattered in the garden.


5th

Quickly
Surprisingly

Quickly,

he

ran

downstairs

into

the

garden, where he soon


discovered that some of
the beans had taken root
and

sprung

up

surprisingly.
7th

Suddenly

Suddenly,

he

heard

rumbling noise coming


from a corner of the
room.

Loudly

7th

He was snoring loudly.

Really

7th

Jack was really scared.

Quickly

8th

Jack

quickly

jumped

down from the table


and grabbed some coins
from the floor.
10th

Suddenly

Suddenly,

he

tripped

and fell into the floor


with a crash.

lxi

14th

Happily

The goose continued to


lay golden eggs and
they lived happily ever
after.

B. Analysis of Indonesian Prefix and Suffix


These analyses below based on the kinds of Indonesian prefixes
and suffixes. The writer showed the analyzing data in the table form.

B.1 Prefix
Firstly the writer analyzed the kinds of Indonesian prefixes.
Indonesian prefixes had some types; forming verb, forming adjective,
forming noun, forming numeral, and forming interrogative. Many
words that added prefixes were found in the narrative as the table
below.
Table 4.11 Types of Indonesian Prefix
No

Types of Prefix

Total in Number

Forming Verb

75

Forming Adjective

11

Forming Noun

Forming Numeral

21

Forming Interrogative

lxii

The writer shows all of the data of the words that categorized
based on the type of prefixes above in the table below:
a) Forming Verb
Table 4.12 Words of Forming Verb Prefixes in Texts
No

Title of Text

Legenda Badhong Gatutkaca

Indonesian Prefixes

Terkenal,
mengganggu,
mengalir,

berasal,

berusia, berperang,
melihat,

bernama,

merasa,

menolak,

mengirim, membaca,
menahan, membakar,
melawan, mengutus,
berusaha, menjawab,
melapor,

berfikir,

mengingat, memilih,
berangkat, meminta.

Hikayat Si Miskin atau Hikayat Mencari,


Marakarma

meminta,

memuja, menyuruh,
menangkap, berburu,
mengngis, menaruh,
mengubah,memohon

Terjadinya Selat Bali

Menolong, menikah,
berjudi,memupuk,
menangis,

lxiii

berjalan

menghutang, melihat
membayar,
menjawab,

merasa,

menyambung.

Hikayat Muhasyodak

Menolong,
menghukum,
mengancam,
meminta,

mencoba,

mendengar,
mengirim,

mencari,

menyuruh, member,
mengambil,
menjawab, berjalan,
bertanya, membawa.

Asal Usul Gunung Saba Mpolulu

Berupaya,

berpikir,

melihat, mengangkat,
menembak.

b) Forming Adjective
Table 4.13 Words of Forming Adjective Prefixes in texts
No

Title of Text

Legenda Badong Gatutkaca

Indonesian Prefixes

Sejenis, sepanjang,
seputar,sepasang,
bersatu, bersama

lxiv

Terjadinya Selat Bali

Terkenal, beribadat,
beragama

Hikayat Muhasyodak

Berdusta

c) Forming Noun
Table 4.14 Words of Forming Noun Prefixes in Texts
No
1

Title of Text
Legenda Badong Gatutkaca

Indonesian Prefixes
Petunjuk, penjilat,
perampok

Terjadinya Selat Bali

Penjudi

Asal Usul Gunung Saba Mpolulu

Penjaga

d) Forming Numeral
Table 4.15 Words of Forming Numeral Prefixes in Texts
No

Title of Text

Legenda Badong Gatutkaca

Indonesian Prefixes

Beberapa, seorang,
kedua, ketiga,

Hikayat Si Miskin atau Hikayat

Seorang, seekor

Marakarma
3

Terjadinya Selat Bali

Sewaktu, kedua,
beberapa, setahun

lxv

Hikayat Muhasyodhak

Seorang, keempat,
sebuah,

Asal Usul Gunung Saba Mpolulu

Sekali, kedua,
seorang, pertama

The tables below are the detailed information about the words that
categorized as forming verb, forming adjective, forming noun, forming
numeral.
1)

Forming Verb
The first types of Indonesian prefixes was the prefix that
forming verb. From the result of analysis, the writer found seventy
five words as prefixes as forming verb and showed them in the
table below.
Table 4.16 Forming Verb Prefixes in Sentence

No

Title of text

Word

Legenda

Terkenal

Badhong

(Famous)

Paragraph
1st

Sentence

Di wilayah Yogyakarta
sebelah

Gatutkaca

utara,

tidak

jauh dari Musium Seni


Rupa
terkenal

Affandi

yang

itu,

ada

sebuah dusun dengan


sebutan
Pringgodani.

lxvi

nama

Mengganggu

1st

(Annoy)

Batu

ini

kemudian

dihancurkan

sedikit

demi

sedikit

dengan

palu

besi

karena

mengganggu.
2nd

Mengalir
(Flow)

Menurut beberapa ahli


geologi,

jenis

batu

besar itu sama dengan


jenis

batu-batu

ada

di

yang

sepanjang

Sungai Gajah Wong,


yang mengalir di sisi
Museum

Seni

Rupa

Affandi.
2nd

Berasal
(Coming)

Dari

petunjuk

ini,

diperkirakan batu besar


itu berasal dari perut
Gunung Merapi yang
meletus

pada

abad

yang lalu.
3rd

Berusia
(Attain

the

age)

Akan tetapi, beberapa


orang penduduk yang
tinggal

di

Dusun

Pringgodani, terutama
yang

berusia

lanjut

mempunyai pandangan
yang berbeda.

lxvii

Berperang

3rd

(at war)

Menurut mereka batu


besar dengan bagian
atas

yang

runcing

sangat

itu

pada

mulanya

adalah

badhong

milik

Gatutkaca,
tokoh

seorang

dari

pewayangan,
kesatria

jagat
seorang

Bima

yang

dikenal sangat terampil


berperang, sakti, dan
memiliki

kemampuan

terbang

dengan

kecepatan

mencapai

10.000km per detik.


4th

Melihat
(Look)

Jika kita melihat tokoh


wayang, baik itu tampil
dalam wujud wayang
orang

atau

wayang

kulit maka kita akan


melihat sejumlah tokoh
mengenakan semacam
sayap dipunggungnya.
5th

Bernama
(Named)

Salah seorang paman


Gatutkaca

bernama

Brojodento,

tiba-tiba

punya pikiran aneh.

lxviii

5th

Merasa
(Feel)

Disamping itu, sebagai


putra

sulung

Arimbi,

Raja

Brojodento

merasa berhak tahta itu


sesudah

ayahandanya

mangkat.
6th

Menolak

Konsekuen

dengan

Menghadap

keputusannya,

ia

(Refuse,
face)

menolak untuk pergi


menghadap

di

Kerajaan Pringgodani
dan

melaksanakan

tugas-tugas

yang

dibebankan kepadanya
sebagaimana layaknya
punggawa

Kerajaan

Pringgodani.
6th

Mengirim
(Sent)

Mereka mengirim surat


lewat

salah

seorang

utusan

yang

menegaskan bahwa jika


dalam
minggu

waktu

satu
sesudah

diterimanya surat itu,


Gatutkaca tidak juga
menyerahkan mahkota
dan tahta kepadanya,
maka

lxix

Kerajaan

Pringgodani

akan

digempur.
7th

Membaca
(Read)

Membaca

surat

Garutkaca

itu

menjadi

sedih.
7th

Bernama
(Named)

Adapun

pakaian

itu

berupa, pertama kutang


bernama

Antakusuma

yang

membuatnya

bagaikan mengenakan
jaket anti peluru.
7th

Menahan

Kedua tutup kepla yang

Membakar

diberi nama Basunda,

(Hold

semacam

back,

burn)

helm

mempunyai

kesaktian

menahan hujan deras,


petir,

dan

matahari

panas
yang

membakar.
7th

Melawan
(Against)

Ia merasa tidak pantas


perang
melawan

tanding
Brojodento

karena bagi Gatutkaca


Brojodento

sudah

dianggap seperti orang


tuanya sendiri.

lxx

7th

Mengutus
(Delegate)

Dalam

keadaan

bimbang

seperti

itu,

Arimbi ibunya akhirnya


mengutus

adiknya

Brojomusti

dan

Brojolamatan
menemui
dan

untuk

Brojodento
mengingatkan

bahwa sikap yang telah


dipilihnya keliru.
8th

Berusaha

Brojomusti

dan

Melawan

Brojolamatan berusaha

(Effort,

mengingatkan

against)

abangnya bahwaa apa


yang ia lakukan dapat
disebut makar karena
telah

melawan

pemerintahan yang sah.

Menjawab

8th

(Answer)

Brojodento

menjawab

bahwa Brojomusti dan


Brojolamatan

dapat

dikatakan

kesatria

penjilat karena tidak


mempunyai

pendirian

yang teguh.
10th

Melapor
(Report)

Dalam
yang

lxxi

pertempuran
semakin

tidak

seimbang

akhirnya

Brojomusti memutuskan
melarikan

diri,

demikian

juga

Brojolamatan

dan

melapor kepada Raja


Muda Gatutkaca.
11th

Berpikir
(Think)

Mereka

berpikir

mungkin dengan cara


itu

Brojomusti

dan

Brojolamatan bisa lebih


mantap

dalam

membaktikan

dirinya

kepada negara.

Mengingat

13th

Dengan

mengingat

Berangkat

petuah

ibunya,

(Remember,

Gatutkaca

set out)

menghadapi pamannya

berangkat

sendiri.
13th

Memilih
(Choose)

Brojodento

bingung

memilih

mana

Gatutkaca

yang

sebenarnya.
13th

Meminta
(Ask)

Dalam keadaan kacau


itulah,
meminta

lxxii

Gatutkaca
bantuan

Brojomusti

dan

Brojolamatanyang
sudah merasuk dalam
tangan kiri dan paha
kanan.

Hikayat

Si Mengelilingi

1st

Adapun pekerjaan si

Miskin atau Mencari

Miskin

Hikayat

(Around,

negeri mencari rezeki

Marakarma

look for)

setiap hari adanya.


1st

Meminta
(Ask)

mengelilingi

Biarpun

gentar,

terpaksa juga si Miskin


meminta

mempelam

dari raja.
2nd

Memuja
(Worship)

Dengan memuja dewa,


sebuah

negeri

juga

muncul.

Menyuruh

2nd

(Order)

Maharaja Indra Dewa


lalu

menyuruh

para

ahli nujum mengatakan


bahwa anak si Miskin
itu celaka adanya.

Menangkap
(Catch)

3rd

Pada

hari

Marakarma

berhasil

menangkap

seekor

burung.

lxxiii

suatu

4th

Berburu
(Hunt)

Pada

suatu

Mangindra

hari,

Sari

pun

pergi berburu.

Menangis

4th

(Cry)

Didapatinya

Nila

Kesuma

menangis

dibawah

pohon

waringin.
6th

Menaruh
(Put)

Seekor ikan menaruh


kasihan

pada

Marakarma

dan

membawanya

ke

NegeriPelinggam
Cahaya dimana kapal
itu singgah.

Mengubah

6th

(Change)

Dengan

mengubah

bunga,

Marakarma

dapat

berhubungan

dengan istrinya, Putri


Cahaya Khairani.

Memohon
(Begged)

7th

Marakarma
memberitahu

siapa

dirinya

yang

sebenarnya

lxxiv

dan

memohon

supaya

Puspa

berdiri

Sari

seperti semula.

Terjadinya

Menolong

Selat Bali

(Help)

2nd

Begawan

Sidhimantra

selain terkenal sebagai


Brahmana yang sakti,
juga terkenal sebagai
orang

pertapa

ramah

dan

yang
senang

menolong

hingga

disegani

penduduk

sekitar padepokan.
3rd

Menikah
(Married)

Sesudah

menikah

beberapa

tahun,

keluarga

itu

memperoleh putra yang


sangat cakap.

Menunjuk

10th

(Indicate)

Tinggal
mana

menunjuk
ayam

yang

menang dan dia akan


dibayar.
13th

Berjudi
(Gamble)

Jadi kau mulai berjudi


anakku?

13th

Memupuk
(Manure)

Kalau kau suka berjudi,


berartikau

telah

memupuk sifat jahat!

lxxv

Menangis

16th

(Cry)

Dia

hanya

dapat

menangis diam-diam.

Menghutang

17th

(Debt)

Dia tetap mengunjungi


arena judi dan sebagai
barang taruhannya, dia
berani

menghutang

pada para penjudi yang


lain.
20th

Berjalan
(Walk)

Beberapa

hari

Begawwan Sidhimantra
berjalan, yang diikuti
dengan diam-diam oleh
Manik Angkeran.
26th

Melihat
(See)

Manik
melihat

Angkeran
kejadian

itu

dengan takjub.

Mendatangi

28th

Manik

Angkeran

Membayar

mendatangi

(Come, pay)

kawan berjudinya dan


membayar

kawan-

hutang-

hutangnya.

Menjawab
(Answer)

35th

Manik
menjawab
gemetar.

lxxvi

Angkeran
dengan

41st

Merasa
(Feel)

Aku merasa berterima


kasih.

Menyambung

41st

(Connect)

Akan tetapi sahabatku,


Manik Angkeran adalah
satu-satunya

anakku

yang

akan

menyambung
keturunanku!

Memancar

43rd

(Spray)

Dari sana memancar


air yang semakin lama
semakin besar.

1st

Hikayat

Menolong

Sejak kecil ia sudah

Muhasyodh

Menghukum

dapat

ak

(Help,

bapanya

punish)

sekalian orang didalam

menolong
menghukum

dusun dengan betul dan


benarnya, serta dengan
keras siasatnya.
1st

Berhasil

Dia

juga

berhasil

Mengancam

menentukan siapa ibu

Membelah

dari

(Success,

dengan

threaten,

akan membelah anak

cleave)

itu menjadi dua.

lxxvii

seorang

anak

mengancam

2nd

Meminta

Keempat

guru

raja

Mencoba

meminta

izin

untuk

(Ask, try)

mencobakebijaksanaan
Muhasyodhak dahulu.

Mendengar

3rd

Raja sangat sukacita

Mengirim

mendengar

istrinya

(Hear, sent)

berasalmdari

bangsa

yang

mulia,

lalu

mengirim mata benda


yang

banyak

pada

mentuanya.
4th

Mencari
(Look for)

Dengan

akal

juga

orang boleh mencari


harta.

Menyuruh

5th

Raja

ketakutan

dan

Memanggil

menyuruh memanggil

(Order, Call)

Muhasyodhak kembali
ke istana.

Menjawab

5th

(Answer)

Dengan mudah saja,


Muhasyodak menjawab
teka-teki itu.

Memberi
(Give)

7th

Tatkala

Muhasyodhak

sudah

sampai

14th

umurnya, raja hendak


memberi

lxxviii

istri

kepadanya.
7th

Meminta

Muhasyodak

meminta

Mencari

izin supaya dia boleh

(Request,

mencari istri sendiri.

look for)
8th

Berjalan
(Walk)

Selang beberapa hari,


Muhasyodak

pun

berjalan

pulang

bersama-sama dengan
Citata.
8th

Bertanya
(Ask)

Tatkala sampai ditepi


sungai,

Muhasyodak

bertanya kepada Citata


apakah

sungai

itu

dalam atau tohor.

Menyuruh

8th

Pada keesokan harinya,

Membawa

Muhasyodak menyuruh

(Order,

sepuluh sepuluh orang

bring)

perempuan

membawa

Citata ke hadapannya.

Asal

Usul Berupaya

Gunung

2nd

(Struggle)

Meskipun

begitu,

penjaga Gunung Saba

Saba

Mpolulu tetap berupaya

Mpolulu

memiliki air itu.


3rd

Berpikir

lxxix

Sesudah itu, penjaga

(Think)

Gunung Saba Mpolulu


berpikir sejenak.
3rd

Melihat
(See)

Penjaga Gunung Saba


Mpolulu

bertambah

marah ketika melihat


sikap penjaga Gunung
Kamonsope.

Mengangkat

4th

(Raise)

Sebagai jalan terakhir,


penjaga Saba Mpolulu
mengangkat
hendak

senjata
memerangi

penjaga

Gunung

Kamonsope.

Menembak
(Fire)

5th

Kini,

tiba

penjaga

giliran
Gunung

Kamonsopo

yang

menembak

penjaga

Gunung Mpolulu.

2) Forming Adjective
The second type of Indonesian prefixes was adjective
prefixes. There are eleven words that detectable into this type as
the table below.

lxxx

Table 4.17 Forming Adjective Prefixes in Sentence


No

Title of text

Word

Paragraph

Legenda

Sepanjang

Badong

(As long as)

2nd

Sentence

Menurut beberapa ahli


geologi,

Gatutkaca

jenis

batu

besar itu sama dengan


jenis

batu-batu

ada

di

yang

sepanjang

Sungai Gajah Wong,


yang mengalir di sisi
Museum

Seni

Rupa

Affandi.
2nd

Sejenis

Batu besar itu juga

Sepanjang

sejenis

Seputar

dapat

dengan

yang

dilihat

di

(Same,

as

sepanjang Kali Krasak,

long

as,

di seputar perbatasan

around)

antara Yogyakarta dan


Magelang.
7th

Sepasang
(A pair)

Ketiga,

sepasang

terompah yang diberi


nama Madu Kacreman.
13th

Bersatu,

Sebelum

ia

Bersama

menghembuskan nafas

(Together)

yang terakhir, ia minta


pada

Gatutkaca

jika

diperkenankan dia juga

lxxxi

ingin

bersatu

tubuh

dalam

Gatutkaca

bersama

kedua

saudranya yang lain.

2nd

Terjadinya

Terkenal

Selat Bali

(Famous)

Begawan

Sidhimantra

selain terkenal sebagai


Brahmana yang sakti,
juga terkenal sebagai
orang

pertapayang

ramah

dan

senang

menolong
disegani

hingga
penduduk

sekitar padepokan.

Beribadat

13th

Ayah

adalah

Beragama

yang

beribadat,

(Religious)

beragama,

orang
taat
dan

disegani orang.

Hikayat

Berdusta

Muhasyodh

(Lie)

8th

Citata tidak mengenal


Muhasyodhak

ak

dan

dituduh berdusta lalu


dikurung dalam sebuah
rumah kecil.

lxxxii

3) Forming Noun
The third type is prefixes that forming noun and the writer
found five words that included forming noun prefixes, as the table
form below.
Table 4.18 Forming Noun Prefixes in Sentence
No

Title of text

Word

Legenda

Petunjuk

Badong

(Clue)

Paragraph
2nd

Sentence

Dari

petunjuk

ini

diperkirakan batu besar

Gatutkaca

itu berasal dari perut


Gunung Merapi yang
meletus pada abad lalu.
8th

Penjilat
(Bootlicker)

Brojodento

menjawab

bahwa Brojomusti dan


Brojolamatan

dapat

dikatakan
penjilat

kesatria
karena

mempunyai

tidak

pendirian

yang teguh.

Perampok

8th

(Robber)

Brojodento
menambahkan
Arimbi

bahwa
adiknya,

demikian

juga

Gatutkaca,

ibaratnya

adalah

perampok

mahkota dan tahta yang


seharusnya

lxxxiii

jatuh

ke

tangan Brojodento.

13th

Terjadinya

Penjudi

Selat Bali

(Gambler)

Pada akhirnya kau akan


menjadi penjudi besar
kalau

tidak

mau

hentikan sekarang!

Asal

Usul Penjaga

Gunung

2nd

(Keeper)

Air

milik

Gunung

Mpolulu

penjaga
Kamonsope

diminta oleh penjaga


Gunung Saba Mpolulu.
3rd

Sesudah

itu,

penjaga

Gunung Saba Mpolulu


berpikir sejenak.
4th

Penjaga Gunung Saba


Mpolulu semakin kesal.

5th

Kini,

tiba

penjaga
Kamonsope
menembak

giliran
Gunung
yang
penjaga

Gunung Saba Mpolulu.

lxxxiv

4) Forming Numeral
The fourth types of Indonesian prefixes are the prefix that
forming numeral. From the result of analysis, the writer found
twenty one words as prefixes as forming verb and showed them in
the table below.
Table 4.19 Forming Numeral Prefixes in Sentence
No

Title of text

Word

Legenda

Beberapa

Badhong

(Some)

Paragraph
2nd

Sentence

Menurut beberapa ahli


geologi,

Gatutkaca

jenis

batu

besar itu sama dengan


jenis

batu-batu

ada

di

yang

sepanjang

Sungai Gajah Wong,


yang mengalir di sisi
Museum

Seni

Rupa

Affandi.
6th

Seorang
(Someone)

Ia mengirimkan surat
lewat seorang utusan
yang menegaskan jika
dalam

waktu

minggu

satu

sesudahnya

surat

diterima

Gatutkaca tidak juga


mau

menyerahkan

mahkota
kepadanya,

lxxxv

dan

tahta
maka

kerajaanya

akan

digempur.

Kedua

7th

(Twice)

Kedua,
yang

tutup

kepala

diberi

nama

Basunda semacam helm


yang

mempunyai

kesaktian

menahan

hujan deras, petir, dan


panas matahari yang
membakar.

Ketiga

7th

(Third)

Ketiga,

sepasang

terompah yang diberi


nama Madu Kacreman.

Kedua

11th

(Twice)

Demikianlah,
paman

itu

kedua
merasuk

kedalam telapak tangan


kiri dan paha sebelah
kanan Gatutkaca.

Kedua

13th

(Twice)

Seketika,

kedua

saudara

berubah

menjadi

kekuatan

mahadahsyat
menyembur

itu
keluar

dengan sentakan penuh


dan

langsung

menghntam Brojodento.

lxxxvi

Hikayat

1st

Si Seorang

Tersebutlah perkataan

Miskin atau (Someone)

seorang raja keindraan

Hikayat

yang

Marakarma

Batara Indra.
6th

Seekor
(a)

kena

Seekor

sumpah

ikan

menaruh

nun
kasihan

Marakarma

dan

membawanya ke Negeri
Pelinggam Cahaya di
mana kapal itu singgah.

Terjadinya

Sewaktu

Selat Bali

(When)

1st

Konon, kisah ini terjadi


sewaktu

pulau

Jawa

dan pulau Bali belum


terpisah.

4th

Kedua
(Twice)

Ia merupakan jantung
hati

kedua

orang

tuanya.

Beberapa

20th

(Some)

Beberapa

hari

Begawan

Sidimantra

berjalan, yang diikuti


dengan diam-diam oleh
Manik Angkeran.

lxxxvii

38th

Beberapa
Setahun

harta

yang

kuberi beberapa waktu

(Some,

yang lalu tidak akan

year)

Rasanya

habis dalam setahun.

Hikayat

Seorang

Muhasyodh

(Someone)

1st

Tersebut

perkataan

seorang saudagar Buka

ak

Sakti

namanya

yang

tiada beranak.

Keempat

1st

(Fourth)

Raja

juga

hendak

menjadikannya

dia

pegawai menteri, tetapi


keempat

orang

guru

tidak setuju.
8th

Sebuah
(a)

Citata tidak mengenal


Muhasyodhak

dan

dituduh berdusta lalu


dikurung dalam sebuah
rumah kecil.

Asal

2nd

Usul Sekali

Sekali peristiwa, kedua

Gunung

Kedua

gunung ini berkelahi

Mpolulu

(Once,

gara-gara air.

twice)

Seorang

3rd

(Someone)

Dalam

Sesungguhnya aku ini


laki-laki,

lxxxviii

hatinya,

sedangkan

penjaga

Kamonsope

seorang perempuan.
4th

Pertama
(First)

Tembakan
tidak

pertama
mengenai

sasaran.
4th

Kedua
(Twice)

Tembakan

kedua,

peluru

sampai

tidak

kena sasaran.

5)

Forming Interrogative
In the last types of Indonesian prefixes, the writer was not
found the prefixes that forming interrogative in the Indonesian
narrative texts.

B.2 Suffix
Secondly the writer analyzed the kinds of Indonesian suffixes.
From all of the kinds of Indonesian suffixes (forming verb, forming
adjective, forming noun, forming numeral, and forming interrogative), the
writer did not find the suffixes that categorized as forming verb, forming
adjective, forming numeral, and forming interrogative in the Indonesian
narrative texts. Therefore, the writer only showed the data that categorized
as suffixes forming noun amount of thirteen, as the table below.

lxxxix

Table.20 Types of Indonesian Suffix


No

Types of Suffix

Total in Number

Forming Verb

Forming Adjective

Forming Noun

13

Forming Numeral

Forming Interrogative

The suffixes data that have found in five narrative texts was only
categorizing as suffix that can forming noun, the words is in the table
below.
Table 4.21 Indonesian Suffixes in Texts
No

Title of Text

English Suffixes

Legenda Badong Gatutkaca

Pandangan, gambaran,
tantangan,
pakaian,
pimpinan, bantuan

Terjadinya Selat Bali

Hartawan

Hikayat Muhasyodak

Pakaian, makanan

Asal Usul Gunung Saba Mpolulu

Tembakan,
giliran

sasaran,

From the explanation above, the writer gives detailed information


about the suffixes that forming noun as the table below:

xc

Table 4.22 Forming Noun Suffixes in Sentence


No

Title of text

Word

Legenda

Pandangan

Badhong

(View)

Paragraph
3rd

Sentence

Akan tetapi, beberapa


orang penduduk yang

Gatotkaca

tinggal

di

dusun

Pringgodani, terutama
yang berusia lanjut,
mempunyai pandangan
yang berbeda.

Gambaran

4th

(Picture)

Namun

demikian,

badhong

bukan

gambaran

sayap;

benda itu sebenarnya


menggambarkan
peraba atau semacam
sayap dipunggungnya.

Tantangan
(Challenge)

7th

Membaca
Gatutkaca

surat

itu

menjadi

sedih; demikian pula


Arimbi ibunya, sebab
jika

Gatutkaca

melayani

tantangan

Brojodento,

berarti

Gatutkaca
berhadapan

akan
dengan

pamanya sendiri.

xci

Pakaian

7th

(Cloth)

Secara fisik Gatutkaca


tidak takut karena oleh
para dewa telah diberi
sejumlah

pakaian

khusus yang memiliki


kekuatan tertentu.

Pimpinan

12th

Dalam waktu singkat

(Leadership

datanglah

dibawah

pasukan
pimpinan

Brojodento.

Bantuan

13th

(Helping)

Dalam keadaan kacau


itulah,

Gatutkaca

meminta

bantuan

Brojomusti

dan

Brojolamatan

yang

sudah merasuk dalam


telapak tangan kiri dan
paha kanan.

17th

Terjadinya

Hartawan

Mereka

tidak

Selat Bali

(Wealthy

meragukannya karena

person)

Bedawan

Sidimantra

terkenal pula sebagai


seorang
selain
Brahmana.

xcii

hartawan
sebagai

Hikayat

Pakaian

Muhasyodak

(Cloth)

7th

Dengan

memakai

pakaian darji (tukang


jahit) dan membawa
pundi yang berisi kain
perca, benang, jarum

Makanan

8th

Pada

malamnya,

Pakaian

Muhasyodak menyuruh

(Food,

orang

cloth)

makanan dan pakaian

mengantarkan

kepada Citata.
4

Asal

Usul Tembakan

4th

Tembakan

Gunung Saba Sasaran

tidak

Mpolulu

sasaran.

(Shoothing,

pertama
mengenai

target)
5th

Giliran
(Turn)

Kini, giliran penjaga


Gunung
yang

Kamonsope
menembak

penjaga Gunung Saba


Mpolulu.

C. Analysis of the Differences and Similarities Kinds between English


and Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes
From the analyses data above, the writer can recognize the
differences and similarities kinds of English and Indonesian prefixes and
suffixes.

xciii

C.1 Differences
Table 4.23 the Differences of English and Indonesian Prefixes
No

Difference

Kinds of Prefixes

English

Indonesian

In English prefixes, In

Indonesian

there are no types of prefixes, there are


prefixes that forming no types of prefixes
verb, adjective, noun, that
and interrogative.

show

the

meaning as locative,
temporal,

and

negation prefixes.
2

Kinds of Suffixes

In

English

suffixes There

is

no

there are no types that adverbial suffixes in


forming numeral and Indonesian suffixes
interrogative.

These examples are:


1. English Prefixes
Negation prefixes: There was suddenly nothing left.
2. Indonesian Prefixes
a)

Forming verb: Membaca surat itu Garutkaca menjadi sedih

b) Forming adjective: Begawan Sidhimantra selain terkenal sebagai


Brahmana yang sakti, juga terkenal sebagai orang pertapayang

xciv

ramah dan senang menolong hingga disegani penduduk sekitar


padepokan.
c)

Forming noun: Pada akhirnya kau akan menjadi penjudi besar


kalau tidak mau hentikan sekarang!

d) Forming numeral: Ia merupakan jantung hati kedua orang


tuanya.
3. English suffixes
a)

Nominal suffixes: I am the princess of Daha.

b) Adjectival suffixes: She was kind and very beautiful.


c)

Adverbial suffixes: Then, she secretly hid behind the door.

4. Indonesian suffixes
Forming noun: Pada malamnya, Muhasyodak menyuruh orang
mengantarkan makanan dan pakaian kepada Citata.

C.2 Similarities
Table 4.24 the Similarities of English and Indonesian Suffixes
No
1

Similarity

English

Indonesian

Both have a same In English is called In


type

of

prefixes quantified prefixes.

that show number

Indonesia

called

prefix

forming numeral.

or quantity.

xcv

is

Between
and
have

English The types


Indonesian called

three

same suffixes,

types of suffixes

suffixes,

usually The types usually


nominal called forming noun,
verbal forming

verb,

adjectival forming adjective

suffixes

These examples are:


1. English prefixes
Quantified prefixes: Indonesia has multi-ethnic because have many
cultures from different province.
2. Indonesian prefixes
Forming numeral: Ia merupakan jantung hati kedua orang tuanya.
3. English suffixes
a) Nominal suffixes: The meeting was very touching.
b) Verbal suffixes: They identify the data that found.
c) Adjectival suffixes: After walking four hours, he became
thirsty.
4. Indonesian suffixes
a) Forming noun: Kini, giliran penjaga Gunung Kamonsope yang
menembak penjaga Gunung Saba Mpolulu.
b) Forming verb: Bikinin ayah sarapan!
c) Forming adjective: Cantikan mana antara Anis dan Bella?

xcvi

D. Pedagogical Implication of the Result


The pedagogical implications of the result of this syudy are:
1. This result can be an authentic material for students in language
learning. For example in writing skill, the language focus becomes the
authentic material to make prefixes and suffixes and apply them in the
sentence or text.
2. By seeing the contrastive of English and Indonesian prefixes and
suffixes, the students will more understand the prefixes and suffixes
because they recognize the linguistic theory that is being used.
3. By contrasting the L1 and L2 especially English and Indonesian
prefixes and suffixes, the teachers can help the students to acquire the
L2.

xcvii

CHAPTER V
CLOSURE
This chapter is closure. It consists of conclusion and suggestion.
A. Conclusion
From the previous explanation of the analysis data, the writer can conclude
that:
1.

English prefixes that mostly found in the narrative text of students


textbooks for senior high school are negation prefixes, and the
suffixes are nominal suffixes and adjective suffixes.

2.

Indonesian prefixes that mostly found in the narrative text of students


textbooks for senior high school are prefix that forming verb, and the
suffixes are suffix that forming noun.

3.

The similarities between English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes


are both of their prefixes have the same type that is prefix that shows a
quantity. Then, the same types of English and Indonesian suffixes are
both of them have suffixes that forming noun, verb and adjective.

4.

The differences of English and Indonesia prefixes are in their types. In


English prefixes have types; locative, temporal, and negation. The
types of Indonesian prefixes are forming verb, adjective, noun, and
interrogative. Their kinds are so different in the meaning when added
in a word. In English suffixes have adverbial suffixes. It is not own in
Indonesian suffixes. However in Indonesian suffixes have types
suffixes that forming numeral and interrogative, and in English
suffixes do not have these types.

xcviii

5.

The pedagogical implication of this study are this result can be an


authentic materials for students in language learning, contrasting of
English and Indonesian prefixes and suffixes make the students more
understand the prefixes and suffixes and the teachers can help the
students to acquire the L2.

B. Suggestion
Being interested in analyzing prefixes and suffixes between
English and Indonesian language, the writer tries to give some suggestions
as follows:
1.

The analysis of this graduating paper is limited. Therefore, the writer


suggests the students of English Department who are interested in this
field, to do further research, particularly about the grammatical form
concern.

2.

The writer hopes this graduating paper could be a reference for those
want to do further research in English and Indonesian language.

3.

The last, the writer fully realizes that this graduating paper is still far
from being perfect; therefore any constructive criticism will be highly
appreciated.

xcix

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