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STUDIA

IN

THE LIBRARY
of

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY
Toronto

OUTLINES
OF THE

HISTORY OF DOGMA

OUTLINES
OF THE

HISTORY OF DOGMA

BY

ADOLF HARNACK

DR.

Professor of Church History in the University of Berlin

TRANSLATED BY

EDWIN KNOX MITCHELL, MA.


Ptofeasor of Gr&co-Roman

and Eastern Church History

it

Hartford Theological Seminary

HODDER AND STOUGHTON


27

PATERNOSTER ROW
MDCCCXCHI

Printed

in the

1961

United States

PREFACE.
English translation of

THEder

Dogmengeschichte"

in accordance

with

my

my

"Grundriss

has been made,

expressed wish, by

my

former pupil and esteemed friend, Mr. Edwin


Knox Mitchell. It is my pleasant duty to ex

him here my heartiest thanks.


English and American theological literature

press to

possess excellent works, but they are not rich


in products within the

Dogma.

my

may

"Grundriss"

be most happy,

realm of the History of

therefore perhaps hope that

supply a want. I shall


can with this book do my

will

if I

English and American friends and fellow-work


a small return for the rich
ers some service
benefit which I have reaped from their labors.
In reality, however, there no longer exists any
distinction between German and English theo
logical science.

that

scientific

The exchange
theologians

of

is

now

all

so brisk

evangelical

lands form already one Concilium.

ADOLF HARNACK.
WlLMERSDORF NEAR BERLIN,
March 17th, 1892.

CONTENTS.
Prolegomena to the Discipline
I. Idea and Aim of the History of Dogma
Narrative of the History of Dogma
Presuppositions of the History of Dogma
II.

1
1

...
... .10
.

10

III.

Introductory
IV. The Gospel of Jesus Christ according to His

Own
1^

Testimony
V. The General

Proclamation concerning Jesus


Christ in the First Generation of His Adherents
VI. The Current Exposition of the Old Testament and
the Jewish Future Hope, in their Bearing on the
Earliest Formulation of the Christian Message
.

18

23

The Religious Conceptions and the Religious


Philosophy of the Hellenistic Jews in their Bear
28
ing on the Transformation of the Gospel Message
VIII. The Religious Disposition of the Greeks and Ro
mans in the First Two Centuries and the Contem
VII.

porary Graeco- Roman Philosophy of Religion

PART

32

I.

THE RISE OF ECCLESIASTICAL DOGMA.


BOOK

I.

THE PREPARATION.
Chapter
Chapter

I.

39

Historical Survey

Ground Common to Christians and Attitude


.40
Taken toward Judaism
.
Chapter III. The Common Faith and the Beginnings of
II.

Self-Recognition

which was

in

that Gentile

Christianity

to Develop into Catholicism

43

CONTENTS.

viii

PAGE

Attempt of the Gnostics to Construct an


and to Produce a
Apostolic Doctrine of Faith
Christian Theology or, the Acute Secularization

Chapter IV.

58

of Christianity

Aside the Old Tes


Chapter V. Marcion s Attempt to Set
tament as the Foundation of the Gospel, to Purify

Chapter

Tradition, and to Reform Christianity on the


Basis of the Pauline Gospel
VI. Supplement The Christianity of the Jewish

70

Christians

74

BOOK

II.

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


Chapter
Section

I.

I.

81

Historical Survey

Establishment of Christianity as a Church and

its Gradual Secularization.


The
Setting Forth of the Apostolic Rules
Chapter
The
(Norms) for Ecclesiastical Christianity.
84
Catholic Church
A. The Recasting of the Baptismal Confession into
II.

the Apostolic Rule of Faith


of a Selection of Well-known
as
Belonging to the Old
Virtually
Scriptures
.

B.

85

The Recognition
Testament;

i.

as a Compilation of Apostolic

e.,

Scriptures

The Transformation of the Episcopal Office in the


Church into the Apostolic Office. History of the
95
Transformation of the Idea of the Church
Chapter III. Continuation: The Old Christianity and
100
the New Church
Establishment of Christianity as Doctrine and
Section II.
its Gradual Secularization.
IV.
Ecclesiastical
Christianity and Philosophy.
Chapter
117
The Apologists
Chapter V. Beginnings of an Ecclesiastico-Theological
Exposition and Revision of the Rule of Faith in
C.

Opposition to Gnosticism on the Presupposition of


the New Testament and the Christian Philosophy
of the Apologists
tus,

Irenaaus, Tertullian, Hippoly-

Cyprian, Novatian

130

CONTENTS.

IX
PAGE

Transformation of Ecclesiastical Tradition


into a Philosophy of Religion, or the Origin of
Scientific Ecclesiastical Theology and Dogmatics
Clement and Origen
149
Chapter VII. Decisive Result of Theological Speculation
within the Realm of the Rule of Faith, or the Defin

Chapter VI.

ing of the Ecclesiastical Doctrinal Norm through


the Acceptance of the Logos-Christology
166
.

PART

II.
;

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECCLESIASTICAL DOGMA.


BOOK

I.

HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOGMA AS DOCTRINE OF THE


GOD -MAN UPON THE BASIS OF NATURAL THEOLOGY.
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter

Historical Survey

I.

193

The Fundamental Conception of Salvation

II.

and a General Sketch of the Doctrine of Faith


The Sources of Knowledge and the Authori
III.
ties, or Scripture, Tradition, and the Church

A. Ttie Presuppositions of the Doctrine of Salvation, or

206

212

Nat

ural TJieology.

Chapter IV. The Presuppositions and Conceptions of


225
God, the Creator, as the Dispenser of Salvation
Chapter V. The Presuppositions and Conceptions of Man
.

....

B.

229
as the Recipient of Salvation
The Doctrine of Redemption through the Person of the

God-Man

in its Historical Development.

The Doctrine of the Necessity and Reality of


Redemption through the Incarnation of the Son

Chapter VI.
of

God

...

235

The Doctrine of the Homousion of the Son


242
God with God Himself

Chapter VII.
of
I.

II.

III.

242
Until Council of Nicsea
253
Until Death of Constantius
259
Until Councils of Constantinople, 381, 383
Supplement: The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit
266
and of the Trinity
.

CONTENTS.

PAGK

The Doctrine

the Perfect Equality


as to Nature of the Incarnate Son of God and

Chapter VIII.

of

274

Humanity
Continuation The Doctrine of the Personal
Union of the Divine and Human Natures in the

Chapter IX.

I.

II.

III.

Incarnate Son of God


The Nestorian Controversy
The Eutychian Controversy
The Monophysite Controversies

280
280
287

and

the

5th

294

Council

IV. The Monergistic and Monothelitic Controversies,


300
.
the 6th Council and John of Damascus
.

C.

TJie

Temporal Enjoyment of Redemption.

Chapter X. The Mysteries, and Matters Akin to Them


Chapter XI. Conclusion Sketch of the Historic Begin
nings of the Orthodox System

....

BOOK

305

318

II.

EXPANSION AND RECASTING OP THE DOGMA INTO A DOCTRINE


CONCERNING SIN, GRACE AND THE MEANS OP GRACE
UPON THE BASIS OF THE CHURCH.
326
Occidental Christianity and Occidental The
329
ologians before Augustine
Chapter III. The World- Historical Position of Augustine
335
as Reformer of Christian Piety
Chapter IV. The World-Historical Position of Augus
.342
tine as Teacher of the Church
I. Augustine s Doctrine of the First and Last Things 345
II. The Donatist Contest.
The Work De Civitate
Dei.
The Doctrine of the Church and of the
Means of Grace
354
III. The Pelagian Contest.
Doctrine of Grace and
of Sin
.363
.
IV. Augustine s Exposition of the Symbol.
The
New Doctrine of Religion
376
.
.
.
Chapter V. History of Dogma in the Occident till the
382
Beginning of the Middle Ages (430-604)

Chapter
Chapter

I.

Historical Survey

.....

II.

....

"

"

CONTENTS.

XI
PAGE

Contest between Semi-Pelagianism and Augustinianisra


383
II. Gregory the Great (590-604)
.
387
.
t
Chapter VI. History of Dogma in the Time of the Carlo392
vingian Renaissance
I. A. The Adoption Controversy
394
I. B. The Predestination Controversy
.395
I.

....
.

Controversy about the Filioque and about Images 397


III. The Development, in Practice and in Theory, of
the Mass (Dogma of the Eucharist) and of Penance 399
Chapter VII. History of Dogma in the Time of Clugny,
Anselm and Bernard to the End of the 12th
406
Century
I. The Revival of Piety
407
II. On the History of Ecclesiastical Law
412
III. The Revival of Science
414
IV. Work upon the Dogma
422
A. The Berengar Controversy
423
B. Anselm s Doctrine of Satisfaction and the Doc
trines of the Atonement of the Theologians of the
II.

12th Century
427
Chapter VIII. History of Dogma in the Time of the Men
dicant Orders till the Beginning of the 16th
I.

II.

433
434

Century
the History of Piety
the History of Ecclesiastical Law.

On
On

trine of the

The Doc

Church

On

442
452
461

468

the History of Ecclesiastical Science


.
IV. The Reminting of Dogmatics into Scholastics
A. The Working Over of the Traditional Articuli
Fidei
B. The Scholastic Doctrine of the Sacraments
III.

C.

462

The Revising of Augustinianism in the Direction


of the Doctrine of Meritorious

BOOK

Works

488

III.

THE THREE- FOLD ISSUING OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.


Chapter I. Historical Survey
Chapter II. The Issuing of the
tholicism

501

Dogma

in

Roman Ca
.

510

CONTENTS.

XI 1

I.

PAGE
Codification of the Mediaeval Doctrines in Opposi
510
tion to Protestantism (Tridentine Decrees)
Post-Tridentine Development as a Preparation for
.

II.

the Vatican Council

518

The Vatican Council


Chapter III. The Issuing of the Dogma
rianism and Sociniauism

527

III.

I.

in Auti-Trinita-

529
529

Historical Introduction

.535
.
.
The Socinian Doctrine
Chapter IV. The Issuing of the Dogma in Protestantism 541
II.

I.

II.

III.

541

Introduction

Luther
Luther

545

Christianity
s Strictures on the Dominating
astical Tradition and on the Dogma
.

Ecclesi
.

551

IV. The Catholic Elements Retained with and within

Luther

Christianity

557

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

PROLEGOMENA TO THE

DISCIPLINE.

IDEA AND AIM OP THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

I.

RELIGION

a practical affair with mankind,


do with our highest happiness and
with those faculties which pertain to a holy life.
1.

since

But

it

ha s
t

is

to

in every religion these faculties are closely con

nected with some definite faith or with some defi

which are referred back

nite cult,

lation.

Christianity

is

Reve
which the

to Divine

that religion in

impulse and power to a blessed and holy life is bound


up with faith in God as the Father of Jesus Christ.

So far as

Lord

of

this

God

is

believed to be the omnipotent

heaven and earth, the Christian religion

includes a particular knowledge of God, of the world

and of the purpose of created things

known only
historical
2.

The

so far,

how

God can be

truly

in Jesus Christ, it is inseparable

from

ever, as this religion teaches that

knowledge.
inclination to formulate

religion in Articles

of Faith

tianity as the effort to

reference to science

and

is

the content of

as natural to Chris

verify these articles with


to history.

On

the other

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

hand the universal and supernatural character of the


Christian religion imposes upon

adherents the

its

duty of finding a statement of it which will not be


impaired by our wavering knowledge of nature and
history; and, indeed,
itself

Problem
Insoluble.

which

will be able to maintain

before every possible theory of nature or of

The problem which thus

history.

arises permits,

no absolute solution, since all knowledge


relative and yet religion essays to bring her ab

indeed, of
is

solute truth into the sphere of relative

and

knowledge
But history

to reduce it to statement there.

teaches,

and every thinking Christian

the problem does not

come

testifies,

to its solution

been made to solve


at

sohi-

it

even on

which have

that account the progressive efforts


tte!

that

are of value.

The most thorough-going attempt at solution


hitherto is that which the Catholic Church made,
and which the churches of the Reformation (with
more or less restrictions) have continued to make,
3.

Accepting a collection of Christian and PreChristian writings and oral traditions as of Divine

viz.

deduce from them a system of doctrine,


arranged in scientific form for apologetic purposes,
which should have as its content the knowledge of

origin, to

God and

of the world

and

of the

means

of salvation

then to proclaim this complex system (of dogma)


as the

compendium of Christianity,
every mature member of the Church

to

demand

of

a faithful ac

ceptance of it, and at the same time to maintain that


the same is a necessary preparation for the blessed-

PROLEGOMENA.
ness promised

by the

With

religion.

tation the Christian brotherhood,

as

"

Catholic Church

"

is

3
this

augmen

whose character

essentially indicated

under

this conception of Christianity, took a definite and,

was supposed,

as

science of nature

ious faith in

much

as

it

incontestable attitude toward the

and

of history, expressed its relig

God and

required of

and yet gave (inas


members an acceptance

Christ,

all its

of these articles of faith) to the thinking part of the

community a system which

is capable of a wider and


indeed boundless development.
Tims arose dog

matic Christianity.
4.

The aim

of the history

of dogma

is,

(1)

To

ex-

Hf^

plain the origin of this dogmatic Christianity, and,

of
of

D g ma

To describe its development.


5. The history of the rise of dogmatic Christianity would seem to close when a well-formulated sys
(2)

belief had been established by scientific


had been made the articulus constituand
means,
tivus ecclesice," and as such had been imposed upon

tem

of

"

This took place in the transition


from the 3d to the 4th century when the Logos-

the entire Church.

Christology was established. The development of


dogma is in abstracto without limit, but in concreto

it

has come to an end.

For, (a) the Greek

D e ma

Greek
Church.

Church maintains that

its

system of dogma has been

complete since the end of the


(b)

the

"

"

Image Controversy
Roman Catholic Church leaves the possibil-

formulating of new dogmas open, but in


the Tridentine Council and still more in the Vatican

ity of the

Roman
Church.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

has

it

dogma

in fact

on

political

as a legal system

grounds rounded out

which above

all

its

demands

obedience and only secondarily conscious faith the


Roman Catholic Church has consequently abandoned
;

the original motive of dogmatic Christianity and


has placed a wholly new motive in its stead, retaining the mere semblance of the old (c) The Evan;

churches.

gelicol churches have, on the one hand, accepted a


greater part of the formulated doctrines of dogmatic

Christianity and seek to ground them, like the Cath


olic

Church, in the Holy Scriptures.

But, on the

other hand, they took a different view of the author


ity of the

Holy

Scriptures, they put aside tradition

as a source in matters of belief, they questioned the


significance of the empirical

dogma, and above

all

Church as regards the

they tried to put forward a

formulation of the Christian religion, which goes


directly back to the "true understanding of the

Word of God." Thus in principle the ancient dog


matic conception of Christianity was set aside, while
however in certain matters no fixed attitude was
taken toward the same and reactions began at once
and still continue. Therefore is it announced that
Protestant*

Excluded,

^ie

history of Protestant doctrine will be excluded

from the history of dogma, and within the former


will be indicated only the position of the Reformers

and of the churches

of the Reformation, out of

the later complicated development grew.


history of

which

Hence the

dogma can be treated as relatively a com

pleted discipline.

PROLEGOMENA.
The claim

6.

of the

Church that the dogmas are

simply the exposition of the Christian revelation,


because deduced from the Holy Scriptures, is not
confirmed by historical investigation. On the con

Dogmas
not

Expo-

chHstian

la

"

tlon

becomes clear that dogmatic Christianity


dogmas) in its conception and in its construc

trary,
(the

it

work of the Hellenic spirit upon the


The intellectual medium by which in
Gospel
early times men sought to make the Gospel compre
was

tion

the

soil.

hensible and to establish

became insep
arably blended with the content of the same. Thus
arose the dogma, in whose formation, to be sure,
it

securely,

other factors (the words of Sacred Scripture, require

ments of the

and

cult,

and of the organization,

social environment, the impulse to

political

push things

consequences, blind custom, etc.)


played a part, yet so that the desire and effort to
to

their logical

formulate the main principles of the Christian re

demption, and to explain and develop them, secured


the upper hand, at least in the earlier times.
7. Just as the formulating of the dogma proved to
be an illusion, so far as the same was to be the pure

exposition of the Gospel, so also does historical inves


tigation destroy the other illusion of the Church,
viz.

that the dogma, always having been the

same

therein, have simply been explained, and that eccle


siastical theology has never had any other aim than

unchanging dogma and to refute the


teaching pressing in from without. The

to explain the

heretical

formulating of the

dogma

indicates rather that the-

^l?5&
Dogma,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

ology constructed the dogma, but that the Church


must ever conceal the labor of the theologians,
which thus places them in an unfortunate plight.

In each favorable case the result of their labor has

been declared to be a reproduction and they them


selves have been robbed of their best service; as a
rule in the progress of history they fell

under the

condemnation of the dogmatic scheme, whose foun


dation they themselves had laid, and so entire generrations of theologians, as well as the chief leaders
thereof, have, in the further development of dogma,
been afterwards marked and declared to be heretics

or held in suspicion.
ress of history
Augustine,

8.

has ever in the prog

Dogma

devoured

its

own

progenitors.

Although dogmatic Christianity has never,

the process of

its

development,

and character as a work


antiquity upon Gospel

apologists

in

lost its original style

of the spirit of perishing

soil

and of Origin)

of the Greek

(style

yet

it

experienced

first

through Augustine and later through Luther a


deeper and more thorough transformation. Both of

more than the former, cham


pioned a new and more evangelical conception of
Christianity, guided chiefly by Paulinism; Augus
tine however hardly attempted a revision of the tra
ditional dogma, rather did he co-ordinate the old and

these men, the latter

the new; Luther, indeed, attempted

carry

it

through.

it,

but did not

The Christian quality

dogma gained through

of

the

the influence of each, and the

old traditional system of

dogma was

relaxed some-

PROLEGOMENA.
what

this

was

so

much

the case in Protestantism

that one does well, as remarked above, no longer to

consider the symbolical teaching of the Protestant

churches as wholly a recasting of the old dogma.

An

understanding of the dogmatico-historic


process cannot be secured by isolating the special
9.

Periods

D ema

in
-

and considering them separately (Special


History of Dogma) after that the epochs have been

doctrines

previously characterized (General History of


It is

much
"

"

special
arately,

better to consider the

in each period

and

"

Dogma)
"

general

and the

to treat the periods sep

and as much as possible

to prove the special

doctrines to be the outcome of the fundamental ideas

and motives.

It is

make

not possible, however, to

more than four principal divisions, viz. I. The Ori


gin of Dogma. II. a. The Development of Dogma
:

in accordance with the principles of its original con

ception (Oriental Development from Arianism to the

Image-Controversy). II. b. The Occidental Devel


opment of Dogma under the influence of Augustine s
Christianity and the

Roman

The Three-fold Issuing


of the Reformation

of

papal

Dogma

(in

10.

The

c.

the churches

in Tridentine Catholicism

in the criticism of the rationalistic age,

cinianism)

II.

politics.

i.e.,

and

of So-

history of dogma, in that

it

sets forth the

process of the origin and development of the dogma,


offers the

very best means and methods of freeing

the Church from dogmatic Christianity, and of hast

ening the inevitable process of emancipation, which

value of

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

began with Augustine.


testifies

also

But the history of dogma


and continuity of the

the unity

to

Christian faith in the progress of


far as

it

its history,

in so

proves that certain fundamental ideas of the

Gospel have never been

lost

and have

defied all

attacks.

II.

HISTORY OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

The narrative

of the History of

in the 18th century with

Dogma begins

first

Mosheim, Walch, Ernesti,

Lessing, and Semler, since Catholicism in general

not

fitted for

is

a critical handling of the subject, al

though learned works have been written by individBaronius,

ua^ Catholic theologians (Baronius Beilarmin, Petavius, Thomassin, Kuhn, Schwane, Bach, etc.), and
since the Protestant churches remained until the

18th century under the ban of confessionalism, al

Luther,
CtC.

though important contributions were made in the


time of the Reformation (Luther, Okolampad, Melanchthon, Flacius, Hyperius, Chemnitz) to the criti
cal treatment of the History of Dogma, based in part

upon the labors


Er

us

?g?
Benedic
tine, etc.

of the critically disposed humanists

Erasmus, etc.). But without the learned


material, which, on the one hand, the Benedictine
and other Orders had gathered together, and, on the
(L. Valla;

other, the Protestant Casaubonus, Vossius, Pearson,

Dallaus, Spanheim, Grabe, Basnage, etc., and with(

Arnoi !

fried

m Pu se

which pietism gave (Gott


Arnold), the work of the 18th century would

out *^ e & ran(l

PROLEGOMENA.
have been inconsiderable.
history of

gave

it

dogma

Rationalism robbed the

of its ecclesiastical interest

over to a critical treatment in which

and
its

darkness was lighted up in part by the lamp of


common understanding and in part by the torch
of general historical contemplation

(first

History of

Lange, 1796, previous works by Semler,


Rossler, Loftier, etc., then the History of Dogma
by Miinscher, Handb. 4 Bdd. 1797 f., an excellent

Dogma by

Aufl.

1.

Lehrbuch,
2 Bdd. 1802

1811,

3.

Aufl.

Lange.

Miinscher.

Munter

1832,

Staudlin 1800 and 1822, August!


1805 and 1835, Gieseler, edited by Redepenning 2
f,

The valuable handbooks of Baumgari.e. 1840 and 1846, and of Meier


1840, i.e. 1854, mark the transition to a class of
works in which an inner understanding of the pro
Bdd. 1855).

ten-Crusius 1832,

ten-Cru8ius

cess of the History of

Dogma has been won, for


which Lessing had already striven, and for which
Herder, Schleiermacher and the Romanticists on the
one side, and Hegel and Schelling on the other, had
prepared the way. Epoch-making were the writings
of F. Chr. Baur (Lehrb. 1847, i.e. 1867, Vorles.

Lessinp,

Herder,
^jjjjj"

schefiing.

Baur.

f.), in which the dogmatico-historic


conceived
to be sure in a one-sided way,
process,
3.

Thl. 1865

was, so to speak, lived over again (cf also Strauss,


Glaubenslehre 2 Bdd. 1840 f. Marheineke 1849).
.

From
(2.

the Schleiermacher point of view,

Thl.

1857) and Hagenbach

(1840,

is

Neander

i.e.

1867).

Dorner (History of the Doctrine of the Person of


Christ, 1839

i.e.

1845-53) attempted to unite

Neander.

Hegel

Domer.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

10

From

and Schleiermacher.

the Lutheran Confes

sional standpoint Kliefoth (Einl. in d. D. G. 1839),

Thomasius
wetsch

Bdd. 1874

(2

1 Bd.),

f.

and 1887 edited by Bon-

Schmid (1859

1887 ed. by Hauck)

i.e.

and, with reservations, Kahnis (The Faith of the


Church, 1864). A marked advance is indicated in
Nitzsch.

the History of

Dogma by

Nitzsch

(1

For

Bd. 1870).

a correct understanding especially of the origin of


dogma the labors of Rothe, Ritschl, Renan, OverEngelhardt, Weizsacker and Reville are

v.

beck,

valuable.

PRESUPPOSITIONS OF THE HISTORY


OF DOGMA.
INTRODUCTORY.

III.

GospeHs
Christ.

The

i.

And

^e

gospel appeared in the

Q- OS

ei

"fulness

Jesus Christ.

js

the announcement

is

made

of

time."

In these sentences

that the Gospel

the

is

climax of an universal development and yet that it


has its power in a personal Life. Jesus Christ de
"

stroyed
life

not,"

before

but

"fulfilled."

He

witnessed a

new

God and

of Judaism,

in God, but within the confines


and upon the soil of the Old Testament

whose hidden treasures he uncovered.


shown, that everything that

"

is

lofty

and

It

can be
"

spiritual

and Prophets, and everything that had


been gained through the development of Grecian
in the Psalms

ethics, is reaffirmed in the plain

but

it

obtained

its

power

there,

and simple Gospel


because it became
;

PROLEGOMENA.
life

11

and deed in a Person, whose greatness consists


he did not remould his earthly en

also in this, that

vironment, nor encounter any subsequent rebuff,


in other words, that he did not become entangled in
his times.
2.

Two

generations later there existed, to be sure,

no united and homogeneous Church, but there


were scattered throughout the wide Roman empire
confederated congregations
(churches) who,

for the

of

most

fe

ated conreeation8

Christian believers
part,

were Gentile-

born and condemned the Jewish nation and religion


as apostate they appropriated the Old Testament as
;

by right and considered themselves a "new


nation", and yet as the "ancient creation of God",
theirs

life and thought certain


were
forms
gradually being put forward.

while in
sacred

The

departments of

all

existence of these confederated Gentile Christian

communities

is

the preliminary condition to the rise

of dogmatic Christianity.

The organization

of these churches began, indeed,

in the apostolic times


is

and

tlieir

peculiar constitution

negatively indicated by the freeing of the Gospel

While

from the Jewish church.

in Islamism the

Arabic nation remained for centuries the main trunk


of the

new

religion, it is

an astonishing fact in the

history of the Gospel, that

it

soon

left its

native

soil

and went forth into the wide world and realized

its

universal character, not through the transformation

but by developing into a


soil.
The GosGrceco-Roman
world-religion upon

of the

Jewish

religion,

Freeing of
Gospel

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

12
Gospel

World-Reiigion.

pel became a world-religion in that, having a


*
message for all mankind, it preached it to Greek

and barbarian, and accordingly attached itself


to the spiritual and political life of the world
wide
3*

Epochof
mstory.

Roman

empire.
Since the Gospel in

its

original form

was Jew-

and was preached only to the Jews, there lay in


this transition, which was brought about, in part
ish

gradually and without

through a severe
stringent kind.
of the

crisis,

From

Church and

of

and in part
consequences of the most

disturbance,

the standpoint of the history

dogma, the

brief history of the

Gospel within the bounds of Palestinian Judaism is


And yet this
accordingly a paleontological epoch.

remains the classical epoch, not only on account of


the Founder and of the original testimony, but quite
paurs MIS-

as

much

sion.

because a Jewish Christian (Paul) recog-

nized the Gospel as the power of God, which was


able to save both Jew and Greek, and because he

designedly severed the Gospel from the Jewish na

and proclaimed the Christ as the end


Then other Jewish Christians, personal

tional religion

of the

Law.

disciples of Jesus, indeed, followed


(see also the 4th

Hebrews)
Yet there

him

in all this

Gospel and the Epistle

to the

NO chasm
Between

EiX
u

ie

and brief
ng

peSod.

is

in reality

no chasm between the older

epoch and the succeeding period, so far as the

Gospel is in itself universalistic, and this character


very soon became manifest. But the means by

which Paul and his sympathizers

set forth the uni-

PROLEGOMENA.

13

versal character of the Gospel (proving that the Old

Testament religion had been


with) was

little

fulfilled

and done away

understood, and, vice versa, the

manner and means by which the Gentile Christians


came to an acceptance of the Gospel, can only in
part be attributed to the preaching of Paul. So far
as we now possess in the New Testament substan
tial writings in

which the Gospel

thought out that

it is

is so

thoroughly

prized as the supplanter of the

Old Testament religion, and writings which at the


same time are not deeply touched with the Greek
spirit, does this literature differ radically from all
that follows.

The growing Gentile Church, notwithstanding

4.

Paul

s significant relation

toward

it,

did not com-

prehend, nor really experience the crisis, out of


which the Pauline conception of the Gospel arose.

In the Jewish propaganda, within which the Old


Testament had long since become liberalized and
spiritualized, the Gentile Church, entering and grad
ually subjecting the

same

to itself,

seldom

felt

the

problem of the reconciliation of the Old Testament


with the Gospel, since by means of the allegorical
method the propaganda had freed themselves from
the letter of the law, but had not entirely overcome
its

spirit;

indeed they had simply cast off their

national character.

the

Jews and

Moved by

later also of

the hostile

power of
the Gentiles and by the

organize a
the Church as a matter of course

consciousness of inherent strength to


"

"

people

for itself,

Problem,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

14

took on the form of the thought and

which

in

lived, casting aside

it

immoral and vulgar.


ganizations, which with all

istic,
Gentiie

Churches

ed

Many

n
s
characte?-

mon y

life of

the world

everything polythe

Thus arose the new


their

newness bore

or-

testi-

^eiT kinship with the original Palestinian


churches, in so far as, (1) the Old Testament was
*

likewise recognized as a primitive revelation, and


in so far as,

(2)

the strong spiritual monotheism,

(3)

the outlines of the proclamation concerning Jesus


Christ,

(4)

the consciousness of a direct and living

fellowship with
(5)

God through

the gift of the Spirit,

the expectation of the approaching end of the

world, and the earnest conviction of the personal


responsibility

and accountability of each individual

To

soul were all likewise maintained.

be added

these

is to

finally, that the earliest Jewish-Christian

proclamation, yes, the Gospel itself, bears the stamp


of the
of the spiritual epochs, out of which it arose,
Hellenic age, in which the nations exchanged their
wares and religions were transformed, and the idea
of the worth and accountability of every soul became

widespread;

so

the

that

Hellenism which

pressed so mightily into the Church


lutely
y f
Do ma ha s
iS

^
tile

only.

soon

was not abso

strange and new.

^o

Church only

is true,

dogma has

history of

to

do with the Gen-

the history of theology begins,

with Paul

it

but in order to understand his

torically the basis of the formation of doctrine in the

Gentile Church,

it

must take

into consideration, as

already stated, the following as antecedent condi-

PROLEGOMENA.
tions:

15

The Gospel of Jesus Christ,

(1)

The

(2)

Presuppo-

general and simultaneous proclamation of Jesus


Christ in the first generation of believers, (3) The
current understanding and exposition of the Old

Testament and the Jewish anticipations of the fu


and their speculations, (4) The religious con

ture

ceptions and the religious philosophy of the Hel


lenistic Jews, (5) The religious attitude of the

Romans during

Greeks and

and

ries,

the current

the first

two centu

Grceco-Roman philosophy

of religion.

THE GOSPEL OF JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING

IV.

TO His

OWN

TESTIMONY.

The Gospel is the good news of the reiqn of the


Almighty and Holy God, the Father and Judge of
the world and of each individual soul.

which makes men


and gives them
self to

God

is

*J

S of

In this reign,

citizens of the heavenly

kingdom

to realize their citizenship in the

man who

proaching eon, the life of every

Qomei *
Good News

gives

ap

him

secure, even if he should immediately

world and his earthly life; while those


who seek to win the world and to keep their life fall
into the hands of the Judge, who condemns them to

lose the

This reign of God, in that it rises above all


ceremonies and statutes, places men under a law,

hell.

which
to

is

old

God and

ever

it

and yet new,

to

one

viz.

Whole-hearted love

Love to
God and

In this love, wher-

Man

neighbor.

controls the thoughts in their deepest springs,

that better justice is exemplified

which corresponds

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

16

God.

to the perfection of
is

righteousness

The way

to secure this

by a change of heart

i.e.

God and a

denial and humility before

by

self-

heart-felt

In such humility and trust in God


The Gospel,
the soul realizes its own unworthiness.

trust in him.

however, calls even sinners, who are so disposed,


unto the kingdom of God, in that it assures them
satisfaction with his justice, i.e., guarantees them
the forgiveness of the sins

v
eref

ift

"

giveness of sin)

>veness

j egug
pel,

jesus

is

it

wScFSid
n

which have hitherto

separated them from God. In the three-fold form,


however, in which the Gospel is set forth, (God s
sovereignty, higher justice [law of love] and for-

j? OT

Qbrist.

inseparably connected with


of the Gos

n the proclamation

Jesus Christ everywhere called


* n k*

se ^-

*s

*ke Gospel

men

unto him-

wor d an d deed;

it is

meat and drink and, therefore, is it become his


personal life, and into this life he would draw all

his

He

men.

is

they

God

who knows the Father. Men


him how kind the Lord is; in him

the Son,

should see in

may experience the power and sovereignty of


over the world and be comforted in this trust
;

him, the meek and gentle-hearted One, should they


follow

and inasmuch as

calls sinners

sured that

he, the holy

and pure One,

unto himself, they should be fully as

God through him

forgives sin.

This close connection of his Gospel with his per


son, Jesus by no means made prominent in words,
but

left

his disciples to experience

himself the Son of

Man and

led

it.

them on

He

called

to the con-

PROLEGOMENA.
he was their Master and

that

fession

17

Messiah.

Jesus Mes
siah.

Thereby he gave to his lasting significance for them


and for his people a comprehensible expression, and
at the close of his

life,

in an hour of great solemnity,

he said to them that his death also like his

life

an imperishable service which he rendered


"many"

for the forgiveness of sins.

By

was

to the

this

he

raised himself above the plane of all others, although

they may already be his brethren; he claimed for


himself an unique significance as the Redeemer and
as the

Judge

; for

he interpreted his death, like

Redeemer,

all

his suffering, as a triumph, as the transition to his

and he proved his power by actually awaken


ing in his disciples the conviction that he still lives
and is Lord over the dead and the living. The re
glory,

ligion of the Gospel rests


i.e.

Christ,

upon

this faith in Jesus

looking upon him, that historical Per

son, the believer is convinced that

God

rules

heaven

and earth, and that God, the Judge, is also Father


and Redeemer. The religion of the Gospel is the religion

which

ever, at the

frees

men from

all legality,

which, how-

same time lays upon them the highest

moral obligations the simplest and the severest


and lays bare the contradiction in which every man
But it brings re
finds himself as regards them.

demption out

men

of such necessities, in that

to the gracious

and draws their


and blessed

life

life of

God, leaves

them

leads

into union with the inexhaustible

Jesus Christ,

who

has overcome

the world and called sinners to himself.


2

it

in his hands,

pYee^from
a11

gal
{ty

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

18

V.

THE GENERAL PROCLAMATION CONCERNING


JESUS CHRIST IN THE FIRST GENERATION OF
His ADHERENTS.

jesus Risen Lord.

Men had

learned to

know Jesus

found him to be the Messiah.

Christ and had

In the

first

two gen

him everything was said about


him which men were in any way able to say. Inas
much as they knew him to be the Risen One, they
exalted him as the Lord of the world and of history,
erations following

way,
Life.

King.

hand of God, as the Way, the


Truth and the Life, as the Prince of Life and the
living Power of a new existence, as the Conqueror
sitting at the right

of death

and the King

of a

coming new kingdom.

Although strong individual feeling, special experi


ence, Scriptural learning and a fantastic tendency
gave from the beginning a form to the confession of
him, yet common characteristics of the proclamation
can be definitely pointed out.

The content

2.

of the disciples

eral proclamation of it

belief

and the gen

on the ground of the certainty

of the resurrection of Jesus, can be set forth as fol

Jesus is the Messiah promised by the prophets


he will come again and establish a visible king
dom, they who believe on him and surrender them

lows

chSfroh,

may

grace of God and of a share


new community of Christian

in his future glory.

itself

munity

feel

believers thus organized

within the Jewish nation.

ls

raei

assured of the

selves entirely to this belief,

And

this

new com-

believed itself to be the true Israel of the

PROLEGOMENA.

19

Messianic times and lived, accordingly, in

all their

thoughts and feelings in the future. Thus could all


the Jewish apocalyptic expectations retain their pow
er for the time of the second

of Christ.

coming

For

new community pos


a
in
the
sessed
sacrificial death of Christ,
guarantee
as also in the manifold manifestations of the Spirit,

the fulfilment of these hopes the

which were

visible

upon the members upon

their

entrance into the brother-hood (from the beginning


this introduction seems to have been accompanied by

baptism) and in their gathering together. The possession of the Spirit was an assurance to each individual that he was not only a
"called

God.

God

"

"

disciple

but also a

and, as such, a priest and king of

saint,"

Faith in the

God

of

Israel

the Father ; added to this

became

was

faith in

faith in Jesus,

the Christ and Son of God, and the witness of the


gift of the

Christ.

Holy

Spirit, i.e. of the Spirit of

men

In the strength of this faith

the fear of the

Judge and in

trust in

God and
lived in

God, who had

already begun the redemption of his

own

people.

The proclamation concerning Jesus, the Christ,


rested first of all entirely upon the Old Testament,
yet it had its starting-point in the exaltation of
Jesus through his resurrection from the dead.

To

prove that the entire Old Testament pointed toward

him, and that his person, his work, his fate were the
actual and verbal fulfilment of the Old Testament
prophecies,

was the

chief interest of believers, in so

far as they did not give themselves entirely to ex-

Possession
of Spirit,

ple!

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

20

pectations of the future.

This reference did not

make clear the meaning and worth


Messianic work this it did not seem to need

serve at once to
of the

but rather to establish the Messiah-ship of Jesus.


However, the Old Testament, as it was then under

gave occasion, through the fixing of the per


son and dignity of Christ, for widening the scope
stood,

of the thought of Israel s perfected theocracy.

And,

in addition, faith in the exaltation of Jesus to the

right

hand

of

God caused men

to think of the begin

ning of his existence in harmony therewith. Then


the fact of the successful Gentile conversion threw a

new

upon the scope of his work, i.e. upon its


And finally the per
significance for all mankind.
light

sonal claims of Jesus led


liar relation
e<

tion
in A
ic

la

Be an
0l ~

Ages

to

men

to reflect

God, the Father.

On

on his pecu
these four

P om^ s speculation began already in the apostolic age


an(^ it went on to formulate new statements concern
ing the person and dignity of Christ. In proclaim
ing Jesus to be the Christ men ceased thereby to
proclaim the Gospel, because the ripely navra oca
ivsrsiXaro 6 lyvoos was to be included as a matter of
course and so did not especially engage the thoughts.

That

this

must be

for

the future a questionable

digression is plain enough;

for

since

everything

depends upon the appropriation of the Person of


not possible for a personal life to be
appropriated through opinions about the Person,
but only through the record of the concrete Per
Jesus,

it is

sonality.

PROLEGOMENA.

Upon

3.

21

the basis of the plain words of Jesus and

in the consciousness of the possession of the Spirit

men

were already assured of a present possession of the

nes

01

ood.

forgiveness of sin, of righteousness before God, of


the full knowledge of the Divine Will and of the call

kingdom. In the acquiring of these


blessings, surely not a few realized the consequences
of the first coming of the Messiah, i. e. his work, and
into the future

they referred especially the forgiveness of sin to


the death of Christ, and eternal life to his resurrec

But no

tion.

theories touching the relation of the

blessings of the Gospel to the history of Christ

propounded

Paul was the

first to

were

develop a theology

upon the basis of the death and resurrection of Christ


and

to bring

ment

it

into relations

with the Old Testa

religion.

This theology was constructed in opposition to

4.

the legalistic righteousness of the pharisees,


the

official religion

i.e., to

While

of the Old Testament.

form was thereby somewhat conditioned,

its

lg

its

power

new life of the Spirit,


which the Risen One offered, who through his death
overcame the world of the flesh and of sin. With
rested in the certainty of the

the thought that righteousness comes through faith


in

God who

the

raised Jesus from the dead

Law by the

legal

way

and

fulfilled

of the crucifixion of the

Christ upon the cross, Paul wrenched the Gospel

from

its

native soil and gave

it

at the

same time

through his Christological speculation and his carry


ing out of the contrast of flesh and spirit, a charac-

ne

us

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

22

stamp which was comprehensible to the


Greeks, although they were illy prepared to accept
his special manner of reconciling it with the Law.
teristic

Through Paul, who was the


question of the

Law

(in

first

theologian, the

theory and

practice)

and

the principles of missionary activity accordingly be

came the absorbing themes in the Christian commu


nities.
While he proclaimed freedom from the Law
and baptized the heathen, forbidding them to become
Jews, others now for the first time consciously made
the righteousness of Christian believers dependent

Heathen
to

Become
Jews

upon the punctilious observance of the Law and reYet


jected Paul as an apostle and as a Christian.

^ e C^ Q ^
not a

disciples of Jesus

little

were convinced, perhaps

influenced by the success of Paul, and

conceded to the heathen the right to become Chris


tians without first becoming Jews.
This well at
tested fact is the strongest evidence that Christ

had

awakened among his personal disciples a faith in


himself, which was dearer to them than all the tra
ditions of the fathers.
Yet there were among those

who

accepted the Pauline mission various opinions


as to the attitude which one should take toward

heathen Christians in ordinary life and intercourse.


These opinions held out for a long time.

mXkmof
C

ity

oc?~

Apart
Paul.

-^- s

sure ly as Paul had fought his fight for the

whole of Christendom, so sure also is it that the


transformation of the original form of Christianity

^0

^s universal form took place outside of his


The Judaactivity (proof.- the Church at Rome).

PROLEGOMENA.

23

ism of the diaspora was long since surrounded by a


retinue of half-bred Grecian brethren, for
particular

whom

the

and national forms of the Old Testament

religion were hardly existent (see VII.).


And, far
ther, this Judaism itself had begun to transform for

the

Jews the

old religion into a universal

ual religion without casting aside

its

and

spirit

forms, which

were rather considered significant symbols (myster


ies).

The Gospel, being received

into these circles,

completed simply and almost suddenly the process of


spiritualizing the old religion, and it stripped off the
old forms as shells, replacing

new forms

(e.g.,

them

circumcision

is

heart, likewise also baptism;

glorious

kingdom

of Christ,

at once in part

by

circumcision of the
the Sabbath

etc.).

is

the

The outward

withdrawal from the synagogue is also here a clear


proof of the power and self -consciousness of the new
religion.

The same developed

itself

sequence of the hatred of the Jews,

rapidly in con

who adhered

to

Paul exerted an influence, and the


destruction of Jerusalem cleared up entirely the ob
the old faith,

scurities

which

still

remained.

VI.

THE CURRENT EXPOSITION OF THE OLD TES


TAMENT AND THE JEWISH FUTURE HOPE, IN
THEIR BEARING ON THE EARLIEST FORMULA
TION OF THE CHRISTIAN MESSAGE.

1.

Although the method of the pedant, the casuis


handling of the Law and the extortion of the

tic

Old School-

by church.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

24

deepest meaning of the prophecies, had been in prin

done away with by Jesus Christ, the old


school-exegesis still remained active in the Chris
ciple

tian churches,

method

and

especially the unhistorical local-

in the exposition of the

Old Testament, as

well as the allegoristic and the


text

and as such the

ever invites

gard

men

its historical

Haggada for a sacred


Old Testament was considered
;

in the exposition of

it

conditions and interpret

ing to the needs of the time.

i.e.,

was concerned, the

point of view exercised

accord

it

Especially wherever

the proofs of the fulfilment prophecy,

Messiah-ship of Jesus

to disre

its influence,

of the

received

as well

upon

the exposition of the Old Testament as upon the


conception of the person, fate and deeds of Jesus.

under the strong impression of the history


of Jesus, to many Old Testament passages a foreign
It gave,

sense and enriched, on the other hand, the life of

Jesus with
details,

new

facts,

throwing the emphasis upon

which were often unreal and seldom

of

prime

importance.
Jewish
Apocalyp-

^ur^Re^

2.

The Jewish apocalyptic

literature, as it flour-

ished after the time of Antiochus Epiphanes,

forbidden within the circles of the


the Gospel, but rather

was

it

first

was not

believers of

retained and read as

an explanation of the prophecies of Jesus and, as it


were, cultivated. Although the content of the same
appeared modified and the uncertainty regarding the
person of the Messiah who was to appear in judg

ment was done away with, the earthly sensuous

PROLEGOMENA.

25

hopes were by no means wholly repressed. Confused


pictures filled the fancy, threatened to obscure the
plain

and earnest description

every individual soul

is

of the

sure

of,

judgment which
and drove many

friends of the Gospel into a restless turmoil

a detestation of the

state.

and into

Consequently the repro

duction of the eschatological discourses of Jesus be

came

indefinite;

even things wholly foreign were

mingled therewith, and the true aim of the Christian


life and hope began to waver.

Through the apocalyptic literature, the artificial


exegesis and the Haggada, a mass of mythological
and poetical ideas crowded into the Christian com
3.

munities and were legitimized. The most impor


tant for the succeeding times were the speculations in

regard to the Messiah, which were drawn in part


from the Old Testament and the apocalypses and in
part were constructed in accordance with methods

whose right no one questioned and whose adoption


seemed to give security to the faith. Long since in
the Jewish religion men had given to everything
that is and that happens an existence within the

knowledge of God, but they had in reality confined


this representation to that only which is really im
portant.
all

The advancing religious thought had above

included individuals also, that

nent, within

this

is,

the most promi-

speculation which should

glorify

God, and so a pre-existence was ascribed also to the


Messiah, but of such a nature that by virtue of it
he abides with

God during

his earthly manifesta-

Pre-Exist-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

26

Hon.

In opposition to this, the Hellenic ideas of


pre-existence rooted themselves in the distinguishing

God and matter

of

and

According to
the same the Spirit is pre-existent and visible na
Here was
ture is only a shell which it assumes.
the soil for ideas about the incarnation, the assump
;

spirit

tion of a second nature, etc.

flesh.

In the time of Christ

these Hellenic ideas influenced the Jewish and thus

both were so spread abroad that even the most prom


inent Christian teachers adopted them. The relig
ious convictions (see V. 2), that, (1) the establish

ment

of the

kingdom

of

God upon

the earth and the

sending of Jesus as the perfect Mediator


eternity the highest purpose in
tion, that, (2)

his

own

(3)

in Jesus

God

was from

plan of salva

the glorified Christ has entered into

proper position of God-like dominion, that,


God has revealed himself, and that he

therefore excels all Old Testament mediators, yes,

the angel-powers themselves

these convictions were

(not without the influence of Hellenic


thought) that Jesus pre-existed, i.e. that in him a
heavenly Being of like rank with God, older than

so fixed

the world, yes even


Root of
la

Sl

tion

its

peared and assumed our


r
"

^
20

creating Principle, has apflesh.

The

religious root of

speculation lay in sentences such as


its

I.

Pet.

1,

forms of statement were varied even accord

ing to the intelligence of the teacher and his famil


iarity with the apocalyptic theology or with the
Hellenic philosophy of religion, in which intermedi
ate beings (above all the Logos) played a great role.

PROLEGOMENA.

27

Only the Fourth Evangelist he hardly belongs fa


the 1st century saw with perfect clearness that the
pre-earthly Christ

must be established as $o$

wv

iv

in order not to endanger the content


and significance of the revelation of God in Christ.
In addition there prevailed in wide circles such con
apxy xpds TOV #eoy,

ceptions also as recognized in a spiritual

communi

cation at his baptism the equipment of the man


Jesus (see the genealogies, the beginning of the

Gospel of Mark) for his

office,

or found

upon the

basis of Isa. vii. in his miraculous birth (from a

virgin) the

and spread
to us

of his

germ

Paul seems not to have known

ginning of the 2d century

On

(The rise

unique being.

of this representation is wholly indistinct

the other hand,

every teacher

who

it

is

it

is

it

in the be

almost universal.)

of great significance that

recognized the

new

in Christian

ity as religion ascribed pre-existence to Christ.

Supplement.

A reference to the witness of proph

ecy, to the current exposition of the


to apocalyptic writings

Old Testament,

and valid methods

of specu

was not sufficient to clear up every new point


which cropped out in the statement of the Christian
message. The earliest brother-hoods were enthusiaslation

tic,

had prophets

in the midst of them, etc.

Under

Earliest
BrotherKfastfc"

such conditions facts were produced outright contin


ually in the history (e.g., as particularly weighty,

the ascension of Christ and his descent into hell).

not possible to point out the motive to


such productions, which first only by the creation of
It is farther

Facts PTO-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

28

New

Testament Canon reached a by no means


complete end, i.e., now became enriched by compre

the

hensible mythologumena.

THE RELIGIOUS CONCEPTIONS AND THE RE

VII.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE HELLENISTIC


THEIR BEARING ON THE TRANSFOR
MATION OF THE GOSPEL MESSAGE.
LIGIOUS

JEWS

1>

^ rom

erature
logy

IN

tne remnants of Jewish- Alexandrian

(reference

also

is

made

to

the

lit-

Sibylline

Oracles as well as to Josephus) and from the great


propaganda of Judaism in the Gra3co-Roman world,
it

may

be inferred that there was a Judaism in the

diaspora to whose consciousness the cultus and the


ceremonial law disappeared entirely behind the mono

God without

images, behind the


moral instruction and the faith in a future reward
theistic

worship of

was no longer abso


lutely required of those converted to Judaism one
was also satisfied with the cleansing bath. The
Jewish religion seemed here transformed into a com
beyond.

Circumcision

itself

mon human morality and


mology.

into a monotheistic cos

Accordingly the thought of the theocracy


grew dim. The latter

as well as the Messianic hope

did not entirely

were valued

fail,

however, but the prophecies

chiefly for the proof of the antiquity of the

Jewish monotheism, and the thought of the future


spent itself in the expectation of the destruction of the

Roman

empire, of the burning of the world and

PROLEGOMENA.

29

what is weightiest the general judgment. That


which is specifically Jewish preserved itself under a
high regard for the Old Testament, which was con

wisdom

sidered as the fountain of all

(also for the

Greek philosophy and the elements of truth in the


non- Jewish religions). Many intelligent men also
observed punctiliously the
symbolical significance.
their converts

Law

Such Jews, together with

from the Greeks, formed a new Juda-

ism upon the foundation of the


pared the

for the sake of its

soil for

old.

And

these pre

the Christianizing of the Greeks,

as well as for the establishment within the empire


of a great Gentile

Church

free

from the

Law

under

the influence of Greek culture

it developed into a
kind of universal society with a monotheistic back

As religion it

ground.
put
natural
"

But

laid aside the national forms,

forward as the most perfect form of that

itself
"

religion,

in that

way

it

which the Stoa had discovered.

became more moralistic and

lost

a part of the religious energy, which the prophets


and psalmists possessed. The inner union of Juda

ism and the Hellenistic philosophy of religion indi


cates a great advance in the history of religion
culture, but the

creations.

same did not lead

Its productions

and

to strong religious

passed over into

"

Chris

tianity."

2.

had

The Jewish- Alexandrian philosophy

of religion

most noted defender in Philo, the perfect


Greek and the sincere Jew, who turned the religious
its

philosophy of his time in the direction of Neo-

Prepara
tion for

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

30

Platonism and prepared the

way

for

a Christian

which was able to rival the philosophy.


Philo was a Platonist and a Stoic, but at the same
theology,

time a revelation-philosopher; he placed the final


end in that which is above reason and therefore the
highest power in the Divine communication. On
the other hand, he saw in the human spirit some

thing Divine and bridged over the contrast between


God and creature-sjnr^, between nature and history,

by means of the personal-impersonal Logos, out of


which he explained religion and the world whose
material, it is true, remained to him wholly perishAscetic
Virtue.

able

and

evil.

His

ethical tendencies had, therefore,

in principle a strong ascetic character,

however much

he might guard the earthly virtues as


tue is freedom from the sensuous and

relative.
it is

Vir

made

per

through the touch of Divinity. This touch sur


passes all knowledge; the latter, however, is to be
fect

highly prized as the ivay. Meditation upon the


world is by Philo dependent upon the need of hap
piness and freedom, which is higher than all reason.

One may say

that Philo

is

therefore the

first

who,

as a philosopher, gave to this need a clear expression,

because he was not only a Greek, but also a Jew


imbuedv with the Old Testament within whose view,
it is
influence

drianPMlosophy of
n
R

upon
Christian-

true, the synthesis of the

Logos did not


3.

The

Messiah and of the

lay.

practical

fundamental conceptions of the

Alexandrian philosophy of religion must, in different


j e g reegj ^ave f oun(j an entrance very early into

PROLEGOMENA.

31

the Jewish-Christian circles of the diaspora, and

through the same also into the Gentile-Christian or


rather the soil was already prepared wherever these
;

thoughts became widespread. After the beginning


of the 2d century the philosophy of Philo also be

came

through Christian teachers, espe

influential

Logos-doctrine, as the expression of the


and history and above all

cially his

unity of religion, nature

fundamental her meneutic principles. Thesysterns of Valentine and Origen presuppose the system
the
His fine dualism and allegorical art
of Philo.
his

("

Biblical

learned

became acceptable also to the


the Church; to find the spiritual

alchemy

men

of

")

of the sacred text, in part alongside the

meaning
and

letter

in part outside,

was

scientific Christian theology,

possible only

upon such a

the

which

basis, since

watchword
in general
it

strove,

of

was

with

out recognizing a relative standard, to unify the


monstrous and discordant material of the Old Testa

ment and the Gospel, and to reconcile both with the


Here
religion and scientific culture of the Greeks.
Philo was a master, for he

first

in the largest sense

poured the new wine into the old wine-skins a pro


cedure in its ultimate intention justified, since his
tory

is

a unit; but in

execution the same


reality

and

its

pedantic and scholastic

was a source

of illusions, of

finally of stultification.

un

vaientmus
and Origen

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

32

THE

VIII.

KELIGIOUS

DISPOSITION

THE

OF

GREEKS AND ROMANS IN THE FIRST Two


CENTURIES AND THE CONTEMPORARY GR^COROMAN PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.
!
in 2d and
adcenturies.

^ n the

religion

aSe

and the

Cicero and Augustus the people

was almost

religious sense in general

in cultured circles, but after the

entirely wanting
end of the 1st century of our era a revival of the relig

ious sense

which

is

noticeable in the Gra3co-Roman world,

affected all grades of society

and seemed

after

the middle of the 2d century to

decennium

to

decennium.

grow stronger from


Parallel with it went the

not fruitless attempt to restore the old national cults,

Meanwhile the

religious usages, oracles, et cetera.

new

religious needs of the time did not reach a vig


orous or untroubled expression through this effort,

which was made


artificial

means.

in part

from above and in part by

The same sought,

far

more

in ac

cordance with the wholly changed conditions of the


times, to find new forms of gratification (intermin
gling and intercourse of nations

downfall of the old

republican constitutions, institutions and classes

monarchy and absolutism social crises and pauper


isminfluence of philosophy, religion, morality and
law

cosmopolitanism and

Oriental cults

human

knowledge

rights

of the

influx of

world and sa

Under the influence of philosophy a dispo


sition toward monotheism was developed out of the
downfall of the political cults and the syncretism.

tiety).

PROLEGOMENA.
Religion and

33

individual morality became more

closely united: Spiritualization of the cults, en-

Religion

and Moral-

^J^?

nobling of man, idea of ethical personality, of con

Repentance and pardon

science

and of purity.

became

of importance, also inner union

with the

Divinity, longing for revelation (asceticism

and

mysterious rites as a means of appropriating the


Divine), yearning after a painless, eternal life be

yond the grave

phantom

(apotheosis); the earthly life as

life (tyxpdreta

and

vaVra<T?)

Just as in the

2d century the moral swing was the stronger, so in


the 3d century the religious increased more and more

Polytheism was not thereby over


but
shoved
aside upon a lower plane,
come,
only
thirst for life.

where

it

was

as active as ever.

mum revealed

The numen supre-

fulness in a thousand forms (demi

its

going upward (apotheosis, emperor cult,


dominus ac dens noster") and downward (mani

gods),
"

festations in nature
is

and in history)

a super-earthly being

and

soul itself

man

was developed and


The new remained in part concealed

of the Leader (Redeemer)

sought

after.

by the old cultus forms, which the


protected or restored;
after

The

the ideal of the perfect

there

state

and piety

was a feeling-around

forms of expression, and yet the wise, the

and the

skeptic, the pious

patriot capitulated to the

cultish traditions.
Social Or-

2.

The formation

one hand, and

w
world-wide
8

of social organizations,

on the

the founding of the monarchical

Roman

empire, on the other, had the

moi
Sin.

an

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

34

greatest significance as regards the development of

something new.

Everywhere there sprang up that


cosmopolitan feeling, which points beyond itself,
there toward the practice of charity, here toward
the uniting of mankind under one head and the wip
ing out of national

The Church

lines.

appropriated,

piece for piece, the great apparatus of the earthly

Roman

empire; in

saw the portrayal


stoicism,
Platonism.

its constitution,

perhaps,

it

also

Divine economy,

of the

Perhaps the most decisive factor in the change

3.

of the religious-ethical attitude

which

in almost all its schools

was the philosophy,


had more and more

brought ethics forward and deepened the same.

Upon

the soil of Stoicism, Posidonius, Seneca, Epic-

and Marcus Aurelius, and upon the soil of


Platonism, men like Plutarch had achieved an ethi

tetus

cal-outlook,

which

in its principles (knowledge, res

God) was obscure, yet in some


Com
particulars scarcely admits of improvement.
mon to them all is the great value put upon the soul.
ignation, trust in

Neo-piatonism.

religious bent, the desire for Divine assistance,

for redemption
tinctly in

Platonists

some

and
of

for a life beyond,

them

and those who anticipated them

century (preparation by Philo).


this

mode

comes out

dis

most clearly in the Neoin the 2d

Characteristics of

of thought are the dualistic contrasting of

the Divine and the earthly, the abstract idea of God,


the assertion of the unknowableness of God, skepti

cism in regard to sense-experience and distrust of


the powers of reason at the same time great readi;

PROLEGOMENA.

35

ness to investigate and to utilize the results of the

previous scientific labors; and farther, the demand


for freedom from the sensuous through asceticism,
the

want

tion

ogy.

of

an authority,

and the fusing

belief in

a higher revela

of religion, science

Already men began

and mythol

to legitimize the relig-

ious fantasie within the realm

of

Religious

Legm-

philosophy, by

reaching back and seizing the myths as the vehicle

wisdom (romanticism). The


philosophy which had thus equipped

of the deepest

theo-

sophical

itself

was from the standpoint of natural science and clear


thinking in many ways a retrogression (yet not in
all particulars, e.g.

the Neo-Platonic psychology

far] better than the Stoic)

but

it

and the better

for the deeper religious needs

knowledge.

The inner

life

with

is

was an expression

its

desires

self-

was now

altogether the starting-point for all thought concern

ing the world.

Thoughts

of the divine,

Providence, of the kinship of


fraternal love, of the ready

all

gracious

men, of the common

and willing forgiveness

wrong, of the indulgent patience, of the insight


own weaknesses were no less the product
of the practical philosophy of the Greeks for wide

of

into their

circles,

than the conviction of the inherent sinful-

ness, of the need of redemption

and

of the value of a

human soul which finds its rest only in God. But


men possessed no sure revelation, no comprehensive
and satisfactory religious communion, no vigorous
and religious genius and no conception of history,
which could take the place of the no longer valuable

Revelation
and
Relig
i(

"

^jon

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

36

men

political history;

possessed no certitude

arid

they did not get beyond the wavering between the


God and the deification of nature. Yet with

fear of

this philosophy

the

had

the highest the age

Gospel allied itself,

and

to offer,

the stages of the

Ecclesiastical History of Dogma during the first


five centuries correspond to the stages of the

Religion within

Hellenistic Philosophy of

the

same period.

introductory Works
to History

As an

introduction to the study of the history of

the following works are to be especially

dogma

mended: Schurer, Geschichte des

im

Zeitalter

Jesu Christi,

translation published

by T.

2.

&

Volks

jiidischen

Bd.

com

1885

(English

T. Clark).

Weber,

System der altsynagogalen palastinensischen Theologie, 1880.

Kuenen, Volksreligion und Weltre-

ligion, 1883.

Wellhausen, Abriss der Geschichte

Israel s

Heft,
gie,

und Juda

1884).

4.

Weiss,

Aufl., 1884.

(Skizzen

und Vorarbeiten,

Lehrbuch der

bibl.

Baldensperger, Das

1.

TheoloSelbstbe-

wustsein Jesu im Licht der messianischen Hoff-

nungen seiner Zeit, 1888. Leben Jesu von Keim,


Weiss and others and the Einleitungen in das N.
T. von Reuss, Hilgenfeld, Mangold,

Weiss.

Weizsacker, Apostolisches Zeitalter, 1886.

Renan, Hist, des Orig.


IV.
tel,

Holtzmann und

Pfleiderer,

du Christianisme,

Das Urchristendum,

Geschichte des A.

T.

i.

T.

1887,

II.-

Dies-

der christl. Kirche,

PROLEGOMENA.
1869,

37

Siegfried, Philo v.

Alex. 1875.

Platonists

Alexandria,

Christian

of

Bigg, The
1886.

Die

Untersuchungen von Freudenthal ( Hellenistische


Studien ) and Bernays.
Boissier, La Religion

Romaine d Auguste aux Antonins,


Reville,

La

Religion a

Rome

1886 (German by Kriiger 1888).

sous

2 vols., 1874.
les

Severes,

Friedlander, Dar-

stelhmgen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms in der Zeit


von August bis zu Ausgang der Antonine, 3. Bdd.
5. Aufl.
Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, 3.
Bdd. 1878. Leopold Schmidt, Die Ethik der alten
Griechen, 2 Bdd. 1882. Heinze, Die Lehre vom

Logos, 1872.
philos.

Hirzel,

Schriften,

Untersuchungen zu Cicero s
Die Lehrbucher
Thle. 1877.

der Geschichte der Philosophie von Zeller, Ueber-

weg, Strumpell and others

part

t.

THE RISE OF ECCLESIASTICAL DOGMA.

BOOK

I.

THE PREPARATION.

CHAPTER

I.

HISTORICAL SURVEY.
first

THE

century of the existence of Gentile-

Christian communities

is

characterized, (1)

by

the rapid retirement of Jewish Christianity, (2) by


religious enthusiasm and the strength of the future
hope,

(3)

Masters

by a severe morality deduced from the


teaching, (4) by the manifold form and

freedom of expression of belief, on the basis of plain


formulas and ever increasing tradition, (5) by the
lack of a definite authority, in the transition to a

recognized outward authority among the churches,


(6) by the lack of a political connection among the
various communities, and by an organization which

was firm and yet permitted individual liberty, (7)


by the development of a peculiar literary activity,
claiming assent to its newly produced facts, (8) by
the reproduction of detached phrases and individual
39

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

40

inferences from the

apostolical teaching,

a clear understanding of the same,

(9)

without

by the crop

ping out of those tendencies which served in every


way to hasten the process already begun of fusing
the Gospel with the spiritual and religious interests

with Hellenism,

of the time,

by numer

as well as

ous attempts to wrench the Gospel free from its


native setting and to introduce elements foreign to

And

above

belonged to the (Hel


lenic) representation to consider knowledge, not as
a (charismatic) supplement to faith, but as of like
it.

finally,

essence with

all, it

it.

CHAPTER

II.

GROUND COMMON TO CHRISTIANS AND ATTITUDE


TAKEN TOWARD JUDAISM.
Beliefs

Common
is
to
tians

THAT the great majority of Christians had common ^e^ e ^s i g indicated by this fact, among others,
that gnosticism

churches.

was gradually

expelled from the

Assurance of the knowledge of the true

God, consciousness of responsibility to him, faith in


Christ, hope in eternal life, exaltation above the pres
ent world,

we

noted
1.

Gospel.

is

these were fundamental thoughts.

enter into details the following points

may

If

be

The Gospel, being founded upon a

revelation,

the reliable message of the true God, the faithful

acceptance of which guarantees salvation

THE PREPARATION.
The

41

real content of this

message is spiritual
of the resurrection
announcement
the
monotheism,
and eternal life, as well as the proclamation of moral
2.

Content of
Message.

purity and abstinence on the ground of repentance

toward God and of attested cleansing through bap


tism in remembrance of the reward of good and
evil;
3.

who

This message comes to us through Jesus Christ,


in these last days
is the commissioned Sa

viour and stands in a peculiar relationship with

He

is

K|h

"

"

the Redeemer
of

full

(ffuryp)

God and

because he has brought


the gift of eternal

knowledge
and especially Y^**^
(yvtiffts and

r ys C w

C>^,

pression for the

summa

Q od.

?>

the ex

He

of the Gospel).

life

is also

the highest Prototype of every ethical virtue, the

Law-Giver and the

Law

of the perfect

and

life,

accordingly the Conqueror of demons and the Judge


of the world
4.

Virtue

is

abstinence (a renunciation of the good

things of this world, in


stranger,

which the Christian

and whose destruction

is

is

virtue is
Abstinence
and Love.

and

awaited)

brotherly love;
5.

The message

the Christ

of

is

entrusted

to

chosen men, to apostles, and more especially to one

-^usted
to

ttes

preaching is the preaching of the


Moreover, the Spirit of God reproduces his
gifts and graces in the "saints," and thus equips
apostle;

their

Christ.

special

"prophets

and

teachers,"

who

receive

munications for the edification of others


6.

Christian worship

is

com

the offering of spiritual

worship.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

42

sacrifice

without regard to statutory

rites

and cere

monies; the holy offices and anointings, which are


connected with the Christian

cult,

have their virtue

in this, that spiritual blessings are therewith

parted
7.

Basis of

hood,

The

barriers of sex, age, position

Spirit;

and

is

organized through the gifts of the

Christian-

and

<

ground of election there

in regard to the

were divers views


ity

and nation

ality vanish entirely for Christians, as Christians;


the Christian brotherhood rests upon the Divine

election

Judaism.

im

gince Christianity
J

is

the only true religion and

religion, but belongs to all mankind


and pertains to our inmost life, it follows that it can
g

UQ ^ a na ti ona }

have no special alliance with the Jewish people, or


with their peculiar cult. The Jewish people of to
day, at least, stand in no favored relationship with

God whom Jesus has

revealed; whether they


did
is
doubtful; this, however, is certain,
formerly
that God has cast them off, and that the whole

the

Divine revelation, so far as there was any revela


tion prior to Christ (the majority believed in one and
looked upon the Old Testament as Holy Scripture)
had as its end the calling of a new nation and
"

the spreading of the revelation of


Son.

"

God through

his

THE PREPARATION.

CHAPTER

43

III.

THE COMMON FAITH AND THE BEGINNINGS OF SELFRECOGNITION IN THAT GENTILE CHRISTIANITY
WHICH WAS TO DEVELOP INTO CATHOLICISM.
SOURCES: The writings of the so-called Apostolic Fathers,
drawn from the Works of the Apologists of the 2d

inferences

century Kitschl, Entstehung der alt-kath. Kirche,


1857; Engelhardt, Das Christenthurn Justins, 1878;
derer, Das Urchristenthum, 1887.
;

2.

Ed.

Pflei-

The Christian Communities and the Church.

1.

Both the outlines and the character of the foundations of Christianity

were fixed by those

who were members of well-ordered


communities, and who accepted the Old

Chris

tian

Testa

ment as an

original Divine revelation and prized


the Gospel tradition as a free message for all, which
little

brother

its faith,

the

and the holy ordering of its life,


as well as through love and peace, be an image of
the holy Church of God, which is in heaven and
whose members are scattered over the earth; it
certainty of its hope

should, also, in the purity of its daily life

genuineness of
to those

who

its

are

and

in the

brotherly kindness be an ensample


"without,"

In the recently discovered

"

i.e.

to the alien world.

Teaching of the Apos

we come upon the sphere of interest in those


communities who had not yet been influenced by

tles

"

philosophical speculation.

ah

Outlines

disciples of

the faith,

should be kept faithfully pure. Each


hood should, through the strength of

Fixing of

They awaited the return

"ty!*

OUTLINES OP THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

44

and urged a holy

of the Christ,

life ("Two Ways,"

dependence
upon the Jewish- Alex
andrian gnomic and the Sermon on the Mount) and,
of its ethical rules

common

without outward union and a

they

polity,

recognized themselves as belonging to the new and


yet original creation of God, to the Church, which
the true Eve, the Bride of the heavenly Christ

is

(Tertull.

corpus sumus de conscientia


disciplinae unitate et spei foedere ;

Apolog. 39

religionis et
II.

Clem. 14

xa} ffJ.rjvrj$
ffroo

f>y

(ipffev

i<jr\v

ixxX-^aia

ffaJ/m

a>ffa

^oifjffev 6 $209 rov

YP a(

"*i

$^7?/za TOO xarpo$

<m

avOpa>Ttov

Xpc-

apaev

6 J^O:^TO?, TO ftr^Xo y
^xxXyaid).

The Foundations of the Faith, i.e. of the


God and Jesus and

3>

tk>ns

con fess i ons respecting the One


also the

sta

ixrt(T/j.viqs

TO

xai $j^Ao

01

TroroDi/re? TO

Xty el Y&P

d
of
the Faith.

"

ment

Holy

Spirit,

were

laid

by the

"

Christian-

^^

Testament Scriptures, together with the


apocalypses and the ever increasing traditions con
"

* ze(*

cerning the Christ (his ethical and eschatological dis


courses, on the one side, and the proclamation of

Prophecy was

the history of Jesus on the other).

proven by theology.
Ar
Fa!th

ar ^ c ^ es

faith

Already at an early date short

had been formulated


xavcbv T^9

6
(y xapddoffis,

Tiapadoffsaj?,

TO xypuy/JLa,

at

Eome had
cree(
e6</>

l>

efc

TJ

The church

6 xavwv T^? TrcVTew?,


etc.).

formulated before A.D. 150 the follow-

which was the basis


Bsov

Trar^pa

for all future creeds

xavToxpaTopa

rov fjLovayevTJ) rbv xuptov


uv, ulov auroo

xai

el?

^fj.ajv^

Xpiatov

ro

THE PREPARATION.

nvU/j.aTos dytou xai Mapias rjy? irap^ivou^ rov in}

ix

Uovrioo

45

UiXdroo Grauptoftlvra xal

dvaffrdvra

x vsxpwv, dvafidvra el$

rcupivra.,

rob<$

rift

Tpfay

yj{J.ipq.

ovpavou?, xa&ijfjLeyov

TOO ira-pos, o$ev ep%ercu xpwai C^vra? xai vsxpovs

xat

ptovt dyiav

Everything that had been prophesied concerning the Christ in the Old Testament, and that
had been testified concerning him in the primitive

Rise of

Appeal.

was referred back to the concurrent teach


ing and testimony of the twelve apostles
The rise of this court of
xopwo did rajy tfl d^offTo^ajvJ
Gospel,

(<^;^

appeal,

which was the beginning

Catholic tradftion,

is

of the idea of

historically obscure and rests

upon an a priori. Of like authority, though not


identified with it, is Paul with his Epistles, which
were, moreover, diligently read.
3.

The Principal Elements of Christianity were


God, the ^eenr^r^y, and in his Son, on the

faith in

ground of the fulfilment of prophecy and of the apos


teaching of the Lord, the discipline in
accordance with the standard laid down by the Mas
tolic attested

ter,

baptism culminating in a

prayer, the

common

communion meal, and the

of the near

sacrificial

certain hope

of Christ s glorious

coming
kingdom.
The confessions of faith were very manifold there
was not as yet any definite doctrine of faith imagi
;

and the exclusively spiritual


interpretation of the Old Testament had the widest
range for man must not quench the Spirit. In the

nation,

speculation

exercise of prayer the congregations expressed that

Main Eiements in
Christian-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

46

which they possessed

in

God and

in Christ ;

and the

duty of sacrificing this world for the hoped-for future


a PP eare(l as
salvation.

practical side of faith

"the

itself.

The

varvm g conceptions of salvation grouped themselves


about two centres, which were only loosely con
nected the one was fixed chiefly by the disposition
;

chiiiasm.

an(j

^e

imagination, the other by the

the one side, accordingly, salvation


consist in the

approaching

intellect.

was

believed to

kingdom

glorious

On
of

which should bring joy upon the earth to the


righteous (this realistic Jewish conception was de
Christ,

rived directly from the apocalypses

Chiiiasm, and

hence the interest in the resurrection of the physical

On

body).

e ge

S? Go d

sist in

the other side, salvation

a definite and

was held
of

to con-

God

knowledge
(and the
world) as against the errors of heathenism and this
and hope the
knowledge disclosed to faith
gift of life and all imaginable blessings (less em
full

(r,i<jTts)

phasis was accoidingly placed on the resurrection of


the physical body).
Of these blessings the brother

hood was already in possession of the forgiveness of


sin and of righteousness, in so far as theirs was a

But these two blessings ap


be endangered as to their worth by empha

brotherhood of saints.

peared to
sizing the moral point of view, in accordance with
which eternal life is looked upon, for the most part,
as the

wages and the reward

lived in one s

thought was
a new moral

own

still

of a perfect moral life

strength.

It is

true that the

present, that sinlessness rests upon

creation (the

new

birth)

which

is real-

THE PREPARATION.
ized in baptism

but

was ever

it

47

in danger of being

crowded out by the other thought, that there are no


blessings in salvation save revealed knowledge and
the eternal
in

which

life,

but rather only a catalogue of duties,

the Gospel

forth as the

is set

New Law

(as

The Christianizing of the


Old Testament served to promote this Greek concep
tion.
The idea, it is true, was already present that
cetic holiness

and love)

"

the Gospel, in so far as


gift of salvation
kteu&epia?

Christ

"

it is

law

(vopos)

Gospel as

includes the

Wu C^D avdyxys
(vo/ioy
himself is the Law) but
;

v6p.o<$

r/7?

this rep

was always doubtful and was gradually


abandoned. The setting forth of the Gospel under
resentation

the conceptions:

rv&ffts

(God and world), ixaryeMa

(eternal life), vo^o? (moral duty), appeared as plain as


it

was exhaustive, and

in every relation the

held to be confirmed, since

it

was
knowl

xtffrts

exhibits itself in

edge as well as in hope and in obedience; but in


reality it is only TTC O-TC? r?7? x/^Vcw?, a preparation, be
cause the blessings of salvation (the ftaffdeia TOO tieoo
as well as the ayftapffia) are conferred in the future.

In this hope of the future, salvation

is set

forth

as realizing itself in a brotherhood, while in the

moral-gnostic view

it

is

considered as an individ

and reward and punishment are


represented as co-ordinated with it, which results in
ual possession,

emptying the conception of God of its content. The


moral view of sin, forgiveness and righteousness in
Clement, Barnabas and Polycarp is overlaid by Pau
and formulas but the uncertainty with

line phrases

Transition
to Moral-

ism

48

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

which these are quoted indicates that they were not


In Hernias and II. Clement the
really understood.
ground of the forgiveness

of sin is the spontaneous

energizing p-erdvoia. The wide-spread idea that griev


ous sins could not be forgiven those who had been
baptized, but that light sins

might be condoned,

indicates the complete transition to a barren, theo


retical

influence
or Old

Testament.

moralism, which was, however,

still

overlaid

by an apocalyptic enthusiasm.
4. The Old Testament as the Source of the Enowledge of

Pa^ contributed,

(1) to

the development of

the monotheistic cosmology, (2) to the setting forth of


the proofs of prophecy and of the antiquity of Chris
tianity

("older

than the

world")? (3)

to the establish

ing of all the ecclesiastical ideas, rights

and cere

monies, which were considered necessary,

(4)

to the

and prophetical
fragments), (5) to the refuting of Judaism as a
nation, i.e. to the proving that this people had been
deepening of the life of faith (Psalms

by God, and that they had either never had


covenant
with him (Barnabas), or had had a
any
covenant of wrath, or had forfeited their covenant
cast off

that they had never understood the Old Testament and

were therefore now deprived of

had ever been

it,

if,

indeed, they

in possession of it (the attitude of the

Church as a whole toward the Jewish people and


have been originally as in
as the attitude of the gnostics toward the

their history appears to


definite

Old Testament)
Attempts to correct the Old Testa
ment and to give it a Christian sense were not want.

THE PREPARATION.
ing

in the formation of the

New

49

Testament there

were rudimentary efforts toward this end.


5. Faith Knowledge was above all a knowledge
of

as the only supernatural, spiritual

mighty Being: God


the world and

much

God

is

Creator,

God

is

is

and

al-

^^^

the Creator and Ruler of

But inas

therefore the Lord.

as he created the world as a beautiful, well-

ordered whole (monotheistic theory of nature) for


the sake of man, he is at the same time the God
of goodness

and of redemption (#o?

O-WT^),

and

only through the knowledge of the identity of the

Creator and Redeemer


the Father reach
ever,

was

God

God as
Redemption, how

does faith in

its perfection.

necessary, because

mankind and the world

in the very beginning fell under the dominion of


demons. A general and acceptable theory in re-

...,.,..

,.

-I

gard to the origin of this dominion did by no means


exist; but the conviction was fixed and universal,
that the present condition

and course of the world

not of God, but of the devil.

mighty Creator, and hope

Still,

Dominion
of Demons.

is

faith in the al

in the restoration of the

make any
headway and practical dualism dominated. The
world is good and belongs to God, but the present

earth did not allow theoretical dualism to

course of
cillated

it is

of the devil.

Thus men

thoughts os

between the conception of the world as a

beautiful

and orderly whole, and the impression of

the present evil course of things, of the baseness


of the sensuous

the world.
4

and

of the

dominion of demons in

practical

Dualism.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

50
jesus

is

6.

Lord and
ifke God.

Faith in Jesus Christ as the Redeemer was


with faith in God as the Redeemer.

c l ose ty identified

Jesus

xupws and

is

ffatrrjp

God, and the same

like

words were often used without indicating whether


the reference

was

to

vealer and Mediator

(God)

is

him

God

or to

for in the Ke-

of salvation (Jesus)

the Author

represented (the purpose of salvation and

coincide) prayer, however, was


made to God through Christ. This title given to Jesus

the revelation of

("

Christ

it

became indeed a mere name, since there

")

was no real knowledge of the meaning of


Titles

Therefore

the

Christians

Gentile

"

Messiah."

were

obliged

Given to
Jesus.

through other

means

nity of Jesus

but they possessed in the

to find expressions for the dig


full eschato-

logical traditions valuable reminiscences of the orig

inal apprehension of the Person of Jesus.

confession that

God has

In the

chosen and specially pre

pared Jesus, that he is the "Angel" and "Servant"


of God, and that he shall judge mankind, and simi

were made concern

lar expressions, other utterances

ing Jesus, which sprang from the fundamental idea


that he was the "Christ" called of God and en
trusted with an
traditional,

In addition there was a

office.

though not common, reference to him as

"The Teacher."

son of

The

"

title

traditional,

ing.

Out

Son

of

God

"

"

(not

Son of

Man

")

was

and was maintained without any waver

of this

grew

directly the conception that

Jesus belongs to the sphere of


must think of him
nepl fcou

God and

"

"

>?

(II.

that one

Clem.

1)

In

THE PREPARATION.

51

this phrasing of it the indirect theologia Christi, in


to

regard

which there was no wavering, found ex

pression in classical forms.


of Jesus as one thinks of

It is

God,

God-exalted Lord and Judge,

necessary to think

(1)

(2)

because he

is

the

because he brought

and has delivered mankind

true knowledge and life

from the dominion of demons, from error and sin, or


will deliver them.
Therefore he is ffwryp, xupto?, tfeo?
waiv, dei filius ac deus,

He

#sy.

is

"our

Hope,"

Priest of our prayers,

Starting from

dominus ac deus, but not

and

"our

Faith,"

the High-

"our Life."

were divers theories

this basis there

in regard to the Person of Jesus,

which however

all

Theories of
Person of
Jesus,

bore a certain analogy to the naive and the philo


sophical

Greek

"

theologies",

versally accepted

here two principal types


the

man whom God had

Spirit of

God

but there were no uni

"doctrines".

(the

Jesus was looked upon as


chosen and in whom the

Godhead

in accordance with his

We may distinguish

own

itself)

dwelt; he was,

testimony, adopted by

God and

clothed with authority (Adoption Chris

tology)

or Jesus

was looked upon

as a heavenly

Being (the highest heavenly spiritual


next
to God), who became incarnate and
Being
after the completion of his work upon the earth

spiritual

returned to the heavens (Pneumatic Christology ; TWO


the transition here to the Logos Christology was

These two different Christologies (the Dei


man and the Divine Being appearing in the

easy).
fied

form of a man) were however brought closely

to-

chrjs .

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

52

gether so soon as the implanted Spirit of

God

in

man Jesus was looked upon as the pre-existent


Son of God (Hernias) and so soon as the title Son

the

"

of

God,"

as applied to that spiritual Being,

derived from his (miraculous)

incarnation

was
both,

however, were maintained. Notwithstanding these


transition forms the two Christologies may be clearly
In the one case the election (emphasis
upon the miraculous occurrence at the baptism) and
the exaltation to God are characteristic in the other,

distinguished

Naive DOcetism.

a naive docetism

for as yet there

was no two-

nature theory (Jesus divinity was looked upon as


a gift, or else his human form as a temporary taber
nacle).

The

was a mere man

declaration: Jesus

(tfdds avOpwKos)

was undoubtedly from

the beginning

was the
but the theories which i dendenial of the lv
of
the
Person
Jesus
with the Godhead (naive
tified
modalism) were not cast aside with the same assur

and always highly objectionable

likewise

"

<jap-/.i"

Naive MOdalism.

A formal

theory of the identity of God and


Jesus does not seem to have been wide-spread in the
ance.

The acceptance

Church

at large.

least of

one heavenly, eternal, spiritual Being close

of the existence at

to God was demanded outright by the Old Testa


ment Scriptures, as men understood them, so that all

were constrained

to recognize this,

whether or not

they had any basis for reconciling their Christology

with that heavenly Being.


Pneumatic
ogy.

The pneumatic Christology was always found


wherever

men gave

themselves to the study of the

THE PREPARATION.

53

Old Testament and wherever faith in Christ as the


complete revelation of

God was the

foremost thought,

important and educated


Christian writers (not in Hermas, but in Clement,
Barnabas, Ignatius, etc. ). Because this Christology seemed to be directly demanded by the Old Tes
i.e.

is

it

found in

all the

tament as then expounded, because it alone united


and reconciled creation and redemption, because it
furnished the proof that the world and religion have
the

same Divine Source, because the most esteemed

primitive Scriptures championed

cause

it

it,

and, finally, be

gave room for the introduction of the Logos-

speculation,

it

was

the Christology of the future.

The adoption Christology, however, proved

itself

lation of religion to the cosmos, to


its

Adoption
C/nristol~

insufficient over against the consideration of the re-

ogy>

humanity and

history, as well as over against the Old Testa

And

ment.

the advocates of the pneumatic Chris

tology did not set

menon;

forth as a doubtful theologu-

it

their expositions of

it

(Clement, Ignatius,

Barnabas, Justin), on the contrary, indicate that


they could not conceive of a Christianity without

On

faith in the divine spiritual Being, Christ.

the

other hand, in the liturgical fragments and prayers


that have

come down

to the pre-existence

the xvpto$ to

The

whom

to us,
it

sufficed

prayer

may

representations of the

as teacher:

Giving

of

we

find little reference

that Jesus

is

now

be addressed.

work

of Christ (Christ

knowledge, proclaiming of

the new law; Christ as Saviour: Giving of

life,

con

Christ as

Teacher
an
av ~
n^

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

54

quering of demons, forgiving of past sins in the time


of error) were connected by some (following current
tradition, using the Pauline Epistles)

and

resurrection,

with his death

by others they were affirmed with

out direct reference to these facts.

Independent re

upon the close union of the saving work of


Christ with the facts set forth in his preaching are
nowhere found; and yet the representation of the
flections

free

endurance of suffering, of the

cross,

and of the

was accepted in many communities


a holy mysterium, in which the deepest wisdom

blood of Christ,
as

and power

of the Gospel

is

concealed (Ignatius),

although the death on the cross and the forgiveness

by no means everywhere (as in Clement,


Polycarp and Barnabas) inseparably joined together
(Hernias knows nothing whatever about such a

of sin were

The peculiarity and the individuality of the


work of the historical Christ were moreover menaced
by the idea that Christ had been the revealer of God

union).

in the Old Testament.


itecfim-

Svelte

-^

^e

^ ac ^ s

pertaining to the history of Jesus,

the real an d the imagined, received an exaggerated

when reiterated in the work


and when attacked by heretics. To

significance

of instruc

tion

the mirac

ulous birth, death, resurrection, exaltation and return,

was added
day and,

definitely

now

the ascension on the 40th

less definitely, the

descent into

hell,

while

was more and more ig


these occurrences was strongly

the history of the baptism


nored.

The reality

emphasized

of

but they had not yet become

"

dogmas"

THE PREPARATION.

55

were neither inseparably connected with the


idea of salvation, nor were they definitely outlined,
nor was the fantasie restricted in its artistic exuber
for they

ance.
7.

That the Worship of God should be a pure,

worship,

was taken for


was looked upon as

spiritual exercise, without ceremonies,

granted.

Every divine service

a spiritual offering (of thanks) accompanied with


The
fasting and deeds of compassionate love.
Lord s Supper (eucharist) was held to be an offering
in the strictest sense of the word,

which was associated with


the poor)

it

|^J^J

and everything

(e.g.

assistance of

became imbued with the idea

of sacrifice.

Thenceforward the institutional idea found a wide


range, notwithstanding the essential spirituality of

worship.

Starting with the idea of the symbolical,

mysteries which were so necessary to the Greeks


were soon established. Baptism in the name of the
"

"

Father, Son and Spirit was esteemed as the mystery


through which the sins of blindness are wholly set

and which only thenceforward, however,


imposes obligations (mortal sins, committed after

aside,

baptism, were

considered unpardonable,

pardoning power was reserved for God

and there exercises


spired men.

it

and yet

who

here

upon the earth through in

The idea and

practice of

"sec

ond

repentance" were born through the stress of


necessity, became however wide-spread, and were

then established by the prophetical book of Hernias).


(no infant
Baptism was called e^pa^fe and
(f>a>Tiff[j.6$

Baptism.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA,

56

baptism); the uniting of baptism with the gift of


the

Holy

Lord

Spirit

became somewhat uncertain.

Supper was viewed

as

<pdpfi.axov

The

frftavaaias^

as

a mysterious communication of gnosis and of life


the for
(see the eucharistic prayer in the Didache
;

giveness of sins is not there mentioned)

once a communion meal and a


Realism

it

sacrificial

was

at

meal.

Realism and symbolism were here mingled together,


ag were the ideas of grace and of sacrificial
Hellenic conceptions early crowded in here

offering.

(see Ignatius, Justin,


gan5atio

Apol.

I.,

the close).

Church organization, as such, exercised no in


fluence upon the form of the statement of belief until
about the year 150.

which the

And

yet the high esteem in

apostles, prophets

and teachers were held

laid the foundation for future developments ; besides,

Ignatius had already declared

that

the

attitude

toward the bishop determined the attitude toward


God and toward Christ, and other teachers insisted
that one

must follow the

"ancients",

the disciples

of the apostles, in all things.

This survey indicates that the decisive premises


D
n Embryo.

for the evolution of the Catholic system of doctrine

were already in existence before the middle of the 2d


century and before the heated contest with gnosti
cism.

The records which have come down to us from


the 1st century of the Gentile Church are of a very

THE PREPARATION.

57

varied character from the point of view of the his


In the Didache we have a catechism
tory of dogma.
life, dependent upon a JewishGreek catechism, and bringing out in the prayers
and ecclesiastical discipline that which is specifically

for the Christian

Christian.

The Barnabas-Epistle, probably

of Al-

exandrian origin, teaches the correct (Christian)


interpretation of the Old

verbal interpretation and

Testament, casts

and follows Paul

Judaism as

aside

of the devil,

essentially as regards Christology.

The same Christology is represented in the Roman


Clement-Epistle, which also contains Pauline

1.

reminiscences (in regard to atonement and justifi


*
but these are conceived from the moral
cation)
,

standpoint.

It is classically represented in

Pastor and in the

eschatological element

the

Christology of

author of the

II.

Hernias

Clement- Epistle, where the

II.

is

also very prominent.

former

is

the adoption;

The
the

Clem. Epist. has no consistent

Christology, but follows various motives.

The

the

ology of Ignatius is the most advanced, in so far as


he, in the contest with the gnostics, made the facts
of salvation prominent

and drew his own gnosis

from the history of Christ rather than from the Old


Testament.
xveu/jLa

He

and xard

sought to

make Jesus

Christ, xard

edpxa, the centre of Christianity.

The

Epistle of Polycarp is characteristic on account of its

dependence upon earlier Christian writings (Paul s


Epistles, I. Peter, I. John), and on account of its
conservative attitude toward the most valuable tra

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

58

The Prcedicatio Petri marks the

ditions.

transition

Petri.

from the primitive Christian


apologetic writers (Christ as

literary activity to the


v6[j.o<$

CHAPTER

and ^09).

IV.

THE ATTEMPT OF THE GNOSTICS TO CONSTRUCT AN


APOSTOLIC DOCTRINE OF FAITH AND TO PRO
DUCE A CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY OR, THE ACUTE
;

SECULARIZATION OF CHRISTIANITY.
Sources

The writings

of Justin

and the early Catholic

Fathers, together with Epiphanius and Theodoret.


Frag
ments collected by Hilgenfeld, Ketzergesch, 1884. Descrip

tions

by Neander, Gnostische System,

1818, Baur, Gnosis,


Gnosticismus, 1860, Moeller, Kosmologie in
der griech.
Kirche, 1860 vide also Renan, Hist. des. Orig.
du Christianisme
T. V.-VII.

1835, Lipsius,

",

Gnosti-

GNOSTICISM

cretic

movement

is

a manifestation of the great syn


and 3d centuries, which

of the 2d

was occasioned by

the interchange of national relig

ions, by the contact of Orient and Occident, and by

the influence of Greek philosophy upon religion in


Aims

at a

World-Religion.

aimed

winning of a world-religi on j n w hich men should be rated, not on the basis

general.

It

at the

of citizenship, but according to the standard of their


intellectual

and moral aptitude.

The Gospel was

ognized as a world-religion only in so far as

it

rec

could

be severed from the Old Testament religion and the


Old Testament, and be moulded by the religious
philosophy of the Greeks and grafted upon the
existing cultus-wisdom and practice of occult mys-

THE PREPARATION.

The means by which this artificial union


brought about was the allegorical method

teries.

was

59

to be

as used long since by the Greek religious philoso

The

phers.

possibility of the rise of

a Christian

gnosticism lay in this, that the Christian

commu

had everywhere fallen heir to the heritage of


the Jewish propaganda, where there was already an
nities

exuberant tendency to spiritualize the Old Testament

and where the

religion,

intellectual interest in relig

ion had long been unbridled.


Christ,

and

Besides, the Gospel of

had made such

especially Christ himself,

an overwhelming impression that men were pos


sessed by the strongest impulse to subordinate their

highest conceptions to him, whence, as so often, the


"victus

victor i legcm

Christian
Gnosis>

dat"

attained

its right.

Fi-

nally the Christian preaching from the beginning

promised a gnosis of the wisdom of God, espe


cially that of Paul an aiitinomian. gnosis, and the
churches in

wisdom as

the empire

conceived

ho-fu^ Xarpzia^ in

the Christian

accordance with their

Greek conceptions; they combined the mysterious


with a marvellous openness, the spiritual with the
most significant rites, and sought in this way,
through their organization and through their "phil
osophical

life",

to realize that ideal

Hellenic religious spirit

for

which the

was then

striving,
namely,
a communion, or fellowship, which, upon the basis
of a Divine revelation, comes into the possession of

the highest knowledge and therefore realizes the


holiest

life,

and which communicates

this knowledge,

Mysterious

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

60

not through rational discussion, but through mys


terious, efficacious consecrations and revealed doc
trines.
2.

stageof
ess<

We

are

now

prepared to assert, that in gnos-

was

ticism the acute stage of a process

reached,

Church and which under

which began
went a slow and distinct evolution under the Catho
The gnostics were the theologians of
lic system.
early in the

the 1st century; they were the

first

to transform

Christianity into a system of doctrines (dogmas);

they were the

first to

treat tradition

and the primitive

Christian Scriptures systematically

they undertook

to set forth Christianity as the absolute religion,

they therefore placed


ligions, to that of the

to

it

and

in opposition to the other re

Old Testament as well (not alone

but the absolute religion, which they

Judaism)
coupled with Christ, was to them essentially identical
with the results of the philosophy of religion, for which
they had

Attempt
Fuse

to

riS
it

anT"

Hellenism.

now found

the basis in a revelation

They

were accordingly a class of Christians who essayed


through a sharp onset to conquer Christianity for
jj en en i c cu lture,

and Hellenic culture

for Christian

ity, and they thereby abandoned the Old Testament


in order to fitly close up the breach between the two
Christian-

cuffTheSophy

opposing forces.

Christianity became an occult the-

phy (revealed metaphysics and apparition philosophy, permeated with the Platonic spirit and with
os

Pauline ideas, constructed out of the material of


an old cultus-wisdom which was acquired through
mysteries and the illumined understanding, defined

THE PREPARATION.

61

by a keen and, in part, true criticism of the Old


Testament religion and the scant faith of the Church.
Consequently one is obliged to verify in the promi
nent gnostic schools the Semitic cosmological prin
the

ciples,

Hellenic

and the

philosophical ideas

knowledge of the redemption of the world through


And one must also take account of these
Christ.

The speculative philosophical, the


The con
cultish-mystical and the dualistic-ascetic.

Three

three factors:

junction of these elements, the entire transformation


of every ethical problem into a cosmological prob

lem and,

finally,

the view that

human

history is

but a continuation of natural history, especially that


redemption is but the last act in the drama which

had

its

ment

Godhead

origin in the

in the world

all

itself

and

its

develop

these are not peculiar to

gnosticism, but a stage in the general development

which was

in

many ways

related to Philonism

and

which anticipated Neo-Platonism and Catholicism.


Out of the crass mythology of an Oriental religion,

by the transformation of the concrete forms into


u
Si
speculative and ethical ideas, such as Abyss",
"

lence",

"Logos",

"Wisdom",

"Life"

(the

Semitic

names were often retained), there was formed a my


thology of notions in which the juxtaposition and the

number

were determined by the pro


pounding of a scheme. Thus was produced a philoof these ideas

philosoph
ic

sophical, dramatico-poetic representation similar to

more complicated and therefore


which those mighty powers, the

the Platonic, but far

more

fantastical, in

Dramat-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

62

have been brought


into an unholy alliance with the material and the
base, from which however finally the spiritual, as

and the good, appeared

spiritual

to

by kindred powers which are too exalted ever


The good
and the heavenly which is degraded to the material
is the human spirit; and the sublime Power which
sisted

to be abased, is after all rendered free.

Gospel
History
A11

ri

cfi

The Gospel

sets it free is the Christ.

history

is

not

tne history of Christ, but a collection of allegorical


representations of the great Divine world-history.
Christ has in truth no history; his appearance in
this

world of confusion and delusion

is

his

own

act

and the enlightenment of the Spirit, as regards itself,


This illumination itself is
is the effect of this act.
dependent upon asceticism and upon a
surrender to the mysteries ordained by Christ, in

life,

but

it is

which one comes into communion with a praesens


numeUy and which in a mysterious way gradually free
the spirit from the world of sense. This spiritualiznetc?the
Watch-cry.

ng P rocess should also be actively cultivated.

nence

therefore the watch-cry.

js

Absti-

Christianity

is

accordingly a speculative philosophy which redeems


the spirit (Yv&ais a-wr^ a?), inasmuch as it enlight

ens and consecrates

way

of

life.

world.

and

The gnosis

istic interest of

vigor and

it

life to

the stoa.

directs

is free

unto the true

The powers which give

the spirit rule in the supersensible

The only guide

to this

(not exact philosophy) resting


allied

it

from the rational

with /^ara^^ a.

world

is

jj-dftyats

upon a revelation and

The fundamental

principles

THE PREPARATION.
are accordingly the following:
ble, indefinite

mordial Being,

(1)

and eternal nature


(2)

63

The

supersensi-

of the divine pri-

Principles,

the evil (not real) matter opposed

to the divine Being, (3) the plenitude of the divine

powers (eons) which, viewed partly as powers, partly


as real ideas, partly as relatively independent beings,

represent in stages the development

and revelation

Divinity, but which at the same time are


intended to make possible the transition from the
of the

higher to the lower, (4) the cosmos as a mixture of


matter with sparks of the divine Being, and which
originated from the descent of the latter into the

from a reprehensible undertaking of a


subordinate spirit, merely through the Divine suf
former,

i.e.

ferance, (5) the freeing of the spiritual elements

from

their union with matter, or the separation of the

good from the sensuous world through the ChristSpirit, which is active in holy consecrations, knowl
edge and asceticism
tic,

thus arises the complete gnos

the independent world-free spirit,

God and prepares himself


mankind are earth-born

for eternity.
(hylikers).

who

lives in

The

rest of

Yet leading

teachers (School of Valentinus) distinguish also be-

tween hylikers and psychikers

the latter were the

who lived by law and faith,


common faith is good enough, that

doers of the law,

whom

the

necessary.

The

is,

centre of gravity of the gnostic

system did not rest in


are so imperfectly
in its postulates.

for

its

known

changing

details,

to us, but in its

which

aim and

^Jjp^f.
chlkl>ls -

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

64
Phases of
cism.

The phases

3.

of gnosticism

were as variegated as

possible (brotherhoods, ascetic orders, cultus of


teries, secret

schools, free devotional

mys

associations,

performances by Christian swindlers and betrayed


betrayers, attempts to establish

new

religions after

the pattern and under the influence of the Christian


Accordingly the relation of gnosticism
religion).
to that

which was common

to all Christians

the individual Christian communities

ingly varied.

On

and

to

was exceed

the one hand, gnosticism pene

trated to the very heart of those Christian churches

in which docetic and dualistic-ascetic

influences

were largely at work and where there was a strong


tendency to vary the original form of the kerygma
on the other hand, there were gnostic communities
;

that remained apart and indeed abhorred

all alliances

For the history of dogma the right


and the real stem, the great
wing
S nos ^ c school sects (Basiliclians, Valentinians) come
eS p ec i aiiy under consideration.
The latter wished
with others.

of gnosticism

ian^vaientimans.

to establish a higher order of Christians above the

common
contest
i

rhe5 o

st

th e
an(j

psychikers,

who were barely

was mainly with

o 9i ans from

were the

first

whom

these

endured.

later generations

to write

The

and they were the


learned

elementary works on

dogmatics, ethics, and scientific and exegetical trea


tises; in short, they laid the foundations of Chris
tian theological literature
of Christian tradition.
tics

and

of the right

and began the elaboration

The expulsion
wing

of these gnos

(Encratites,

"Docetse,"

THE PREPARATION.

65

Tatian) could be accomplished only slowly and it


result of the consolidating of the Christian

was a

Encratites,

Tatian

communities into the Catholic Church which was


called forth

The

by

this gnostic

movement.

rise of gnosticism is fully explained

from the

Expiana-

which Christian preaching


flourished on Roman soil and from its own attraction
as a sure announcement of knowledge, life and dis
gcneral conditions under

cipline, attributed directly to

had appeared upon the

a Divine Person

The Church

earth.

who

fathers

hold distracted Judaism, together with the demons,


responsible for

its rise

later they attribute it to the

Samaritan messiah, Simon, then to the Greek philosophers,

and

finally to those

who show

disobedient to ecclesiastical discipline.

was a particula veri


the syncretism which led
there

ditions

but

it

In

all

this

may be easily shown


to this Christian gnos

in Samaritan-Syrian territory
*

andria

themselves

as

ticism undoubtedly had one of

its

Simon Ma-

principal centres

and the other in Alex-

samana
ana Alex

must not be overlooked that the con

were everywhere present in the empire for a

spontaneous development. On that account it is im


possible to write a history of the development of
gnosticism, and

it

would be

so,

even

if

we knew

more than we do about the particular systems.

We

can distinguish only between Jewish-Christian and


Gentile- Christian gnostics, and can group the latter
only according to their greater or less departure
the

common

Christian faith as exemplified in their

varying attitude toward the Old


5

from

Testament and the

tics.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

66

demiurge, and then seek out of this to form from an


unbiased reading of the Christian writings an idea

That the entire many-sided movement, in which Hellenism, with ail its good and bad
of

Heiienism.

"gnostic."

sought to adapt the Gospel, should gradu


ally become a Christian, or, rather, an ecclesiastical
movement, lay in the nature of the case. But it is
qualities,

not therefore possible to group the systems in the


2d century chronologically according to a Christian
standard, since attempts like that of Carpocrates be

Difference

between

long to the earlier and not to the later times.


4. Although the differences between gnostic Chris-

Christian

^ an ity

Common

as

^ ne

anc^

^ie common

ecclesiastical faith, as well

GT ecclesiastical theology, appear in part

fleeting, in so far as in the latter also the question

of

knowledge was especially emphasized and the

Gospel was being transformed into a system of com


plete knowledge in order to subdue the world, and in
so far as the

wVr? was made subordinate

to

the

yvtiffts and Greek philosophy was more and more


employed, and in so far as eschatology was restricted,

docetic views allowed free play


prized;

yet

it

is true,

gnosticism was most


in the

Church

mentary form,

(1)

and a rigid ascetism

that at the time

flourishing

all

when

these were found

at large only in germinal, or frag


(2) that

the

Church

at large held fast

to the settled facts contained in the baptismal con

fession

ing

and

to the eschatological expectations, retain

its belief

God,

also in the Creator as the

in the oneness of Jesus Christ

and

Supreme

in the

Old

THE PREPARATION.

67

Testament, thus rejecting dualism, (3) that the


Church maintained the unity and the parity of hu
man kind and therefore the simplicity and universal

tendency of the Christian salvation, and

(4)

that

it

opposed every attempt to introduce new, Oriental


mythologies, guided in this by the early Christian
consciousness and a certain independent judgment.

However, the Church in its contest with gnosticism


learned a great deal from it. The principal points

which were under discussion may be briefly summarized as follows (the word positive appended to
a gnostic proposition indicates that the doctrine had
"

"

a positive influence in the

Church view and


is

doctrine)

development of the
(1)

Christianity,

which

the only true and absolute religion, contains a re

vealed system of doctrine (pos.),

(2)

the Revealer

is

Christ (pos.), but Christ alone, and Christ, only so


far as

he was made manifest (no O. T. Christ).

This manifestation
teaching

is

is

itself

the redemption,

the proclamation of this

and

the

of the nec

essary presuppositions (pos.), (3) the Christian teach

be deduced from the apostolic tradition


critically treated the same is found in the apostolic
ing

is to

writings and in an

esoteric

doctrine transmitted

as an open doctrine it is con


(pos.)
densed in the regula fidei (pos.), as an esoteric doc
trine it is transmitted by appointed teachers, (4) the

by the apostles

primitive revelation (apostolic Scriptures) even be


cause it is such, must be expounded by means of the
,

allegory, in order to

draw out

its

deeper meaning

principal
Points under Discus
sion.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

68

(pos.), (5) as to the separate portions of the

regula

as the gnostics understood them, the following are


to be especially noted
Disparity

between

Supreme
God and

disparity between the supreme God and


(a)
the Creator of the world, and the consequent contrast

The

Creator.

and

of redemption

creation, i.e., the separation of

the mediator of revelation and the mediator of crea


tion,
Distin

Supreme
God from
God of
O. T.

the distinguishing of the Supreme

(b)

guishing

the

God

of the

God from

Old Testament, and the consequent

rejection of the O. T.

the declaration that the

i.e.

O. T. does not contain a revelation of the Supreme


God, unless it be in certain parts,
Eternity of
Matter.

(c)

the doctrine of the absoluteness and eternity of

matter,
World
Product of
Intermedi
ate or Evil
Being.

(d)

the affirmation that the present world

came

into existence through a fall into sin, i.e. through

an undertaking antagonistic to God, and that it is


therefore the product of an evil, or intermediate
being,

Evil Inher
ent in

Matter and
a Physical

A geney

(e)

is

the doctrine that evil

inherent in matter and

a physical agency,

(f)
Eons.

the acceptance of eons,

heavenly persons, in
Divinity unfolds

Christ Re
veal er of

Unknown
God.

Jesus,

Heavenly

whom

i.e.

erto

unknown

Eon

of real

powers and

the absoluteness of the

itself,

(g) the affirmation that Christ

(h)
Eon.

is

proclaimed a hith

Divinity,

the doctrine that in Jesus Christ, the heavenly

saw redemption in his


Person, but they reduced his Person to a mere selfthe gnostics rightly

THE PREPARATION.
existent
of

him

Being

Christ and the

69

human manifestation

are to be clearly distinguished and to each

nature a

"

distincte

was

agere"

to be

docetism, but the two-nature doctrine

given (not

is

character

Accordingly some, as Basilides, recognized


no real union whatever between Christ and the man
istic).

whom

Jesus,

Basiiides.

they otherwise accepted as a real man.

Others, as a portion of the Valentinians

their Chris-

Va

?^

in

was exceedingly complicated and variedtaught that the body of Jesus was a heavenly-psychi
cal form, and that it only apparently came forth

tology

from the
nil,

womb

of

Mary.

Others

finally, like Sator-

satornii.

explained that the entire visible manifestation of


was only a phantasma, and hence they ques

Christ

tioned the reality of his birth,


(i)

the transformation of the

x.xfyffia

(that the

heavenly Church was looked upon as an eon was


nothing new) into the collegium of the pneuma-

who alone shall enjoy the highest blessedness,


while the hylikers shall suffer destruction and the
shall obtain only an
psychikers with their 4

tikers,

*(<m$

inferior blessedness,
(k) the rejection of the

whole of primitive Chrisand

tian eschatology, especially the return of Christ

the resurrection of the body

with this was coupled

the affirmation that in the future one should expect

only the freeing of the spirit from the veiled life of


the senses, while the spirit itself is enlightened and
assured of

God and

already possesses immortality

and only awaits an entrance into the pleroma,

Jf
JJJJJ

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

70

the dualistic ethics (rigid ascetism) which here

(1)

and there may have veered over

How

into libertinism.

strongly gnosticism anticipated Catholicism

becomes apparent especially from


its doctrine of redemption, from
its

doctrine of the sacraments,

its

Christology and

its

magic-cult and

and from

its scientific

literature.

CHAPTER

V.

MARCION S ATTEMPT TO SET ASIDE THE OLD TES


TAMENT AS THE FOUNDATION OF THE GOSPEL,
TO PURIFY TRADITION, AND TO REFORM CHRIS
TIANITY ON THE BASIS OF THE PAULINE GOS
PEL.
Marcjorfs
Principles.

MARCION should

not be classed with gnostics like

Basilides an d Valentinus

for (1) he

was guided by

no metaphysical, also by no apologetical, but only

by a purely soteriological interest, (2) he therefore


placed the whole emphasis upon the pure Gospel and
upon

faith (not

ploy philosophy

upon knowledge),

(3)

at least not as a

in his conception of Christianity,

he did not

main
(4)

em

principle

he did not en

deavor to found schools of philosophers, but to re


form, in accordance with the true Pauline Gospel,
the churches whose Christianity he believed to be
legalistic (Judaistic) and who, as he thought, denied
F

ciu rch

a free

g race

When

church of his own.


elty,

he failed in

this,

he formed a

Wholly captivated by the nov

uniqueness and glory of the grace of

God

in

THE PREPARATION.
he believed that

Christ,

71

the sharp antitheses

of

Paul (Law and Gospel, works and faith, flesh and


spirit, sin and righteousness) must be made the
foundation of religious conceptions, and that these
antitheses must be apportioned between the right
eous, angry God of the Old Testament, who is iden

with the Creator of the world, and the God of

tical

the Gospel,

who

who was unknown

before Christ, and

nothing but Love and Mercy.

is

This crass

crass Duai-

ism

a Paulinism without dialectics, Old Testa


the
Jewish-Christian view of history was
or
ment,
put forth by Marcion, not without his being influ

dualism

With the ethi


enced by the Syrian gnosis (Cerdo)
cal contrast of the sublime and good on the one side,
.

and the

petty, just

and hard on the

other, there

was

joined the contrast between the eternal, spiritual and


the limited, sentient, in a

way which

threatened to

debase the problem again to a question of cosmology.


In detail, the following points are especially impor
tant

The Old Testament was expounded by Marcion


accordiug to its verbal sense and with a rejection of
1.

Exposition
of Old Tes-

tament

he accepted it as a
revelation of the Creator of the world and of the God

all

allegorical

Jews

interpretations;

but even on this account he placed it


in sharp antithesis to the Gospel (see the Antithe
the content of which he discovered solely in
ses")

of the

"

the utterances of Jesus and in the Pauline Epistles, Wojredssu jnd


after that he had purified them from supposed JewEpistles
.

ish

interpolations.

..

These interpolations were, ac-

the Sole
Gospel.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

72

cording to his idea, of long standing, since the


twelve apostles did not understand Jesus and mis

making it to correspond with


the Old Testament.
Paul, who was called by Christ
to restore the true Gospel, was the only one who per
ceived that Jesus had proclaimed a hitherto unknown
construed his Gospel,

Paul Alone

Under

let

God

of grace in opposition

Jehovah.

to

As

his

preaching has also been obscured, he, Marcion, has


been authorized to restore the pure Gospel. This

was the mission which Marcion s church attributed


Antitheses a sort of canon
to him, and it gave his
"

"

ical authority.
Marcion

Marcion

2.

Theology,

Ch

ogy

gy

conception of

God and

his Christol-

resemble the gnostic in so far as he also

empha

most clearly the newness, uniqueness and abso


luteness of Christianity in opposition -to the Church
sized

at large; he surpassed the gnostics, however, in so

mankind

to be

wholly the off


spring of the Creator of the world and found in
man s nature nothing akin to the God of Love.

far as he conceived

But love and grace are according to Marcion the


entire substance of the Godhead redemption is the
most incomprehensible act of the Divine mercy, and
everything that the Christian possesses he owes to
;

Christ alone,

is

the manifestation of the good

Through his suffering he purchased


from the Creator of the world those who believe on
him, and won them for himself. The rigid doce-

God
Docetism.

who

himself.

tism, however,

which Marcion taught,

tion that the souls only of

men

the declara

will be saved,

the

THE PREPARATION.

73

renunciation of the return of Christ and the increas


ingly hard asceticism, even to the prohibition of marriage (in spite of the thought that
control the
to

"

new

"

life)

God

s love

Asceti-

should

are proofs that Marcion

a certain extent defenceless against Hellenism

was
;

on

the other hand, his eschatological ideas indicate that


he was seeking to return to the monarchy of the
good God.
3.

With

the view of restoring the Church of the

pure Gospel and of gathering together the redeemed


who are hated by the God of this world, Marcion

g$?f
Canon

caused certain evangelical writings of a particular


character to be collected (Luke s Gospel and 10
Pauline Epistles), laid down certain principles for
their interpretation

closer,

though

and drew the communities into

freer, organization.

Inasmuch as

he rejected the Old Testament, together with all


"natural"
religion, philosophy and secret tradition,
he was obliged to answer the question,

What

Christian? out of the historical records.

Here, as

in

many

olic
4.

is

other respects, did he anticipate the Cath

Church.

The profound conception

that the laws

which

the very opposite of self-complacent virtue and self-

righteousness

this conception,

conception
of Nature,

and history and the course of civil


righteousness are a reflection of the acts of Divine
mercy, and that humble faith and fervent love are
rule in nature

which dominated the

Christianity of Marcion, and which restrained

from every rationalistic attempt at a system,

him

was not

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

74

maintained by his church as time went on.


In order to close up the breaches and to remove the
clearly

inconsistencies of his conceptions,

some

of his pupils

advanced to a doctrine of three principles, others to


a vulgar dualism, without however surrendering enApeiies.

tirely the

fundamental ideas of their master. Apelles,

however, Marcion

s greatest pupil,

returned to the

confession of the one God, without in other respects

surrendering the master

conceptions

and, indeed,

he further developed some valuable ideas, at which


Marcion had only hinted.

The Church

fathers strenuously opposed Marcion

him

the

Church doctrine was developed

in

as the worst of heretics.


early Catholic

In

its

contest with

special directions.

CHAPTER

VI.

SUPPLEMENT: THE CHRISTIANITY OF THE JEWISH


CHRISTIANS.
primitive

1.

Christian-

^y-

PRIMITIVE Christianity appeared simply as a

Christian Judaism, the establishment of a universal

religion upon the Old Testament basis; accordingly


it

retained in so far as

that

was never

it

was not

fully accomplished

press of its origin

above

all it

hellenized

and

the Jewish

im

retained the Old Tes

tament as a primitive revelation. Hence the dispo


sition made of the Old Testament was wholly Chris
tian, proceeding on the assumption that the Chris

tians are the true Israel, that the Old Testament

THE PREPARATION.

75

and teaching,

refers to the Christian organization

and

this,

whether a more or

less realistic or spiritual

The question as
to the principles of interpretation was a problem
within the Church, so long as no superiority was
interpretation of

it

was

in vogue.

conceded to the Jewish nation as such, and until the


abrogation of the Jewish ceremonies and laws was
insisted upon.

Therefore the term

"

is applicable

tianity

who

"

Jewish- Chris-

Christian-

exclusively to those Christians

really retained, entirely or in the smallest part,

the national and political forms of Judaism and

upon the observance

insisted

of the

Mosaic

Law

without modification as essential to Christianity, at


least to the Christianity of the Jewish-born converts,
or

who

indeed rejected these forms, but acknowl

edged the prerogative of the Jewish people also in


Christianity (Papias in spite of his chiliasm ; the p apias,

DI-

author of the Didache, in spite of his transference


of the Old Testament priestly rights to the Chris
tian prophets; Hernias, in spite of the
cient

Greek philosophy

waning an-

the adoption Christologists,

in spite of their rejection of the Logos,

Jewish Christians; Paul, however,

Romans XL).

The strong

draft

is

are not

because of

made upon

Testament in favor of the Catholic

and discipline-system,

is

the Old

cultus-, doctrine-

so little a sign of the

ad

vance of Jewish Christianity in the Church at large,


that it rather runs parallel to the advancing Hellen
ism, and

new

was

law,"

in

The formula, the


the Catholic Church is not Jewish,

called forth

"

by

it.

Hermas,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA

76

but anti-Jewish, yet


of

more and more

room

it left

for the slipping in

Old Testament command

of the

ments into the Church.


%
i

J ew i sn

Christianity, once a

<

ooSe?*

of Paul, was, through his labors

mighty antagonist
and the labors of

other teachers, as well as through the native force

In the

of the Gospel, overcome.


this conquest

was completed.

fall of

Since

Jerusalem

then Jewish

Christianity has not been a factor in the history of


the Church, while Judaism has remained such (in

Judaism upon the churches of the farthest


in the 4th and 5th centuries).
However,

fluence of
Ebionites,

Nazarenes

for^ome

Orient,

Jewish Christians (Ebionites, Nazarenes) existed for


some time, and among them the distinctions re

mained which were already formulated in the apos


tolic age.
Separated from the main Church origi
nally, not

on account of

of principles of social

Points in
Controverng
sy

ThS

"

doctrine

Church

",

life,

but on account
of

morals and

missionary practice, there were

among them

lowing points in controversy

Whether the observ-

(1)

the

fol-

^ aw was

a con(lition, or the determining


of
the
condition,
reception of the Messianic salva

ance

*ke

whether the same was to be required also of


Gentile-born converts, in order to their recognition

tion, (2)

as Christians,

(3)

whether and to what extent one

might hold fellowship with Gentile Christians who


do not observe the Law, (4) whether Paul was a
chosen servant of Christ, or a God-hated interloper,
(5) whether Jesus was a son of Joseph, or was mirac
ulously begotten of the

Holy

Spirit.

Thus

there

THE PREPARATION.

77

within Jewish Christianity


There seems
clearly distinguished parties).
to have been little literary activity among these Jew

were shades of

belief

(not two

ish Christians,

who were

however, Symmachus)

Gospel which was

expelled

by the Jews,

their Gospel

(see,

was the Hebrew

related to the Synoptics (testimony

Accepted

Hebrew
Gospel,

of Justin, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome, Epiphanius).

Justin
tians

still

who

recognized the liberal Jewish Chris

observed the

Law

for themselves alone,

and were friendly toward the Gentile Christians, as


Christian brethren. As yet no Christological creed,
no iJew Testament, divided them, and even in their
eschatological expectations, Gentile and Jewish

come

an understanding.
But the more Jewish Christianity withdrew from the
Christians could

still

to

world in general and the more firmly the Catholic

and discipline (add to this


the formation of the New Testament canon) and

Church

fixed its doctrine

formulated

and

its

Gradually

from Catholic

church

Logos-Christology, the more foreign

Jewish Christianity appear; and


was even placed in the same cate

heretical did

after Irenseus

it

Certain Orients! fathers,


gory with gnosticism.
however, pass a better judgment upon it.
3.

Judaism was

in the 1st century a very compli-

cated affair on account of foreign influences (Hellenistic

Judaism, Samaritans,

there were already


("

false teachers

"

der)

plicated.

"Sects")-

"gnostic"

at Colosse, see also the Pastoral

Epistles; on the other hand,

who

Accordingly
Jewish Christians,

Judaism
Very Co;u-

Simon Magus, Menan-

introduced into Christianity angelological

Gnostic

Jewish
Christians.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

78

speculations (these were also familiar to the phar-

and the writers

ier<

isees

of

and gave cur


and myths, through both

of apocalypses)

rency to cosmological ideas

which they sublimated the idea

corrected or transformed the

Law

of

God, bisected,

(rejection of the

blood offering) and gave an impulse to a peculiar


asceticism and cultus of mysteries. They continued
cerinth.

until f ar into fo e Byzantine age.

Cerinth

(c.

100)

retained certain established laws (circumcision) and

preached a grossly sensuous, realistic future king

on the other hand, he distinguished the


supreme God from the Creator of the world, freely

dom;

but,

Law and distinguished in the Redeemer


man Jesus from the Christ whom he identified

criticised the

the

with the Holy


ciementTne
writings.

Another branch of

Spirit.

Christianity is

to

demen tine Writings.

be

found

in the

this

Jew-

Pseudo-

Therein, as appears from their

sources, the attempt is

made by means

of stoic ra

tionalism, on the one side, and Oriental mythologic


cosmology on the other, to fortify apologetically the

conception that the Gospel

is

the restoration of the

pure Mosaic doctrine. The contradictory represen


tations of stoic naturalism and a positive revelation

through prophets are to be united through the idea


of the one Prophet, who from Adam down has ap-

The Gospel was believed

P eare(^ * u different forms.

to be the restoration of the primitive


Religion,

religion,

which

is

simply Mosaism

peculiar characteristics

specting offerings)

and universal

freed from

ah

its

(circumcision, statutes re

Christ

is

the one true Prophet,

THE PREPARATION.
who, as

The

it

was

seems,

stoic idea of the

79

identified with the first

^r

oi

was

accepted, but

Adam.
it

was

justified through a dualistically-conceived eon-spec


ulation, in which the early Semitic principles cropped

out (masculine-feminine; neutralization of the ethi


cal contradictions in the

supreme God). Platonic


But along with

elements are hardly discernible.

the apologetical tendency, the polemical

marked.
tion of

This

is

is

strongly

directed, under the form of a refuta

Simon Magus, against every phase

of Gentile-

Christian gnosticism (also against Marcion), while


the primitive writings doubtless contained a polemic

against Paul. The polemic and the means made use


of prove that the Catholic Church was already in ex

Therefore the Pseudo-Clementine Writings


belong to the 3d century. Accordingly it is probable
istence.

that the compilers


ine writings.

had before them

Moreover

it is

earlier, anti-Paul-

probable that the last

redactors were in no sense Jewish Christians, that,


also,

the above-mentioned characteristics

are not

ascribable to a group of writers, as such, but that

they belong to them only accidentally, that primi


tive Jewish Christian writings passed through vari
ous hands and were innocently transmitted and re
vised.
This being so, the seeking for a "Pseudo-

a fruitless undertaking; it
were better to accept the last narrator as a Catholic
Christian who made use of whatever interested him

Clementine

and

System"

others, but

is

who was by no means

Irenseus or Origen.

a disciple of

Whether under such conditions

tine

Wl

t}

Century-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

80
it

is

possible to distinguish the gnostic,

Jewish-

Christian, and anti-Pauline sources is questionable.


A third group which did not have in a true sense,

a literary existence is composed of


^he Elkesaites (in Syria, pushing toward Rome at
like the former,

Eikesaites.

the beginning of the 3d century)

These were such

Jewish-Christians as wholly set aside the Old Testa

ment through

their

"

"

nature-speculations

who did,

however, retain the idea of prophecy, especially of


Jesus as a Prophet, but who followed a new prophet
that had perfected religion through penitential and
cultus ordinances (washings) on the basis of a
scripture revelation.

series of

new

elements belong

ing to this no longer Christian Jewish-Christianity


(sources: Hippolytus, Eusebius, Epiphanius),

viz.

rigid monotheism, partial criticism of the Old Tes

tament, rejection of blood offering, prohibition of


wine, frequent washings, connivance in respect to
marriage, perversion of the Messianic idea in the
interests of their prophet, discarding of

idea and, as

it

atonement

seems, also of the idea of a

dom, high regard for the

king

relatives of their prophet

reappear again in Islamism, that was in a measure


influenced

by

this

"Jewish-Christianity",

related to the Sabier.


itself

very

little

The main Church

about this aberration.

which

is

troubled

BOOK

II.

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

CHAPTER

I.

HISTORICAL SURVEY.
Ritschl,

Entstehung der altkathl. Kirche,

1857.

Renan,

Origiues, T. V-VII.

THE

second century of the existence of Gentile-

Christian Churches

is

characterized by the

victorious contest with the gnostics, Marcion

the early Christian enthusiasm; that

is,

clining of the acute hellenizing tendency


side,

and

by the de
on the one

and by the suppression of the primitive Chris

tian freedom of expression, discipline and, in part,

hope also on the other.

An

important part of prim

was rescued by the conserving force


of tradition (faith in the Creator and Redeemer
God) but men speculated all the more freely about
itive Christianity

the world and

its

wisdom, since they believed that

they possessed in the apostolic Scriptures, in the


apostolic creed, in the apostolic

of

office,

the definite

The subjectivism
Christian piety was curbed and the fanciful myth-

assurance of what
6

"

is

Christian".

81

Gentile
Christian-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

was

creating tendency

restrained, likewise also the

acceptance of wholly foreign material as doctrinal

teaching but the individual was made subject to a


sacred primitive record and to the priest, since he
;

was put under the

rigid episcopal restraint of the

Catholic Church, which men


identified with the kingdom of Christ as a prepara

one, holy, apostolic,

Gnostic

The

tion for blessedness.

Systems
Refuted.

finally refuted

but

men

systems were
then made for themselves
gnostic

out of the kerygma and with the help of Greek

philosophy a scientific system of faith, which was a


superlative

medium

the intellectual

mystery

commending the Church to


world, but which was nothing but a
for

to the laity, obscuring their faith, or inter

preting the Gospel in the language of the Greek phi

losophy of religion.
Double
Problem.
First: Ori
gin of

2.

The problem

Catholi

cism as
a Church.

of the history of

period from about 150-300 A.D.,


First, it

is

dogma

for the

a double one:

has to describe the origin of Catholicism as

a Church,

i.e.

the rise and development of the apos

tolic-Catholic standards (Rule of Faith,

New

Testa

ment, Ecclesiastical Office ; standards regarding the


holiness of the Church),

by which the scattered

churches were gradually fused into one empirical


Church, which, however, was held to be the apos
Second

Origin of
Scientific

System of

tolic,

true

and Holy Church.

describe the rise

Second,

and development

Faith.

system of faith, as this

it-

has to

of the scientific

grew up on the circumfer

ence of the Church for apologetical purposes, not it


is true as a foreign growth, but rather in closest

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

83

connection with the aims of the earliest Gentile


Christianity (see

Book

I.

Chap.

3)

how

to describe

this, which was originally through revelation sim


ply an assured monotheistic cosmology, Logos-doc

trine

and moral theology, became

in the contest

with

gnosticism amalgamated with the ideas of salvation


in the ancient mysteries, on the one side, with the

Church kerygma

arid the

Old Testament ideas on

was

the other (Irenseus, Hippolytus, Tertullian) and


,

thus transformed into a complicated system (philosophical, kerygmatical, Biblical

tian-eschatological elements)

ge

naeus,

^man*,

and primitive-Chrishow, farther, under

the influence of the Alexandrians,

it

was

recast into

Alexan
drians.

an Hellenic, syncretic system in the interest of


Catholic gnostics (type of Philo and Valentine), and
how, then, the great breach between scientific dog
matics and the traditional faith was made manifest,

which already

in the 3d century

had received such a

thorough solution that the aims of scientific


matics and a part of

its

teaching

(above

dog

all

its

Logos-doctrine) were adopted as the faith of the


Church; while other things were cast aside or contested,

the realistic propositions of

the

kerygma

were shielded from the spiritualizing tendency that


would transform them, and the right of distinguish
ing between a system of faith for thinking minds
and a faith for unthinking minds (thus Origen) was

fundamentally denied.

velopment
Fathers,

of

dogma

Alexandrines,

The four stages


(Apologists,

Methodius

of the de

early

Catholic

together

with

jjg^ e
AcceP ted

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

84

correspond to the progressive relig

his followers)

ious and philosophical development of paganism dur

ing that time

Philosophical theory of morals, idea

(theology and practice of mysteries),

of salvation

Neo-Platonism and reactionary syncretism.

I.

ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY AS A
CHURCH AND ITS GRADUAL SECULAR
IZATION.

CHAPTER

II.

THE SETTING FORTH OF THE APOSTOLIC RULES


(NORMS) FOR ECCLESIASTICAL CHRISTIANITY.
THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.

THE

Rule of
Testament^
Office.

three apostolic

Testament, Office)
de praesc. 21.

lian,

norms (Rule

of Faith,

New

see Irena3us, III.: 1 sq., Tertul32. 36.*)

found their

way

into

the different provincial churches at different times,

but the three always went together. They had their


preparatory stages in the brief kerygmatic confes*

21
Constat omnem doctrinam quae cum ecclesiis aposmatricibus et originalibus fldei conspiret veritati deputandam,

De praescr.

tolicis

"

id sine dubio tenentem quod ecclesiae ab apostolis, apostoli a Christo,


Videamus quid (ecclesia Romano) didicerit,
Christus adeo accepit." 36:
"

quid docuerit, cum Africanis quoque ecclesiis contesserarit. Unum deum


dominum novit, creatorem universitatis, et Christum Jesum ex viryine
Maria filium dei creatoris, et carnis resurrectionem; legem et prophetas
cum evangelicis et apostolicis litteris miscet, inde potat fidem, earn aqua
signat^ sancto spiritu vestit, eucharistia pascit,

martyrium exhortatur,

et

itaadversus hanc institutionem nominem rccipit." 82: "Evolvant ordinem episcoporum suorum, ita per successionern abinitio decurrentem, ut
primus ille episcopus aliquem ex apostolis vel apostolicis viris, qui tamen
cum apostolis perseveravit, habuerit auctorem et antecesseorem. n

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

and of the apos

sions, in the authority of the xbpios

read in the

tolic tradition, as well as in the epistles

churches, and

apostles, prophets

and

shown

the deference

finally in

to the

i. e.

teachers,

85

"

to

elders

"

and leaders of the individual churches.


A. The Recasting of the Baptismal Confession
into the Apostolic Rule of Faith (Caspari, Quelleii

Baptismal
sion.

From the first


Gesch. des Taufsymbols, 4 Bdd.).
was in the Church a kerygma (preaching) of
Christ (see Book I., Chap. 3 sub 2) and brief confes

z.

there

sional formulas (Father,


cially in the

Son and

Roman church,

Spirit)

and espe
140 A.D.

at least since

a definite baptismal confession (probably also in Asia


Minor).

These confessions were

"the

faith"

and

were considered the quintessence of the apostolic


preaching and were, therefore, referred back to

God

But every
thing indeed which seemed inalienable was looked
upon as an apostolic rule of faith, e.g. the Christian
Christ and ultimately to

interpretation

of

the Old

probably nothing was

himself.

Testament.

However,

fixed, save that the

symbol and the ethical rules (8tda^

Roman

xuptou) stood at

same plane as the kerygma of Christ.


From the beginning, however, in the work of in

least

upon the

struction, in exhortations and,


tests
ret?

xa}

with

false teachings

xevd? xat
ffsfj.vov

Polyc.

jj.aTa.ias

epist. 2.

men

<ppovrida$^

r^9 xapadoffews

above

enjoined

xa}

^/jtoiv

all,

eJ.$a>fj.v

xavova

in the con
:

?rl

rov

(I.Clem. 7;

cf.

the Pastoral Epistles, Jude, Ig-

natian Letters, also Justin).

As

the danger from

Roman

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

86
f

E?teraa i
standard.

gnosticism became acute, men necessarily came to


rea^ ze fa^ neither the content and compass of
received

"the

faith"

its interpretation

sound

("the

was secured

doctrine"),

to them.

nor

There was

seemed, of a fixed outward standard, in


order to be able to disprove doctrines such as that

need,

it

of the difference

between the supreme God and the

Creator-God, or such as that of docetism, and to


be able to maintain the true conception as apostolic
they needed a definitely interpreted apos
Under these circumstances the partictolic creed.

doctrine

churches
of Asia
ee

c?
P

t?smS

ularly
J allied churches of Asia
J closely

Rome, whose experience


Irenseus (he

is

hardly the

Confession

asApos-

accepted the fixed


apostolic in such

is
first

known

Minor and

to us

through

writer on the subject),

Roman baptismal confession as


a way that they proclaimed the

current anti -gnostic interpretation of

it

as its self-

evident content, and the expounded confession as


i.e. they set it up as a standard
"fides catholica"
;

of truth in matters of faith

and made

its

acceptance
This

the condition of membership in the Church.

procedure, by which the centre of gravity of Chris

however, was pre


served from entire dissolution) rests upon two unproven assertions and an exchange. It is not proven
that any confession of this kind emanated from the

tianity

was

shifted,

(the latter,

and that the churches founded by the apos


always preserved their teaching without modi

apostles
tles

fications,-

for

and the confession

an exposition

of

it.

itself

was exchanged

Finally, the conclusion that

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

87

from the virtual agreement in doctrine of a group of


churches (bishops) there existed a fides catholica

was

This action established the Cath-

unjustified.

argument from tradition and has determined


fundamental significance until the present
time The equivocal right, on the one side, to an
nounce the creed as complete and plain, and, on the
olic

catholic

Argument
T
5ition Es-

its

other side, to

make

it

so elastic that one can reject

every uncomfortable meaning,

is to

characteristic of Catholicism.

It is also characteris

tic

that

faith
ter

men

the present day

identify Christianity with a system of

which the

laity

cannot understand.

The

are therefore oppressed and referred back

lat

to the

authority.
Tertullian developed the
farther.

As

the

latter

method

found

of IrenaBus

the

still

chief gnostic

teachings already refuted in the baptismal confes


sion,

while as yet only the

common

sense of the

the former,
Church protested against them;
embracing the confession all the more firmly as au
so

thority for the faith, found in the regula already the

creation of the universe from nothing, the mediator-

ship of the Logos in creation, the existence of the

same before

all creatures,

a definite theory in regard

to his incarnation, the preaching of a

of a

nova promissio, and

economy and the

nova

lex

and

finally also the trinitarian

correct teaching in respect to the

natures of Christ (de praescr. 13; de virg. 1; adv.

Prax.,

2, etc.).

His

"regula"

is

an apostolic lex et

doctrina, inviolable for every Christian.

Tertuiiian

Makes an

OUTLINES OP THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

88

in

tlle

course of tne 3d century did this Cath-

standard become wide-spread in the Church.


Clement of Alexandria did not yet know it (for
olio

him

the xwwv rr^

h.-/.Xrt ffia<$

was

the anti-gnostic in

Holy Scriptures) Origen, how


came very near accepting it (see, de princip.

terpretation of the
ever,

i.e. in the beginning of the 3d century the


Alexandrian Church was following the Roman, and

praef.),

gradually became Catholic". Later still the Syrian


churches also followed, as the documentary source
"

of the Apostolic Constitutions proves,

the

nothing of

rule of

"apostolic

Occidental sense.

Only

at the

which knows

faith"

the

in

end of the 3d century

did the Catholic Church become a reality through


the

common

apostolic

and distinguish

lex

sharply from the heretical parties

came

indeed, probably

an

ceptance of
the

^
ec
cJgSfzS as

Mcene

"

creed

^ ^ ec
ie

first

itself

remote churches,

through

Mcea

apostolic rule of faith.

"

to

an ac

But even

was not accepted at a single stroke.


on f a Selection of Well9n

known Scriptures as
Old Testament;
Scriptures

i.e.

(see

the

Virtually Belonging to the


as a Compilation of Apostolic
"Introductions

to the

churches the

Word

N".

T."

the side of the

By
by Reuss, Holtzmann, Weiss)
Law and the Prophets (T fttj3Ma) there was
.

of the Lord, or briefly

"

in the
xbpto?",

which was indisputable. The words and deeds of


the Lord ("the Gospel") were recorded in numer
ous,

oft-revised scriptures closely related to each

other, which

were

called the

"

Lord

s Writings", also

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


yet not

then

",

century

eoayy^Jita

"

ffTolcuv

till

and

"

"

after the

89

middle of the 2d

"

axofjLvrjiJ.oveufi.aTa

TWV

dxo-

these were publicly read at least after c.

The

140 (Justin).

judgment,

last

named

title

expresses the

which was reported

that everything

of

the Lord could be traced directly or indirectly to

Out

the apostles.

numerous evangelical

of these

writings there were in certain churches, already


before the middle of the 2d century, four that were

prominent

our present Gospels

which,

e.g.,

very

soon after 160 were worked over by Tatian into a


single Gospel (Diatessaron)

they took on

About the same time

more than

their final form,

likely in

Rome.

Together with these writings the Epistles


of the apostle Paul, which had been collected earlier,

were read in the churches,

i.e.

by the

leaders, as

the Epistles of Clement, Barnabas, Ignatius and par


ticularly Polycarp testify. While however the Gos

had a

pels

direct relation to the

kerygma and met

the requirements of tradition (Ignatius, Justin) such


was not the case with the Pauline Epistles. Finally
,

productions of prophetic spirits


were revered as inspired Holy Scrip

all definite scriptural


(icvsu/jLaTo^opot)

tures,

whether they were Jewish apocalypses with

high-sounding names, or the writings of Christian


prophets and teachers.

The

the Old Testament, but with,


or simply

Of

^r

0>

like worth,

tion

6 xuptos

rf

PV

>a(

was primarily

"
<J

xupws

^ec"

(yfypaxrat

apocalyptic verses were also cited.

but different in kind, was the cita

A^

&

TO? suayyeA(a) (fulfilling of

proph-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

90

ecy

Many

ethical rules).

teachers gladly spoke in

the words of the apostle Paul, without according

them the same rank as the Scriptures and the Word


of the Lord (were the Epistles of Paul publicly read
in the churches before

Marcion,

who

c.

180?).

rejected the Old Testament and the

prophetic proofs, formed a new collection of Scrip


tures and gave it canonical rank (Luke s Gospel, 10

At

Pauline Epistles).

little later,

same time probably,

the

or

the gnostic school leaders did the same,

favoring the writings in widest circulation among


the churches, but with new additions (Valentinus,
Tatian, Encratites)

Everywhere

in such circles the

Paul came to the front; for they were


theological, soteriological, and could be interpreted
Epistles of

as dualistic.

The new

critically constituted collec

which the gnostics set over against the Old


Testament, were clothed with the same authority as
the Old Testament and were allegorically interpreted
in harmony with it (still, besides, secret tradition and

tions,

secret scriptures)

and the
Forming
of

"N"

T1

canon.

Again, a reference to the

rpa<py

xbpio? did not suffice for the leaders of the

was necessary, (1) to determine which


evangelical writings (in which recension) were to
be taken into consideration it was necessary, (2) to
deprive the heretics of everything which could not
be discredited as new and false it was necessary,
churches.

It

did
(3) to put forth such a collection of writings as
not overturn the evidence from tradition, but on the
contrary by their

inherent qualities

even

added

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

At

weight.

91

they confined themselves to the

first

proclamation of the four Gospels as the only authen


tic

These were

apostolic records of the Lord.

al

ready held in an esteem so nearly equal to that of


the Old Testament, that the immense stride neces
sary to declare

the words and

letters

holy was

scarcely recognized as an innovation ; besides,

the Master

ered holy.

what

had said was from the beginning consid


Many and, indeed, most of the churches

abode by this decision until far into the 3d century ;


example, the documentary basis of the Apos
some Oriental churches continued

see, for

tolic Constitutions

to use the Diatessaron.

No

second collection came to

be esteemed, and the four Gospels were joined to the


fttflXia

(6

xnptos dta

<ppoy>i)TaJv

6 xuptos

rof

eua^e^

cc) j

alongside of these stood the testimony of


scribblings, ever

pneumatic
however having decreasing dignity

(Montanist controversy)

But wherever the contest with heresy was most


Epistles
to
vehemently carried on and the consolidation of the ^ded
r Our (jtOSchurches upon stable principles was most intelli
gently undertaken

new

in (Asia

Catholic-apostolic

was opposed

to the

new

defence than in attack.

added

Minor and) Rome, a

collection

of scriptures

gnostic collection,

The

to the four Gospels (not

in transforming scriptures

more

in

Epistles of Paul were

without some scruples

which were written

for

special occasions into Divine oracles and conceal

ing the process even of transformation) and conse


quently included under the argument from tradition,

92

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

so that through the

medium

of a very recent book,

the Acts of the Apostles, they were associated with

the supposed preaching of the twelve apostles,

subordinated to

i.e.

The Paul sanctioned by the

it.

twelve apostles in the Acts, and made hardly recog


nizable by the Pastoral Epistles, thus became a wit
ness of the

&tda%i)

dtd

TWV

ift a-noffroXtov^

i.e.

one was

under obligation and had the right to understand


in accordance with the Acts of the Apostles,

him

New

Testa-

ment
n

P1

same

which surely came into the collection only faute de


mieux and was obliged to support a tradition far
beyond its oivn words. The two-, more properly
three-fold

new

apostolic collection

(Gospels, Acts,

Pauline Epistles), now placed as the New Testa


ment on the same plane with the Old Testament and
presently raised above the latter, already recognized

by Irenseus and Tertullian (in practice, not in theory,


the Gospels and the Pauline Epistles seemed to be
of equal worth), gradually came into use in the

when this
was once accomplished the result could hardly be
disturbed.
Whereas a fourth and fifth ingredient
could never really win a perfectly firm form. First,

churches, beginning in the Occident, and

men

sought to strengthen the history of the apostles


by means of scriptures written by the twelve apos
tles.
It was natural that they should wish to have

such scriptures, and then there were highly esteemed


scriptures from Christian prophets and teachers
to suggest their acceptance (they could not
be ignored) but without any apostolic authority (in

enough

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


the strict sense)

Thus arose the group of Catholic


most part denominated apostolic,

Epistles^ for the


originally

them

to be

93

Add

anonymous writings (most scholars held


pseudonymous) whose ancient authority
,

could be rescued only by ascribing them to the


twelve apostles.
This group, however, with the
exception of two epistles, did not become fixed as

regards

its

and even

extent or

later,

and

its

this without thereby really

strange to

dangering

dignity until the 4th century

en

the respect given to the

say

Second, the apocalypses presented


themselves for admission to the new collection. But
entire collection.

which produced them was wholly gone by


and indeed combated them, and the nature of the
the time

new

collection

sanction

required

lypses of Peter

and John

not

apostolic,

the latter rather excluded

it.

could, therefore,

prophetic

The apoca
alone come

jected for

The former was quickly re


some unknown reason and the latter was

finally

Std i:op6s

under consideration.

<*>?

closed

New

rescued for the

new

collection.

Testament there was not in the

churches in the 3d century but where there was at


hand a second collection, it was used virtually as the
;

Old Testament and no questions were raised. The


incomplete collection served ad hoc every purpose
which, as one might think, the complete alone could
serve.
Catholicism never came, however, to be a
religion of the book.

mained the standard

The words

of the

for the guidance of

the development of doctrine pursued its

Lord

re

life,

and

own

course

3c
{u

?y

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

94

at all times, being influenced only in a secondary

the

way by

Eesults:

Results

which

fol-

ceptanceof

T<

New
(1)

Testament.

New

The

Testament conserved the

mos^ valuable

part of the primitive literature; but


to
destruction almost all the remaining
over
gave
literature as being arrogant or corrupt; (2) the New
it

Testament made an end


writings, but

it

the

(3)

New

and the

made an

also

literature possible

to the production of inspired

ecclesiastically profane

and likewise

set fixed limits to it;

Testament obscured the historic sense

historical origin of its

own documents,

but

same time occasioned the necessity of a


thorough-going study of these documents and pro
it

at the

vided for their active influence in the Church;


the

New

dency to the production of


that

all

the statements in

"

facts

its

"

but, in requiring

own documents

be considered entirely harmonious,

and

(4)

Testament repressed the enthusiastic ten


should

clear, sufficient

spiritual, it necessitated the learned, theological

time of

new

and mythological concep


New Testament set boundaries to the
revelation, exalted the apostolic age and

production of
tions
(5) the

facts

the apostles themselves to an unapproachable height

and thereby helped


requirements, but

edge and power


the conscience;

to lower the Christian ideal


it

likewise preserved the

and

knowl

and became a goad for


the New Testament guarded

of the same,
(6)

effectively the hesitating canonical esteem for the Old


Testament; but it likewise made it an offence to

exalt the Christian revelation above that of the

Old

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

95

Testament, and to brood over the specific meaning


of the former;

the fatal

(7)

the

New

Testament encouraged
Master s words

tendency to identify the

with apostolic tradition (teaching of the apostles),


but through the acceptance of the Pauline Epistles it
a standard the

set as

loftiest expression of the

con

and through the canoniza


introduced most valuable leaven

sciousness of redemption,
tion of Paulinism

it

Church

through the claim


of the Catholic Church that both Testaments be
into the history of the

(8)

longed to her alone, she robbed all other Christian


churches of their title-right to them but while she
;

made

New

Testament a norm, she constructed


an armory from which in the time to come the
sharpest weapons have been drawn out against her
the

self.

C. The

Transformation of the Episcopal Office


in the Church into the Apostolic Office. History
of the Transformation of the Idea of the Church.
The claim that the apostles formulated a rule of
faith

was not

that the

was necessary
Church had kept the same pure and
sufficient; it

to

show

that she

possessed within herself a living court of appeal to

decide

all

points under controversy.

Originally

simply referred to the churches founded


tles,

in

which the true teaching was


and the

"ancients".

fered no absolute certainty


tullian, influenced

to be found,

and

with the disciples of the

to the connection of these

apostles

men

by the apos

But

this appeal of

hence Irena3us and Ter-

by the imposing development of

Transfer-

Episcopal

96

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

the episcopate in

Home and by

the ancient respect

once given to the apostles, prophets and teachers


now transferred to the bishops, so conceived of the

same that the

ordo episcoporum per successionem

"

ab initio decurrens

"

guaranteed to them the inviola

bility of the apostolic inheritance.

With each

this

between an historical (the churches


are those founded by the apostles; the bishops are
thesis oscillated

the disciples of the disciples of the apostles) and a

dogmatic aspect.
Apostoiic
s~

Yet already with Irena3us the


"

* er i g

lat-

episcopi cum episcopatus

clearly prominent
successions cerium veritatis charisma acceperunt
(the charisma of truth depends upon the office of the
:

"

sion.

bishops which rests upon the apostolic succession)


This thesis is simply a dogmatic expression for the
.

exalted

place

actually

won

which the episcopate had already


for itself;

it

did not, moreover, orig

any way entirely identify apostles and


bishops; it remained also uncertain in its applica
tion to the individual bishops and left room still
inally in

for the ancient parity:

spiritus, ecclesia, fideles.

Calixtus of Rome, however

(v. Tertull.,

de pudic.;

Hippol., Philos. IX.), claimed for himself full apos

regard and apostolic powers, while Tertullian


allowed to him only the locus magisterii. In the

tolic

Orient and in Alexandria the apostolic character

was quite late in gaining recogni


Ignatius knew nothing about it (the bishop

of the bishops
tion.
is

the representative of

God unto

his

own

church)

and neither did Clement, and even the basal docu-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

97

ment of the Apost. Constitutions is silent. Yet in


the time of Origen the doctrine began to establish

The idea

Alexandria.

itself in

Church was

of the

Originally
greatly influenced by this development.
the Church was the heavenly Bride of Christ, the
abiding- place of the

claims rested upon


its faith in

He who

its

its

belongs

blessedness

came the

God,

Holy

Spirit;

and

its

Christian

possession of the Spirit, upon

hope and

Holy Church)

well-ordered life

Church

the

to

its

Then

is

the

sure of

his

Church be

visible establishment of this confession of

posita est, habet legem et


salutem de observatione legis) it is the legacy of

faith (fides in regula

the apostles,
its

and

its

Christian character rests upon

possession of the true apostolic teaching (Catholic

and pureness
the form of expression since the end of
of doctrine,
One must be a member of this em
2d
the
century)
Church

in the sense of

universality

one apostolic Church in order to partake of


salvation, since here alone is found that knowledge
pirical,

which gives blessedness.


the sure

communion

The Church ceased to be


and of the saints

of salvation

and became the condition of salvation


lowing chapter).

(v.

the fol

This conception of the Church

(Irenseus, Tertullian, Origen)

which represents the

development of the churches into the one definite


Church a creative act, to be sure, of the Christian
spirit

is

not

evangelic, neither

is

it

hierarchic;

has never entirely disappeared from the Catholic


But almost from the beginning it was inchurches.

it

wea

of

Church
p

ment

"

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

98

fluenced by the hierarchical Church idea.


lea

was
last

The latter

only hinted at by Irenceus and Tertullian (the

named

finally

contended against

it

and

in this

contention he even reverted to the primitive Church


idea
it

spiritus equals ecclesia, universal priesthood)

was

Roman

farther developed

by Calixtus and other

by Cyprian, while the


Alexandrians blended the earliest Church idea with
priests,

especially

a mystic-philosophical conception, and Origen,

al

though greatly impressed by the empirical Church,


never lost sight of its relative significance and office.
Calixtus and Cyprian constructed the hierarchical

Church idea out


cies

of existing relations

which these imposed

and the exigen

the latter rounded out the

standard of the former, but on one point, touching


the justification of the earthly character of the

Church, he lagged behind, while Calixtus had reso


lutely advanced to its completion (v. the following

The crises were so great in the 3d cen


tury that it was nowhere sufficient, save in isolated
chapter).

communities, to simply preserve the Catholic faith;


one must obey the bishops in order to guard the ex
isting Church against the openly proclaimed heathen

ism

(in practical life)

heresy and enthusiasm (the


The idea of the

primitive Christian recollections)

one episcopally constituted Church became supreme


and the significance of doctrine as a bond of union

was

left in

The Church,

the background:

upon the bishops, who

resting

are the successors of the

apostles, the representatives of

God,

is

by reason

of

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

99

these fundamental facts itself the apostolic legacy.

According to Cyprian the Church is the seat of sal


quam nulla salus) as a single, organ

vation (extra

ized confederation.

It rests

wholly and solely upon

the episcopate, which, as the continuation of the

^^

with the powers of the apos


the bearer of these powers. The union of tho

apostolate, equipped
tles, is

individual with

God and

Christ

is

therefore con

ceivable only in the form of subordination to the

The

bishops.

attribute,

the Church, which

is

however, of the unity of


with that

of equal significance

of its truth, since the unity conies only

manifests
copate.

and

it

through love,

primarily in the unity of the epis

itself

This has been from the beginning a unit

remains a unit

still,

in so far as the bishops

God and continue in brotherly inter


The individual bishops are to be considered

are installed by

change.
not only as leaders of their own particular churches,
ecclesia
but as the foundation of the one Church
("

in episcopo

Thence

est").

follows farther, that

it

the bishops of those churches founded by the apos


tles possess

no longer any peculiar dignity

(all

bish

ops are equal, since they are partakers of the one


office).

The Roman

apostle

upon

tolic gifts in

these gifts

whom

came to have
was the chair of the

chair, however,

a peculiar significance, since


Christ

it

first

conferred the apos

order to indicate clearly the unity of

and

of the

Church

and farther

cause historically the Church of this chair


root

and mother

of the

also,

be

was the

one Catholic Church.

In a

Roman
Chair.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

100

severe Carthaginian

Rome

as

if

crisis,

Cyprian so appealed to

communion with

this

was the guarantee

of the truth

the claims of the

Roman

Church

(its

bishop)

but later he denied

bishop to special rights


over other churches (contest with Stephen). Fi

he placed the unity of the organiza


tion of the Church above the unity in articles of

nally, although

was guarded by
he demanded of the bishops

faith, the essence of Christianity

him

to this extent, that

everywhere a Christian steadfastness, otherwise they


ipso facto would forfeit their office. Cyprian also
as yet knew nothing of a character indelibilis of the
bishops, while Calixtus

and other Roman bishops

vindicated the same to them.

A consequence of

his

theory was, that he closely identified heretics and


schismatics, in which the Church did not then fol

The great one episcopal Church, which


he presupposed was by-the-bye a fiction such a homo

low him.

geneous confederation did not in reality exist; Constantine himself could not complete

CHAPTER

it.

III.

CONTINUATION: THE OLD CHRISTIANITY AND

THE NEW CHURCH.


[See the Literature on Montanisra

tfan?sm

^ HE

denial of the claims of the ethical

life,

the

paling of the primitive Christian hopes, the legal

and

Montanis

and Novatianism.]

"

political

forms under which the churches protected

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

101

themselves against the world and against heresies


called lorth soon after the middle of the 2d century,
first

in

nities,

Asia Minor, then in other Christian commu


a reaction which sought to establish, or rather

to re-establish, the primitive times

and

to protect

tendency.

The

Montanist

crisis

Christianity from the secularizing


result of this crisis

(the

so-called

like) was, that the Church


more strenuously as a legal

and the

asserted itself all the

organization which has

its

truth in its historical

and objective foundation, that

new

and conditions

it

accordingly gave a

significance to the attribute of holiness, that it

a spiritual and
and a double morality, that

expressly authorized a double state,

a secular,
it

within

exchanged

its

itself,

character as the possessor of certain

salvation for that other, viz. to be an indispensable

condition for the transmission of salvation and to be

an institution for education.


compelled

to

withdraw

(the

The Montanists were


Testament had

New

already thereby done good service), as well as


Christians

who made

all

the truth of the Church de

pendent upon a rigid maintenance of its moral claims.


The consequence was that at the end of the 3d cen
tury two great Christian communities put forth
claims to be the true Catholic Church viz. the na
:

tional

Church confederated by Constantine and the

Novatian churches which we refused with the rem


nant of Montanism.

schism in

The beginnings

Rome go back

and Calixtus.

to the

of the great

time of Hippolytus

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

102

ws

Ahu?

10

Montanist opposition had

groat transformation.

Originally

it

undorgono a

was

the stupen

dous undertaking of a Christian prophet (Montanus),


who with the assistance of prophetesses felt called

upon

to realize for Christianity the rich prophetic

promises of the Fourth Gospel. He interpreted these


in accordance with the Apocalypse, and proclaimed

own person,
God Almighty, had

that the Paraclete had appeared in his


in

whom

also Christ, yea, even

come to his own in order to lead them into all truth


and to gather together into one fold his scattered
flocks.
Accordingly it was Montanus highest aim
to lead the Christians forth

from their civic relations

and communial associations and

form a new,
homogeneous brotherhood which, separated from the
to

world, should prepare itself for the descent of the


1>V

of

Loaders

The

heavenly Jerusalem.

opposition

which

this ex-

orbitant prophetical message encountered from the


leaders of the churches,

Marcus Aurelius,

mid the persecutions under

intensified the already lively es-

chatological expectations and increased the desire for

martyrdom.

That which the movement

lost,

how

ever, in definiteness (in so far as the realization of

the ideal of uniting

all

Christians

plished, except for a brief period


limits)

it

gained again after 0.

the proclamation of

it

was not accom

and within narrow


180 inasmuch as

invested earnest souls with

greater power and courage, which served

to retard

the growing secularizing tendency within the Church.

In Asia and Phrygia

many

Christian communities

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

103

acknowledged in corpore the Divine mission of the


prophets in other provinces assemblies were formed
;

which the current teachings of these prophets


were considered as a Gospel, at the same time vari
in

ous modifications were going on (sympathies of the


confessors in Lyons.
The Roman bishops came near

acknowledging the new prophecies). In the Montanist churches (c. 100) it was no longer a question
of a

new

organization in the strict sense of the word,

or of a radical re-formation of the Christian organi


zations, but rather,

wherever the movement can be

were these questions already pushed


even when they were active and influential.
The original prophets had set no bounds to their en

clearly traced,
aside,

thusiasm

there were also no definite limits to their

high pretensions: God and Christ had appeared in


them the Prisca saw Christ living in female form
;

these prophets

made the most extravagant prophecies

and spoke in a
tles;

loftier tone than any one of the apos


subverted
they
apostolic regulations; they set

forth, regardless of every tradition,

ments for the Christian

new command

life; they railed at the great

body of Christian believers; they thought themselves


and therefore the highest prophets, the

to be the last

bearers of the final revelation of God.

But

after

they had passed off the stage, their followers sought


an agreement with the common Christian churches.

Church and begged to be


recognized by it. They were willing to bind themselves to the apostolic reyula and to the New Tes-

They recognized

the great

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

104

tament;

they

no longer hesitated

to

ecclesiastical organization (the bishops).

accept

the

And

they

own
commend as

accordingly demanded the recognition of their

whom

prophets,

they

now sought

to

successors of the earlier prophets (prophetic succes


sion)

the

"

new

"

prophecy

tion, which, as the

is really

a later revela

Church understands

it,

presup

poses the earlier; and the later revelation pertains

simply and solely

which

it

(in

addition to the confirmation

Church teaching as opposed

gives to the

to

the gnostic) to the burning questions of Christian

discipline which

it

decides in the interest of a more

Therein lay the significance of


its adherents in the empire
and accordingly they had bestowed their faith freely.
rigid observance.

the

new prophecy

for

Through the belief that in Phrygia the Paraclete


had given revelations for the entire Church in order
to establish a relatively severe

from second marriage,

regimen (refraining

severer

fast

regulations,

mightier attestation of Christianity in daily


complete readiness for martyrdom)

thusiasm received

was

after all a

its

mighty

death-blow.

life,

the original en

But

this flame

power, since Christendom at

large made, between the years

190 and 220, the

greatest progress toward the secularization of the


The triumph of Montanism would have
Gospel.

been succeeded by a complete change in the owner


ship of the Church and in missionary operations:
its

churches would have

been

decimated.

Con

therefore,

New

Testament,

apos-

cessions,

(the

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


tolica regula, episcopate)

did not help the Monta-

The bishops attacked the form

nists.

105

new

of the

prophecy as an innovation, threw suspicion on its


content, interpreted the earlier future hopes as ma
terialistic

mands

and sensuous, and declared the

to be extreme, legalistic, ceremonial, Jewish,

contrary to the

They

ethical de

New Testament,

and even heathenish.

set over against the claims of the

to authentic divine oracles, the

Montanists

newly formed

New

Testament, declared that every requirement was to


be found in the declarations of the two Testaments

and thus

clearly defined a revelation epoch,

which

extended to the present time only through the

New

Testament, the apostolic teaching and the apostolic


office of

bishops (in this contest the

for the first time

made

tament contained

new

ideas were

perfect, (1) that the

prophetical elements,

Testament was not prophetic, but

Old Tes
the

New

apostolic, (2) that

apostolic dignity could not be reached by any person


of the present day)
They began finally to distin
.

guish between the morality required of the clergy


and that required of the laity (thus in the question
of one wife).

In this

they discredited that


which had once been dear to the whole of Christen

way

dom, but which they could no longer make use

of.

In so far as they repelled the alleged misuse, they


rendered the thing itself less and less powerful (chiliasm, prophecy, right of laity to speak, rigid sanc

without being able to entirely suppress it. The


most vehement contest between the parties was in

tity)

?8

an

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

106
a
co?tr o?er1

Forgivesin.

regard to the question of the forgiveness of sin. The


Montanists, otherwise acknowledging the bishops,
ascribed this right to the Holy Spirit alone
those

who possess the Holy

the Spirit

is

Spirit)

for the

(i.e.,

to

power

of

not necessarily attached to the

office

and recognized no human right in the forgiveness of


sins, which rested far more on the (rare) laying hold
of the Divine

donare

mercy ("potest ecclesia (spiritus)


non faciam
They therefore

delicta, sed

").

expelled from their churches

all

who had committed

mortal sins, committing their souls to God.

The

bishops on the other hand, contrary to their

own

principle, were obliged to maintain that baptism


alone cleanses from sin, and to vindicate the right

conveyed by the power of the keys by a reference to


the apostolic office in order to protect the standing
of the ever less holy churches against the dissolu
tion

which would have

gime.

Calixtus

resulted

was the first

to

from the

make use

earlier re

of the right

of the bishops to forgive sins in the widest sense,

extend this right even to mortal sins. He


was opposed, not only by the Montanist, Tertullian,
but in Rome itself by a very high ecclesiastical rival

and

to

bishop

(Hippolytus)

pelled to

The Montanists were com

withdraw with

their

"devil-prophecy",

but

they withdrew willingly from a Church which had

become

"

"

unspiritual

(psychic).

The bishops

as

Church at the expense of


In the place of the Christianity

serted the stability of the


its

Christianity.

which had the

Spirit in its midst,

came the Church

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


organization which possessed the
and the spiritual office.
3.

Meanwhile the carrying out

New

107

Testament

of the pretensions

of the bishops to the right to forgive sins (opposed

by the churches and the Christian heroes,


the confessors) and the extension of the same to
in part

mortal sins (contrary to the early practice, the early


conception of baptism and of the Church) was at

tended by great difficulties, although the bishops


encountered not only the early practice of the primi
tive rigid discipline, but also a wide-spread laxness.

The extension of the forgiveness of sins to adulterers


was the occasion of the schism of Hippolytus. After
the Decian persecution, however, it was necessary to
declare even the greatest sin, apostasy, as pardona
ble,

likewise to enlarge the ancient concession that

one capital sin after baptism might still be pardona


ble (a practice founded upon the Hermas Pastor) and
to abolish all rights of spiritual persons (confessors),
i.e.

to

make

the forgiveness of sin dependent upon

regular, casuistic, bishoply action

Rome and

(Cornelius of

Only then was the Church


The Church inidea radically and totally changed.
eludes the pure and the impure (like Noah s ark) its
Cyprian).

members are not collectively


by no means sure of blessedness.

holy and every one

The Church,

is

solely

endowments, is holy (objective), and


these have actually been conferred, together with the
in virtue of its

pure teaching, upon the bishops (priests and judges


in the

name

of

God)

it is

an indispensable salva-

idea of

108

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.


no one will be blessed who

tion institute, so that

remains without;

it is

also societas fidei, but not

is it

a training-school and cultus-

institute for salvation.

It possesses also, in addition

fidelium, rather

to baptism, a second cure for sin, at least in practice


the theory, however, was still confused and uncer
tain.

Now

for the first time

were the clergy and

ecclesia
sharply distinguished religiously
and the Roman bish
est numerus episcoporum

laity

("

")

ops stamped the clergy with a character indelibilis


Now also began the theological
(not Cyprian).
speculation in regard to the relation of the Church,

as a

communion

of saints, to the empirical holy

to the milder secularizing of Christianity

Novatian
Opposi
tion,

Church,
tempered by the "means of grace." But all this
could not be accomplished without a great counteragitation which began at

soon

spread

among

all

Rome (Novatian) and

the

provincial

churches.

Novatian required only a minimum, the unpardonableness of the sin of apostasy (upon the earth) other
,

wise the Church would no more be holy.

This

minimum, however, had the same significance as the


far more radical demands of the Montanists two
There was in it a vital remnant
generations before.
of the ancient Church idea, although it was strange
that a Church should consider itself

pure
and truly evangelical, merely because of
ingness to tolerate apostates

second

mortal sinners)

church

ing from Spain

(later

A second Catholic
to

Asia Minor,

(katharoi)
its

unwill

perhaps other

Church, stretch-

arose,

whose archaic

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

109

fragments of the old discipline, however, did not


help it to become a more independent earthly system
of life

nor did

it

really distinguish itself

other Church, although


of the

same invalid

With wisdom,

from the

declared the ministrations

it

(practice of re-baptism)

foresight

and

relative severity the

bishops in these crises brought their churches


to

a new

attitude.

As

it

around

was, they could use only

one bishop s Church and they learned to consider


themselves rightly as its pupils and as its sheep.
At the same time the Church had taken on a

form in which

it

could be a powerful support to

Besides, its inner life

the state.

better

than formerly in the empire, and the

organized

treasure of the Gospel


(the

was much

image

was

still

ever in

its

of Christ, the assurance of eternal

keeping
life,

the

monotheism and piety


the Psalmists remained alive within the hard and

exercise of mercy) as once the


of

foreign shell of the Jewish Church.

Note

1.

The Priesthood.

old Catholic

Church idea

The rounding out of the

is clearly

manifested in the

completed development of a priestly order. Hierourgical priests are found first among the gnostics

(Marcion

s followers)

(Didache) and the

in the

Church the prophets


(I. Clement) were

local ministers

Terformerly likened to the Old Testament priests.


tullian first calls the bishop a priest, and from that

time until about 250 the priestly character of the bish


ops and presbyters

was evolved very

rapidly in the

Orient, as well as in the Occident; so strong indeed

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

110

was

the influence of heathenism at this point that an

or do of priestly assistants (lower ordination) arose


The completed idea of priest
(in the Occident first).
meets us first in Cyprian, in the Roman bishops of that
time, and in the document which lies at the basis of

The bishops (second

the Apostolic Constitutions.


arily also the presbyters)

were held

to be the repre

Church before God (they alone are


bring the offering) and representatives

sentatives of the

permitted to
of

God

before the

Church (they alone grant or with

hold the Divine grace as judges in the place of God


and Christ they are the depositaries of the myster
;

ies,

who

dispense a grace which they thought to be

an anointing of a materialistic
Made

*^ s
to

system!

claim, appeal

was made

In support of
increasingly to the Old
sort).

Testament priests and the entire Jewish cultus sys


tem, naturally in a supplementary way. Doors and

windows were thus thrown open,


rights

and duties of the

and Judaism,

priests,

after that they

as regards the

toward heathenism

had disregarded the

exhortation of the aging Tertullian to return to a

common

priesthood.

and

Tithes, cleansings

Sabbath ordinances (transferred

to

finally

Sunday) were

gradually established.
sacrifice.

Note 2. The

Sacrificial Offering.

sacrifice condition

each other.

The

Priesthood and
sacrificial idea

had from the beginning the widest play in the


therefore
Church (see Book I. Chap. 3, Sec. 7)
the new conception of the priest must of necessity
;

influence the conception of the sacrifice, even though

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

Ill

the old representation (pure sacrifice of the spirit,


the whole

sacrifice of

praise,

remained.

This influence manifested

ways,

(1)

within the

was introduced the

life

Christian

still

sacrifice)
itself in

life

of

two

sacrifice

special acts of fasting, of vol-

more and more


prominently (see among others Hernias) and these
received a meritorious, and even "satisfaction"
untary celibacy, of martyrdom,

significance (see Tertul.)

complete in Cyprian.

who

the Christian,

this

To him

etc.

development appears
it is

self-evident that

remain

cannot

sinless,

must

the
through penance (atoning sacrifice)
angry God. Deeds done, where special sins are not
reconcile

to be erased, entitle one to

a special reward.

Next

giving of alms is the


means (prayer without alms is barren

to penitential exercises, the

most

effective

In the writing, De opere et eleemos.


has
Cyprian
given an elaborate theory, one might
say, concerning alms as a means of grace which a

and

fruitless)

man

can provide and which God accepts. Follow


ing the Decian persecution the opera et eleemosynae
crowded into the absolution system of the Church

and secured therein a firm footing One can


:

God

indulgence

win again

tian standing through works.

wholly

satisfied

with

through

for himself his Chris


If

men had remained

this, the entire

system of moral

Hence it
ity would have been encompassed by it.
was necessary to enlarge the conception of gratia
dei,

and not as hitherto

to

make

upon the sacrament of baptism.

it depend solely
This was first accom-

Works

112

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

Pushed, however, by Augustine; (2) the idea of


sacrifice underwent a change in the cultus.
Here
also is

He

Cyprian epoch-making.

first clearly

as

sociated the specific offering of the Lord s Supper

with the

specific priesthood;

he

declared the

first

passio domini, and also the sanguis Christi and


the dominica hostia the object of the eucharistic
offering,

and thereby reached the idea

re-enacting of the sacrifice of Christ


ffd);j.aro<s

xat TOO

a"naro?

also in the

of the priestly
(y

Kpo<j<popa

apostolic

rot)

Church

regulations) he placed the Lord s Supper decidedly


under the point of view of the incorporation of the
;

Church and
tified

in a clear

commemoration

way

of those taking part in the offering

(vivi et defuncti)
nificance.

with Christ, and cer


for the first time that the

of the individual

The

had a

special (deprecatory) sig

real effect of the sacrificial

those participating was,

prayers for each other

meal for

however, the making of


efficacious for unto the

more

forgiveness of sins in the fullest sense this act could,

notwithstanding

all

the enrichment and lofty repre

sentations of the ceremony, not be referred.

There

was the re-enactment


Christ remained still a mere claim

fore the claim that the service

of the sacrifice of

for against the conception so closely related to the

cultus of the times, that participation in the service

cleansed from sin as in the mysteries of the

mater and

principle of baptism
tion.

As

magna

of Mithras, the fundamental ecclesiastical

and repentance stood in opposi


Lord s Supper never

sacrificial act the

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

113

attained to equal importance with baptism; but to


the popular imagination this solemn ritual, modelled

must have gained the

after the ancient mysteries,

highest significance.

Note 3. Means of Grace. Baptism and EuchaThat which since Augustine has been called
rist.
"

means

of grace

the Church of the 2d and 3d cen

",

tury did not possess, save in baptism According to


the strict theory the baptized could not expect any
:

new bestowal
must rather

men

means

of

fulfil

of grace

the law of Christ.

from Christ, he
But in practice

possessed in absolution, from the

moment when

mortal sins were absolved, a real means of grace,


whose significance was screened by baptism. Re
flection

upon

this

means

of grace

remained as yet

wholly uncertain, in so far as the thought that


absolves the sinner through the priest

by the other

(see

above)

was

God

crossed

that the penitential acts of

sinners the rather secure forgiveness.

The ideas con

cerning baptism did not essentially change (Hoefling,


Sacrament der Taufe. 2 Bdd. 1846). Forgiveness

was looked upon

in general as the result of


a moral consideration
here
also
baptism (however,
entered The sins of the unbaptized are sins of blind

of sins

ness; therefore

it is fit

penitent from them)

necessary

now

of forgiveness.

which it was
was considered the result

Often there

is

mentioned in connec

and the consecutio

absolutio mortis
>

should absolve the

actual sinlessness,

to preserve,

tion with the remissio


tatis the

God

that

ceterni-

regeneratio hominis^

Means of
Grace,

BaP tism

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

114

ad similitudinem

restitutio

tus sancti

cationis

")

regenerationis et sanctifi-

("lavacrum
,

and

all

dei, consecutio spiri-

possible blessings as well.

ever-increasing enrichment of the ritual

is

The

in part a

consequence of the purpose to symbolize these pre


effects of

supposed rich

baptism

in part

it

owes

origin to the desire to worthily equip the great

An

terium.

its

mys-

explanation of the separate acts had

already begun (confirmation by the bishop). The


water was looked upon as a symbol and vehicle.

The introduction

of infant baptism lies wholly in

it was already
but
condemned
wide-spread,
by him, de bapt. 18,
because he held that the cunctatio was indicated

the dark (in the time of Tertullian

by reason
s

pondus

of the act

Origen referred

The attempts of some to


The Lord s Supper
repeat baptism were repelled.
was looked upon not only as an offering, but also as
it

Lord

of the

back

to the apostles).

a divine gift (Monographien von Dcellinger 1826,


Kahnis 1851, Rueckert 1856), whose effect, however,

was never

because the rigid scheme


(baptismal grace, baptismal duties) excluded such.
Imparting of the Divine life through the Holy Sup

per

strictly defined,

was the

chief representation, closely connected

with purely superstitious ideas

(<pdpfj.azov

aftavaffias)

the spiritual and the physical were strangely mixed


(the bread as

p<3<n?

communication and

Church father made a

The

realistic

alistic

became

mystical;

but

clear

C^ ).

No

discrimination here:

spiritualistic

and the

spiritu

the forgiveness of sins re-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


treated entirely

from view.

115

In accordance with this

the representation of the relation of the visible ele

ments

to the

body

of Christ

began

problem (whether symbolical or

to take form.
realistic)

no one

The symbol is the inherently potential


mystery (vehicle), and the mystery apart from the
symbol was inconceivable. The flesh of Christ is
dreamed of

(no one perhaps thought of the his


but that the spirit becomes perceptible
and tangible, was even the distinguishing mark.
The anti-gnostic fathers recognized that the con

itself

"spirit"

torical body)

secrated bread

was composed

of

two inseparable

ele

ments, one earthly and the other heavenly, and


thus saw in the sacrament that which was denied by
the gnostics, viz.
fleshly

The union

and the warrant

which

of the spiritual

and the

for the resurrection of the

nourished by the blood of the Lord


(even so Tertullian, who has falsely been classed as
a pure symbolist). Justin spoke of a transforma

flesh

is

but of a transformation of the participants the


idea of the transformation of the elements was, how

tion,

ever, already taking form.

here, as in everything

The Alexandrians saw

which the Church

at large

mystery behind the mystery they accommo


dated themselves to the administration, but they
wished to be such spiritual Christians that they
might be continually nourished by the Logos and
did, the

might partake of a perpetual eucharist. Every


where the service was departing from its original
significance and was made more and more precise as

Justin,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

116

regards

its

form and content, both by the learned

and ignorant
to
MysteSes.

(practice of infant

by Cyprian)

communion

testified

Magical mysteries, superstition, authoritative


and obedience, on the one side, and a highly

faith

realistic representation of the freedom, ability

and

moral matters, on
the mark of Catholic Christendom.

responsibility of the individual in

the other side,

is

In religious matters authoritatively and superstitiously bound, therefore passive; in moral matters
free

and

left to

themselves, therefore active.

That the Roman church

led the

way throughout

in this process of broadening the churches into cath


olicity is

an historical fact that can be unquestiona

bly proven.
doctrine,

the faith,
its

But the

philosophic-scientific system of

which was evolved


is

bishops.

not the work of

same time out of


the Roman church and
at the

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

II.

117

ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY AS
DOCTRINE AND ITS GRADUAL
SECULARIZATION.

CHAPTER

IV.

ECCLESIASTICAL CHRISTIANITY AND PHILOSOPHY.

THE APOLOGISTS.
M. v. Engelhardt, Das Christenthum Justin s, 1878. Kuhn,
Octavius, 1882. Ausgabe der Apologeten mit Commentar,

von
1

Otto.

THE

apologists wishing to declare

and defend

The Apoi-

the Christianity of the churches stood therefore in

things upon the basis of the Old Testament, em


phasized the universalism of the Christian revela
all

tion

They

and held
rejected

power which

fast to the traditional eschatology.

gnosticism and saw in the moral


gave to the uncultured a princi

faith

pal proof of its genuineness.

But anxious

Christianity to the educated as the highest

to present

and surest

Christian
ity

philosophy, they elaborated as truly Christian the

moral cast of thought with which the Gentile Chris


tians from the beginning had stamped the Gospel,
thereby
it

making Christianity rational and giving

a form which appealed to the

earnest,

common

sense of

all

thinking and reasoning men of the times.

Besides, they

knew how

tive material, the

to use the traditional, posi

Old Testament as well as the his

tory and worship of Christ, simply as a verification


and attestation of this rational religion which had

Highest

p h y!jg~-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

118

been hitherto wanting and had been sought for with


In the apologetic theology Chris
fervent desire.
tianity is conceived

brought about by

as

God

development

religious

himself and

corresponding

to the primitive condition of

man and

the sharpest contrast with

polytheistic national

all

and ceremonial observances.

religions

placed in

With

greatest energy the apologists proclaimed

the

to be

it

the religion of the spirit, of freedom and of absolute


Christian

The whole positive material of Christianhowever, was transformed into a great scheme of

morality.
ity>

evidence; religion did not obtain its content from


historical facts
it received it from Divine revela
tion,

which

is self -witnessing

and freedom

of

mankind

in the creature-reason

but the historical facts

serve for the attestation of religion, for

its

tion, as against its partial obscuration,

and

elucida
for its

universal spreading.

And that was what the majority were seeking.


In what religion and morality consist, that they
believed they knew; but that these are realities,
that their rewards and punishments are sure, that

forms of polytheism and


for which they had no guaran

the true religion excludes


idolatry,
tee.

were claims

all

Christianity as an actual revelation brought


It gave to the highest
Greek philosophy and to the sovereignty
morality victory and permanence it gave

the certainty they desired.

product of
of theistic

of the world

and as

to this philosophy as

knowledge

morality for the

time the courage to free

first

itself

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


from the polytheism

of the past

and

119

to descend

the plane of the learned to the plane of the

from

common

people.

apologists were in contrast with the gnostics


conservative, inasmuch as they were not really dis

The

Apologists

posed to investigate at any point the traditions of the


Church or to make the content of the same compre
hensible.

The argument from prophecy, now how

ever formulated in the most external way, allied

them with the Church


in

the

Gospel a

at large.

new

The gnostics sought

religion, the apologists

by

means of the Gospel were


ious moral sense. The former emphasized the re
demptive idea and made everything subordinate to
confirmed in their relig

it;

the latter brought

all

within the radius of natural

and relegated the redemptive idea to the


Both hellenized the Gospel; but
circumference.

religion

only the speculations of the apologists were at once


legitimized, because they directed everything against

polytheism and left the Old Testament and the


kerygma untouched and emphasized in the clearest

manner freedom and

responsibility.

Apologists and

work which the Alexandrian Jewish thinker (Philo) had begun as regards

gnostics carried forward the

Old Testament religion but they divided the


The latter devot
work, so to speak, between them

to the

ing themselves rather to the Platonic-religious side


of the problem and the former to the stoic-rational
istic side.

made no
;

The

division

however could not be sharply

apologist entirely overlooked the redemp-

Apologists
and Gnos-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

120

tive idea (redemption

from the power of the demons

can be wrought only by the Logos).

With

Irenseus

begins again in the theological work of the Church


not only the con

the blending of the two problems

with gnosticism made this necessary, but the


spirit of the age turned more and more from the
test

within

stoic morality to the Neo-Platonic mysticism,

whose shell lay concealed the impulse toward religion.


2. Christianity
is philosophy and revelation:
andRe7e-

This

is

lation:

the thesis of every apologist from Aristides

Minucius Felix.

philosophy, the

spread opinion

In the declaration that

apologists encountered

among

the churches, that

antithesis to all worldly

of Celsus)

wisdom

(see the

it

is

the wide
it

is

the

testimony

but they reconciled this difference through

the friendly understanding that Christianity

is

of

supernatural origin and as revelation, notwithstand

cannot be apprehended save

ing

its rational content,

by

a divinely illumined

understanding.

On

the

principles underlying this conception the apologists

were

all

agreed (Aristides, Justin, Tatian, Melito,


Athenagoras, Theophilus, Tertullian, Minucius Felix

and others whose writings are attributed to Justin)


The strongest impress of stoic morality and rational
ism

found in Minucius; Justin s writings (Apol


ogy and Dialogue) have the most in common with
is

the faith of the churches.

On

the other

hand Justin

and Athenagoras think the most favorably of philos


ophy and of philosophers, while in the succeeding
time the judgment became ever harsher (already by

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

121

Tatian) without changing the view of the philosophic

The general conviction may

content of Christianity.

be thus summarized
cause

it

Summary,

Christianity
philosophy, be
has a rational element and because it gives a
is

and generally comprehensible answer to


those questions in regard to which all true philoso
satisfactory

phers have exercised themselves; but

indeed

losophy,

ophy, so far as
opinions

it is

it is

it is

not a phi

the direct antithesis to philos

free

from

mere notions and

all

and refutes polytheism,

i.e.,

originates

from a revelation, therefore has a supernatural, Di


vine origin, upon which finally the truth and cer
tainty of its teaching alone rest.

This contrast with

philosophy shows itself also above all in the unphilosophical form in which the Christian preaching

went

forth.

judgments

This thesis permits in detail various


in regard to

the concrete relation of

Christianity and philosophy, and


gists to labor at the problem,

(1)

Christianity

elation,

why

urged the apolo


then the rational

The following general


however may also be laid down here:

needed to be revealed at
convictions

it

i.e. it is

is,

all?

according to the apologists, rev-

the Divine

wisdom which from

old has been proclaimed through the

of

prophets and

possesses through its origin absolute trustworthiness,

which

evidenced in the fulfilment


of the words of the prophets (the evidence from
prophecy as the only sure evidence it has nothing to
is also clearly

do with the content of religion, but is an accompani


ment to it). As Divine wisdom Christianity stands

Christian
ity is Rev
elation.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

122

opposed to
Christian
ity is

Phi

losophy.

natural and philosophical knowledge

all

and makes an end

to such.

(2)

essential elements of philosophy

philosophy

and
Revelation
Necessary.

Christianity

is

the

manifestation which accords with the natural, though


darkened reason of mankind; it includes all the

it

(^

*#

assists

^/*9

<pi)MGoyia^

mankind

philosophy contains.

was and

is

7]

therefore the

it is

ftapftapuij

ydoaoyia)

to realize the truths

(3)

which

Revelation of the rational

necessary, because

mankind has fallen


(4) The efforts of

under the dominion of demons.

the philosophers to discover the true knowledge have

been

which

fruitless,

is

above

shown by

all clearly

the fact that neither polytheism nor the wide-spread


Philoso
phers In
debted to
Prophets.

immorality has been overthrown by them. So far as


the philosophers have discovered any truth, they are
indebted for

it

to the prophets (thus the

Jewish Alex

andrian philosophers already taught) from whom


they borrowed it; it is, to say the least, uncertain
whether they also have come to the knowledge of

any fragment
ity of the
it,

of the truth through the sporadic activ

Logos

however, that

(see

Justin on Socrates)

many

certain is

apparent truths of the philos

ophers are the aping of truth by evil spirits (to these


also the

whole of polytheism was referred, which

is

Christ
only

partly also the aping of Christian institutions).

phasized
Prophets.

The acknowledgment of Christ is simply included


in the acknowledgment of the prophetic wisdom a

Em

(5)

new

content the teaching of the prophets did not

receive through Christ; he only gave

it

currency

and energy (triumph over the demons; Justin and

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


Tertullian recognize a

The

(6)

new element

come wise)

(b) in the expulsion of

produce a holy

to

ability

"

in the Gospel)

and women be

life.

demons, (c) in its


In the apologists

Christianity accordingly despoiled antiquity,

proceeds of the monotheistic


the Greek
iffri

practical testing of Christianity lies, (a) in

apprehensibility (the unlearned

its

123

offa -xapa xafft

(Justin)

the world.

knowledge and

xaXws ^pr rai


t

yfi.aJv

i.e.

the

ethics of

rwv %ptffT(ava>v

from the beginning of


Everything true and good that mankind
It dates itself

came through Divine revelation, but is, at the


same time, truly human, because it is only a clearer
expression of that which men find within themselves.
It is at the same time Christian, since Christianity
extols

nothing but the teaching of revelation. One cannot


think of another form in which the claim of Chris
is

comes out so strongly


reconcile the world-empire with

tianity to be the world-religion

(hence the effort to


the

new

religion)

which the

in

tianity

is

nor can one think of a second form

specific content of the traditional

so thoroughly neutralized.

epoch-making character lay in


culture of the race appeared

But

its

Chris
truly

this, that the spiritual

now

to be reconciled

and

with religion: Revelation is wholly an out


ward, miraculous communication (passivity of the
allied

prophets) of rational truth

but rational truth

theis-

cosmology and morality was set forth simply


dogmatically and as the common possession of man

tic

kind.
3.

The

"

"

dogmas

of Christianity

this conception

the

World

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

124

are

StSn- and the other, fcoXoyta, were first introduced into


philosophical language by the apologists are those

al Truths

rational truths

which are revealed by the prophets

the Holy Scriptures, and which are


in Christ (Xpiarb? Xoyos

xai

v6fj.o?)

in

summed up

all

and have as

their

consequent true virtue and eternal life (God, liberty

reward and eternal punishment,

and

virtue, eternal

i.e.

Christianity as a monotheistic cosmology, as a

doctrine of liberty and morals, as a doctrine of re

demption

the latter however

The instruction

is

not clearly set forth).


referred back to God, the estab

lishment of a virtuous

must needs have

left

life

to

is

(of

men.

righteousness)

God

The prophets and

Christ are therefore fountains of righteousness, in


so far as they are

may

Divine teachers.

Christianity

be defined as the God-transmitted knowledge of

God, and as virtuous conformity to rational law, in


the longing and striving after eternal life and in the

Through the knowledge of the


truth and through the doing of good, men become
righteous and partake of the highest blessedness.

certainty of reward.

rests upon faith in the Divine revela


This revelation has also the genius and the

Knowledge
tion.

power

of redemption, in so far as the fact is

tionable that

mankind cannot without

over the dominion of the demons.

it

unques

triumph

All this

is

con

ceived from the Greek standpoint.


(

K
Sf

God

ge

a)

The dogmas which

set forth the

knowledge

of

world are dominated by the funda


mental thought, that over against the world as a

God and

of the

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


created, conditioned

125

and transient existence stands


and Eternal, who is
the world.
He has no attri

the Self -Existent, Unchangeable

the primal Cause of


butes, which are attributable to the world

he

exalted above every

is

name and has

therefore

in himself

no distinctions (the Platonic expressions concerning


God were held as incomparably good). He is ac
cordingly one and alone, spiritual and faultless

and therefore perfect;


he

best characterized

in purely negative predicates

and yet he

is

of all existences;

Origin (Cause)
he is Will and

Life, therefore also the kind Giver.

The following

is

and the Fulness

theses remain fixed with the apologists as regards

the relation of

God

to the world: (1) that

God

be thought of primarily as the final Cause,

(2)

is to

Summary,

that

the principle of the ethically good is the Principle of


the world, (3) that the Principle of the world, i.e.
the Godhead, as immortal and eternal, forms the

The dogmas

contrast to the world as the perishable.

God

concerning

are not set forth from the stand

redeemed Church, but on the basis of a


certain conception of the world on the one hand,

point of the

and of the moral nature of

man on

the other ;

which

however is a manifestation within the cosmos.


The cosmos is everywhere permeated with reason p^J^d

latter

and order (opposition

to gnosticism)

it

bears the

stamp of the Logos (as a reflection of a higher world


The material
and as a product of a rational Will)
.

also
evil,

which

lies at the basis of its composition is not

but was created by God.

Still

the apologists

wl

Rea
son

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

126

make God

did not

the immediate creator of the

world, but the personified Divine Keason perceptible


in the world and inserted between God and the

This was done with no reference to Christ

world.

and with no thought (in the gnostic sense) of sepa


rating God and the world; the conception of the
Logos was already at hand in the religious philos

ophy of the day, and the lofty idea of God required


a being, which should represent the actuality and
the many-sided activity of God, without doing vio
lence to his unchangeableness (a finer dualism
The Logos.

is

Logos

The

the hypostasis of the active energizing

Reason, which makes it possible to think of the God


head itself as resting faepvufftov he is both the re
;

vealing

Word

of God, the Divine manifesting

him

audibly and visibly upon the earth, and the


creating Reason which expresses himself in the work
self

of his

own hands he
;

is tlie

Principle of the ivorld

and of revelation at the same time. All this is


not new yet the Logos was not proclaimed by the
;

apologists as a

voovfievov,

but as the surest

Beyond the carrying out

of the

reality).

thought that the

principle of the cosmos is also the principle of reve


lation the majority did not go; their dependence

upon the
ever,
History of
Logos.

by

faith

fcheir

of the

Church

is

evidenced,

failure to clearly distinguish

the Logos and the Holy Spirit.

The

how

between

history of the

God was never 0^09 he

ever
Logos
had the Logos within himself as his reason and as
is

as follows

the potentiality (idea, energy) of the world (notwith-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


standing

all

creation

him

God and

negative assertions,

were somehow bound together)

God put

him

forth, permitted

He

Being.

($09

is

whose

fteou)

with that of God

of the

the Logos forth from himself (sent


to

go

through a

forth), i.e.

free simple act of his will generated

own

the world

For the sake

127

him out

now an independent

of his

hypostasis

real essence (obaia) is identical

not separated from God but


also not a mere mode or attribute

he

is

only severed, and is


of God; but is the independent result of the

self-

God, and, although being the compen


dium of the Divine Reason, he did not rob the Father
unfolding of

of his reason

he

God and

Lord, possesses the es


sence of the Divine Nature, although he is a second
;

is

being by the side of God (f)iOfj.oj Zrepov rt #eo? deurebut his personality had a beginning ("fuit
tempus, cum pair i filius nonfuil," Tertull.). Since
t

/>"?);

Begotten

then he had a beginning, and the Father did not, he


is,

as compared with the Father, a Creature, the

The subordina

begotten, created, manifested God.


tion lies, not in his essence (for

then have been destroyed)


origin (epyov

monotheism would

but in the manner of his

r.pwroroxov TOO Ttarpo?)

This made

it

him

to go forth into the finite as rea


and
son, revelation,
activity, while the Father re
mains in the obscurity of his unchangeableness.

possible for

With

the going forth of the Logos begins the reali

zation of the world-idea.

He

is

the Creator and to a

creator

and Proto-

degree the Prototype of the world (the one and spiritual

Being among the many sentiment creatures),

^ P6

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

128

which had

aim

its

origin from nothing.

in the creation of the world,

man

is to

Man

is

the true

and the true aim

of

attain unto the Divine essence through

the reason (image of God) and freedom created with


in him.
As spirit-embodied beings men are neither
mortal nor immortal, but capable of death and of
In the doctrines, that God is the abso
eternal life.

Lord of the material world, that

lute

evil is not in

herent in matter but originated in time and through


the free decision of the spirit

(angel), finally

that

the world advances toward the light, dualism ap

peared to be fundamentally overcome in the cos


mology. Yet it was not overcome in so far as the
sentient

was actually looked upon

as evil.

The

apologists held this teaching in regard to God, the


Logos, the world and mankind as the essential con
tent of Christianity (of the Old Testament

preaching of Christ)
Doctrines

(b)

of Free

dom.

The

and

of the

doctrines concerning freedom,

virtue,

righteousness and their reward were so held that

God was

looked upon simply as Creator and Judge,


and not as the principle of a new life (reminiscences

Virtue.

The

same time reward

and

linked with correct knowledge and virtue.

gift,

&<p&apffia

is at

the

in Justin)

withdrawal from the world (man must re


nounce his natural inclinations) and exaltation in
Virtue

is

every respect above the senses, and love.

law

is

the law for the perfect, exalted spirit, which,

inasmuch as

it is

the loftiest being upon the earth,

Righteousness.

is

The moral

too lofty for the same.

The

spirit

should hasten

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


from the earth

to the

Father of Lights

in

essary consequences of right knowledge,

make

it

equanim

purity and goodness, which are the nec

ity, fulness,

manifest that

The vicious

world.

129

it

it

should

has already overcome the

die the eternal death, the virtu-

ous obtain the eternal

life

Rewards,

(strong emphasis upon the

idea of the judgment; recognition of the resurrec


tion of the

body of the virtuous; the idea of right

eousness

not pushed beyond the legal require

ments)

is

he (although the Gd edee? e


cosmos and the reason are sufficient revelations) has
(c)

still

God

is

Redeemer

in so far as

sent forth direct miraculous dispensations of the

Inasmuch as the

truth.

fallen angels at the

very
beginning gained the mastery over mankind and
entangled

men

in sensuality

sent his prophets to enlighten

and polytheism, God

man

darkened per

The Logos
ception and to strengthen his freedom.
worked directly within them, and many apologists
in their writings

were

satisfied

with a reference to

Holy Scriptures and to the evidence from proph


But all indeed recognized with Justin the
ecy.

the

complete revelation of the Logos in Jesus Christ,

through

made

whom

prophecy

is

and the truth

easily accessible to all (adoration of Christ as

the revealed Logos).

many

Christ that
IrenaBus.
9

more zealously
man and
a crucified

Justin

defended the adoration of

added

fulfilled

still

"

"

things from the traditions concerning

make

their appearance

first

again in

^ISSnn

"

130

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

CHAPTER

V.

AN ECCLESIASTICO - THEOLOGICAL
EXPOSITION AND REVISION OF THE RULE OF
FAITH IN OPPOSITION TO GNOSTICISM ON THE
PRESUPPOSITION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT AND
THE CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY OF THE APOLO

BEGINNINGS OF

GISTS

IREN^US, TERTULLIAN,
CYPRIAN, NOVATIAN.
ireneeus.

l.

IREN^EUS, a pupil of Polycarp and a teacher

from Asia Minor, who resided

0i

-etie

withBaph
fession.

in

Lyons and was

conversant with the traditions of the

Roman

set forth in his great anti-gnostic

work the apos

tolic

A?o?o

HIPPOLYTUS,

norms

of the Catholic

Church and

church,

also

made

an attempt to develop a system of Church doctrine.


^ e sou Sn ^ to combine the apologetic theology with
a theological revision of the baptismal confession;
he took from the two Testaments that material

which served not alone

to attest his

philosophical

teaching like the gnostics he placed the thought of


the realized redemption in the centre and sought
;

thereby at the same time to express the primitive


Christian eschatological hopes. In this way arose

"faith"

of unlimited extent,

which was

faith of the Church, of the learned

to be the

and unlearned,

composed of the most divers elements

the philo-

sophico-apologetic, Biblical, Christosophic, gnostic-

anti-gnostic

and

materialistic-fantastical (the pistis

should at the same time be the gnosis and vice versa

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

131

consciousness that rational theology and fides

all

credenda are irreconcilable magnitudes was want


ing; everything stood upon an even plane; specula
tion

was mistrusted and yet was not

This complicated structure

received

discarded).
its

outward

unity through the reference of all declarations to the


rule of faith and the two Testaments, and its in
ward unity through the strong emphasis of two fun

damental thoughts: That the Creator-God is also


the Redeemer-God, and that Jesus Christ is the

on this account, because he is the


incarnate God (filius dei filius hominis factus)

Redeemer

solely

In the carrying out of the latter thought, Irenseus is


superior to his pupils, Tertullian and Hippolytus.

For the former especially was entirely incompetent


to

unite

the

apologetico-rational, the historico-re-

demptive, and the eschatological ranges of thought,


but he developed, conformably to his juristic temper

and equipments, a well-rounded system in certain


particulars, which was very influential in the sub
sequent times (terminology of the trinitarian and
Christological dogmas giving Occidental dogmatics
;

a juristic trend).

The joining

of the old idea of salvation with the

thoughts of the

New

Testament (salvation-history)

and with the apologetic rationalism was the work

01

of

Christianity is to him real redemption,


brought about by the Creator-God. This redemp
tion is to him recapitulatio, i.e. restoration to a

Irena3us.

living unity of that which has been unnaturally

God

132

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

separated through death and sin

especially, as re

gards mankind, the restoration of human nature unto


the Divine image through the gift of imperishableness.

This salvation

Logos in

itself,

is

accomplished, not through the

but solely through Jesus Christ, and,

was God
he took upon himself hu

indeed, through Jesus Christ in so far as he

and became man.


incarnation Fun-

al

Dogma

In that

manity he has inseparably united and blended the


same with Divinity. The incarnation is therefore
along with the doctrine of the unity of God the

Thus the

fundamental dogma.

historical Christ

stands (as with the gnostics and Marcion) at the


centre, not as the teacher (although Irena3us rational

scheme in many respects intersected his


theory of redemption)
tion as the

God-man.

realistic

but by virtue of his constitu


All else in the Holy Scriptures

preparatory history (not simply ciphers in the


evidence from prophecy), and the history of Christ
(kerygma) himself is the unfolding of the process
is

of the incarnation (not simply the fulfilment of


prophecy). Although the apologists in reality did
not pose the question "cur deus homo" at all, yet
Irena3us

made

it

fundamental and answered

the intoxicating statement


ine

Sd

Aclce<

"

it

with

That we might become

This answer was accordingly highly satisfactory, because, (1) it indicated a specific Christian
benefit from salvation, (2) it was of like rank with
Gods".

the gnostic conception

indeed

it

even went beyond

the latter in its compass of territory regarding deifi


cation,

(3) it

met the

eschatological trend of Chris-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


tianity half-way, yet at the

same time

it

133

could take

the place of the fantastic-eschatological expectations,


(4) it

expressed the mystic Neo-Platonic trend of the

time and gave the same the greatest satisfaction,


it

replaced the

(5)

intellectualism (rationalism)

waning
by the certain hope of a supernatural transformation
of our nature, which will make it capable of appro
priating that which

is

above reason,

(G) it

gave

to the

traditional historical utterances concerning Christ,

and the
tion

entire previous history as well, a firm

and a

definite aim,

founda

and made possible the con

ception of a gradual unfolding of the history of

ideas,

(&/

#e3; appropriation of Pauline


distinguishing of the two Testaments, vital

salvation

kerygma). The moral and eschatological interest was now balanced by a real religious
and Christological interest: The restoration of hu
interest in the

man
"

nature unto the Divine image per adoptionem.


Through his birth as a man the eternal Word of

God

secured the legacy of

life for

those who, through

the natural birth, had inherited death

The carry
ing out of this thought is indeed crossed by many
things foreign to it. Irena3us and his pupils warded
".

off

the acute hellenization by the bringing in of the Awarded

off Hellen-

two Testaments, by the idea of the unity of creation


and redemption, by their opposition to docetism;
they taught the Church anew that Christianity is
faith in

Jesus Christ; but on the other hand they

promoted the hellenization by their superstitious


conception of redemption, and by turning the inter-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

134

toward the natures rather than toward the living


Person.

est

Declared
2.

Dualism
Destroyed

Omnipo
tence of
God.

The

early Catholic fathers, in opposition to the

gnostic theses, declared that dualism destroys the

omnipotence of God, therefore in general the idea of


God, that the emanations are a mythological fancy

and endanger the unity


tempt to

Godhead, that the at


ascertain the inner Divine constitution is
of the

audacious, that the gnostics could not avoid placing


the final origin of sin in the pleroma, that criticism
of the constitution of the

cosmos

is

impertinent, the

same is much rather an evidence of wisdom and good


ness, that docetism gives the lie to the Deity, that

the freedom of

man

is

an undeniable

fact, that evil

a necessary means of correction, that goodness and


justice do not exclude each other, etc.
Everywhere
is

Accept
Gnostic

Demiurge.

they argue accordingly for the gnostic demiurge as


against the gnostic Redeemer- God.
They refer

above

all to

the two Testaments, and have therefore

been eulogistically called


but the "religion of the

"Scripture

Scriptures",

theologians";

whereby the

latter is wilfully interpreted as inspired

testimony
(Iren^us looks askance at the gnostic exegesis, but
comes very near making use of it) gives no guarantee
of contact with the Gospel.

The

relation

between

the rule of faith and the Scriptures (now super-,

now

sub-ordination) also did not

come

to a clear

statement.
Doctrine of

God Out

In the doctrine of

God

lined for

All

Time

firmly

drawn

for all time.

the

main

outlines

were

A middle way between

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

135

the disavowal of knowledge and an over- curious


speculation

was much prized. In Irenseus are found


make love, i.e. Jesus Christ, the prin

tendencies to
ciple of

Ged

knowledge.

be

is to

known through

revelation, whereby the knowledge of the world is

declared,

For

now

to be sufficient,

Irenseus, the apologist,

nseus, the Christologist,

out a creation

insufficient;

it is sufficient,

not; but a

it is

a phantom

is

inical precede the

and now

religious.

for Ire

God with

always must the cosThe Creator-God is

the starting-point, blasphemy of the Creator is the

Hence

highest blasphemy.
of

God

is

virtually

also the apologetic idea

made use

(God the negation


but Irenseus is still

of

and the Cause

of the cosmos)

enthused by

since a real interest is at

it,

regards the historical revelation.

hand as

Especially

was

it

pointed out against Marcion, that goodness requires


justice.

In the Loqos-doctrine Tertullian and Hippolytus

mamfest a deeper apologetic


They adopt the whole mass

than Irenseus. tuman

of apologetic material

(Tertull. Apolog. 21) but they give it a more par


ticular reference to Jesus Christ (Tertull. de carne
;

Cliristi

and adv. Prax.).

Accordingly Tertullian

fashioned the formulas of the later orthodoxy, in


that he introduced the conceptions substance

and

person, and notwithstanding his very elaborate subordinationism and his merely economical construction
of the trinity,

he

still

hit

Logos-Doc
trine; Ter-

interest

upon ideas concerning the


which could be fully

relations of the three Persons

and

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA,

136

recognized upon the


Tres per-

a9

head was

i res

soil of the

personce

")

set forth in the

Nicene Creed

The unity

una
God

("

of the

una substantia; the dis


among the three Per

position of the one substance

sons (trinitas, rpids

first

by Theophilus)

did not

destroy the unity

(the gnostic eons-speculation is


here confined to three in number).
Already it was
considered a heresy to maintain that God is a numer

But the

ical unity.

of the

self -unfolding (not partitioning)

Godhead had made a beginning

tion of the world-idea is

(the realiza

ever the main-spring of


the inner Divine dispositio) the Logos became a
still

secundus a deo constitutus, perseverans in sua forma")-, since he is derivatio, so is

distinct being

?fat io et

("

hepor^ o

of the Deity ("pater iota substantia").


Therefore notwithstanding his unity of substance
he has the charac
(unius substantice o
f

/ju>u<n?)

teristic of temporality (the

Son

is

not the world-idea

He, the
although he possesses the same)
Stream, when the revelation has accomplished its

itself,

This
aim, will finally flow back into its Fountain.
form of statement is in itself as yet not at all distin
guishable from the Hellenic; it was not fitted to
preserve faith in Jesus Christ, for

has

its

it is

too low;

it

importance merely in the identification of the

historical

Christ with this Logos.

Through

this

Tertullian united the scientific idealistic cosmology

with the declarations of the primitive


tradition concerning Jesus,

him

like the

so that both

Christian

were

to

wholly dissimilar wings of one and the

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

137

The Holy Spirit Tertullian treated


merely according to the schema of the Logos-doctrine,
same building.

an advance upon the apologists, yet without any


an independent interest
tertius est spiri-

trace of

("

tus a deo et filio

"

",

the Son as the latter

substanticB

vicaria visfilii
is to

yap

fteoy

ffe

subordinate to
"

still

ijftiX-rjffs

lofoo TO xapdSeir/jLa)

stronger (Philos. X, 33

still

TKnrjffat 6

$so$^

duvaro

TrpoffatTta ds

While

e^ec? TOO

but did not attribute an indepen

dent prosopon to the Spirit (adv. Noet. 14


ipw^

unius

Hippolytus emphasized the creature-

.
")

character of the Logos


el

",

the Father, yet

doo^

olxovof/.t<p

Zva #eov

ds Tpiryv ryv /aptv TOO 6.^100

Tertullian and Hippolytus simply add the

Christ of the kerygmas to the complete Logos-doctrine already at hand, Irenseus took his point of de-

parture from the God-Christ,


"

"

Logos
the

to

subject

Christ were

him

is

itself.

who became man.

The

more a predicate of Christ than


His declarations concerning

won from

the standpoint of the doctrine

of redemption; the apologetic Logos-doctrine even

troubled him; but he could not rid himself of


since redemption

is

and since John

it,

recapitulatio of the creation,


teaches that Christ is the Logos.

However, he rejected from principle every Kpo[3oXij,


emanation and theological speculation. Christ is
the eternal Son of

he

is

the eternal

God

(no temporal coming-forth)

self- revelation

of the Father

there

between him and God no separation. Yet so


greatly did he strive to reject the eon-speculation

exists

T
tiS?Sn and

y
Tus!

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

138

he also could not quite see the Divine in Christ in


he was obliged to give him a part

the redemption

in the creation, and then he taught nothing different

But he always had the


view, whose subject must be the full

from Justin and Tertullian.


incarnation in
Divinity.

placed himself in the relation of

"God

Father to the Son, in order to create, after the like


men who should be his sons". Per

ness of his Son,

haps the incarnation was to Irena3us the highest


expression of purpose in the sonship of Christ. In
regard to the Holy Spirit Irenseus spoke with the
greatest indefmiteness not once is rptd$ found in his
;

writings.
^u

Doctrine of

Man.

^ e Beaching

Irena3us concerning the destiny

ojf fifiankind^ their original state, fall

and

sin, the

thought become very apparent


(apologeti co-moralistic, Biblico-realistic), and have

divergent lines

of

characteristically remained so for the doctrine of the

Church.

Only the

first is

clearly developed.

Every

thing created, therefore also man, is in the begin


ning imperfect. Perfection could only be the destiny
(native capacity) of mankind.

tageous.

This end

is

realized

man upon

the basis of

his God-given capacity (image of God).

The primbut his fall

through the free decision of


itive
is

man

stumbled and

excusable (he

fell

into death

was tempted, he was

ignorant, he

allowed himself to be seduced prcetextu immortalitatis)

and even

teleologically necessary.

Disobedi

ence has been advantageous for the development of


man. In order to become wise he must see that dis-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

139

obedience works death; he must learn the distance

between
It is

man and God, and

a question of

sin is that

ness of

which

life

poral death.

and death

is really

God showed

moval of the

the right use of freedom.


;

the consequence of

dreadful.

itself at once,

But the good

as well in the re

tree of life, as in the ordaining of

Man

tem

regains his destiny, when he de


and that he can still ever

cides freely for the good,


do.

The

significance of the prophets

and

of Christ

by the apologists, to the teach


ing which strengthens freedom (so taught TertulThe second course of thought
lian and Hippolytus).
reduces

itself here, as

by IrenaBus flowed out of the gnostic-anti-gnostic


recapitulation- theory and was influenced by Paul.
This encompasses entire

humanity as the

irenseus
Influenced

bypaui.

sinful

Adam, who having fallen once cannot help himself.


All offended God in Adam through Eve the entire
;

race has become subject to death


is forfeited

again into

the original end

and God alone can help by descending

communion with us and

likeness with his

restoring us to

Being (not out of freedom does


communion with God,

blessedness flow, but out of


"

in

quantum deus nullius indiget. in tantum homo

indiget dei communions", IV. 14, 1).


the second Adam, redeems the first Adam

libertatem rest au ravit


restored in

")

bonum, what

Christ, as
("

Christus

in that he step for step

Adam

had done in malum.

changed into a
This relig
history of destruction and salvation).
is
out in
view
carried
historical
ious, preconceived
(The testimony of prophecy is here

Christ sec

ond Adam.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

140

From

an almost naturalistic way.

the consequence

man

of the apokatastasis of every individual

was preserved only by

nseus

Ire-

moral train of

his

thought.

^ ea

^he
Sates"

scheme.

^ ^ Qe

God-man dominated

this entire

em
and human in

Ecclesiastical Christology, so far as

phasizes the oneness of the Divine


Christ, stands to-day

still

by IrenaBus (Tertullian did

not so clearly see the necessity of the oneness)


Christ vere homo vere deus, i.e., (I) he
the

Word

came

truly

arable

God, God in kind,

of

man,

unity.

(3)

the incarnate

This

it

carried

is

Word
out

is

truly

Word

this

(2)

Jesus

is

be

an insep
the

against

and Valentinians, who taught the de


one of the many eons. The Son stands in

"ebionites"

scent of

and not in adopted kinship (the virgin


recapitulatio: Eve and Mary) his body is

natural,
birth is

substantially

identical

with

ours;

for

docetism

menaced the redemption just as did "ebionitism".


Therefore must Christ, in order to be able to restore
the whole man, also pass through a full

human

life

m bi rtn t

mature a ge and to death. The unity


un?*Bet
between the Logos and his human nature Irena3us
gos
fr

and"

"

called,

munio

adunitio verbi dei ad plasma

et

commixtio dei

et

hominis

".

"

and

man

did from what the

Word

did.

com-

him
what

It is to

perfect; since he did not care to distinguish

the

"

On

the con

trary Tertullian, dependent upon Irena3us, but not

viewing the

key

to

realistic doctrine of

Christianity, used

it

is

redemption as the
true the formula^

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


"homo
"

deo

mixtus",

homo FACTUS

spiritualis)

rum

but not understanding the

in the strict sense.

two substances

Prax.) of

"

"

of the

which

"

141

He speaks

(adv.

of Christ (corporalis et

conditio

duarum

TWO sub
stances

on ~
fu Su S

substantia-

in their integrity persist, of the

"

du

plex status domini, NON CONFUSUS, sed cujunctus


in una persona deus et homo". Here is already
the Chalcedon
it

(juristic)

Tertullian

terminology.

ward off the thought


some patripassionists)

in endeavoring to

developed
God transformed himself

(so

but he did not


"deus

see, although he used the old formulas,


crucifixus", "nasci sevult deus", that the

realistic

redemption becomes more strongly menaced

through the sharp separation of the two natures,


than through the acceptance of a transformation.
Indeed he only asserts the oneness and rejects the
idea that Christ

is "tertiam

quid".

But even

nseus could not persuade himself, against his

Ire-

own

better judgment, to divide the one Jesus Christ after

the

manner

of the gnostics: (1)


v

There are not a few

passages in the New Testament, which can be re


ferred only to the humanity of Jesus (not to the Godthe real Divinity on the other

hand

not

man),

if

made

to suffer (so e.g. the descent of the Spirit at

his baptism, his trembling

and shaking),

nseus also conceived of Christ in such a

make him

the

new Adam

possesses the Logos,


history of Jesus

was

("

perfectus

(2)

way

homo"),

which in certain
inactive.

is

Ire-

as to

who

acts in the

The gnostic

distin

guishing of the Jesus patibilis and the Christus

TWO-NOture Doc-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

was by
indirectly,

Tertullian explicitly,

legitimized.

two-nature

tical

Thus

and by Irenseus

arose the ecclesias

Hippolytus stood be

doctrine.

tween the two older teachers.


U

ithS
of

of

Fact?

However, the oneness was still the penetrating conSince Christ became what we
ception of Irena3us.
he as God-man likewise passed through and
Christ is
suffered what we should have suffered.
are,

not only salus et salvator", but also his whole life


From his conception to
is a work of redemption.
"

his burial everything

nseus

is

was inwardly

the father of the

"

necessary.

theology of facts

"

Ire
in the

Church (Paul emphasized only the death and the


The influence of the gnosis is unmis
resurrection)
.

takable, and he even uses the same expressions as the


gnostics when he conceives redemption as fully ac
complished, on the one side, in the mere manifes

tation of Jesus Christ as the second


other, in

the mere knowledge

(IV. 36, 7:

^ YVUHTIS TOO utod TOO

Adam, on

the

of this manifestation
$0>

fjTts r/v

ayftapffia)

Still he emphasizes the personal meritorious service.

work

of
OnriSu

y
inte!r?

He

looked at the work from

many

points of view

(leading back into

communion, restoration of free


dom, redemption from death and the devil, propitia
tion of God)

the dominating one

is

of the aupftapaia (adoption unto Divine

the procuring

life)

But how

all is to him, he betrays in I. 10, 3, when


he attributes the question, Why did God become
flesh? to those who will have nothing to do with

uncertain

the simple faith.

He

can also

still

ever rest satis-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


fied

143

with the hope of the second coming of Christ

and the resurrection

of

Between

the body.

hope and the deification-idea


(gnosis of the death on the

lies

this

the Pauline view

cross)

Irenseus exer

cised himself to prove its legitimateness (the death


of Christ is the true redemption).

Still

he had not
e

reached the idea of the atonement (the redemption


money is not paid to the devil upon his with

At one-

"

within the recapitulation-theory he ex


presses the idea, that through disobedience upon the
tree Adam became a debtor toward God, and through
drawal");

obedience upon the tree God became reconciled.


Reflections on a substitutional sacrifice are not found
in IrenaBus

death.

seldom do

we

find the idea of sacrificial

Forgiveness of sins

he did not really recog

and their
The redeemed become through Christ

nize, but only the setting aside of sins

consequences.

bound together

into a true unity, into true humanity,

into the Church,

whose head Christ

and Hippolytus the same points

is.

of

In Tertullian

view are found,

except that the mystic (recapitulating) form of the re

They oscillate con amore between


and the Pauline representation of re

demption recedes.
the rational

demption
el

("

totum Christiani nominis

fructus mors

Christi",

Hippolytus (Philosoph.

fin.)

et

pondus

adv. Marc. III., 8); but

gave a

classical expres-

sion to the deification brought about

by Christ, interweaving therewith the rational schema (knowledge


More sharply come out in Tertullian
redeems).
the

conceptions,

culpa,

reatus peccati,

etc.

he

^{2

;us

S1 z e s

cati?n!

fl

"

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

144

has also already


"promereri
Tertuiiian
C/fills

Bride-

indT?iduai

"

deum

",

Finally

precisely.

sat isfacer e

deo",

"meritum",

which Cyprian carried out more

we

find in Tertullian the por-

trayal of Christ as the Bridegroom

and the individ-

ual soul as the bride, a fatal modification of the

primitive Christian representation of the Church as


the body of Christ, under the influence of the Hel
lenic representation (see also the gnostics), that the

Deity
Eschatoi-

is

the husband of the soul.

Very striking is the impression made upon one by


the eschatology of the early Catholic fathers; for
it corresponds neither with their rational theology,
nor with their mysticism, but is still wholly archaic.
They do not, however, repeat the same in any urgent

(perhaps on account of the churches, or the regula, or the Apocalypse of John), but they and the

way

Latin fathers of the 3d, and of the beginning of the

and move altogether in the hope


Christian churches (like Papias and

4th, century live


f

the earliest

Justin)

ficulty,

The Pauline eschatology they

felt

as a dif

the primitive Christian, together with

its

This is the clearest


grossest chiliasm, not at all.
proof that these theologians were only half-hearted
about their rational and mystic theology, which they
had been compelled to adopt in their contest with
the gnosis.

They had

returning Christ,

and

set

up

his

in fact

two Christs: The

who

should conquer the antichrist


judgment seat as the victorious

King, and the Logos, who was looked upon, now as


a Divine teacher, now as God-man, This very com-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


plication

The

recommended the new Church

145

doctrine.

details of the eschatological hopes in Irenseus

see also Melito), Tertullian

(I.V.,

main

(de antichr.) are in the

and Hippolytus

as stereotyped, in par

The

ticulars as wavering, as in the earlier times.

Johannean Apocalypse, together with

its

learned ex

with Daniel in the foreground (six,


or rather seven thousand years, heathen earthly
positions, stands

power, antichrist,

site in

Jerusalem, campaign of the

returning Christ, victory, resurrection of Christians,


visible

ment,

kingdom

final end)

of joy, general resurrection,

But

there arose in the Orient an opposition

against this

drama

judg

after the Montanistic crisis

of the future (the

movement

"

alogoi

")

the

learned bishops of the Orient in the 3d century, above


all

the Origenists, opposed

it,

yes, even the Johannean

Apocalypse (Dionysius Alex.)


tenacious oppposers
"

tce

among

(Nepos in Egypt)

the

they found however


"simplices

et idio-

The Christian people

of the

Orient also unwillingly suffered themselves to be


robbed of their old faith, they were obliged however
to

submit gradually (the Apocalypse disappears often


Oriental church canon).
In the Occident

in the

chiliasm remained unbroken.

There remains

still

two Testaments.

ment threw a new

the doctrine concerning the

The

creation of the

New

Testa-

light upon the Old Testament.

This passed now no longer simply as a Christian


book (Barnabas, Justin), and also not as a book of
the Jewish
10

God

(Marcion), but by the side of the old

opposition
in Orient.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

146

Christian in every line and

conception that
stands upon the

summit

was

established the other

peacefully

consistent with

is

it

of the Christian revelation,

that

it,

it

New

which

is

was a preparatory stage

to Christ

and the

which an

historical conception faintly appears,

first

set forth

Testament.

This view, in

was

by the Valentinians (ep. Ptolemaei

Men

ad Floram).

Now

in

varied according to necessity:

the Old Testament

is

held to contain the whole

tained All.

now it is a legisdatio
new legisdatio in

truth in the form of prophecy,

in servitutem by the side of the

libertatem, an old transient covenant, which pre

way for the new, and whose content is


of God s pedagogy of the human race,

pared the
history

every portion of saving value


at the
cal.

same time the

As over

and yet

transient,

forecast of the future

the
in

and

and typi

against the gnostic attacks the fathers

tried to set forth the incomparableness of the cere

monial laws, and Paul


in order to prove

is

distorted for the purpose

by him

also devotion to the law.

Prophecy, type, pedagogy were the decisive points of


view, and only when men were restricted by no op
position did they admit that certain Old Testament

requirements had been abrogated. In all this there


lay, notwithstanding the confusion and the contra
diction

An Advance.

which

persists

even until the present time, a

Men began

real step forward.

in the Old Testament, they hit

to

make

distinctions

upon the idea

of

ad

stages of truth, of historical conditions (Ter-

vancing
tullian, de orat.

"

quidquid retro fuerat, aut de-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

mutatum

147

per Christum ut circumcisio, aut


suppletum ut reliqua lex, aut impletum ut prophetia, aut perfectum ut fides ipsa"). Inasmuch
est

two Testaments were now accepted, the specific


significance of the Christian covenant became more

as

prominent

"lex

(Tertull.

et

prophetae usque ad

Johannem
the apostles greater than the prophets)
the
new
Covenant was still ever treated as
true,
"

and the hopeless question was accordingly


discussed, whether Christ has lightened or weighted
the old law? The pedagogical salvation-history,
"

lex

",

was

put forth by Irena3us and intertwined


with the testimony of prophecy, made a tremendous
as

it

first

impression (ab initio


lian addition (4th stage

Moses-Christ]
:

tio

the Tertul-

paracletus as novus legis


it has ever re

lator) did not gain acceptance, yet

appeared in the history of the Church, since even


Christ and Paul cannot be included in the scheme
of

new law-givers for the Church life.


The value of the work of the

3.

fathers to the

Church

old Catholic

in the Occident

Novatian O

worked out the Tertullian Christology, Cyprian

es

tablished the regula as developed into a salvation-

history and

made a

part of the Tertullian formulas

current in larger circles

did not consist in their

construction of a system of dogmatics, but in their


refutation of the gnosis and in the theological frag

ments which they

left, i.e.

in the anti-gnostically

"rule of faith", which was


coupled with
the chief statements of the apologetic theology (vide

interpreted

is

t r y.
o"

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

148

above

all

Cyprian

"

"

testimonial

writing,

here

the doctrine concerning the two Testaments, as Irenseus

had developed

it,

forms the ground-plan in

which the particular articles are introduced. Doc


trinal passages from the rational theology change
with the kerygmatic facts everything, however, is
proven from the two Testaments faith and theol
;

In order to become a Cath

ogy are not at a tension).

was obliged above all to believe the


following articles, which stand in sharp contrast to
the PP sin g doctrine: (1) the unity of God, (2) the

olic

Fafth of

Christian one

identity of the highest

world,

i. e.

the Creator of the

the identity of the Mediator of creation and

of redemption,

God

God and

(3)

the identity of the highest

God and

Old Testament and the acceptance of


the Old Testament as God s old book of revelation,

the

(4)

of the

the creation of the world out of nothing,

unity of the

man

human

race, (6) the origin of evil

the

from

freedom and the inalienable character of that

freedom,

(7)

the two Testaments, (8) Christ as

and man, the unity

ity, the verity of his fate,

(9)

of the entire

grace to all

man.

human

the redemption and

covenant through Christ as the new,

God

God

of his personality, the essential

character of his Divinity, the reality of his

tion of

(5)

final

manifesta

men, (10) the resurrection

In closest connection with these

doctrines stands the Logos-doctrine, yes the latter

formed measurably the foundation of their contents


and just claims. How it was carried out will be
indicated in Chapter VII.

On

the carrying out of

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

149

this,

however, hung also the decision of the weight

iest

questions, whether the Christian faith as in

former times should rest upon the hope of the return

and upon his glorious kingdom, or in the


the God-man, who has brought full knowl

of Christ

faith in

edge and transformed the nature of


Divine nature.

CHAPTER

man

into the

VI.

THE TRANSFORMATION OF ECCLESIASTICAL TRADI


TION INTO A PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION, OR THE
ORIGIN OF SCIENTIFIC ECCLESIASTICAL THEOL
OGY AND DOGMATICS: CLEMENT AND ORIGEN.
Guericke, de schola qua9 Alex, floruit catechetica, 1824.
The Christian Platonists of Alex., 1886. Winter,

Bigg,

Ethik des Clemens,

1882.

Redepenning, Origenes,

1841,

f.

Denis, Philosophie d Origene, 1884.


1.

THE

gnosis

gnostics sharply distinguished pistis

Irenseus and Tertullian

made use

and

of science

and speculation only from necessity and in order to


refute them, reckoning that to faith itself which they
needed for theological exposition. In the main they
were satisfied with the authority, hope and holy ordi
they were building upon a building,
which they themselves did not care for. But after
the end of the 2d century there began to be in the

nances of

life

Church a movement toward a

scientific religion

and

toward a theological science (schools in Asia Minor,


Cappadocia, Edessa, Aelia, CaBsarea,

Rome;

alogoi,

schools!

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

150

Alexander of Cappadocia, Julius Africanus, TheokIt was the strongest in


tist, Theodocian schools).
the City of Science, Alexandria, where Christianity
became the heir of Philo and where evidently, until

toward the year

200, there

had not been a firm organ

upon exclusive principles. The


Alexandrian church comes into the light of history

ization of Christians

together with the Alexandrian Christian school


190)

dement a
Pupil of
Pantsenus.

in the latter the entire Hellenic science

(c.

was

taught and adapted to the service of the Gospel and


the Church.
Clement, the pupil of Pantsenus, produced in his Stromata the first Christian ecclesiasti

work, in which the Greek philosophy of religion


served not only an apologetic and polemic purpose,
but was the means of first restricting Christi
cal

men

anity to thinking

Ecclesiastical

tinus).

familiar to Clement

by Philo and Valenliterature was in itself un


(as

he acknowledged

its

authority,

because the Holy Scriptures appeared to him as a


revelation; but it was his conscious purpose to
Pistis is

Given.

work
them

their content out philosophically

his own.

The

recoined into gnosis,

is

it

to
is

make
to be

given;
a doctrine is to be de

pistis
i.e.

and

veloped which will satisfy scientific demands by a


philosophical view of the world and of ethics.

Gnoeis does not conflict with


trary

it

supports and enlightens

tain points, but


of the

faith,

domain

it lifts it

up

it,

but on the con


not only in cer

into a higher sphere out

of authority, into the sphere of pure

knowledge and inner

spiritual

harmony flowing

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


from the love of God.
are bound together
tent in the

Holy

Pistis

151

and gnosis, however,


have their con-

in this, that both

Scriptures (yet in practice

not an exact Scripture-theologian like Origen)


these Scriptures the highest

aim and the

ratus of the idealistic Greek philosophy


are at the

same time

so far as there

astical Christianity

andria at that time.


Justin had had,
co-theologic.

is

referred to Christ

The

Into

entire

is

gether.

Clement is

read

and

was such

appa
;

they

ecclesi

in

Alex

apologetic purpose, which

here transformed into a systemati-

The

positive material is accordingly

not shoved into the proof of prophecy, but, as by


Philo and Yalentinus, is carried over with infinite
pains to scientific dogmatics.

To

the idea of the Logos

in that he exalted

it

who

is

Christ, Clement,

to the highest principle of the

view of the world and of the exposition of


Christianity, gave a far richer content than did Jus

religious

tin.

Christianity

is

the doctrine of the creation,

education and perfecting of the human race through


the Logos, whose work reaches its climax in the per
fect gnostic,

and who has made use

of

two means,

the Old Testament and Hellenic philosophy.

Logos

everywhere, wherever men rise above the plane


of nature (the Logos is the moral and rational prin
is

ciple

in all stages of the development)

authentic knowledge of
revelation.

He

is

but the

him can be won only from

the law of the world, the teacher,

or in Christ the hierourge,

who through

holy ordina-

tions conducts to knowledge; finally, for the perfect,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

152

the bridge to union with

God

himself.

Aside from

the Holy Scriptures the Greek combination of knowl

edge and ceremonial ordination made it possible for


Clement to let ecclesiastical Christianity pass cur

The ecclesiastical gnostic rises, so to speak,


by means of an attached balloon to the Divine realms
he leaves behind him everything earthly, historical,
rent.

statutory and authoritative, yes, finally, the Logos


himself, while he struggles upward in love and

knowledge

but the rope remains fast beneath, while


it.
This

the pure gnostic on the contrary severed

exaltation is accomplished in gradual stages (Philo),

under which scheme the whole philosophical ethics


is set forth, from reasonable moderation to the excess
of consciousness

and

of apathetic love.

cal tradition is also set forth

Ecclesiasti

but here as yonder the

true gnostic should upon the higher stage overcome

the lower.

When

needs no

crutches.

very poorly in

the spirit s wings are

Although Clement succeeded

arranging

under his proposed scheme


of his undertaking

While

the

unwieldy material
he stuck fast in the midst

yet his purpose

is

perfectly plain.

Irensens wholly naively blended discordant

material and therefore


Attacked

grown he

Clement advanced

won no

to freedom.

give attention to the

problem

religious freedom,

He was

the

first to

of future theology:

In connection with the historical deposits, through


which we are what we are, and in connection with
the

Christian

thrown because

communion,
it is

upon which we are

the only universal moral-relig-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


ious

win

to

communion,

this Gospel that

it

shall

who makes

and

for ourselves freedom

independence with the Gospel and to so


the Logos,

153

set forth

appear the highest message of


himself known in all rising

above nature, and therefore in the whole history of


Truly the danger was for Clement at

mankind.

hand, that the ideal of the self-sufficient Hellenic


seer should stifle the voice that declares that we live
in Christ

by the grace of God; but the danger


was in the trammelled exposition

secularization
Irena3us,

which placed value upon

of
of

authorities that

do with the Gospel, and alleged facts


pertaining to salvation that oppress us, in another
If the Gospel is to
way, indeed, but none the less.

have nothing

to

give freedom and peace in

God and

prepare us for an

eternal life in union with Christ, then Clement

derstood

tempt
in

it

in that sense.

to fuse the

God and

aim

His was virtually an

of the Gospel to

make us

from him power and

to gain

life,

un
at- Attempted

rich

Gospel Ind
Platonic

with

the ideal of the Platonic philosophy to raise oneself


as a free spirit above the world unto God, and then to

bind together the instructions pertaining to a blessed


life which are found in the one and in the other.
But

Origen was the

first to

systematic form, in

succeed in putting this into a

which the most scrupulous

Bibli-

cism and the most conscientious regard for the rule


of faith are conjoined with the philosophy of religion.
2.

Origen was the most influential theologian in

the Oriental church, the father of theological science,

the author of ecclesiastical dogmatics.

What

the

Origen.

154

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

apologists,

and old Catholic theologians

gnostics

had taught, he brought together and combined he


recognized the problem and the problems, the histori
;

and the speculative. He sharply distinguished,


with the clearest vision, between ecclesiastical faith
and ecclesiastical theology, and spoke one thing to
cal

the people and another to the discerning.


lth

His uni-

versal spirit did not wish to destroy anything, but


everywhere to conserve he found on every hand that
which is valuable and he knew how to give to every
;

truth

its place,

be this in the

no one should be

pistis,

or in the gnosis

but Christian truth

"offended",

should triumph over the systems of the Hellenic phi


losophers and the old Catholic gnostics, over the
superstition of the heathen

and Jews and over the

defective presentation of Christian Unitarians.

This

Christian truth bore as gnosis Neo-Platonic marks,


and indeed to such a high degree that a Porphyry

commended
U
pose? Ruie

the theology of Origen, and rejected only

the intermingled

"strange

Origen presup

fables".

poses the rule of faith in a firmly outlined form (see


his principal work,

-Kspl

/>/<5v),

together with the

two Testaments: He who has these has the truth


which makes

blessed, yet there

gratifying conception.

Upon

its

is

a deeper, moro
all con

summit

become mere shades, and in the absolute harwhich


such a view gives, one learns to estimate
mony

trasts
orthodoxTradition
alist Bibhcal Theoideliistic
"

pier.

the relative.
alist,

Thus

is

Origen an orthodox tradition-

a strong Biblical theologian (nothing should


is not in the Scriptures), a keen

pass current which

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

who

idealistic philosopher

155

translated the content of

faith into ideas, completed the structure of the world

that

is

within, and finally

God and

let

nothing pass save

which
knowledge
exalts us above the world and conducts unto deifica
of

of self in closest union,

Zeno and Plato, however, should not be the


leaders, but Christ; for the former did not overcome
tion.

polytheism, nor

make

the truth generally accessible,

nor give a system of instruction which made it pos


sible for the unlearned to become any better than

That Christianity

their natural ability permits.


for both classes,

out polytheism

and religion

religion for the


(of

over

mind,
all

Origen recog-

other religions and

The Christian religion

stems.

ty

ciassea

course with pictures and signs)

for the thinking

iiizod as its superiority


r

is

common man with-

is the

only religion ivhich is also truth in mythical form. Theol-

s}

ogy

it is

true

emancipate
istic of

is

obliged

itself

as always, so also here

from the positive

to

traits (character

the positive religion) belonging to external

revelation

and

statutes; but in Christianity this is

accomplished under the guidance of Holy Scripture

which

establishes the positive religion for the masses.

The gnosis
ical,

if

neutralizes everything empirically histornot indeed always in matters of fact, yet

wholly so as regards

its

worth.

It

sublimates

first

from the empirical history a higher transcendental


history, which begins in eternity and rests behind
the empirical

but in reality

it

sublimates this trans

cendental once again, and there remains

now

only

Gnosis
Neutral-

156

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

the unchangeable
Christoi-

ogy.

God and

the created soul.

most clearly brought out in Origen

Back

of the

historical

This

is

Christology.

Christ reposes the eternal

who

appeared first as physician and re


deemer, appears on a deeper view as the teacher
blessed are the advanced ones, who need no more the

Logos; he

physician, the shepherd and the redeemer

teacher

is finally

become

perfect

but the

a husk and

astical Christianity here stripped off as

thrown aside

no longer necessary to those who are


such rest in God. Thus is ecclesi

like

a crutch.

That which

in Justin is

van

proof of prophecy, in Irenseus salvation-history,

ishes in Origen for the gnostic, or is only a picture

of a spiritual history.
fails

In the

final

analysis there

in his high-flying, all-comprehensive ethics the

sense of guilt and fear of the Judge.


Monistic,

Element.

The system was intended to be strongly monistic


(that which was created out of nothing has only a
transitory significance as a place of purification)
in fact there dwelt within

it

yet

a dualistic element.

The dominating antithesis is God and created things.


The amphiboly lay in his double view of the spiritual
(it

God

belongs on the one side, as the outgoing of

nature, to

God

himself, on the other

which has been created, it stands


God), which keeps cropping out in
systems.

Pantheism was

to be

be stoutly maintained.

This

in opposition to
all

warded

supermundane character of the

side, as that

N"eo-

off,

human

Platonic

and yet the

spirit

was

spirit is the free,

to

heav

enly eon, conscious of the right way, but uncertain

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


in

Divine origin, divine end, and free


The knot is tied how
essence.

its striving.

choice constitute

its

moment when

ever, in that

There

manifestation.

(1)

God and

divided into three

is

his outgoing, (2) the fall of the

system Di
vided into
re e
rts

and the consequences, (3) redemption


That freedom will only be a sem

created spirit

and

the spirit comes forth in

therefore a history prior to

is

The system

temporal history.
parts:

157

restoration.

blance,

the spirit

if

must

finally attain

unto

its

end,

In carrying out his scheme


he was so earnest that he even limited the Divine

Origen did not observe.

omnipotence and omniscience.


Scriptures the God-world drama
dition

which

still

tirely recedes)

revelation,

the cosmos

also the

consist of

Holy

psychic

Scriptures, the second

for exegesis;

it

Thereby

this

pneumatic

(3)

is

consideration and the verbal sense

whereby only one

deeper sense.

is

^eg esis

has, (1) to

the verbal sense, which, however,

Here and there

Holy

(secret tra

is spiritual,

shell, (2) the psychic-moral sense,

aside,

educed

these three parts.

was a secure method given


discover

is

the

of

played a great role in Clement en

As

and material, so

Out

is

the

the pneumatic.

alone taken into

must even be

cast

permitted to discover the

This Biblical alchemy Origen devel

oped with the greatest virtuosity.


(a) God is the One. who stands over against the God is one
Over
many that point back to him as the Cause he is the
;

and spiritual Being, who stands


over against conditioned existences. He is different

absolute Existence

from the many, yet the order, the dependence and

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

158

the longing of the


absolute

many

Cause, with

tell

God

of him.

self -consciousness

as the

and

will,

more living and, so to speak, as more


personal by Origen than by the gnostics and the
But God is ever causality, and
Neo-Platonists.
is set

forth as

therefore never to be thought of apart from revela

That he creates belongs to his being, which is


revealed indeed even in the many. Since however

tion.

all

must be

revelation

partial,

Origen permits no
Omniscience

limitless conceptions to be applied to the

and Omnipotence God can only what he will; he


cannot do that which is in itself contradictory and
;

God Not
Absolutely

omnis-

cient and
~

Ol
tenk

is

not able to become existent

(all

miracles are natu-

ne cannot indeed mako the created absolutely


good, since the conception of the created includes a
ral)

privatio of being
tially

good

he can make the same only poten

for the idea never goes forth without re

serve into the substance which gives

dom
true,

also places limitations

imposed upon

it

form.

Free

upon God, which he, it is


Thus are relative ideas

himself.

God is love and goodness


a manifestation of his goodness.
eternally revealed, the world is eter

applied to the idea of God.

righteousness

Since

God

is

is

nal, but not this world, yet the world of spirits.


With this world, however, God is united through

the Logos,

apathy,
Logos

is

God

God.

into

God once again

aside his absolute

entered.

The Logos

is

himself and at the same time the totality and

the creator of the


like

whom, laying

many

(Philo), a special hypostasis,

indeed the self-consciousness of

God and

the

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


The Logos

potency of the world.

is

159

the perfect like

He has nothing corporeal


God (oftooufftos)
about him and is therefore true God, yet a second
God (no sharing of Divinity, ob xard perouiriav, dUd
ness of

#?). He is begotten of the essence of the


Father from eternity there was no time when he
was not, and he ever goes forth from the Father s
%ar uuaiav

being through the Divine constraining will. But


even because he is substantia substantialiter subsistens, he is as such

the Father

no afiwrpnv

he

is

an

ahta-rov,

Accordingly he is the
first stage in the transition from the One to the
many from the standpoint of God the xrtV^o o/aoo6is r/xwrov

atrtov.

ffi<>y,

from our standpoint the manifest, essential God.

For us alone therefore does the

essential likeness of

the Father and Son exist; his unchangeableness is


therefore only relative, since it does not reside in the

autousie.
to the

Everywhere

in this speculation in regard

Logos-Creator, there

is

no thought of the

Logos-Redeemer. The Holy Spirit also the rule of


faith necessitated him is included in the Godhead
as a third unchangeable being and reckoned as a

and hypostasis. He is become through


the Son and is related to him as the Son to the
third stage

His sphere of activity is the smallest


strangely enough, indeed, the most important. The
Father.

Father

is

the principle of

existence,

reason, the Spirit of that which

the Son

of

This grad
uated trinity is a trinity of revelation, but even on
that account also imminent and persistent, since God
is holy.

Holy

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

160

The

can never be thought of apart from revelation.


Spirit is

spirits?

the transition to the fulness of spirits

Holy
and ideas, which, created through the Son, are in
The charac
truth the unfolding of his own fulness.
teristic of
xpoxoTtij),

gnosis).

is the becoming (advance,


freedom (opposition to the heretical
But the freedom is still relative, i.e. in a

created spirits

i.e.

broad sense they are free; fundamentally however


there exists the rigid necessity for the created spirit
Freedom,

Freedom

to reach the goal.

therefore is sub specie

Out

aeternitatis necessary evolution.

Origen sought

to

the spirits belong also


created

from

of

freedom

understand the actual world

human

eternity (God

is

spirits

for to

they were

all

ever a Creator), orig

inally alike in substance ; but their duties are differ

ent and therefore their development.

In so far as

they are changeable spirits they are all endowed with


a kind of corporeality. In the fact itself of being
created there

ordained for angels and

is

men

a kind

As to how they might have devel


themselves
Origen did not speculate, but only
oped
of materiality.

as to
Fail,

Redeem
Them.

They should

(b)

World Oreated to

how they have


_

ft^y

fa

make room then

n to

idleness

existent fall into sin)


visible

attain unto a persistent exist,

ence. in order to

g ut

developed.

all

and the

of the soul, shut

which have

up

devils,

new

creations.
(pre-

To curb and purify them

world was created; this

correction

for

and disobedience

spirits are,

is

also a

the

house of

through the bondage

in divers bodies, the grossest of

the finest angels, the

medium

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

161

men, who are supported and endangered by devils


and angels (acceptance of popular representations).
Life

is

a discipline, a conflict under the permission

and leading of God, which will end with the con


quest and destruction of evil. Thus harshly, almost
Buddhistically, did Origen think of the world

he

is

however fundamentally an optimist. Man consists


of spirit, soul and body (after Plato and because the
spirit

to

cannot be the principle of action antagonistic

The

God.

It is a spirit grown cold and yet no spirit.


was thus conceived in order to make the fall conceiv

the Logos
It

soul is treated just as inconsistently as

able,

soul)

and yet
.

Man

to

guard the integrity of the reasonable

s conflict consists in

the striving of those

to gain dominion
Sin inheres on the one side

powers inherent in his constitution


over his environment.

in the earthly state (in reality all

on the other,

it is

must be

sinners)

the product of freedom, but

is

even

when God assists. For with


him nothing is good.
God helps as
(c) But we must help ourselves

therefore conquerable

out

laws of nature, then


teacher,
through
through the laws of Moses, then through the Gospel
(to each according to his kind and according to the
first

the

measure of his receptivity)

the perfect he helps

through the eternal Gospel, which has no outer shell

and no representation.

Revelation

gradual rendering of help,

is

which comes

a manifold,
to the assist

ance of the growing creature (the significance of the

people Israel is recognized)


11

But the Logos must him-

God Helps

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

162
self

appear and help.

cated as the need

is

His work must be as compli

He must

exhibit to the one class

the true victory over death and the demons, must, as


the God-man, bring an offering which represents the
expiation of sin, must pay the price of redemption

which

shall

end the dominion of the devil

in short

he must bring a comprehensible redemption


(Origen

"deeds".

first

in

introduced into the Gentile

of reconciliation and atonement;


but one should consider in what age he wrote.) To
others, however, he must, as Divine teacher and

Church a theory

Hierourge, disclose the depths of knowledge and bring


to them a new principle of life, so that they may
share his
himself,

with

life

and, interwoven with the Divine Being

may become

God

is

here,

divine.

Return to communion

as yonder,

the goal; yonder

through facts toward which man directs his faith;


here through knowledge and love, which, striving up

beyond the Crucified, lays hold upon eternal life as the

Logos himself encompasses it. The facts" are also,


as with the gnostics, not simulation or an indifferent
"

basis of truth, but are truth, though not the truth.

Thus he

and the philosophy of relig


can commend the cosmic significance of
the death on the cross, a work which encompasses
ion.

reconciled faith

He

and yet rise above this occurrence by spec


ulations which have no history.
all spirits,

Chris-

tolosy
i

X.

In accordance therewith his Christology takes

form;

its

The Re
him
to have
Christians can think

characteristic is its complexity:

deemer was

all

that

its

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


For the gnostic he

been.

is

163

the divine Principle,

the Teacher, the First-Born, the knowable, Divine

Reason.

The gnostic knows no

"

Christology"

From

Christ on began the perfect indwelling of the Logos


in

mankind.

Here, therefore, neither the Divinity

nor the humanity of Christ

But

lem.

is

a question or a prob

for the imperfect Christian Christ is the

God-man, and the gnostic

is

in duty

bound

to solve

the problem which this expression offers and to


guard the solution from errors on the right and on
the left

(against docetism

Logos could unite


the

medium

of a

unfallen spirit,

itself

human

with the body only through


This soul was a pure
soul.

which had destined

itself for

in order to serve the purposes of redemption.

a pure

spirit

The

and ebionitism).

the soul
It

was

fundamentally united with the Logos


its moral worthiness,

and became then, by reason of

a medium for the incarnation of the Logos (closest


inner union, but really perfect only through incessant

from both sides therefore no ming


The
ling)
Logos remains unchangeable only the
soul hungers and suffers, inasmuch as it, like the
body, is truly human. But because both are pure

exercise of will
.

and

their substance is in itself without qualities, his

body was
(Clement

actually totally different from ours


The body could at
still more docetic).

still

is

any moment assume such a character as the situa


tion required, in order to make the strongest impres
The Logos was also not
sion upon different persons.
shut up within the body, but wrought everywhere as

Docetic
Element,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

164

and united

hitherto
is

true the union

itself

with

was with none

all

pious souls.

It

so close as with the

and the same was true as regards his


The Logos illumined and deified the soul

soul of Jesus,

body.

gradually during the earthly life, and the soul the


body. The functions and the attributes of the in
carnate Logos form a gradation, in the knowledge
of

which

close

The union became

believers progress.

(xoivtuvta,

Zvaxri?,

avdxpaffis)

in the

are interchanged

Holy

so

that the attributes


Scriptures.

Finally

Jesus appears transformed into Spirit, received into


and
Ethically

the Godhead,

union

is

the

same with

fundamentally ethical

the Logos.

But the

and finally not unique.

All conceivable heresies are here touched upon, but


guarded by cautions (Jesus the heavenly man yet
all men are heavenly; the adoption Christology

but the Logos behind it the conception of two Logoi


the gnostic severing of Jesus and the Christ; mo;

nophysite commingling; docetism), save only modalism. That in a scientific Christology so much room
was left for the humanity is the important thing;
the idea of the incarnation
Freedom
and Faith.

The

is

accepted.

redemptive adaptations are in all this already

indicated

Christ the

Freedom and faith are

human
man receives

the Logos, so

ing with

in the van.

As

in

soul gradually united itself with

his progress

grace gradually, in keep

(Neo-Platonic

progressive

knowledge from simple science and sensu


ous things onward yet ecstasy and visions recede

stages of

there

is little

that

is

shadowy)

Everywhere a blend-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

165

ing of freedom and enlightenment is necessary, and


the ecclesiastical faith remains the starting-point also
of the

"theoretic

life",

cetic contemplation, in

which the Logos

and bridegroom of the soul that


and

comes

until this

rests in Divinity.

is

now

to joyous as

the friend

is

deified in love

Regeneration Origen recog-

ized only as a process; but in

him and Clement

found statements joined to the

New

are

Regenera-

a Process,

Testament (God

as Love, as the Father, regeneration, adoption) which,

from the shackles of the system, set forth the


evangelical announcement in a surprisingly pertinent
free

In the highest sense there are no means of


but the symbols which accompany the be
grace",
"

way.

stowal of grace are not equally good. The system


numerous mediators and intercessors (angels,

of

martyrs, living saints) Origen

first

regards praying to Christ Origen

According

brought actually

and encouraged prayers

into operation

to

Origen

to these (as

was very reticent).

all spirits will,

in the

form

and

glor-

of their individual lives, be finally rescued


ified (apokatastasis), in

world-epoch.
tions are in

order to

tion>

make way for a new

The sensuous-eschatological expecta


The doctrine of the

toto banished.

resurrection of the body Origen adopted (rule of


faith),

but he conceived of

it

corpus spiritale will rise, in


ties,

yes

all

tions, will

the

which

all

way

that a

sense-facul

members which have sensuous func

be wanting, and which will shine brightly

like the angels

have

in such a

and

stars.

fallen asleep will

The

souls of those

who

go at once to paradise (no

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

166

sleeping of the soul); the souls which are not yet


purified will pass into a new condition of punish

ment

(purgatory),

which

will purify

them

ther (the remorse of conscience is hell).

still

Only

far

so far,

however, did Origen accept the ecclesiastical doctrine


of damnation ; at last all spirits, the demons them

God purified. Yet is his doc


the common man it is enough to

selves, will return to

trine esoteric

know

"

for

that sin will be

from the

field

punished".

This system drove

the heretic gnostic theology and later

dominated the

ecclesiastical theology of the Orient.

But the Church could not

for

any length of time ap

Origen or content itself


with his sharp discrimination between faith and the

prove of all the teaching of

was obliged to try to unite both


put them upon the same plane (like Irena3us).

science of faith.

and

to

It

CHAPTER

VII.

DECISIVE RESULT OF THEOLOGICAL SPECULATION

WITHIN THE REALM OF THE RULE OF FAITH,


OR THE DEFINING OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL DOC
TRINAL NORM THROUGH THE ACCEPTANCE OF
THE LOGOS-CHRISTOLOGY.
LogosCnTis~
toiogy.

THE

Logos-Christology alone permitted a uniting

o f fa ith and science, corresponded to the doctrine that

God became man in order that we might become

gods,

and thus supported Christianity from without and


from within. But it was by no means wide-spread

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

167

in the churches in the year 190, or even later; rather

was

it

in

part unknown,

and in part feared as

heretic-gnostic (destruction of the Divine monarchy,

on the other hand, of the Divinity of Christ)


Tertull. adv. Prax. 3
Simplices quique, ne dixe-

that

is,

"

rem inprudentes et idiot ae, quae maior semper


pars credentium est, quoniam et ipsa regula fidei
a pluribus diis saeculi ad unicum et verum deum
transfert, non intelligentes unicum quidem, sed
cum sua otxow/iia esse credenduin, expavescunt ad
o!zovofj.ia
Itaque duos et tres iam iactitant a
.

nobis pradicari, se vero unius dei cultores prae-

monarchiam inquiunt tenemus".


sumunt
The establishment of the Logos- Christology with.

ih the faith of the

lus

Church

fundamentalis

conflicts

and indeed as articu-

was accomplished

after severe

during the course of a hundred years

(till

about 300). It signified the transformation of the


faith into a system of beliefs with an Hellenic-philo
sophical cast it shoved the old eschatological repre
;

sentations aside, and even suppressed

them

it

put
back of the Christ of history a conceivable Christ, a
principle, and reduced the historical figure to a mere

appearance

it

referred the Christian to

"

natures

"

and naturalistic magnitudes, instead of to the Person


and to the ethical it gave the faith of the Christians a
;

toward the contemplation of ideas and


doctrinal formulas, and prepared the way, on the one
definite trend

side for the monastic

life,

on the other for the chap

eroned Christianity of the imperfect, active laity

it

168

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

legitimized a hundred

in

questions

metaphysics,

cosmology, and natural science as ecclesiastical, and


demanded, under threat of loss of bliss, a definite

answer;

it

went

so far that men preached, instead of

faith, rather faith in the faith,

while

"

3sm

it

appeared to

broaden

and

it

stunted religion

But

it.

in that

it

made

the bond with natural science perfect

it

raised Chris

tianity to the

religion

world-and-everybody

and

prepared the way for the act of Constantine.


The tendencies in the Church, which strove against
philosophical Christianity and the Logos-Christology

men called monarchian (so first Tertullian). The


name was not happily chosen, since many monarchians acknowledged a second hypostasis, yet made
use of

it

Two

for everything except for Christology.

tendencies can be distinguished


ians (seethe old Christologies,

among

Book

I.

The adoption, which looked upon

the monarch-

chap.

3,

sub

6)

the Divine in

Christ as a power and started from the human per


son of Jesus which was deified, and the modalistic,

which held Christ

to be a manifestation of

God

the

Both contested the Logos-Christology as


the first through an avowed interest
gnosticism

Father.
"

"

in the historical representation of Christ (Synoptic),

the second in the interest of

vain,

vinity of Christ.
other,

monarchy and

of the Di-

Both tendencies, passing

into each

were Catholic, maintaining the fundamental

principles of the rule of faith (neither

nor gnostic)

but after the

New

"ebionitic",

Testament had es

tablished itself as such the contest

was

in vain

for

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


although there are passages in the

New

169

Testament

in favor of these theses, the other passages

which

maintain the pre-existence of Christ as a special


hypostasis

outweigh them

at

least according

and

the interpretation then current

evident that the

"

lower

"

it

seemed

(therefore the

ance with John).

In

self-

in the expressions should

everywhere be interpreted according to the


(pneumatic),

to

all

"

"

higher
in
accord
Synoptics

ecclesiastical

provinces

but

we know them

of Dynamic

Monarchian-

there were monarchian contests

only in part.
(1)

TJie

Rejection

ism, or Adoptionism.

(a)

The alogoi (nickname;

AdoptionRejected,

sources: Irena3us, Hippolytus, Epiphanius) in Asia

Minor were a party of the radical anti-Montanisopposition, which rejected all prophecy in the

tic

they appeared at a time when there was as


no
New
Testament. They criticised the Johanyet
nean writings on historical grounds and rejected them

Church

on account of their proclamation of the Paraclete


and the apocalypse, at the same time proving the in
accuracy of the historical narratives in the Johannean
Gospel. But they criticised also the docetism of the
Gospel, hesitated at the Logos, and decided that the

untrue writings, which, on the one hand, contained


Jewish-naturalistic elements, on the other, docetic-

must have originated with Cerinthus. Their


Christology was fashioned after the Synoptics

gnostic,

own

The miraculous

birth, the descent of the Spirit

upon

Jesus, his development, the exaltation through his

instology.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

170

The

resurrection constitute his dignity.

earliest

op

ponents

(Irenseus, Hippolytus) treated these in a

measure

respectfully, since these

"

"

alogoi

did good

But one must

service against the Montanists.

say,

notwithstanding the high esteem which the alogoi


had for sound historical criticism, that their relig
"

"

ious inspiration could not have been of a very high


order; for they were neither apocalyptic enthusiasts,

nor mystics

Wherein then consisted the power

of

their piety?
Expelled

from
Rome.

(&)

The same can be

said of the

parties of the Tlieodotians,


alliance with

tus

the

"

"

alogoi

and his party,

They

Artemonites).
about 185 in

Roman-adoption

who
(the

Theodotus
established

stood in evident

cobbler

the

Theodothe

banker,

themselves after

Rome (the elder Theodotus was from


Byzantium, a man of unusual culture) but already
had bishop Victor of Rome expelled Theodotus (c.
;

195) from the Church, because he held Christ to be

the

0cAo? av&pcoTcos

first

case where a Christian

stood upon the rule of faith

is

who

disciplined as

an

Theodotus taught as did the


unsound teacher.
concerning Christ (-npo7.oxij of the miracu
"alogoi"
lously born

man

Jesus, equipped

by his baptism and

prepared for his exaltation through the resurrection


stress upon the ethical proof), but recognized the
;

Johannean Gospel already as Holy Scripture, and


carried on his Scripture argument in the same sound
critical

way as

did the latter (Deut. 18: 15; Jer. 17:

9; Isa. 53: 2 seq.; Matt. 12: 31;

Luke

1: 35; Jno.

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


8: 40;

Acts

2: 22;

distinguished

sacred

Tim. 2:5).

Under

Theodotus,

the

pupil

text,

science

empirical

their

most

banker,

the

the criticism of

zealously cultivated

adoptionists

the

I.

171

and

natural

phenomena (not with Plato), and stood as a school


alongside the Church (see the description in Eusebius,

H. E. V,

Their attempt to found a church


(bishop Natalis) was soon frustrated (at the time of
bishop Zephyrinus) they remained as officers with
28).

an ever-dwindling army. Out of their thesis, that


the Holy Spirit, whose hypostasis (as eternal Son of
God, see Hermas whose Christology they followed)
they acknowledged, stood higher than Jesus, since

an adopted God, their opponents


Inasmuch as they ascribed
heresy.

the latter is only

made a

capital

the Old Testament theophanies to this eternal


of

God and

took

Son

Melchisedec to be a manifes

tation of the eternal Son, they

were called Melchis-

Of the learned

edecs, because they prayed to him.

men nothing remains to us. Hippoinforms


that some of them would not concede
us
lytus
that Christ is a God, even after his resurrection;
labors of these

others acknowledged the tfeoTro^?.

It

became clear in

the contest that an alliance with the science of Aris-

was not compatible with the


Church, but on the contrary that it demands an alli
totle,

Euclid, and Galen,

ance with Plato, and that the old Christology of


Hermas the adoptionists appealed to such docu

ments

was no longer

later there

appeared in

satisfactory.

Rome

Some decades

in the person of Arte-

The

otU8

t jfe

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

172

mon

more important adoptionist teacher, of


whom, however, little is known. He also put aside
a

still

the predicate

"

God

"

as applied to Christ, but seems

not to have agreed rigidly in

Theodotians.

all

particulars with the

About the year 250 adoptionism was

Rome (Cyprian is silent; yet see


but in the Occident it contin
de
trinit.
Novatian,
)
ued for a long time in the Church formulas, as
insignificant in

"

spiritus sanctus dei filius, caro Jesus

spiritus

spiritus carni mixtus Jesus


(through the reading of the highly es

sanctus Christus
Christus"

teemed Hermas) and it is instructive that Augustine


still a short time before his conversion thought the
;

adoption Christology to be the Catholic.

Therefore

the orthodox Christological formulas were

still little

known

in the fourth century in the Occidental laity-

world.
( c)

onent.

From

the writings of Origen one gathers that

there were adoptionists also in the Orient.


treated

them as misguided,

Christian brethren,

did he not himself

i.e.

who needed
make use of

friendly instruction

unjustly classed with the adoptionists


?

the adoption view in

his complicated Christology (accordingly he

Pamphilus defended him)

Origen

as simple-minded

was later

against this

Beryllus of Bostra, the

monarchian teacher who won a large following in


Arabia and Syria, became convinced of the truth of
the Logos-Christology through Origen (Euseb. VI.,
33

TOV

ffuiTYjpa.

xai

xbpiov

-rjp.a)V

IJ.-YJ

TipooyeffTdvat XO.T

Idiav

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


Idiav

v,

/U

/jL7rf)AtTUo/j.gvr)v

173

abr^ povyv

rrjv

whom Dionyand whose teaching Tre^


TOO xupiou rjp.wv ^Trr^avec a? he

Those Egyptian

chiliasts,

sius of Alexandria opposed,


rjJV

xai dArjftws Ivft-ou

$vd6$oi>

acknowledged as necessary,
ical

representations.

ment was undertaken

may have favored dynam

But no great adoption move


by Paul of

in the Orient, save


of

Samosata, metropolitan

Antioch (Euseb. VII,

27-30; other material in Routh, Rel. Sacr. III.), the


national Syrian bishop,

who opposed the Greeks and


Romans and their church.

their science as well as the

That two great Oriental general councils at Antioch


proved ineffective against him, and only the third

condemned and deposed him (very probably 268)


an evidence of how

is

even yet the Alexandrian


dogmatics had found acceptance in the Orient. Paul
was a learned theologian (unspiritual, vain, shrewd,
sophistical

man of
who wished
a

little

"

the world

"

his opponents

to break the

power of the
Hellenic (Platonic) philosophy in the Church and to

called

him)

maintain the old teaching. In later times he ap


pears to the Church as a heretic of the first order, like
a Judas, ebionite, Nestorian, monothelite, etc. His
conception was this God is to be thought of sim
:

ply as individually personal (v

Kpoffioxov).

It is true

God a Logos (Son), i.e. a Sophia (Spirit), can


be distinguished both are otherwise also to be iden
tified
but these are attributes. God from eternity
that in

sent forth the Logos from himself, so that one can


call

him

Son, but he remains an impersonal power.

Paul of
Samosata.

174

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

He worked
dtayspovruis

Moses and the prophets, pattov xat


in the Son of David, born of the virgin.
in

The Redeemer

is

man from

but the

"beneath",

Logos from above worked within him (in-dwelling


by means of an inspiration working from without,
so that the Logos becomes the

xard

inner

man

The communion which thus

Redeemer).
Govd(f>t.a

"

/j.d&Tf)fftv

xai

/asroufftav^

"

of the

arises is

ffuv^eufft?

(no

obffia.

the Logos did not dwell in Jesus


but xard -Kotor^ra therefore is he always to be
ffa>rj.art)

distinguished from the latter as the greater. The


Redeemer is the man wrought upon by the Logos
but he possessed in a unique way the Divine grace,

just as his position is unique.

His testimony bears

Between two persons


between God and Christ unity of dis

witness to his endowments.


therefore also
position

and

of will alone is possible.

Such unity is
only that which

through love but also


comes from love has value; that which

realized only

"

through

nature

"

is indifferent.

is

gained
Jesus by reason of

the unchangeableness of his love and will

is like

God

and has become one with him, inasmuch as he not


only himself remained without sin, but through con
and endurance overcame the sins of our progen
Like as he however advanced and persisted
itors.

flict

in the confirmation of the good, so also did the

Father endow him with might and miraculous deeds,


by which he made known his unswerving will toward

God.

Thus he became the Redeemer and entered

into an indissoluble and eternal union with God, be-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.


cause his love can never

fail.

victorious love he has obtained a

175

As a reward of his
name above every

name, judgment and Divine dignity, so that one may


the God born of the virgin", which he has
call him
"

ever been in

God

decree and proclamation (through

grace and confirmation did he attain unto Godhood


the steps were here also birth, baptism, and resurrec

This evangelical Christology, which was the


only one to consciously cast aside the religious
tion).

physics, Paul supported

ously refuted
positors",

its

by Scripture proofs and

opponents, especially the

the Alexandrians.

He

did

"

zeal

old ex

away with

liturgies in which the essential Divinity


was proclaimed he would know nothing

Church
Christ

"substances",

all

of

of

but held fast to the living Person.

His teaching was considered heretical in the highest


degree by the learned Hellenic bishops He has be
In the confession of six bishops
trayed the mystery
:

against him the physical Logos-doctrine was set forth

most important part of the apos


and Catholic Church faith. At the synod the

in broad terms as a
tolic

word

"

"

vfjLoovfftos

was

also expressly cast aside, evi

dently because Paul had used

order to prove by
subject.

it

that

With Paul

it

God and

for the

Logos in

the Logos are one

deposition and removal (272)

was decided that no Catholic Christian dare any


more doubt the Divine physis of the Redeemer. But
the teaching of Paul did not succumb in Antioch
it

without leaving

its

trace behind.

renowned professional

school,

the

Lucian and his


birthplace

of

Character

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

176

Arianism, were fructified by the

of Paul.

spirit

However, the doctrine is badly disfigured in Arian


ism by reason of its combination with the hypostaPhotinus.

tized

On

^6Yo<s-xrifffj.a.

great Antiochians

although the latter acknowledged

Mcene symbol

the

Paul

the contrary Photinus and the

-learned their best lesson

So-called Nestorianism

had

its roots

from

in Paul s

teaching, and in it Paul was once more condemned.


How long unbroken adoption views held their

sway in outlying Oriental churches is indicated by


the Acta Archelai, written at the beginning of the

What

fourth century.

says about Christ

is

its

author, a clerical teacher,

very like the teaching of Paul.

But in the great centres of Christianity adoptionism


was totally broken down by about 270.
(

3)

ism.

The Rejection of Modalistic MonarchianNot adoptionism, but modalism was the dan

gerous opponent of the Logos-Christology between


180 and 300, the doctrine according to which the
Godhead itself is seen incarnate in Christ, and he
himself considered the very and only God.

Against
view Tertullian, Origen, Novatian, and espe
cially Hippolytus contended most energetically ("pathis

they were first called by Tertullian;


in the Orient later the most common expression was

tripassiani",

Hippolytus says that in his time the


question agitated the whole Church (Philos. IX, 6
"

Sabelliani

").

rapa%ov

xa.ro.

xdvTa rov

xoffftov iv -ndfftv

TO?? Tiiffrol^

and Tertullian and Origen

testify that

the majority of Christian people think

"monarch-

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

177

In Rome, from Victor to Calixtus,


ianically".
modalism was the official doctrine among the Mon;

tanists one-half thought modalistically

the Marcio-

toward this view, and in the


Catholic Church from the earliest times on many

nite church also leaned

formulas were used which served to promote this


form of thought, which indeed in reality best agreed

with the plain, unreflecting faith


tfeo? /J.QO
But an exclusive modalistic doctrine was
(<?

veloped in opposition to gnosticism


Christology, (1) in order to

ward

Xptaros).
first

de

and the Logos-

off ditheism, (2) in

order to maintain the full Divinity of Christ, (3) in


order to sever all connection with gnosticism.
Now
for the first time

men

sought to establish this faith

energetically as doctrine. Scientific theologians

But

to its defence.

to this religious conception

came
more

than to any other contact with thought and science


must needs prove detrimental It was the beginning
:

of the

end

long time.

and

however, the death-struggle continued a


The stoic philosophy with its pantheism

its dialectical

formulas was called in to assist

(the adoptionists relied in part

upon Aristotle

see

The controversy thus presented a phase

above).

which makes

appear related to the controversy of


the Platonists and common stoics about the idea of
it

God (whether

the

whether there

still

as $eo?).
ever,

had

terest.

12

The

^>09-#o?

is

the lutimate God, or

stands behind

him an

apathetic

oldest defenders of modalism,

at the

same time an express

ov

how

Biblical in

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

178
Asia Minor
First
Theatres.

Here

(a)

and Rome

also

were Asia Minor and

Noetus

Rome

the

In the former was

theatres of the controversy.

first

however, was probably finally excom

(he,

municated), in the latter his pupil Epigonus (about


200),

who won

cause.

mise
Formula.

Zephyrinus)

Rome

favored the school (above all


Calixtus (217-222), originally a modal-

of

Compro

Kleomenes, then Sabellius to his


but

Against them Hippolytus came forward

the bishops
Calixtus

first

ist, sought to satisfy all parties by a compromise


formula and found himself thereby obliged to excom

municate Hippolytus (rival bishop) as well as Sabel


His formula seems to have pacified the major

lius.
ity.

How

is, is

indicated by the circumstance that Hippolytus

is

imperfect our knowledge of this matter

wholly silent about the medalist Praxeas in

(see Tertullian).

Probably the latter

came

to

Rome
Rome

before Epigonus (perhaps even under Eleutherus),

but had not at that time aroused opposition. Since


he also went to Carthage and was an out-and-out
anti-Montanist, Tertullian used his
to

combat the Roman modalism

210)

Certain

that Victor,

in order

in general (about

who excommunicated

not from the standpoint of the


but
rather from that of modalism.
Logos-Christology,
Yet it is to be observed that the two monarch] an

Theodotus, did
Two Mon-

is it

name

so,

archian
Postulates.

views are more nearly related

to

each other than

Both
either of them to the Logos-Christology.
defend the redemptive historical view of the Person
is

of Christ, as against the naturalistic historical,

and

often pass from into each other (as to Beryllus one

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

179

can question whether he was an adoptionist or a


medalist in the writings of Origen not a few pas
sages leave us in doubt which party he is contending
;

against

the compromise formula of Calixtus

variegated).

The simplest form

of

modalism

resented by Noetus (see Hippolytus)

Father himself,
is

who was born and

not the Father, then

is

is also
is

Christ

Next

monotheistic interest (opponents were called

was the
fftv

interest in the full Divinity of Christ

ffuviffrav

Iva. ftsov

ri

8uyq#r).
3

20

Scripture evidence
:

30; 14: 8 seq;

45

5,

MY-)

was

God

Mu>s

dlfteot)

(?d<rxou-

was Ex.

Baruch

the Johan-

fwr/wys /dv tefet

The conception

fUtyrofiei.

Speculatively the

rigidly rejected.
is

14

Rom. 9:5;

nean Gospel was recognized; but


"M

to the

ouv xaxov noiuj do^d^wv TOV Xptarov

2 seq ; Isa. 44

36; Jno. 10:

the

If Christ

died.

he not God.

rep

is

"Logos"

idea

of

grounded (in Kleomenes) upon the thought

God is invisible if he wishes,


when he permits himself to be seen
that

he does not wish

he presents

to be

himself

to

visible

however

intangible

touched, tangible

be

touched;

and begotten; mortal and immortal

when
when

unbegotten
(old

Church

formulas justified by the stoic idea of God). The


Father so far as he deigned to be born is the Son ;
both are

nominally to be distin
guished; but the distinction is also an historical, re
therefore only

demptive one. In favor of the identity they called


to mind the Old Testament theophanies.
That they

Noetus.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

180

manner

after the

head

God

the element of fiiiiteness cannot be proven.

itself

It is the old

to

of the stoics attributed to the

naive modalism, which

is

here exalted

a theory (otherwise, observe that all early Chris


who were not philosophical, knew only

tian writers,

one birth of the Son, that from the virgin). The


theory was wrecked in this, that in the Gospels
without doubt two subjects (Father and Son) are
However, the medalists hardly de
presupposed.
clared

unequivocally:

said, the Son,

who

The Father

suffered,

Father (bishop Zephyrinus

suffered;

identical

is

^a ^ a

tya*

^v

Xptaruv

^lyaouv xai -K\rt v abroo erspa obdiva -f^rpov xai Tia^rir^

Praxeas?

lixtus;

"

Praxeas

they indicate a
is

"Logos"

but:

More complicated

6 Ttarrjp aTr^avev, attd 6 u!6?).

the doctrine of

they

with the

is

and the formulas of Ca-

"

trace of

no substance,

it

is

the

difficulties:

nothing

else

than

Praxeas, in tendency and in Scrip

sound and word.

ture argument at one with Noetus, made, however,

a clearer distinction between the Father and the Son

God through the assumption of the flesh made him


self into the Son; the flesh makes the Father into
the Son,
(the
is

i.e.

man

fer ;

ModaHsm

Ad
fsm!

"

Jesus)

is

is

flesh

the Son, the Spirit (God, Christ)

the Father (citation of

was born

Redeemer the

in the Person of the

the Son

Luke

35).

That which

the Spirit (God) could not suf

so far as he entered into the flesh he shared the

suffering

("pater

compassus

est

filio").

As

soon

as the distinguishing of caro (filius) and spiritus


(pater) was taken strictly modalism passes over

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

This took place in part through

into adoption! sm.

who

Calixtus,

181

in his formula of reconciliation ac

cepted the Logos (but as a designation of the Father


also)

and an adoption element

by means

well observed), but

of

Roman

ferred the faith of the

Hippolytus has

(this

actually trans

it

church to the Logos-

Christology, and to the physico-deification doctrine

excommunicating his old friend

and Hippo-

gnostical subordinationism of Tertullian

Rome

lytus could never gain acceptance in

tus formula

(stoic Ao^o9-$09)
ov TO

T: v

Myov auTov

T}V

xa}

r^aripa.

ov6fj.art

(j.lv

Tzaripa
ev ds

xa^oo/jisvov^

tiXXo ds uldv

xal

TO

aoTo U7rdp%tv xal ra -xavra ^s/jtv TOO ftetou

xvUfj.aTO$

TO.

re

ds

ffapxcu&h
aoTo.

^ap

iv

ou% STepov xapa

7tvt>/j.a

Kal TOUTO

@A7r6/j.evov^

TO ds Iv TOJ

Y a p,

avtu xa} xaTOJ- xal

oxep

-xapftivu)

To

Jno. 14: 11.

&v&pamo$y

7tveufj.a

TTTJ

p.sv

TOUTO elvat TOV ulov y

TOOTO elvat TOV itaripa

duo ?9oy? Karipa xal ulov^

AA

eva.

ov

O y ap

aoToT ^svo/jtevo? -aTrt p ~poaXap6p.vos T^V ffdpxa ifteoTioiyGEv

ivaiffas faorcSj xa}

va T^eov^
xa}

iffT\v

iv

TUV Ttaripa^ aXXa ev xa} TO

TV elfrqfjivov

uluj %toprfilv

ipoj

<f>"^ffiv^

elvac,

TO

elvat

Formula.

(Calix

elvai ulov, auTov xal

oox aXXo elvat ~arlf)a

Sofia adiaipSTOV

Yet the

Sabellius.

xa}

xoir]ffv lv ?

TOOTO

iv ov

a>?

xat.e iffftat

TtpofftoTtov

OOTWS TOV TtaT^a ffuj.7T7:ov$vat

ft.?)

rcD

ula>

ulov

itaripa. xal

dbvaffftat

ou

sjvat duo

9tAe

"

Certain

is it

that the learned and influential Nova-

tian (de frinit.) did

the final

much toward bringing about

abandonment

the Occident.

of the Logos-Christology in

About the year 260 the Roman

hop DionysiuS Wrote

ZaplMtos /^atf^^er, aoTov TOV

bis
olov

chf

Abandoned
Occident.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

182

Cyprian marked patripassianism as a pestilential heresy like Marcionitism, and he


Ifytov

TUV

Ttaripa.,

himself shoved into a second recension of the

symbol ( Aquileja) the phrase


omnipotente, invisibiliet

"

Roman

Credo in deo patre

impassibili".

However,

the Logos- Christology had never found a congenial


soil in the Occident men let it pass, but they held
;

much more firmly

in this there

was a

real interest

Christ is true, complete God,


one
This attitude of the Oc
God.
only
of
most
decisive significance in the
cident became
to the article of faith

and there

is

Arian controversy

The Nicene

doctrine

is,

not as a

philosophical speculation, but as the direct, symboli


cal

faith,

as

much

the property of the Occidental

church of the third century, as the Chalcedon doctrine.

Accordingly
not

many

Occidental teachers,

who were

influenced by Plato and the Orient, used in

the third and fourth centuries modalistic formulas


occidental

Theology
Augustine.

without hesitation, above

lgy
eral

all

Commodian.

the-

a mingling of Ciceronian morality, massive,

primitive Christian

and unreflecting
latent modalism (one

eschatology,

Christology with more or less

God
and

The

the Occident until Augustine shows in gen

in the strictest sense; Christ


practical

which

Church

God and man)

politics (penitential institute),

wholly foreign to the Orient (Arnobius,


Lactantius, Commodian). They were no mystics,
is

in part opponents of Neo-Platonism.

would have been

home

for

them

to

How

hard

make themselves

it

at

in the speculations of the Orient is indicated

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

183

by the energetic, but abortive attempt of Hilarius and


the theological barbarism of Lucifer.
It is well
understood that modalism did not continue in the
Occident as a

long as in the Orient

sect, so

it

found

in the latter, even in the prevailing form of teaching


especially
(b)

where the Logos was accepted, a

The accounts

of the old

Orient are very turbid

shelter.

modalism in

the

for subsequently everything

ow

Modaiism in

O nent

which pertains to the eter


nal and enduring hypostasis of the Son (e.g. Marcelis called

"

Sabellianism",

lus doctrine

).

Already in the third century in the

Orient speculation concerning the modalistic theses

was

increased greatly and

carried out into manifold

forms, and the historians of the


nius, Athanasius,

etc.

movement (Epipha-

add thereto

still

other discov

Just as one can write no history


J of the
in
the
Orient
from
Logos-Christology
Origen to

ered forms.

Athanasius
also one

the

sources have been destroyed

can write no history of modalism.

so

It is

certain that the contest began later in the Orient,

but

it

was more passionate and enduring and

led to

the development of the Origenistic Christology in


the direction of Arianism (also antithetic)
The first
.

great agitation took place in the Pentapolis, after


that Origen combated the singular
modalists as
"

Christian brethren

(Roman), who made

and sharply

criticised bishops
the distinction between Father

and Son merely nominal


at

"

(the

condemnation of Origen

Rome under Pontianus may also have had reference

to his Christology).

Perhaps Sabellius himself near

impossible
to Write

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

184

end of his

* ne

the Pentapolis.
sius

He

went (again?) from Rome into

life

He was

of Alexandria

is to

already dead

when Diony-

combated Sabellianism

there.

be distinguished from Noetus by his more

careful theological deductions

and by his regard

for

Holy Spirit: To one Being are attached three


names (Father, Son, and Spirit), otherwise polythe
ism would be established the three names are at the
same time three energies. The one Being is to be
called vioKdrwp a designation for the being of God
However this Being is not at the same
himself.
the

moment Father and

Son, but in three consecutive, in

terchanging energies (prosopons) he acts as Creator

and Law-giver, as Redeemer, as Quickener (through


this teaching the conception

"Prosopon",

became discredited in the Orient).


possible for Sabellius to carry
strict succession,

Addu?e
s~

peito

we do

"Person"

Whether

it

was

through the thought of

not know.

Perhaps he

still

permitted the Prosopon of the Father to continue


active (the Sabellians fell back upon the Old Testa-

ment

Scriptures, but also

upon the Gospel

to the

Egyptians,
etc.

Egyptians and other apocrypha a proof that the


Catholic canon had not yet established itself in the
Pentapolis).

This distinguished

itself

from the ear

modalism, not by a stronger pantheistic tendency,


nor by a new doctrine of the trinity (both came
lier

thereto

first later

fications

by

in the fourth century,

were not introduced by the

if

the

modi

historians), but

the attempt to explain the succession of the Pro

sopons,

by the attention given

to the

Holy

Spirit (see

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

185

above) and by the drawing of a formal parallel be


tween the Prosopon of the Father and the two other
Prosopons, which indeed tended toward the accept
ance of a fjiovds-Myo$ back of the Prosopon (aooroty and
TrAarw^o ?), who never reveals himself, but becomes
known only through his activity (this view is favored

by Schleiermacher, Theol. Ztschr. 1822 H.

Cos-

3).

introduced by Sabellius as a parallel to


soteriology, without the preference being given to

mology

is

the Father, and thereby in a peculiar

way was
i.e.

prepared for the Athanasian Christology,


This is the decisive signifi

cance of Sabellianism in the Orient.


there the way for the

6p.oob<jto<s

It

prepared

for that the Sabellians

use of this word (on the other hand also Paul

of Samosata) is clear.

was

manner the

the Augustinian.

made

While within modalism

there

hitherto no firm connection between cosmology

and soteriology, under the later Sabellianism the


history of the world and of redemption became one
history of the self -revealing God; this became of
In different
equal rank with the Logos-Christology.
ways Marcellus and Athanasius sought to reconcile
the

main

principles of

Christology

The former

modalism and the Logosfailed, the latter

succeeded

in that he almost entirely excluded the world-idea

from the Logos-idea,

i.e.

restored the

Logos

(as the

Sabellians the ^^?), to the being, yes, to the numerical

unity of God.
(c)

sabeiiianism Pre-

History of Oriental theology until the be

ginning of the fourth century.

The next

conse-

cSr
tology.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

186

quence of modalism was that the followers of Origen


gave to the Logos- Christology a strong subordination
Dionysius of Alexandria went so far as to set
forth in a doctrinal letter the Son simply as a crea
cast.

tion,

which

is related to

the Father as the vine to the

gardener and as the boat to the builder (AthanaHe was denounced by his
sius, de sentent. Diony.).

Roman

same name (about 2GO) the


latter published a warning, in which he very charac
teristically branded modalism as a heresy first, on
colleague of the

the ground of

its affinity

with the Christology then

current in Alexandria, which he however totally

misunderstood and represented in its coarsest form


second, on account of its tritheism. And without
;

any adjustment, he proclaimed the paradox, that


one must believe in the Father, Son, and Spirit, and
these three are at the

same time

U
Raiiie.

drian college, presenting


Christology,

Origenistic

one.

The Alexan-

the other side of the

humbly submitting,

ex

had nothing against the word


the Father was always Father, the Son always

plained that
ffto?

now

it

o/>0u-

Son, and the latter

is

related to the former as the

beam

is to the light, the stream to the fountain


they
even went farther and explained that in the very
designation "Father" the Son is included; but in
;

the diplomatic writing the bishop allowed himself a

mental reservation

he would have been obliged to

Neo-Platomc philosophy, i.e. science,


This
if he had rejected every pspiffpo? in the Godhead.

set aside the

rowy iSe-

controversy

was a prelude

to the Arian,

it

ended

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

187

quickly and its culmination did not require the Alex


andrians to restrict their speculations. They were
besides also very anxious to replace the old simple
faith in the churches

(when

became inconvenient)

it

by the philosophical (Dionysius labored in Egyptian


villages against chiliasm

his opponent

was Nepos

Euseb., H. E. VII, 24, 25), but at the same time to


refute the empirical philosophy (Dionysius

Tract

on nature against the atomic theory). The Logosand Christus-doctrine was worked out by the leaders
school in the spirit of Origen

of the catechetical
(finer philosophical

polytheism)

prehensive literature

ments

we have

but out of the

com

only insignificant frag

Pierius, the junior of Origen, expressly desig

nated the Father and Logos as two oufflat and two


)fft$ and subordinated the Holy Spirit very greatly
<pt

to the Son, as the third

He

ou<rta.

taught the pre-

existence of souls and contested the verbal sense of

some Scripture passages as not

authoritative.

The-

The:

ognostus

ognostus (in the time of Diocletian) composed a com- o^fgeSm


in Direci
i
i
prehensive dogmatic work, wlncn as a system surtipn of
j

-i

Arianism.

passed that of Origen and had a form that has been


in use until to-day.
He moreover developed Origen-

ism in the direction of Arius.

Another Origenist,
whose

Hierakas, established an order of monks, in

saw something new in Christian ethics


seems, emphasized more strongly the sub
unity of the Father and Son. At all events

celibacy he

and, as
stantial

Peter
this.

(f

it

as martyr 311), bishop of Alexandria, did

In him the Alexandrian bishop again in-

peter.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

188

who had

clined toward the views of the Demetrius,

condemned Origen. Under what circumstances this


happened is unknown. But from his extant writ
clear that he substituted Biblical realism

it is

ings

(history of the creation

and the

for the

fall)

Ori-

genistic spiritualism and designated this as tui$wa


Yet this reaction on the part
TJ?? EMyvtxrj? xaidetas.

was

of Peter

he only rounded
he began in Alexandria the adjust

still

off the points

not a radical one

ment between the realistic


and the

faith of the simple-minded

by means of subtractions and


That which was before his mind was a

scientific faith,

additions

concordant faith which should be at the same time


and scientific. But the time for this

ecclesiastical

was not yet at hand

(see the

ruled in theology,

still

Cappadocians)

which

freedom

latter, it is true,

was
and

pushing on toward its complete secularization


submersion. Already every future conception was
but there was wanting as yet a definite
current
;

statement of them and a fixed value

*,

yes, they

were

looked upon as unbiblical, by many still as suspicious.


Tne state of tne doctrine of faith is best reflected
turgus.

^e

works

Gregory Thaumaturgus, the en


Origen, the most influential

of

of

thusiastic pupil
*

Thus

ireptypatyVi
iroteiv,

[J<ovd(; ,

rpidg

[J.epiea&ai,

oixrta, (pvatg,

diaipelv,

yiyvwdaL, yevvdv,

i>TroK.ei/j,evov,

Trharvvei

6/zoowc/of, in rij^ ovciag rov Trarpdz, did TOV

$e/l^aaTOf $edf /c $oi>, 0wf e/c (jxjrdc; yevvrj^hra


OVK TJV, OVK fjv ore OVK f]v, zrepog /car ovaiav,

oi)

r^iOf,
,

Tn^ rj

deard pwTrof

avvd(f)ta Kara [id&rjoiv

/cat

rijg
,

i?e(5r^rof,

evuatg

TroiTjdsvTa, fjv ore

Svo ovaiai, ovcia

ovatudw,

vuat<;

Kara

peTovciav, ovyKpdoig hotKEiv, etc.

THE LAYING OP THE FOUNDATION.

189

One sees here that the


theologian in Asia Minor.
itself trembled before the fine polytheism
scientific
"

"

which

it

introduced, and farther that Christology

became pure philosophy


disseminated among

The symbol which Gregory

the churches hardly corresponded

in a single sentence with the Biblical statements ;

is

compendium

it

of the purest speculations, recall

ing the Gospel only in the words, Father, Son, and


Therein Christian faith was expected to rec
Spirit.
itself

ognize

No
one.

once more

wonder that a reaction

By

indeed a tame

set in, if

the side of Peter of Alexandria there ap

peared here and there in the Orient about the year


300 opponents of Origen who compelled those who
still

The most
opponents was

honored him to come to his defence.

significant

and

influential of these

He was no enemy of Plato


Methodius (about 300)
and of speculation quite the contrary but he wished
.

to harmonize the Biblical realism and the verbal

sense of the rule of faith with science

a new

Ire-

nseus, he wanted a consistent faith which would be


purely ecclesiastical and purely scientific. Moreover
all
off,

the heretical points of Origenism


in order that the latter

in this

form into the

must be rounded

may be thereby introduced

ecclesiastical faith (speculative

realism; Methodius had read Irenseus).

Above

all

the pessimism of Origen as regards the world (with


in the cosmology) must be set aside Matter and the
:

human body were approved by God and


fore be glorified

and remain

eternal.

will there

In accordance

190

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

with this the Origenistic teaching concerning the


eternal creation of spirits, concerning the fall in a

and pur
In the place

pre-existent state, concerning the character

pose of the world, etc.,

were

set aside.

same the ra?/sfo"co-realistic teaching of Irenseus


concerning Adam (mankind) was reintroduced, but
was still more mystically developed and brought into
of the

an alliance with the recapitulation-theory. Man


kind before Christ was Adam (in need of redemption,
but in

d
sec!md

the condition of

Through the
second Adam the Logos unites himself with us. But
Methodius went a step farther; the new mankind
as a whole

become

is

children).

Adam. Every one should


inasmuch as the Logos unites itself

the second

Christ,

with every soul as with Christ (the descent of the


Logos from heaven and his death must be repeated
for every soul

not so

namely within).

This comes to pass

much through knowledge as through virginity

The theoretic optimism was also bal^v the renunciation of the world expressed in
v j r gi n jty. No ecclesiastic before Methodius had so
and ascetism.

Re^anffor
virginity.

ance(^

prized virginity as he, so prized

it

as a

means

of

mystic union with the Godhead (virginity is the


end of the incarnation). In that the realism of the
doctrine of faith

was here bound up with

istic speculation,

the Origen

the two-foldiiess of faith and the

science of faith reduced to one, theoretical optimism


(as regards the sensuous world) joined to the practi

and everything made


dependent upon the mystic union with the Godhead
cal renunciation of the world,

THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION.

191

without a denial of the objective significance of


Christ as the Redeemer (although this

is

pushed

into the back-ground), the dogmatics of the future


in its

main

outlines triumphed.

That which Methodius had done


as developed doctrine, the

for dogmatics
did
about the
bishops

Rule of
Faith.

year 300 for the rule of faith, in so far as they in


troduced the scientific Logos-doctrine into the in
structional symbol, thereby neutralizing the distinc

tion between faith

and

dogmatics and

scientific

placing the chief contribution of Hellenic speculation

under the protection of the apostolic tradition. The


Oriental symbols of this time (symbol of CaBsarea,
of Alexandria, of the six bishops against Paul, of

Gregory Thaumaturgus,

etc.)

put themselves for

ward as the incontestible apostolic faith of the


Church and are the philosophical constructions of
The exeqetical-speculative theology ivas introduced into faith itself. This came

the rule of faith

through the Logos-doctrine the dogma was


now found and established. A divine Being has
actually appeared upon the earth, and his appear
to pass

ance

is

the key to cosmology and soteriology.

How

fundamental theses were accepted only


in the widest circles.
But men could not rest with

ever, these

long as it was not definitely determined how


the divine Being, who has appeared upon the earth,
this, so

is

related to the highest Divinity.

Is the divine

Being who has appeared upon the earth the Divinity


himself, or

is

he a subordinate, second Divinity?

Exegetical Specu-

Added

192

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

Are we redeemed by God himself unto God, or do we


ktand also in the Christian religion only in a cosmic
system, and is our Redeemer only the subordinate

God who

is at

work

in the world?

part

2,

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECCLESIASTICAL DOGMA.

BOOK

I.

HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOGMA AS


DOCTRINE OF THE GOD-MAN UPON THE
BASIS OF NATURAL THEOLOGY.

CHAPTER

I.

HISTORICAL SURVEY.
Entw. einer vollst. Historic der Ketzereien,
2. Aufl., Bd. I-IV.
His
Hefele, Conciliengesch.
tories of the Roman Empire, by Tillemont, Gibbon, and
Walsch,

1762

ff.

Ranke.

Reville,

Die Religion

d.

Person

z.

Christi, 1881, Gass, Symbolik d.


zinger, Ritus Orientalium, 2 Bdd.

T HE

Rom. unter den Severern


Entw. Gesch. d. L. v.
Die L. v. d. Gottheit
griech. Kirche, 1872. Den-

Dorner,
1888)
H. Schultz,
Christi, 1845.

(German by Krueger,

1863 f

Christian religion in the 3d century

made

JL

no compromise with any of the pagan religions and kept far away from the numerous intersec
tions out of which,

under the influence of the mono

theistic philosophy of religion,

new

religiousness
developed itself. But the spirit of this religiousness
entered into the Church and produced forms of ex
pression in doctrine and cultus to correspond with
itself.

The testament of primitive Christianity

Holy Scriptures
13

the

and the testament of antiquity


193

New
iousness

194

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

the New-Platonic speculation

were by the end

of

the 3d century intimately and, as

it seemed, insep
in
united
the
churches
of the East.
arably
great
Through the acceptance of the Logos-Christology as

Church
Doctrine

Becomes
Mystery.

the central

dogma

of the

Church, the Church doctrine

was, even for the

laity, firmly rooted in the soil of

Hellenism.

became a mystery to the


But mysteries were
Christians.

Thereby

great majority of

it

even sought after. Not the freshness and clearness


of a religion attracted men there must needs be

something refined and complicated, a structure in


Barroque style, to content those who at that time

wished

to

have

the idealistic instincts of their

all

nature satisfied in religion. United with this desire


was the greatest reverence for all traditions, a senti

ment peculiar

to epochs of restoration.

ways, the old became

new was

What
Doctriiie,

Polity,

and

Cultus Re
ferred to
Apostles.

new by

But, as al

conservation and the

placed under the protection of the old.

the Church utilized in doctrine, cultus and

organization

was

"

apostolic

",

or claimed to be de

duced from the Holy Scriptures. But in reality it


legitimized in its midst the Hellenic speculation,
the superstitious views and customs of pagan

tery-worship and the


state organization to

mys

institutions of the decaying

which

it

attached

itself

arid

which received new strength thereby. In theory


monotheistic, it threatened to become polytheistic in
practice

and

to give

low or malformed

way

to the

religions.

whole apparatus of

Instead of a religion of

pure reason and severest morality, such as the apol-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OS INCARNATION. 195


1

had once represented Christianity to be, the


religion of the most powerful con

ogists
latter

became the

secrations, of the

most mysterious media and of


The tendency toward the in

a sensuous sanctity.

vention of mechanically-atoning consecrations (sac

raments) grew constantly more pronounced and of


fended vigorously thinking heathen even.

The adaptation of the


customs must needs lead
larizing

and

churches)

local cults,
finally to

splitting of the

same

a complete secu-

Church

Cults

etc

(into national

The acknowledgment

authorities

and formulas, the

like regard

same sacramental

consecrations, the horror

at the coarse polytheism,

and the tendency toward

for the

Adaptation

but for the time the uniting force was

stronger than the dividing.


of the

manners and

asceticism for the sake of the

life

beyond, formed,

together with the homogeneous and well-compacted


episcopal organization,

churches.

the

common

basis

the

of

All these elements were not sufficient,

however, to preserve the unity of the churches.


Constantino had not thrown about them a

If

new bond

by raising them to the Church of the empire, the


split which one observes from the 5th century

would have taken place much

earlier ; for the episco

pal-metropolitan organization carried within itself a


centrifugal element, and the asceticism in

which

all

earnest thinkers found themselves at one, could not

but dissolve the historic conditions upon which the


religion rested, and destroy the communal veneration
of

God

besides, differences crept

more and more

into

Tendency
into Na
tional

churches.

196

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

the expounding of the authorities and doctrines,

which rendered
Christianity Threat-

Complete
5e

lza ~

Tion.

their internal

harmony

questionable.

Taking one s stand at the end of the 3d century


one cannot avoid the impression, that ecclesiastical
Christianity at that time

was threatened with com

plete secularization and with external

and internal

The danger from within

just prior to

dissolution.

the Diocletian persecution, Eusebius himself has es


tablished (H. E. VIII,

i.).

He

admits

regards the churches of the Orient

at least as

that they threat

ened to mingle with the world, and that pure pagan


ism vaunted itself among them. The Diocletian
persecution added the external danger, and

be said that

Bishops
and Theo-

it

was the strength

of the

it

cannot

Church alone

which triumphed over the danger.


Already at that time the Church was a bishops and
theologians church. But the power which, as mat
ters then stood,

was

alone able to support energet

ically the distinctive character of the religion

came very near dissolving

it

ology
over to the world.

In concluding

"Part

I"

it

the

and handing

it

was described how

philosophic theology gained the victory within the


Church and how it naturalized its theses in the

very formulas of the faith.


Sabellianism were conquered.

"Ebionism"

The banner of
Neo-Platonic philosophy, however, was raised
"

"

spite of the shaking off of gnosticism.


still

man was

the
in

All thinkers

remained under the influence of Origen.

since the system of this

and

But

in itself already

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

197

heterodox, the development of the Alexandrian the-

ology threatened the Church with further dangers,

Origen had kept gnosis and

pistis

unmixed; he

thought to link together in a conservative sense


everything valuable and to bring to a kind of equi
librium the divers factors (cosmologic and soteri-

he had given to his theology by a strict ad


herence to the sacred text a Biblical stamp and
ologic)

demanded throughout Scripture

proof.

With

the

however, occurred changes everywhere:


pupils as well as the opponents of Origen en

epigonoi,
(1)

The

pistis and gnosis again upon the


add some philosophy to the formulas
of faith and to subtract something from the gnosis.

deavored to place

same

plane, to

Precisely thereby a stagnation and confusion

which Origen had carefully warded off.


became obscure and unintelligible to

threatening,

The

was

faith itself

the laity; (2)

The cosmologic and purely philosophic

interests obtained in theology a preponderance over

In accordance therewith Christol-

the soteriologic.

ogy became again in a higher degree a philosophic


Logos-doctrine (as with the apologists) and the idea
of the

God

cosmic

as the lower, subordinate

God

alongside the highest God, threatened monotheism


outright.

Already here and there

in opposition to L ft esd
a?

were being comin


which
there
was
no
mention
of Christ, but
posed,
in which the Logos alone was glorified in a profu
"

Sabellianism

"

articles of faith

sion of philosophic predicates as the manifested, but

subordinate

God

already the incarnation

was

cele-

"

0f

SItoric

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

198

brated as the rising of the sun which illumines

men

already

nomena and

men seemed

all

desirous of adapting phe

vice-regents to the ISTeo-Platonic idea of

the one unnamable Being and his graded and more

numerous powers, while they encircled all with


a chaplet of philosophic artificial expressions; (3)
or less

Even

Holy Scriptures gave way somewhat in


yet only in a formal manner and

the

these endeavors

Eusebius
sebius

without forfeiting their value. The theology which


was f orme(j ou t o f these elements (e. g. Eusebius of
Csesarea

is

its

representative) let

everything pass

that kept within the bounds of Origenism.

Its rep

resentatives considered themselves as conservatives,

since they rejected every

the doctrine of

God

more

precise definition of

(doctrine of the trinity) and of

Christ as an innovation (antipathy toward precise


definition of hitherto not precisely defined

dogmas has

always animated the majority of the Church, since


precise definition is innovation), and since they exert
ed themselves solely for the sake of science and the
faith to give form to the Logos-doctrine in a cos"

"

mologic sense and to subordinate everything inward


and moral to the thought of the freedom of choice.
Neither thoughts of an heroic asceticism, nor realistic mysticism in the sense of Methodius, nor deduc

from the heterodoxies of Origen could aid here.


Theology, and with it the Church, seemed to be irre

tions

trievably swallowed

But

in the

peared a

up

in the current of the times.

beginning of the fourth century there ap


saved the Church seriously threat-

man who

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION. 199


ened by inward strife and outward persecution
Constantine so at the same time there appeared an
other

man who

preserved the Church from the

plete secularization of its

most fundamental

com

faith

True, reactions against the Logos-doc

Athanasius.

trine in the direction of the complete alienation of

the Son of

God from

the Father were probably at no

time lacking in the Orient

but Athanasius (assisted

by the West, the bishops of which however did


not at first recognize the pith of the question) first
secured to the Christian religion

upon the preoccupied

soil of

its

own

RedempoJJ^Jfan
mental",

territory

Greek speculation and

brought everything back to the thought of redemp

God himself, i.e. through the God-man,


He was not
the same essence with God.

tion through

who

is of

concerned about a formula, but about a decisive basis


for faith, about redemption unto a divine life

by the

God-man. Upon this surety alone, that the Divine


which appeared in Christ has the nature of the God
head itself, and only on that account is able to ele
vate us to a divine
life its

life,

can faith receive

law and theology

its direction.

its

power,

But while

Athanasius placed faith in the God-man, which alone


frees us from death and sin, above everything else,
he at the same time gave to practical piety, which
then well-nigh exclusively lived in monkish asceti
He united the Opooufftos,
cism, the highest motive.

which guarantees the deification*


*

Vergottung

The causing

to the Divine likeness.

of

human

nat-

to partake of the Divine nature, restoration

^J^

to
pJety.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

200

ure, in the closest relations

with the monkish as

ceticism and lifted the latter out of

its still

nean, or insecure sphere into the public

subterra

life of

While he combated the formula

Church.

Ao^o9-xr:V/jta ?

the

of the

the Neo-Platonic doctrine of a descending

trinity, as pagan and as a denial of the essence of

manner combated ener


He became
orthodoxy and the patron

Christianity, he also in like

getically the tendency to worldly living.

the father of ecclesiastical


orthodoxy.

of ecclesiastical monasticism:

He

taught nothing
new, new only was the doing, the energy and exclusiveness of his conceptions and actions at a time

when everything

threatened to dissolve.

He was

also not a scientific theologian in the strict sense, but

he descended from theology to piety and found the


He honored science, even that of Orifitting word.
gen, but he went beyond the intelligent thought of

While acknowledging its premises, he


added to them a new element which speculation has
never been able fully to resolve. Nothing was here
more unintelligible to the thought of the day than
his time.

the assumption of the essential oneness of the change


less
Excludes
Logos!

and

of the

Working Divinity.

Athanasius fixed

a g u if between the Logos, of which the philosophers


thought, and the Logos, whose redeeming power he
proclaimed.

That which he expressed concerning

the latter, while announcing the mystery emphat

and powerfully and in no way indulging him


in new distinctions, appeared to the Greeks an

ically
self

offence

and

foolishness.

But he did not shun

this

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

201

reproach, rather did he circumscribe for the Chris


tian faith within the already given speculation its

own

territory,

off the

and thus did he

find the

way

to

ward

complete hellenization and secularization of

Christianity.

The

history of

dogma

in the Orient since Nicsea

shows two intermingled courses


the

first place,

the idea of the

of development.

God-man became

In
defi

nitely defined in every direction from the point of

view of the redemption of the human race unto a


divine life the creed of Athanasius (history of
in the strictest sense of the word).

dogma
the

aim was

to determine

system of Origen,

lative

would be endurable

how much

i.e.

of the

Secondly,

of the specu

EMyvtxy

-naidsia^

in the churches ; in other words,

what measure the Sacred Scriptures and rule of


would bear a speculative restatement and spiritualization.
The treatment of both problems was
in

faith

rendered
cal ones),

by countless conditions (also politi


but above all was it obscured and vitiated

difficult

because the Church was never allowed to concede to

a theological handling of dogma, and because


same time the great majority of Christians
in fact denounced every effort leading to new forms

itself

at the

as an apostasy from the faith, since the

an innovation.
idem"

in its

"

The semblance

of

the

same was
"semper

must ever be kept up, since the Church


apostolic inheritance

"

surely possesses every-

202
Theolo
gians Dis
credited

by Later
Genera
tions.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

thing fixed and final. The theology and the theo


logians even the best of them came thereby dur

ing their lifetime and after their death into the


worst predicament during life they were considered
;

when

innovators, and after death,

the

dogma had

progressed above and beyond them, they came often

enough wholly
perfected

Conservatives

Triumph.

into discredit, for the

dogma now became

more

precisely

the standard which

was applied even to the theologians of the earliest


times.
The Church found rest only when dogmabuilding ceased and when by the side of the com
dogma, a scholastico-mystical theology and a
harmless antiquarian science succeeded which no
pleted

longer touched the dogma, but either explained


or indifferently laid

settled,

gained at last what the


longed

for.

But

it

aside.
"

"conservatives

vital piety

it

as

Thus was
had always

had in the mean time

withdrawn from the dogma and regarded them no


longer in truth as the sphere in which it lived, as its
original

and living expression, but looked upon them

as the sacred inheritance of antiquity and as the

primary condition to the enjoyment of the Christian


benefits.

Periods of the History of


Unification
of

Constantino

ment

of the

made

Church

sible.

as

forum publicum;

Dogma

in the Orient.

possible a unity in the develop


into

dogma

(ecumenical synods

in place of the symbols of the

provincial churches a homogeneous dogmatic confes-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


was introduced)

sion

churches in the

but the unification of the

strict sense

and the tendency

to

never became perfect,

a peculiar individuality of the

national churches

grew stronger in
but
it was overcome
Byzantinism,

direct contrast to

in the Occident,

Roman

empire took refuge in the


While the East crumbled to pieces

since there the old

Roman

203

church.

wholly wrecked the creation of


Alexander the G reat, separating Greeks and Semites,

and Islam

finally

the

West and

Yet

till

the East

fell

more and more

apart.

the end of the dogma-building period in the

East, the

West

took the most active and often de

dogmatic decisions.
318-381 (383): Precisely defining
from
I. Period
the full Divinity of the Redeemer Athanasius,
cisive interest in

Constantine, the Cappadocians, Theodosius. Ortho


doxy conquers through the firmness of Athanasius

and a few men in the West, through the course of


world- wide historic events (sudden end of Arius,
Julian and Valens

appearance in the East of Theo

dosius from the West) and through the ability of the

Cappadocians to place the creed of Athanasius not


without deductions, to be sure under the protection
of the Origenistic science.
II.

Period from 383-451

The independent theowas already

logic science (EJJbgvue^ natdsta, Origen)

violently combated; the ecclesiastical leaders abandoned it and threw themselves more and more into

the arms of

most

communal and monkish orthodoxy.

violent quarrels, behind

The

which the question of

Quarrel be

tween
eh

Al

J$Jd

n~

dr.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

204

power hides
C

at

Ephesus

itself,

arose between Antioch and Alex

andria over the Christological dogma. The correct


doctrine conquered at Ephesus, 449 but, united with
;

the tyranny of the Alexandrian patriarchs,

it

must

needs share the fate of the latter and triumph over

emperor and

state.

Nothing was

to the

left

em

peror but to proclaim the Occidental creed as the

orthodox one (the Chalcedon), which at first was


strange to the Orient and seemed, not without rea
son, to be heretical.
Sedition

and
Schism.

III.

Period from 451-553: Sedition and schism

in the Orient on account of the Chalcedon addition

monophysitism

is

exceedingly energetic; at

first

or

thodoxy was at a loss. -But speculative Platonism


had exhausted itself; in its place had come even in
the

common

science the Aristotelian dialectics and

scholasticism; on the other side a mysteriosophy

which knew how

to

make something

out of every

formula and every rite. These powers succeeded in


interpreting the formula that was forced upon them
Justinian
Codifies

Dogma.

(Leontius of Byzantium, the Areopagite)


rejecting this

and

that, codified the

Justinian,

dogma

as well as

the law, and closed not only the school of Athens,


but also those of Alexandria and Antioch. Origen

and the theologians of Antioch were condemned.


Theological science remained a science only of the
second order

scholasticism and

the cultus-mysti-

cism, these indeed in their fundamental principle

and aim heterodox, were outwardly however en


The Church did not renew the agitatirely correct.

DEVELOPMENT
tion, for it

long since

Otf

DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION. 205

has always wished peace, and piety had


thrown itself into monasticism and the

mysteries.

IV. Period from 553-680: The monotheletic quarrels,

primarity partly after-play partly repetition of

the old strife, were born not of conviction, but of

Here

politics.

also the

West must

finally

come

to

the rescue with a bloodless formula.

V. Period from 726-842: In truth the


this period

history of

is

at

end

trover sy.

show already that the

(Image-contest)

dogma

conflicts of image con-

but there existed

still

about what seemed to be the practical issuo


of the history of dogma, about the right of being

conflict

allowed to perceive and venerate in a thousand sen


suous objects the deification, the unification of the

heavenly and earthly.


at the conclusion

Besides, here

is

seen plainly

what seems a subordinate

factor

whole history of dogma, but is not, viz. The


between the state (the emperor) and the Church

in the
fight

(the bishops
to

which

and monks)

the formation of

highest importance.
the introduction of
for this concession it

The Church

The

for

supremacy, in respect

dogma and
state

cultus

is of

its state-religion,

but in return

remains the victor in the

retains

its

the

must finally abandon

cultus

and

its

field.

peculiar,

dogma, but it becomes


a
definitely dependent,
prop, a plaything, in certain
also
indeed
the
ways,
palladium of the state and

practical fructifying of the

of the nation.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

206

CHAPTER

II.

THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTION OF SALVATION


AND A GENERAL SKETCH OF THE DOCTRINE OF
FAITH.
Herrmann, Gregorii Nyss.
Schultz, Lehre v.

1875.

Die
Bd.
orthodox

christl.
I.

i.

Conception

?th

Salvation.

S.

Lehre

d.

v.

sententiae de salute adipisc.

Gottheit Christi, 1881.


Rechtfert. und Versoh.

d.

Ritschl,
2. Aufl.

ff.

IN the dogmatic
century,

clear

is

it

conflicts

from the 4th

that at that

to the

time

men

were contending about Christology with the con


sciousness that

it

contains the essence of the Chris

Everything else was asserted only in


vague expressions and on that account had not the
tian religion.

value of a dogmatic declaration in the strictest sense


of the word.
Accordingly for orthodoxy the follow

ing fundamental conception of salvation obtained:

The

salvation offered by Christianity consists in the

human

redemption of the

race from a condition of

perishableness and sin, consequent upon

it,

unto a

divine
(i.e. on the one side deification,* on the
other blissful enjoyment of God), which has already
life

taken place through the incarnation of the Son of

God and which

accrues to humanity by reason of the

indissoluble union with him.


religion

which

frees

life

See page

199, note.

that
to a

and essence, per

Redemption, therefore,
*

is

from death and leads men

participation in the Divine

adoptionem.

Christianity

is

conceived

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

207

as the abolition of the natural state through a mi-

raculons transformation (deification

the central

is

thought); the religious benefit of salvation

is defi-

mutton.

from the moral, and the idea of


atonement accordingly remains rudimentary for the

nitely distinguished

present state only a provisional

enjoyment of salva
knowledge of God and

tion is presupposed (calling,

of salvation, victory over the demons, helpful

munications from God, enjoyment


Accordingly the fundamental confession

com

of the mysteries).

IrenaBtis

"

We

become divine for Christ

he also for our sakes has become

is

that of

sake, since

human".

This

confession, rightly weighed, demands two principal


Christ is #09 tpooufftos,
dogmas, no more and no less
"

this

$)?

tipootjfftos

own being and

has taken

fashioned

it

human

nature into his

into oneness with

him

self".

But these dogmas were carried through only

after

severe conflicts; they never gained a perfectly clear


stamp and never obtained the exclusive dominion,

The reasons

which they demand.


follows

for this are as

(1) The formulas which were required, being new,


had the spirit of the Church against them, which

suspected even the best of innovations

The pure exposition

(2)

most

difficult

cially

problem

but at that time

it

was

espe

hampered by apologetic, as well as by other

foreign considerations
(3)

of faith is at all times the

The orthodox formulas

conflicted

with every

^afS
th r
h
a fter

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

208

philosophy; they proved an offence to disciplined


scholastic thinking; but it was a long time before

men

recognized in the incomprehensible the charac


teristics of that which is Holy and Divine
;

The conception of the salvation obtained


through the God-man was joined to the scheme of
(4)

"

(moralism), i.e. grafted upon it;


natural theology endeavored thenceforth to build
"natural

theology

upon the dogma and


with it;

to bring itself into

conformity

(5) The mystical doctrine of salvation and its new


formulas had not only no Scriptural authority in

their favor, but conflicted also


of Jesus Christ;

idea

New

with the evangelical

Testament ideas and

reminiscences, Biblical theologomena in general of

the most varied kind, have always surged about the

growing and matured dogma and prevented

their

exclusive domination ;
(6)

The

peculiar form of the Occidental Christology

interfered as a disturbing element with the Oriental

history of dogma.

Thrown upon

its

own

resources,

the Orient would have been obliged to legitimize

monophysitism

the Gospel, the Occident and the

emperors prevented it from doing so. An incorrect


formula triumphed, but it received a correct inter
pretation; vice versa, at the end of the fourth cen
tury, the correct formula of Athanasius triumphed,

but under an interpretation which was influenced by


the secular science of the Cappadocians. Each re
sult

had the

historical consequence that the orthodox

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


Church remained

209

in contact with Biblical theology

and with science (scholasticism).


Since the doctrine of salvation was kept strictly
within the scheme of the mystico-realistic idea of
2.

redemption,

it

was

but on every side

in itself indifferent to the moral

men were

sure that Christianity

embraced the highest morality. Accordingly


the benefits of salvation were adjudged only to mor
also

good men, but the morally good conceived as


the product of the free agency of man and as the
ally

condition of sanctification to be

whereby God

at the

fulfilled

by him,
most was conceived of as assist

ing (this concerns positive morality; the negative,


asceticism, was regarded as the direct preparation
for deification

The dogmatic form

*).

tian religion was, therefore, balanced

of the Chris-

by the idea of

freedom of election (See already Clem. Alex. Pro1,7:

trep.
TO

TJV

TO

uffrepov

C^

edida^ev ^rc^ays}?

w? &ed$

xP

riT^ ff

Tt)

w$

and
>

dtddffxaAos t

va

this is only the

whole natural theology


which the Church appropriated from the ancient phi
shortest expression for the

losophy and treated as the self-evident presupposition


of its specific doctrine, reckoning upon a general un

Consequently Greek Chris


between two poles, which are simply

derstanding of the same.


tianity oscillates

co-ordinate with each other.

Dogmas

in a strict

sense exist only within the doctrine of redemption ;

on the other hand, there exist only presuppositions


and conceptions (so far, deviations in simple mat* See

14

page

199, note.

as

lated

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

210
Realism
a
baifeS"~

are nere not insupportable)

ters

But since the

Greek natural philosophy stood in conflict in not a


few points with the letter and spirit of the Holy
Scriptures, and with the rule of faith (as, above all,
the theology of Origen proves), problems

must

arise

an increasing measure were


also,
solved in detail in favor of Biblical realism and

which

here

in

and an

Biblical verbalism, contrary to reason


tic

idealis

view, even though in general the rationalistic-

moral scheme remained unscathed

dogmatics of
John of Damascus; Sophronius of Jerusalem: #^An entirely subor
? /j.Taft(dai$ xa} /j.t/j.Tjffsfftv)
0-ujfj.ev ${
(vid.

dinate part

was played by the primitive Christian

eschatology alongside of the redemption-mysticism,


rationalism and Biblicism; gradually, however,
also

was aided by Biblicism

Apocalypse in the

(cf.

Greek Church)

it

the history of the


;

men began

again

add apocalyptic ideas to dogmatics, which how


ever remained without any real effect. The valua

to

ble part also of the old eschatology, the expectation

judgment, never played the part in Greek


theology, which is due to this highly important rem

of the

In spite of the rejection of the Origenistic


eschatology there remained in Greek dogmatics a

nant.

slight trace of the conception of history as

an evolu

tion.
Theo?o|y.

3.

As

a result of this examination

after sifting the authorities

it

and sources

follows that
of

informa

tion, (A) that one has to treat natural theology as pre

supposing the doctrine of redemption

this,

however,

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


divides itself into the doctrine of

God and

211

the doc-

man. Farther, (B) the doctrine of redemp


tion itself must be treated in its historic development
The
as the doctrine of the trinity and Christology.
trine of

conclusion forms (C) the doctrine of the mysteries,


in

which already

in this life the

coming deification
of the temporal is represented and can be enjoyed.
To this should bo added a sketch of the history of the
origin of the orthodox system.

Note: Only through Aristotelianism did the Greek


Church after Origen arrive again at a dogmatic
system, which was, however, by no means a uni
versal system (John of Damascus).

knowledge
therefore to be
Greek dogma
gained, aside from the acts and decisions of synods,
(1) from the numerous works on the incarnation of
of the history of

from the catechetical writings,


from the apologetic treatises, (4) from the mono

the Son of God,


(3)

is

work

and similar composi


as well as from the exegetical works, (5) from

graphs on the
tions

(2)

"

six days

"

the monographs on virginity, monasticism, perfec


tion,

the virtues

and the

resurrection,

(fi)

from

monographs on the mysteries, cultus and priest


In using these sources
hood, (7) from sermons.
this fact

with others

wrote

fathers frequently
official

is to

be considered, that the

dtatexTtxw?,

and that the

literature (synod literature) in

an increas

ing measure bristles with falsifications and


meated with conscious untruth and injustice.
*

Se^ page

199, note.

is

per

Doctrine of
Mysteries.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

212

CHAPTER
THE

OF
OR
THORITIES,
THE CHURCH.

SOURCES

III.

KNOWLEDGE AND

AU
AND
SCRIPTURE, TRADITION,

See the Introductions to the Old and


Jacobi, Die k. L. v. d. Tradition
1847.

Holtzmann, Kanon

u.

u.

h.

Tradition,

New

Schrift.
1859.

THE

Testaments.
1.

Abth.,

Soder,

Der

Seeberg, Studien z.
Begriff d. Katholicitat d. K., 1881.
Gesch. d. Begriffs d. K., 1885. Reuter, Augustin.
Studien,
1888.

Catholic
Author!ties.

THE

extent and value of the Catholic authorities

was already

essentially established at the beginning

of the 4th century, although perhaps not their

tual relation

and the manner

of

mu

their exposition.

Underneath the great contrast between the more


liberal theology and pure traditionalism lay also a
different conception of the authorities, but this never

found a statement.

Changes took place during the


and John of Damascus,
Eusebius
between
period
keeping pace with the growing traditionalism but
;

no one undertook

to

make an

inventory, a proof that

opponents of the method, worthy of notice, failed to

palm

off

the existing state of the Church as the tra

ditional (apostolic).

The

sects alone protested

and

continued to agitate.
Holy
Scriptures

Authorit

1.

The Holy Scriptures had a unique authority.


alone was in reality not un-

^ depend upon them


catholic

But an

Scripture-proof one

might always demand.

entirely accepted agreement, even respecting

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION. 213


the extent of the Bible, did not exist (see the school
of Antioch with its criticism of the canon).

As

regards the Old Testament the Hebraic canon only


was, in theory, for a long time considered the stand

ard in the Orient

nevertheless, in practice, the writ

ings which were copied with the

LXX

had value.

Only in the 17th century through Roman influence


did the equalization of the canonical and deuterocanonical writings take place in the Orient, yet not
in the

form of an

official declaration.

In the Occi

dent the uncritical view of Augustine gained the

Jerome (synods at
397), which had only a

victory over the critical one of

Hippo, 393,
slight

and Carthage,

the

Into

after-effect.

Alexandrian

Accepted
instead of

Jerome

s.

canon,

moreover, were also introduced apocalypses like


Hermas and Esra. Regarding the New Testament,

Eusebius made rather a relative end to a highly in


secure state of affairs.

With

the three categories

which he adopted one could not content oneself, and


the early decrees of provincial churches had an after
effect, especially in

Yet

the Orient.

after the mid-

die of the 4th century there prevailed (save in the

Syrian churches) in the Orient an essential agreement in regard to the New Testament. Only the

Apocalypse of John remained


excluded;

How

James, of
dark.

slight

fluctuations

the Occident
II.

The

came

still

for a long time

were not wanting.

to accept the Epistle of

Peter and III. John

Epistle to the

is entirely in

the

Hebrews was received

through the celebrated mediating-men of the 4th cen-

Essential^

^^{J

16

Century-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

214

Augustine s views in regard to the extent of


the New Testament has been the authoritative stand
tury.

ard for the whole Occident (see also the so-called


"

Docret.

ment on

Gelasii")

However, an

ecclesiastical

judg

this question, excluding every doubt, did

not take place until the Tridentine council.


All predicates concerning the Holy Scriptures dis-

Holy

appeared behind that of their divineness (works of the

Holy

Spirit)

inspiration in the highest sense

now restricted to them.


the

demand

and

also for

was

From their inspiration came

for spiritualistic (allegorical) exegesis,

conforming the content

of the texts to

each other as well as to the accepted dogmatic teach


Yet the letter should also be holy and contain
ing.
that

most holy (against Origen) laymen,


miracles, and critics (Antiochians) took

which

is

eager for
sides in favor of the letter and of history.

method was wanting:

A safe

Opposing views were the

spiritual exegesis of the Alexandrians, the historico-

one of the Antiochians which sought for a

critical

fixed type, the literalistic, realistic one of barbarian

monks and

of

sturdy theologians (Epiphanius).


Very gradually a compromise was made in the
Orient in regard to the most important Scripture
Origenistic

and

^xe

C
n
esi?

d
?n oS?nt

passages and their interpretations. The Origenistic,


more ^ ne Antiochian exegesis was repressed
an(^ s

but not vanquished, the

literalistic, realistic one,

made

palatable through mystic fancies, pushed forward (see

John
1-3.)

Damascus, and his interpretation of Gen.


The Occident became acquainted with the

of

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


spiritual,

scientific

method

of

the

215

Cappadocians

through Hilary, Ambrose, Jerome, and Rufinus.


Before and afterward there was a complete lack of
system; regard for the letter went hand in hand
with allegorical fancies and chiliastic interests.

Jerome was too cowardly to teach his contempo- A


and Augustine, although he
learned from the Greeks, never rose above the latter

J^^

raries the better view,

and did not even reach them.

He

introduced into

the Occident the Scripture-theology with

ing three-

and four-fold

sense,

and above

Biblicism, although he himself

truth

is

an inward assurance

to

knew

its

all

waver

the strict

that religious

which the Scriptures

can only lead, and that there exists a Christian free

dom which

is also independent of the Scriptures (de


doctrina Christiana). Through Junilius especially
the more methodical Antiochian exegesis exerted an

influence over the Occident, without being able to

method and the tendency to apol


on
the part of the commentators.
ogetic renderings
After-all the Scriptures received in fact a position in

remedy the lack

the

life of

the

of

Church

in the Occident, different

their position in the Orient (formerly

wise

see

e. g.

it

was

from

other

they occupied a
to be explained pri

Cyril of Jerusalem)

more prominent place. This is


marily from the influence of Augustine and from the

fact that ecclesiastical dogmatics in the Occident was


never so assertive as in the Orient. Just as the ex

tent of the Scriptures


also their properties

was never securely settled, so


not. The predicate of iner-

were

jumiius

West

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

216

ats<

ranc 7 had indeed to submit to gentle restrictions and


did not really come to a clear conception of the

men

In regard to the two


sufficiency of the Scriptures.
Testaments there remained the same want of clear
ness as formerly (the 0. T.
well as the

T.

N".

of the prophecies

is

a Christian book as

the 0. T. throughout is a record


the O. T. is the book which con

with certain restrictions and under

tains,

definite en

cumbrances, the verities of the faith, and

and leads pedagogical ly


Tradition.

Tradition.

to Christ)

itself of

the conditions

originated, and in becoming a

it

The Church,

independent authority.

and

has led

Scripture did not succeed (at least

not in the Orient) in ridding

under which

it

institutions,

was

fully

doctrines

its

in itself the source of

knowl

edge and the guarantee of the authority of the truth.


Everything in it is fundamentally apostolic, because
it is

Hence

of apostolic origin.

making

of

place.

It

it is

plain

the apostolic Church found necessary


therefore ancient.
distinctions
church*

Tradition

and

But

the

is

apostolic,

at first one did not forego

proofs.

was above

all

the faith of the Church.

The symbols were considered

Roman

why

an inventory of tradition could not take


remained de facto always elastic; what

church proclaimed

apostolic

its

yet only the

creed as apostolic in

But

the strictest sense (composed by the apostles).

the content of the

was considered

Mcene and Chalcedon

creeds

as apostolic, yes, as the legacy of the

apostles xareZoxyv

and as the quintessence

of the

Holy

DELELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


Yet the

Scriptures.

symbols remained

relation

217

between Scripture and

In the Orient the so-

elastic.

Constantinopolitan creed became the chief


symbol in the Occident the apostles creed held the
first place and was explained according to the former.
called

But the regulations

also of the organization

and

cultus were placed under the protection of apostolic


tradition,

and one pointed as proof

spread and
tles.

Besides,

itapddoffis

to their general

also to the legends concerning the apos

men began

in the 4th century

without influence from the

Clement

Apos

to

not

Origen and
introduce the conceptions of an apostolic

aypayos, in the

side

of

wholly uncertain content of

which they even included dogmatic teaching how


ever, very rarely trinitarian and Christological watch
the understanding of which was not every
concern (thus especially the Cappadocians).

words
s

body
But this gnostic conception of tradition (secret tradi
tion), although it became more and more settled, was
yet felt to be dangerous use was made of it in dog
matic discussions only in extreme cases (e. g. in the
;

doctrine of the

Holy

Spirit),

and

it

was otherwise

applied to the mysteries and their ritual expositions.

Since

it

was understood that the decisive authority


in the Church itself by virtue of its union

was vested

with the Holy Spirit (Augustine:

non crederem,
veret
(1)

nisi

auctoritas"),

me

evangelio

commo-

the questions must arise:

Through whom and when

speak?

"ego

catholicae ecclesiae

Through

does the Church


Church
speak?

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

218
a

How

are the innovations in the Church, espe


within
the realm of doctrine, to be interpreted
cially

"

(^)

fions

if

the authority of the Church

Episco-

is

lodged entirely in

Both ques
tions, however, were never distinctly put, and thereFixed was it that
fore only very vaguely answered.
its apostolicity, i.e.

ts

cCch.

in its permanence?

was vested

the representation of the Church

in the

episcopate (see Euseb. H. E.), although the strict


theory of Cyprian had not at all become common
property and the idea had never cropped out that the

individual bishop

was
Ecu
ca?

is

infallible.

But already there

attributed a certain inspiration to the provincial

synods.

Constantino

and declared

its

first

called

decisions

to

an ecumenical synod
be

without

error.

Slowly the thought of the infallible authority of the


Nicene council crept in during the 4th century and

was

later 011 transferred to the following councils,

way, however, that one synod (3d) was


stamped post factum as ecumenical, and the dif
ference between them and the provincial synods re
in such a

mained

for a long time unsettled

(Was

the synod

of Aries ecumenic?).

Through Justinian the four

councils were placed

upon an unapproachable height,

and

after the 7th council the principle established

itself

firmly in the Orient, that the sources of

knowl

edge of Christian truth are the Scriptures and tbe


decrees of the seven ecumenical councils.

Even

to

day men assume


if the Church did not possess or need any other, s
But this apparently simple and consistent developfrequently in the Orient

an

air as

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


ment solved by no means

all

219

the difficulties, because

councils were not always at hand and other author


How
ities also had still to be taken into account.

should one act

if

the Church has not yet spoken?

Does not an especial authority belong

to the occu

pants of the great apostolic episcopal chairs, or to


the bishops of the capitals?

Ans.

imous

1.

The Church

ancient

also speaks through unan-

The

testimonies.

fathers
is important, even
has universality and antiquity
"

"

"

"

citing

is true.

of

the

Whatever

decisive.

Besides, the

grew ever more elastic.

antiquity
conception of
the
disciples of the apostles were the
Originally

then they counted also the 3d and 4th


generations among the "ancients", then Origcn and
"ancients",

his disciples were the

"ancient"

expounders; finally

was considered
But since one could make use of
antiquity.
little from this period, appeal was taken to

the whole ante- Constantino epoch


classic

rather

Athanasius and the fathers of the 4th century, just


"ancients", and at the same time to numer

as to the

name of the fathers of


At the councils one counted

ous falsifications under the


the 2d and 3d centuries.

more and more only the voices


employed

of the

"

ancients

"

and

very general explanations to confirm the

new formulas and watchwords.

Things came thus


more and more according to authori
which one indeed frequently first created. The

to be decided
ties,

council

as

it

was

therefore infallible, only

and in so far

did not teach anything else but the

"fathers".

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

220

The

infallibility

was

therefore primarily not a direct

one.
specfai

Belong to
Apostolic
chairs?

Ans.

2.

Augustine recalled

mind the

to

especial

authority of the apostolic chairs (also the Oriental)

on fa Q question concerning the extent of the Holy

But in the Orient

Scriptures.

merged in that

of the chairs

therefore Constantinople

moved

strongly attacked by the

Roman

was

chair alone

this authority

of the capitals
to the front,

bishop.

was
and

being

The Roman

able not only to preserve its ancient

authority in the Occident, but also to heighten it


(only apostolic chair in the Occident, Peter and Paul,
fall of

the

remnant

of

West-Roman empire, the centre for the


Romanism in the West) and (thanks to

the favorable circumstances of political and ecclesi


astical history) to fortify the

same

also in the Orient,

to be sure.
To the Roman
attached
an
was
always
authority peculiar in
bishop
kind, without its being possible to define the same
more closely. It only ceased in the Orient, when
Orient and Occident possessed nothing more what
ever in common. But before the same became ex-

under great fluctuation

tinct the

Roman

bishop, in league with the eastern

Roman

emperor, had gained the point that in the


Orient attempts at a primacy of any bishop, espe
cially the

Alexandrian, should

be suppressed, to

which suppression the Christological contests contrib


uted.
The great chairs of the patriarchs in the
Orient,

weakened through schisms,

partially deprived

of their real importance, stood in theory in equal

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

221

Their occupants also


represented in their co-operations a kind of dogmatic
positions toward one another.

authority,
itself,

which however was defined neither

nor in

in

the ecumenical councils.

its relation to

They form simply a relique of antiquity.

From

statements

to transmit

new

made

it

follows, that the ability

revelations to the

Church did not

belong to the councils ; rather are the

councils

Not Au
thorita
tive.

same rendered

legitimate through the preservation of the apostolic


legacy.
of

Therefore did the declaration and adoption

new formulas

(of

the tiwobato^ of the oneness of

the trinity, of the two natures, and so on) cause

such great

difficulties.

When

doctrine gained the victory,

because the Nicene creed

it

Nicene

at last the

Apostolic
Legacy.

was accomplished only


had become a piece

itself

and because one endeavored, poorly


deduce from the Nicene all later formulas

of antiquity

enough, to

by giving out

(as Irenseus

had once done) as pre

scribed, together with the text, also a definite expo


sition of the same.

to

The

ability of the councils

even

explain the doctrines authentically had not been

clearly declared in the Orient;

therefore the excuse

has only seldom been made for the earlier eastern


fathers, that at their time the dogma had not been
explained and

western

man

definitely

formulated.

(Vincent of Lerinum.)

Whereas a
Com-

in his

monitorium, after having asserted the criteria of


the true tradition (that which has been believed
everywhere, always and by

all),

warned men against the heresies

and

after

having

of otherwise ortho-

Vincent of

Lerinum

Organic
Progress in
Doctrine.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

222

dox

fathers,

admitted an

trine (from the

"

"

organic

more uncertain

progress in doc

to the

more

and proclaimed the councils as agents


progress

("

excitata

certain)

in

this

hcereticorum novitatibns

.
")

Augustine expressly taught, that so long as unequiv


had not been given, tho

ocal decisions on a question

bond of union between dissenting bishops should be


maintained.

The Roman bishop has always acted

according to this

rule,

but has reserved for himself

the decisions and the time for the same.

^ ne
vague.

va g ue

conception of tradition is therefore entirely


The hierarchical element does not play in

The apostolic succession has


theory the first part.
in
not
even
the Occident
been in theory of such great
importance for the confirming of tradition. At the
councils, since the time they were called, the author
ity of the bishops as bearers of tradition

hausted.

Still,

perhaps that

is

was ex

saying too much.

Everything was very obscure. But in so far as the


Greek Church has not changed since John of Damas
cus, the

Greek even

at the present time has a per

fectly definite consciousness


religion.

By

of the foundation of

the side of the Holy Scriptures, the

foundation of religion is the Church itself, not as liv


ing power, but in its immovable doctrines and time-

The Scriptures also are to be ex


plained according to tradition. But the tradition is

honored orders.

primarily always two-fold, the public one of the


councils and fathers, and the secret one which con
firms the mysteries, their ritual and

its interpretation.

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


3.

The Church.

As guarantee

223

of the true faith,

and administrator of the mysteries, the Church above


all

came

flected

into consideration.

about

ment and

it

Furthermore,

when they thought

of the

men

<

Fa!th.

re

Old Testa

false church of the Jews, of heresy

and the

organization of Christianity, as also of the presump


tion of the Roman bishop (Christ alone is the head
of the Church)

Again, the Church was represented

in catechetical instruction as the

true faith and virtue, outside of

communion of the
which there could

not easily be a wise and pious person, and the Bibli


cal declaration regarding it was that it was the only

and holy one, guided by the Holy Spirit, Catholic


in opposition to the numerous impious unions of the

Very evidently men identified thereby the


empirical church with the Church of the faith and Schand
Faith
virtue, without, however, coming to a closer reflecIdentified.
tion on corpus verum et perimxtum and without
drawing all the consequences which the identification
demanded. In spito of all this the Church was not

heretics.

primarily a dogmatic conception, belonging to the


department of the doctrine of salvation itself or it
;

became

so only

when men thought

of

it

as the insti

tution of mysteries, from which, moreover, the

was permitted
restrictions
of

emancipate himself.

monk

Through the

under which the Greeks viewed the duties

and through the natural theology,


disregard to be explained. The Church is

the Church

is this

the

to

human

race as the totality of

accept salvation

all

individuals

who

The doctrine of salvation exhausted

224

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

itself in
I

Sea

a C
of

Kot Fixed.

the conceptions

God, humanity, Christ, the

The conception

mysteries, the individual.

Church as the mother

of believers, as a divine crea

tion, as the body of Christ

matically.

The mystical

and the doctrine

of the

was not worked out dog

doctrine of redemption also

of the eucharist did not assist the

Church to a dogmatic position (it


ample, in John of Damascus).

is

wanting, for ex
Its

organization,

was not perfected beyond the grade


of bishops and was seldom treated dogmatically. The
Church is not the bequest of the apostles, but of

thorough as

Christ

it is,

therefore its importance as an institution of

worship takes the first rank.


AU this has reference to the Oriental Church.
veiopinj

the Occident,

through

Donatist

the

new and

foundation was laid by the Church for


conceptions.

The Church

itself

was

In

contest, the

rich

at the end of

the early period divided into three great parts

The

western Church, the Byzantine, the Semitic eastern


and the latter was cleft into manifold parts. Each
;

part considered

itself

the one Catholic Church and

extolled its particular palladia.

A.

a
Theok>

THE PRESUPPOSITIONS OF THE DOCTRINE


OF SALVATION, OR NATURAL THEOLOGY.

Natural theology with


tially the same thing but
;

all
it

the fathers

was

essen

shows shades according

as Platonism or Aristotelianism predominated and ac-

DEVELOPMENT OP DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

225

cording to the measure in which the letter of the


Bible exerted an influence.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE PRESUPPOSITIONS AND CONCEPTIONS OF GOD,


THE CREATOR, AS DISPENSER OF SALVATION.

THE main

principles of the doctrine of God, as the

Doctrine of
God.

and anti-gnostic fathers had established


them, remained firm and were directed particularly
against Manicha3ism, but were hardly touched by the
apologists

development of the doctrine of the trinity, since the


Father as fifty T?/? tfeonyToy alone came into considera

Yet with the growing Biblicism and the


monkish barbarism, anthropomorphic conceptions
forced themselves more and more into theology.

tion here.

Concerning the question of

man

ability to

know

God, Aristotelians (Eunomius, Diodorus of Tarsus,


especially since the beginning of the 6th century)

and

and yet were


That man knows God only K

Platonists contended with each other,

fundamentally agreed.

JJ

through revelation, more exactly through Christ, was


generally allowed, but to this declaration as a rule

no further consequences were given and men as


cended from the world to God, making use of the
old proofs
ical

and supplementing them with the ontolog-

argument (Augustine).
gians assumed an immediate,

God

Neo- Platonic theolo


intuitive perception of

of the highest order, but they nevertheless per15

ab le ~
f

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

226

fected very precisely the scholastic form of

knowledge

(the Areopagite:

this

Negation, exaltation,

causality).

The

Attributes

loftiest expression for the

being of

God was

"

SSd

as yet that he

immortal,

is

the spiritual,

"not-the- world",

apathetic Substance (the

to

0\>),

which

alone real being belongs (Aristotelians thought of

and

cause

without correcting

purpose,

His goodness

the Platonic scheme).

is

radically
perfection,

unenviousness and creating will (additions leading

by Augustine: God as love,


men from self-seeking). The attributes

to a better conception

which
of

frees

God were

treated accordingly as expressions of

causality and power, in


tion

was not taken

became tempered,
Moral Attributes.

which the purpose

of salva

into account (Origen s conception

i.e.

corrected).

naturalistic conception of

God

By the

side of the

as the 0v stood the

Rewarder and Judge; upon this


redemption had hardly any notice

moralistic one of
also the idea of

able influence (less than with Origen), since

ward

"

and

"

"

punishment

were treated as one.

"re

Yet

Augustine recognized the worthlessness of a theol


ogy which places God only at the beginning and the
end and makes men independent of him, instead of
acknowledging God as the Power for good and the
Source of the personal, blessed
y

offthe?s

The cosmology

life.

of the fathers

may

be thus stated

God, who has carried in himself the world-idea from


eternity, has through the Logos, which embraces all
ideas, in free self-determination created in six

days

DEVELOPMENT OP DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

227

out of nothing this world, which has had a beginning


will have an end it was created after the pat

and

tern of an upper world,

him, and has

own

prove his

which was brought forth by

culmination in

its

man

in order to

kindness and to permit creatures to


In this thesis the heresies

participate in his bliss.

were set aside (especially his pessimism).


did not succeed in entirely justifying the
verbal meaning of Gen. 1-3, and in the representaof Origen
Still

men

tion of

an upper world

copy the earthly

is,

(x6ff/j.o$

voep6$) t

whose

lesser

there remained a significant

piece of the Neo-Platonic-Origenistic doctrine,

was then

Geu. i-m.

which

greatly amplified, after the Areopagite,

by
here
But
the
the Platonizing mystics.
pantheistic
sies were scarcely felt thereafter, if only in some
the verbal

way

preserved.

meaning

The theodicy

of

Gen. 1-3 seemed to be

still

always necessary on

account of Manichseism and fatalism


its

ground through

since

it

too

sought

to hold

but

empirical considerations,

must be natural theology

it

revealed

its

ancient root in an oft-estranging casuistry and in

doubtful claims.
fitness of the

Men

referred to the necessity

and

freedom of the creature which must

have as a consequence wickedness and

evil, to

the

harmlessness of evil for the soul, to the unreality of


wickedness and to the value of evil as a means of
purification.

In regard to the heavenly spirits the following


points were settled

that they are free

That they were created by God,


and lack material bodies, that

Theodicy,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

228

they have passed through a crisis in which a part


fallen, that God uses the good spirits as instru
ments in governing the world, that the existence of
wickedness in the world is to be traced back to the
wicked spirits, whom God allows to have their way

have

and who are incorrigible and have almost unlimited


power over the world which only the cross can break
and who are going to receive damnation (against
After the 4th century, however, the poly

Origen).

tendency became stronger and stronger


toward angels and demons, and already by about 400
A. D. the piety of monks and laymen was nourished
theistic

more by these than by God.

While the synod of


Laodicea about 3GO declared angel- worship to be idol-

en
n
lngeis

*5

a try,

still

the veneration of angels became more firmly

established (guardian-angels, faith in their interces


sion)

787

and was

ecclesiastically fixed at the 7th council,

(npoffxuvyfft?)

It

contributed

much toward

this,

theology in the form of the NeoPlatonic mysticism, after about 500, incrdased the

that the

"

scientific

"

esteem given to angels, and that they were received

most important factors (but see


already the Alexandrian theologians) The angels in
graded ranks are, on the one side, the unfolding of
into the system as

the heavenly, on the other, the mediators between


the heavenly and men.

To the earthly hierarchy with

and consecrations, corresponds a


heavenly, graded hierarchy with heavenly sacrifices,
its

grades, agencies

intercessions,
(vid. the

etc.

in divine worship

both unite

Areopagite and his expounders).

Thus

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


a

new

229

arose

truly after long preparation

astical

theosophy which was purely pagan and which

was

finally a

ecclesiT

shamefaced expression for jugglering

the idea of creation and redemption and for reviving


the fantastic pantheism which the bizarre theosophy

had created Everything that


from God in manifold radiations

of perishing antiquity
exists streams out

remote and

and must, since

it is

and returned

God.

to

isolated, be prurifi

This has taken place in nec

essary processes which were so represented that all


needs, even the most barbaric, were taken into con
sideration,

spected.

and

all

authorities

and forms were

But the living God, besides

whom

re

the soul

possesses nothing, threatened thereby to disappear.

CHAPTER

V.

THE PRESUPPOSITIONS AND CONCEPTIONS OF MAN


AS THE RECIPIENT OF SALVATION.

THE common

conviction of the orthodox fathers

Doctrine of

Man.

be stated somewhat as follows: Man, created


after the image of God, is a free self-determining

may

being.

He

has been endowed with reason, in order

to decide in favor of the


life.

good and to enjoy immortal

Having indulged himself and

still

dulging himself in sin, misled, or of his


will,

ever in

own

he has missed this destination without,

free

how

having forfeited the privilege and power of a


virtuous life and the capability of immortality.

ever,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

230

Through the Christian

revelation,

which comes

to

the aid of the darkened reason with full knowledge

and the

of God, that ability has been strengthened

immortality restored

and

Upon good or
The will has,

proffered.

evil therefore the

Points

era ~
tion

judgment decides.
strictly speaking, no moral quality.
details there were varying opinions:

tne original inheritance of man, and

nation?

(2)

In regard to

What was

(1)

what

his desti

How far does nature go, and where does


(3) How far-reaching are

the gift of grace begin?

the consequences of sin?


acteristic of the

of

being
his nature to be good?
the

human

(4)

Is

man,
(5)

mere freedom char

or does

Into

it

inhere in

what elements

personality to be divided?

(G)

is

In what

does the Divine likeness consist? and so forth.

The various answers


tween the

are all compromises

(a)

be

religious-scientific theory (doctrine of Ori-

gen) and Gen. 1-3 (b) between the moralistic con


siderations and a regard. for the redemption through
;

Christ

(c)

between dualism and the recognition of

the body as a necessary and good organ.

^ke

**

Natural

reason
age,

is

*^ ea

n^ orn freedom

included.

is central;

It constitutes the

with

it

Divine im

which therefore means independence as regards

God.

Whether

there belongs to the nature of

man

only the sensuousness of the creature, or whether


is endowed with reason and even immortality,

he

remained in controversy.

was

However, the controversy

quite immaterial, since the glorious nature of

man was

after all ever considered a gift of grace,

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

231

was considered by the majority


The being of man was represented as
The Greektrichotomous, by others as dichotomous.
and

this gift of grace

as natural.

Origenistic conception of the body as a prison


finally officially rejected

man

is

was

Or?g?niStic
C
n

RejSed

rather, even as a

microcosm and the body is also


same never ceased to have

spiritual being, a

but the

God-given
an after-effect, because the positive morality was
always obliged

to give

way

to the negative (asceti

cism), i.e., because it received in the conception of


the opera supererogatoria an ascetic cast.
The
later

how

Neo-Platonic mysteriosophists, indeed, knew


make good use of the idea of the glorification

to

was

of the body, but in truth the corporeal

sidered by

them as something

to be

still

"absorbed,"

con

even

though they no longer dared to shake the verbal mean


ing of the formula of the "resurrection of the body".
is

Concerning the origin of individual souls (the soul


no part of God but in reality many theosophists
;

after all considered

of Origen

was

it

as such) the pre-existent view

expressly condemned, 553, but the

traducian theory was not able to carry the day;


rather did the creation theory (continued creation
of individual souls)

As

become dominant.

regards the God-likeness,

in the antinomy, that goodness

the product only of


the likeness

men

continued

and purity can be

human freedom

imprinted by

still

that,

however,

creation cannot

reside

in the possibilitas utriusque, but in a

determina

tion of reason and freedom, and that

has in part

it

Quest101

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

232

been

lost.

Accordingly the conceptions also regard


man were as hazy

ing the primitive condition of

On

as by Irenseus.

man was

the one side, the perfection of

said to have been practically realized at

the beginning and

was

later restored

by Christ

on

was said to have


which man had first

the other, the primitive condition

been the child-like state out of

unto perfection and which he


therefore in reality could never lose, but only im
to develop himself

prove (thus especially and emphatically the Antio-

The Cappadocians

chians).

much

like

Origen

but later

still

taught in the main


forced to bind

men were

themselves strictly to Genesis, and the speculative


conceptions were cultivated as

much

ones of the Aiitiochians.

istic

primitive condition of

as the rational

Doubts about the

man resulted

in indefinite con

which have never been cleared


the Greek Church
Some saw in asceticism

ceptions of asceticism,

up

in

the natural constitutional condition of man, others


(especially the Anfciochians) conceived of

thing superterrestrial
Theories

2.

R
Or
s1n!

It

was acknowledged that

its origin, i.e.

since

it

as

some

and superhuman.

Adam

the

human

race since

(express rejection in the

6th century of the doctrine of

Origen as

to

the

a pre-existent state), has turned away from


the good (cause: Not a created sinful power, not
matter, not the Divinity, not inheritance of the sin
fall in

of

Adam Adam was

for the majority the type, not

but abuse of freedom by


reason of demoniac betrayal, and transmission of

the progenitor of sinners,

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


bad customs.

233

Besides, indeed, with the majority the

unsubdued thought still remained in the background,


that the inducement to turn from God comes with a
certain necessity from the sensuous nature

creature infirmities of

ing of the

man and

man

that

is,

and the

from a conjoin

his liability to death

be

it

ural (the Antiochians), or acquired through


takes, or inherited.

One finds,

therefore, in the

nat

mis
same

fathers the contradictory expressions, that goodness


is

natural to

man and

Genesis and Horn.

more

that sin

Adam,

turies

theory, a world-historic impor

they have even declared

cha3ism.

more and

against their em-

But the Augustinian doctrine


they have not accepted during

tance.

sin

natural to him).

forced the Greeks

to give to the fall of

pirico-rationalistic

is

it

of hereditary
all

the cen

plainly to be

Mani-

Therefore, since they were prevented from

supporting the Origenistic doctrine, and since the


Bible forbade the consequent rationalism of the

Antiochian theologians, they remained involved in


nothing but uncertainties. Most of them proclaimed
universal mortality (hereditary death), the darken

ing of knowledge (therefore polytheism) and a cer


tain weakening of freedom on account of the fall of

Adam, enlarging the latter even to almost complete


freedom when they thought of the work of
Christ, but hardly mentioning it when they wrote

loss of

But since they never intended to put in the place of the moral idea of sin
against the Manicha3ans.

the religious, and since the philosophumenon, evil is

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

234

the non-being, never entirely


since they always felt

severely than sin itself

memory, and
the consequences of sin more
to which consideration their
left their

conception of the work of Christ also led them

were never able

guilt, a satisfactory expression

deed

Sin

is

accident and again fatality

it is

they

to give to the gravity of sin, i.e. to

a bad single
it is the con

sequence of the liability to death but it is not the


dreadful power which destroys union with God.
;

The

influence of natural

theology (and of the

rationalism and mysticism akin to


in the doctrine of

dogmatic teaching was fundamental


Redemption Natu

(i)

ralistic,

Man

is

it),

pre-eminent

God and man, upon

the actual

led through rederrmtion to that des-

which he can also reach by virtue of his


freedom (danger, that of looking upon redemption
merely as an assistance)

tination

Related to
as creature

image of God, an independent


being also as regards God, can have no other rela
tions to him than as to the Creator and Judge God
(^)

Man,

as the

himself

is

not his

life,

but the law of

of conduct (danger, that of looking

God

is

his rule

upon the Gospel

and salvation as knowledge and law, upon punish


ment as the greatest misfortune, and upon repent
ance as the cause of pardon)
DoC

God

ttl~

1S

The doctrines also regarding God, the Kedeemmust needs be treated according to the rationalis

3
( )

er
>

tic

scheme

(rationality of the doctrine of the trinity,

of the doctrine of the resurrection of the body, etc.)


(4)

In the last analysis

man

can gather nothing

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


from history;
Mpo?

evffapxo?

235

but to histor}7 indeed, belongs the


the view therefore was not entirely re,

a standpoint from which the


he is only an assisting

jected, that there

is

historical

since

Christ,

pre

no meaning Man, who through gnosis


and asceticism has become a moral hero, stands free

teacher, has

by the side of God


in

him

he loves God and God loves him

will a Christ be born.

The most

vital piety

Greek fathers and the most energetic attempt


make themselves at home in religion, have even

of the
to

been the least safeguard against their losing the


historical Christ.
Still it was a danger which only
threatened. Divinity has descended, God has become

man

in the historical Jesus


"

fact
fact

the newest of

under the sun

"

all

(John of Damascus)

the mystery and terror of death restricted

Man must

alism.

immense

faith in this

the new, yes, the only

be redeemed

new

as well as
all

ration

and has been

re

deemed.

B.

THE DOCTRINE OF REDEMPTION THROUGH


THE PERSON OF THE GOD-MAN IN ITS HIS
TORICAL DEVELOPMENT.

CHAPTER

VI.

THE DOCTRINE OF THE NECESSITY AND REALITY


OF REDEMPTION THROUGH THE INCARNATION
OF THE SON OF GOD.

THE

incarnation of

God

alone balanced the whole

system of natural theology.

Because

men

believed

ve

a d

tion.

of

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

236

in its reality, they also asserted its necessity.

referred
sin

and

it

They

dominion of demons, to
and not seldom in this connection they

to death, to the

error,

made, regarding the wickedness of man, assertions


which recall Augustine. But when a definite theory

was

given, the idea of the abolition of perishableness

and

of the sting of death alone held out; for the

doctrine of freedom excluded an expiation of sin

and, on the other side, brought


that heart-felt repentance before

n a~

si us

home the thought


God frees from sin

(thus, e.g. Athanasius, de incarn. VII.).

Athanasius

na3us,

first

tion.

of the incarnation

(1.

propounded a

He

c.).

bases

After Ire-

definite theory
it,

on the one

hand, upon the goodness of God, i.e., upon his selfand honor; on the other, upon the conse

assertion

quences of.
is

sin, i.e. perishableness.

able to remove,

who

These the Logos

also originally created

only
everything out of nothing. Regarding the means,
Athanasius has recourse to all the Biblical concep
tions (sacrificial death, expiation of guilt, etc.) but
;

he only carries out

strictly the thought, that in the

act of incarnation itself lies the changing from the

doom

of death to

union of the

God
Results
Secured.

human with

in so far as the physical

the Divine (the dwelling of

in the flesh) elevates

f bliss

^Q

ayftapffia,

and

of

incarnation

humanity into the sphere


the ayftapffia. The consequence of
is,

therefore, primarily a transfor

mation into the imperishable (renewal of the Divine


likeness), but secondarily also the restoring of the

knowledge

of

God, in so far as the earthly appear-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

237

ance of Divinity (in Christ) makes Divinity recogniz


able to the dullest eye

was

and thereby eradicates poly

Athanasius, in asserting this double result,

theism.

also able to explain the particular result of the

Only those are benefited by it who


know God and who regulate their lives according to
incarnation:

this knowledge.

The apotheosis

participation in

God through

of

human

son-ship)

nature

and not

Deification
of Human-

ifc

^t!

knowledge was to Athanasius the main point.


Therefore his whole concern was with the exact
determining of the question,

how

the Divine which

became man was constituted, and into what con

humanity he entered. On the con


trary the Arians and, later, the Antiochians placed
nections with

the principal stress upon the knowledge

vered in the rationalistic scheme.

On

they perse

that very ac

count they had not in general a decided interest in


the two questions, and

them

when they had, they answered

in another

way. It is plain that the great


c
ubdogmatic contentions have their root herein
:

stantial participation in

which

assists

intelligent

Teacher
inspired

freedom

God, or knowledge of

ot of
.

Dogmatic

him

Christ the Divinity, or the

Reason of the world and the Divine

Christ the inseparable God-man, or the


the dual Being. Athanasius had

man and

on his side the highest Greek piety, his opponents


the more intelligible formulas and, in part, the letter
of the Bible.

No

other Greek father has answered the question

why God became man

so clearly as Athanasius.

come Man?

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

238
G

NfssI

Next

to

him comes

(large catechism)

the Platonist, Gregory of Nyssa

since in general the whole concep

tion of doctrine is possible only

tonism.

upon the basis of Pla-

Gregory at some points strengthened the

deductions, in

many instances, however, he followed


In contending with Jews and pagans

Methodius.

he shows that the incarnation

is

the best form of

redemption; he conceives the whole sinful state as


death, and gives, therefore, to this conception a wider

scope

(all

compHshed fully
in Resur
rection.

away from God

turning

ent sensuous

is

death)

accomplished

first

in the resurrection of Christ

declaration:

(Origenistic

to the non-exist-

he viewed the incarnation as

separation from the body)

Kedemption presupposes

he expressly taught that


Christ did not assume the nature of an individual

man,

but, as second

Adam, human nature

itself,

so

that according to this mystic-Platonic view, every

thing human has blended with the Divinity he conceived of the whole strictly as a physico-pharmacolog;

ical process

Process,

trated
is

the

Humanity became thoroughly pene

by the leaven of Divinity (the counter-weight

demand

for the spontaneous fulfilling of the

he brought the sacraments into the closest re


lation with the incarnation.
But, finally, he gave a
law)
c

E?emeat!

pantheistic turn to this realistic and, to all rational

ism, apparently hostile idea,


peculiarity
tic

and

conception:

is

which deprives

it

of its

quite in accord with a rationalis

Christ

incarnation

is

an act of

reaches as reconciliation and

cosmic importance;

it

restitution over the

whole world from the highest

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


angels

down

solves, as
it

process;

to the deepest depths.

Thus

it

239
dis

with Origen, into a necessary cosmical


becomes a special case of the general

omnipresence of the Divine in creation. In the


cosmos the alienation from God is set forth in the

same manner as the return


in transmitting

to

him.

to

Gregory assisted

futurity this pantheistic

idea,

which he himself indeed never quite clearly thought


out so as to separate it from its historical conditions.

The

pantheistic doctrine of redemption appears in

after times in a double

the

form (pantheistic monophy-

the Areopagite and his disciples, etc.)

sites,

work

of the historical Christ appears as

Either

a special

as a symbol of the general purifying

i.e.

instance,

and sanctifying activity which the Logos in common


with the graded orders of super-sensuous creatures,
and at

the.

same time

for them, continually effects

means of holy agencies

by

or instantly with the thought

of the incarnation the union of each individual soul

with the Logos


repeated

form

is

conceived

what occurred

still

is

of,

in

which there

in regard to Christ.

the view, that the

is

A third
of Christ

humanity
was a heavenly one, i.e. that the Logos always car
ried humanity within itself.
Even unconcealed pan
theism (nature as a whole
Divinity) was not wanting.

But

all this

is

of one essence with

lay only in the background, while the

thought that Christ took

upon himself humanity as


generally conceived spread in the East and West, and
destroyed the idea of a moral union of the Divinity

sin and

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

240

with an individual man, from which, of course, the

God cannot

certainty of our participation in

Those who taught

be in

moral union (Antiochians) ordinarily conceived redemption, not as a


ferred.

restitution, the necessity of

this

which they did not exactly

but as a leading up to a new state, as the close of


the Divine pedagogy. Whereas the theologians fol
feel,

lowing Athanasius and Gregory always conceived of


the incarnation as a necessary restitution and referred

and death.

Accordingly they firm


ly maintained, so far as they were not misled by pan
theism, that the incarnation was an historical deed
it

therefore to sin

by means

of unfathomable Divine compassion,

which humanity has been restored


mentof

Supplement.

Men

attempted to

jesus L?fe
to

Redemp-

Theor

history of Jesus into the

work

to Divine
fit

of

life,

the facts of the

of redemption,

which

indeed was a success as regards the resurrection, but


not wholly so in any other single point. The death

on the cross remained in particular unintelligible,


although Pauline points of view were continually

by the incarnation everything had


been given and death could at the most be but

repeated;
really

for

the conclusion of the


cial

"

becoming

flesh

"

(the sacrifi

view moreover has seldom since Origen been

far

ther fertilized according to the scheme of the Greek


mysteries).

Nevertheless

there can be no

doubt

was considered a blissful mystery, before


which one should bow down, and it is after all a
that death

question whether the dogmatic reticence here of the

Greeks

is less

worthy in contrast with the bold reckon-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

241

ing and bargaining of the Occidental theologians.


The latter since Tertullian and Cyprian have ever
considered the endurance of death as a service, the

value of which should be appraised in juristic formu


las; they have looked upon death as satisfactio and

placatio dei and applied to


lition of suffering

it

and punishment for guilt through


through the merit of Christ s death

the expiation,

i.e.

which

an angry God.

to

pacified

God

of Christ s death

great popes)

ently advanced

the view gained by the

scheme of atonement (abo

contemplation of the legal

Calculating the value

Ambrose, Augustine, the

Moreover since Ambrose they consistto the assumption, that the expiation

was made as man, since hu


and
since any services rendered
the debtor

(the merit) of Christ

manity

is

can be ascribed only to the man, who, to be sure,


received his worthiness from his Divinity. Thereby

West alienated itself from the East Here is God


who has taken humanity into union with his being,
in consequence of which his constitution as Re
the

deemer yonder is man, the propitiator, whose endur


ance of death has a Divine value. But the West, it
;

is true,
still

did not possess as yet a strict theory.

It also

accepted the gnostic-eastern conceptions that a

ransom was paid


frauded.
16

to the devil,

who

thereby was de

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

242

CHAPTER

VII.

THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOMOUSION OF THE SON OF


GOD WITH GOD HIMSELF.
Principal sources: The Church historians of
5th centuries and the works of the fathers of the
Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism, 1882 Mohler,
1827; Zahn, Marcell., 1867; Hahn, Bibliothek d.
;

the 4th and


4th century.
Athanasius,

Symbole,

2.

Aufl.

Is

the Divine, which has appeared upon the earth

and reunited
the

man

with God, identical with the high


rules heaven and earth, or is

Being who

est divine

same semi -divine?

That was the decisive ques

tion of the Arian controversy.

1.

From

the

Beginning of the Controversy until


the Council of Niccea.

At Antioch,

268, the Logos-doctrine

ried through, but the

legacy of

o>oo6<7to?

was

had been car

Yet the

rejected.

Paul of Samosata did not perish.

the most learned exegete of his time, took

Lucian,
it

up and

founded a popular, influential exegetico-theological


school, which for a long time held aloof from the
Church, but later made

became the
started

peace with the same, and


foster-mother of Arianism. Lucian
its

from adoptionism

the high value which he

placed upon the development of Christ

proves

this.

But he condescended

hypostatic Logos,

still

(r.poxor^)

to introduce the

as A^^o9-xrcV aa, as
(

capable and in need of development, which

created,
is to

be

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

243

sharply distinguished from the eternal, impersonal


Logos of God. The ego in Christ is therefore a

heavenly pre-existent Being (no longer man, as with


Paul)
by this admission Lucian made his peace

with the dogma and the Origenists but human


qualities were attributed to the same, the incarnation

became a mere assuming of the flesh, and by means


and Biblican exegesis

of the Aristotelian dialectics

a doctrinal principle

was now propounded in which


Eternal
was placed

the unbegotten Creator (the

"

")

in sharp contrast with all created

beings,

conse

with the Logos-Christ, and theology


technology", that is, a doctrine of the un

quently also

became

"

begotten and the begotten

was worked out

in syllo

gisms founded upon the holy codex, without genu


ine interest in the thought of redemption, yet not

without moral energy, and this was spread abroad

by

disciples closely allied

tics

and proud

of their dialec

and their exegetical art.


these Arius also belonged, who

To

at a ripe age

became deacon and presbyter in Alexandria. There,


at that time, a tendency was represented in the epis
copate which mistrusted the

T? $

EXXr^m^
and put aside the thought of the difference
between Father and Logos. Although Arius had
t).aftrt

<i.ara.

<pd<HTo<fias

for

some time combated Christological

errors along

with his bishop Alexander, yet about the year 318


he began to differ with the latter, and the bishop
found it necessary about 320 to condemn and depose
Arius and some of the other clergy, at a synod held

Arius-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA,

244

Alexandria, on

in

account of

But he stepped into a wasp


Lucian and above all the

their Christology.

s nest.

The

influential

Nicomedia took decidedly the part


majority of the Oriental bishops

followers of

Eusebius of

of Arius,

and the

were indeed in

Let
sympathy with him (also Eusebius of Cesarea)
were written on both sides to gain assistance
.

ters

synods also were held.

Arius was able under pro

up again his work in Alexandria. When


Constantine, 323, became ruler also of the Orient, the

test to take

contest spread to all the coast provinces of the East


n
t?ne?

(Thalia of Arius; derision of Jews and heathen).


The emperor sought at first to reconcile both parties
by a letter delivered by the court-bishop, Hosius, of
Cordova (the dispute is an idle, unbecoming quarrel)
But the letter had no effect, and Hosius, who cham
.

pioned the Tertullian-Cyprian doctrine of the trin


ity, probably at that very time came to an agreement

Through him the emperor also


was gained over and the Nicene decision prepared
with Alexander.

Following his advice, Constantine called

for.

council at Nica3a.

d~

Alexander
epist.

doctrine (vid. his two letters and the

Arii ad Euseb.) was, as a matter of

essentially identical with the later one of

but

it

was not

fact,

Athanasius

clear in its formulations.

Especially
did he hardly raise the 6p.oobffto? to a rallying-cry,
Hosius
since the same was repudiated in the East.
probably introduced it as a translation of the West

ern unius sabstantiae.

Alexander

formulas were

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION. 245


6 ulo$
rat

^eoi,

TIV\ Tcpodysi 6

roo

&ou

6 ul6$.

detyevySj

$09

dyevqToyevTJs,

OUT

roD uloo^ del $09, del

i-xivoia

t>o?,

our

abroo

Alexander asserted the eternal co-ex

and the Son

istence without beginning of the Father

He

(influence of Irenseus?)

included the Son in the

being of the Father as a necessary constituent part


he refuted the tenets, that the Son is not eternal, that
;

he was created out of nothing, that he is not ybffet


God, that he changes, that he has passed through a

moral development and is only adopted Son. He


consciously contended for the common faith in the
Church, for the Divinity of Christ, and he rejected
above all the dialectics about begotten and un"

He

begotten".

"

"

quoted in favor of his view the Scrip-

ture proofs

18; 10: 30; 14:

1-3;

of using the favorite expression of Origen


is

the perfect reflection

pression does not satisfy


Karrip.

reject

The Son

but even the following ex

him

lv
aurij>

xa

f>

axT7iP^ srai

He
it

approaches Sabellianism, but desires to


strongly, and asserts that the Father is

nevertheless greater than the Son


his being.

He wants

to see the

"

who

belongs to

coming forth

"

of

such a Son revered as a mystery It is a question of


Still he often uses unin
faith, not of speculation.
:

telligible,

confused and contradictory expressions,


rcarpuij fteofovia is not wanting,

among which even

Begotten

andUnbe-

8,
(John
and 28; Math. 3: 17; 11: 27; I. John 5:1; Col. 1:
15, 16; Rom. 8: 32; Heb. 1: 2 seq.; Prov. 8: 30;
He was fond
Psa. 2: 7; 110: 3; 35: 10; Isa. 53: 8).
:

gotten.
*

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

246

which contrast unfavorably with the plain, clear


sentences of Arius, for whom it was an easy task
to

show that the doctrine

of

Alexander was neither

protected against dualism (two ape^Ta), nor against


gnostic emanationism

Sabellianism

(ulondrtop) 9

tion of the corporeality of


istics of

nor against

(npofioty^ anoppoid)^

nor against the representa

God, and had the character

a chameleon and was Biblically untenable.

Arius taught the following (see his own

and the

letters of his friends, the

letters

fragments of the

Thalia, the characterization in Alexander and AthanasiuSj the writings of the later Arians)

ne

Eternai

^ ne

one ^od, besides

whom

there is no other,

is

alone unbegotten, without beginning, eternal

is

inexpressible

he

is

all

In these

things.

attributes consists his nature (the unbegotten


erator)

he

and incomprehensible; furthermore

the cause and creator of

His activity

is

in creating

Gen

to beget

("

"

is

only a synonym). Everything which is, has been


created not out of the nature of God (otherwise he

would not be simple and

own free will.

spiritual),

but out of his

Accordingly God has not always been

Father, else the created would be eternal


also can never receive the essence of

the created

God

for this

precisely is uncreated.
(^)

Within

this

God dwell,

Wisdom and Logos

as inseparable powers,

there are beside

many

created

poivers.
fi)

Was

Not.

Before the world was,

God

created out of his

Being (owt

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION. 247


as an

instrument for the production of the other

creatures,

who

according to Scripture

Word

dom, Son, Likeness,

created out of nothing and

was

therefore a time

when

had a beginning.
Son was not.

this

only called inappropriately


tures are also called thus

This

(4)

"

Son

"

"Son";

Wis

is called

like all creatures

he was

There

He

is

the other crea

by Scripture.

therefore

is,

according to his

being, an independent magnitude, totally distinct


from the "Father". He has neither one being with

the Father, nor like qualities of nature (otherwise


there would be

and

two Gods)

Rather has he a free will

capable of changing.

is

But he has resolved

permanently upon the good. Thus by virtue of his


choice he has become unchangeable.

The

Son", then, is not very God, and he has


Diviue qualities only as acquired and only in part.
Because he is not eternal, his knowledge also is not

(5)

"

To him,

perfect.

therefore, is not

due

like

Son not
Very God.

honor

with the Father.


Still

(6)

he differs from

all

creatures; he

is

the Sonfr

ers

through whom everything has been


created he stands in an especial relationship of grace
to God.
Through God s communication and his own
xTtfffjLa

rttetov,
;

progress, he has

him
(7)

The

"only

begotten

attributes,

call

God".

human

body,

son Truly

historical Christ

mani-

nated

This Son has truly assumed a

fested,
is

become God, so that we may

which the

show that the Logos

to

which they belonged

a being capable of suffering and

is

not perfect.

,\

Incar-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

248
(8)
natetoson.

By

Holv

the side of and below the Son stands the


for

Spirit;

the Christian believes in three

separate and different otWa: (^rotf-rac-ec?)


Spirit was created through the Son.
Scripture
Proof.

(9)

19;

the Holy

Scripture proofs for these doctrines were

6: 4; 32: 39; Prov. 8

Mk.

Deut.

22; Ps.45: 8; Math. 12: 28;

13: 32; Math. 26: 41; 28: 18; Lk. 2: 52; 18:
34; 14: 28; 17: 3; Acts2: 36;

Johnll:

1: 24; 15: 28; Col. 1: 15; Phil. 2: 6 seq.;

4; 3: 2;
etc.

John

I.

Cor.

Heb.

1:

12: 27; 13: 21; Math. 26: 39; 27: 46,

Dialectically the sophist Asterius above all de

fended this doctrinal conception. With strict Arianism the tradition coming from Paul and Lucian had

most weight

with the more liberal party (Eusebius

of Cesarea) the doctrine of subordination as taught

by Origen.
Athana
sius

Doctrine?

Athanasius

doctrine, in its dogmatico-scientific

delineation not important,


in the faith.

perseverance

was great
It

in its victorious

comprises really only

one tenet: God himself has entered into humanity.


wholly in the thought of redemption.
Judaism and paganism have not brought back hu
It is rooted

manity into communion with God


deify us,

i.e.,

that Christ

is

Only God could

adopt us as his sons. He who denies


very God, is still a Jew or a heathen.

Athanasius has in fact no longer a Logos-doctrine he


is a Christologian. He thinks only and always of that
;

Christ

who

even the

might

is

God.

6fj.oovffio$

think.

is

He

did not care for a formula;


not so often used by him as one

His main principles are the following

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


(1)

If Christ is

deemer

God

249

and that he must be as Re-

then he has as such nothing creature-like in

him and belongs in no


Athanasius makes just

creatures.

sense to created existences.


as strict a distinction be

tween created and uncreated as Arius, but he

God

the Son aside as belonging to

sets

in opposition to

the world.
(2)

it

Since the Divine in Christ

can also not be postulated

the creation of the world;

is

not created,

of the world

besides,

man,

is to

with.

God needs no

mediation for the creation of the world.


quently the idea of the Divine,

and

Conse

who has redeemed

be separated from the idea of the world ;


was done away with. Nature

the old Logos-doctrine

and revelation were no longer considered

The Logos-Son

is

identical.

the principle of salvation, not the

principle of the world.

But since Divinity

a unity (/^a?) and the


Son does not belong to the world, he must belong to
(3)

n B

is

this very unity of the unbegotten

Power which

is

God ead
"

the

Father.
(4)
is

The very name

"

Father

"

signifies that there Fa

present in Divinity a second being.

always been Father


the Son also

he

who

Father

calls

him

God has

this,

plies

lm .

Son

"

names

Father of the Son,


and not properly Father of the world, for it has been
created uncreated, however, is the Divine trias, ex
;

for the

is

isting in unity.
(5)

Consequently the Son

is

j^w^a

1
TOO -arpo?, begjj
Be

gotten out of the being of God, as the light from the

ojjfjjj
of
a<5i.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

250

He

sun, through an inner necessity.

is

the likeness

To be begot
proceeding from the divine Being.
ten means nothing else than to have complete par
ticipation by nature in the whole nature of the
"

"

Father, without the Father thereby suffering loss in

any way.
(6)
Essentially

God.

Son

Therefore the Arian assertions are false: the


is

rather (a) alike eternal with the Father,

(b)

out of the being of the Father, (c) in all parts as to


nature equally endowed with the Father, and he is

because he has one and the same essence

all this

with the Father and forms


however, in
than "being".

"essence",

else

ing
Father

is

him a strict unity


regard to God means noth
ivith

It

is

not true that

the

one Being in himself and the Son another

in himself,

and that these two have

like qualities

that would annul the unity of the Divinity, but the

Father

the Divinity

is

this Divinity, however,

tains within itself as self-sufficient

product a
eternity,

"

going forth

"

which

and not by virtue

and

con

self-efficient

also possessed

from

of a communication, the

same divine nature

the true Son, the likeness pro


ceeding from the divine Being. Father and Son are

one Being, which includes in itself the distinction


and fcw^a, consequently between prin
between

&m

ciple and derivation and, in this sense, a subordi


nation, which however has nothing to do with the

subordination of the created


the

opoouffios in

(7)

this is the

meaning

of

Athanasius.

All creature-qualities

which the Scriptures

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

251

ascribe to Jesus Christ have reference merely to his


human nature. The exaltation also refers to the

same; i.e. to our exaltation; for the union of the


God- Logos with human nature was from the begin
ning a substantial and perfect one (Mary as
The body became his body. Proverbs 8

tfeoroxoc)
:

Be

to

n?f

Human
Nature.

22 seq.

also has reference to the incarnate Logos.

Both doctrines are formally in this respect alike, that in


religion and theology are most intimately mingled and

them

grounded upon the Logos-doctrine. But Arianism is a union


of adoptiouism with the Origenistic-Neo-Platonic doctrine of
the subordinate Logos which
world, carried out by
telian dialectics

means

Arianism,
Athanasianisin.

the spiritual principle of the


of the resources of the Aristo
is

the orthodox doctrine

is

a union of the

al

most modalistically colored dogma, that Jesus Christ is God


in kind, with the Origenistic doctrine of the Logos as the
perfect likeness of the Father.

In the former, the principal

was placed upon the cosmological and rational-ethical


(descending trinity, enlightening and strengthening of

stress

side

freedom) in the latter, upon the thought of redemption, but


under a physical conception. In the former, the formulas
are apparently free from connivance and contradictions but
;

the speculative mythology, strictly viewed,


sible

is

as bad as pos

furthermore, only as cosmologians are the Arians mono-

and in religion they are polytheists


A Son who
is no Son, a Logos which is no Logos, a monotheism which
does not exclude polytheism, two or three ovala who are to be
theists

as theologians

finally in the background lie deep contradictions

adored, while really only one differs from the creatures, an


indefinable

and who

is

who only becomes God in becoming man,


neither God nor man. Besides, there was no vig
being

orous religious interest, and also no real philosophical inter


est, much more was everything hollow and formalistic, even

Contradic
tions in

Arianism.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

252

a puerile enthusiasm for sporting with husks and shells and


a childish self-sufficiency in setting at work unmeaning syl

The opponents were quite right This doctrine leads


logisms.
back to paganism. A relative value only is due to it, when,
coming in contact with uncultured and barbarian nations, it
:

was obliged to strip off its philosophical garments and in that


way was able to pass itself off essentially as adoptionism, as

God based upon Bib


The orthodox doctrine,

the veneration of Christ by the side of


Orthodox
Doctrine,

Value and

passages (German adoptianism)

lical

on the contrary, possesses

Defects.

its

main
God himself has redeemed
communion with himself. But,
lasting value through its

tenance of the faith that in Christ

mankind and brought us into


God in Christ was conceived as alter ego of the
Father, and since redemption was conceived in a mystico"

since the

"

physical form, there resulted,


Inconceiv
able
Formulas.

1.

(one

Formulas, the direct gainsaying of which is evident


= three) and ideas, which cannot be conceived, but only
,

Thereby in the place of the knowledge of

asserted in words.

God which

Christ had promised,

was put a mystery, and

this

was to be recognized as the most profound knowledge. By the


side of the miracle, as characteristic of religion, was placed
the miracle of ideas as characteristic of the true theology
Contradict

2.

The assertion that the Person in Christ

Scripture.

is

the Logos, one

being with God, could be maintained only when one reversed


the interpretations of all evangelical reports concerning him,

and understood his history docetically. Therefore, the in


troduction of the absurd, and the abandonment of the histor
ical Christ in his

most valuable

the orthodox doctrine.


led
still

men back

traits, is

the consequence of

But the claim that Jesus Christ has

and given to them Divine life, was


This conviction of faith was saved by

to God,

maintained.

Athanasius against a doctrine which, upon the whole, did not


appreciate the inward nature of religion, which sought in
religion only instruction,

an empty

dialectics.

and

finally

found satisfaction in

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

253

easy to see that with Arius, as well as with Athana-

It is

sius, the contradictions and weaknesses flow from the reception

of Origenism, that

is,

from the

Without

scientific theology.

is, without the doctrine of the pre-existent, hypostatical Logos, Arianism would have been adoptionism, or

this, that

pure rationalism, and Athanasius would have been forced


either to turn to modalism, or to relinquish the idea of the

Divine

"

At

nature

the

"

of Christ.

synod of

Nicaea

(325)

the

homousios

(Hosius) finally conquered, thanks to the awkward


tactics of the Arians and Eusebians (Origenistic

middle party), to the decisiveness of the orthodox


and to the determination of the emperor. Into the
Ca3sarean creed the watch-words rswr^vra ou
x

TGC,

r^? ouffias TOO Ttarpos,

6fJLOo6fftov raj irarpi

xotytilv-

were in

Arian formulas expressly condemned, and


creed was made the law of the Church.
Almost

serted, the

this
all

the bishops (300? 318?) submitted, Arius and a

few companions were excommunicated and their fol


lowers persecuted. Athanasius attended this synod
as deacon, probably not without taking an important
part.

2.

Until the Death of Constantius.

The victory had been gained too quickly. Neither


formally, nor essentially had it been sufficiently
worked out, therefore the contest had really only
begun.

new

Men saw

formula, the

in the

making

homousios an unbiblical,
of

two Gods, or the

intro

duction of Sabellianism, and, in addition, the death

Due to
Scientific

Theology.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

254

of clear science.

Among

the opponents

who together

came forward as conservatives, two parties now be


came clearly prominent, the Arians and the Origenists

(Eusebians)

to

whom

the indifferents joined

But they were united

themselves.

in the contest

against orthodoxy (principal champion against

was Eusebius

of Nicomedia)

it

Constantine soon understood that he would have

come

to

tion,

an agreement with the anti-Mcene coali


which after 328 became anti-Athanasian, for
to

young bishop was the most decided Nicene.


Personal differences arose at a time when the ambi
tion and power of the ecclesiastics could finally
the

In 335 Atha-

reckon upon the highest gratification.


nasius

was declared deposed

at Tyre,

and in 336 he

was banished by the emperor to Trier. The solemn


reception of Arius into the Church was frustrated by
In 337 Constantine died, really approv
ing the promulgating, under the cover of the Nicene

his death.

creed, of hostile doctrines,


constantius Favors

Anans.

jji s

sons divided the empire.

returned.

But Constantius, the

Athanasius

(337)
v

ruler of the East,

rightly understood that he could not govern with

orthodoxy, and he did not feel himself bound, like


He deposed the
his father, to the Nicene creed.
Eusebius

Nicomedia

orthodox bishop of the capital: Eusebius of Nico-

me dia took his place.

In Csesarea an Arian, Acacius,

succeeded Eusebius; Athanasius was deposed, but

he anticipated his banishment by


(339), leaving

Egypt

flight

in wild disorder.

to

Rome

The Euse-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


bians were not masters of the situation, but the

was

West

true Nicene and the stronghold of Oriental ortho

doxy.
the

255

The Eusebians did not wish

West; they were,

therefore,

to

break with

obliged to try to

quietly push aside the Nicene creed, replacing in

mere pretence the homousios by better Biblical


formulas and demanding the carrying out of the de
position of Athanasius.

It

was

of great advantage

to the Orientals that a strict Nicene

and a friend

of

Athanasius, Marcellus of Ancyra, did not sanction

common

foundation of the teaching, the philo


sophical- Origenistic Logos-doctrine, but declared the

the

God, which only at the in


in
carnation had become divine Person and

Logos

to be the

Power

of

"Son",

when once he had fin


Orientals saw in this doctrine

order to return to the Father

ished his work (the


"

Sabellianism

.
")

Julius of

Rome and Athanasius

declared Marcellus to be orthodox, and proved there

by that they were concerned alone about redemptive


faith and laid aside the formulas set up by the
Orientals at Antioch (341), although the latter

now

formally renounced Arianism and established a doc


trine which could be taken for Nicene.
Political reasons compelled Constantius to be oblig-

ing to his orthodox brother, Constans, the ruler of


The great council of Sardica (343) was

the West.

intended to restore unity of faith in the empire.

But the Occidentals refused the preliminary demand


of the Orientals

to acknowledge the deposition of


Athanasius and Marcellus, and proclaimed after the

of Ancyra.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

256

exodus of the Orientals

Philippopolis) the deposi

(to

tion of the leaders, taking their position rigidly

erated the

4th Antiochian

upon

The opponents

the basis of the Nicene creed.

reit

Constantius

formula.

himself seems to have mistrusted them for a time

he certainly feared to

who was en
The Orientals re

irritate his brother

deavoring to gain the supremacy.


iterated once

more

(Antioch, 344)
S

at

$nan

in a long formula their orthodoxy

and the minimum

Although the West

of their

demands.

Milan synods (345-347)

at the

rejected the doctrine of Photinus of Sirmium,

who

from the doctrine of his master, Marcellus, had de


veloped a strictly adoptian conception (the Logos
never became a person), it yet remained otherwise
firm, while in

the East political bishops already

The

meditated peace with Athanasius.

latter

was

who was hard

pressed by
was greeted with great rejoic
Alexandria (346). About 348 it appeared as

restored by Constantius,

the Persians, and he

ings in
if

orthodoxy had conquered

word
orastan-

Ruler

6/j.oovffto?

seemed

But the death

still

only Marcellus and the

to give offence.

of Constans (350)

and the defeat

of

the usurper Magnentius (353) changed everything.


If Constantly s during the last years was obliged to

bow

before a few bishops, his

had ruled

his brother, he

now

own

subjects,

as sole ruler

who

was de

termined to govern the Church and pay back the


humiliations. Already in 351 (2d Sirmian synod)
synods of
nd
A
Mffau

*^ e Oriental bishops had returned to action. At the


synods of Aries (353) and Milan (355) the Western

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

257

At

first

episcopate

was obliged to come


was demanded

nothing further

to terms.

of

it

than the con

demnation of Athanasius, but this meant a diver


gence on the question of faith, and the bishops al
lowed

it

upon them

to be forced

(a

few exceptions

Paulinus of Trier, Lucifer of Cagliari, Eusebius of

had to go
Athanasius anticipated his deposition by
into the desert (356)
Union seemed restored,

Vercelli; also Hosius, Liberius, Hilarius

into exile)
flight

was as state ecclesiasticism, against which


orthodox Western bishops fiercely inveighed, now
only remembering that emperor and state should
but

it

not meddle with religion.


The union of the victors was only a seeming one,
for it became apparent that it did not go beyond

Arianism again came


forward in Aetius and Eunomius and wanted to
negations.

Strict aggressive

carry through the


nara ndvra xa\ xar

"

anomoian

ooffiav)

Arianism placed

"

doctrine (avdpoios

In opposition to

this,

itself in sharp contrast (the

o/0co? xara Trdvra xa\ xara

xal

Semi"un

rrt v oo-

changeable
These homoiusians (Georgius of Laodicea,
Eustathius of Sebaste, Eusebius of Emesa, Basilius
likeness",

of Ancyra)

had learned that the Son must

being, of like essence with the Father

be, as to

as scientific

men

(cosmologians) they did not wish to abandon


the cosmic potentiality of the Logos and the descend

ing trinity.

They understood how, with the Scrip

tures as a basis

and

in connection

with Christology,
made an im-

to so formulate their doctrine that it


17

of

Laodicea,

B
Aniyra

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

258

pression even upon Nicene Occidentals, who, to be


sure,

half idiots in scientific theology.


The
was that of the politicians, who applauded
formula which had the best prospect of settling

were

still

third party

that

the contest (Ursacius and Valens:


From
357-361

Constantius

Openly
Favors
Arianisru.

Ypayds).

The period from 357-361

is

o>oco?

X a-a

r?

the time during

which the emperor, openly dropping the Nicene


creed, sought for a Christological imperial formula,

and proposed with


the synods.
"

Ypayds

all

energy to carry

Here, finally, only the

could be presented

for

it

through at

"

o/^nos

~/.ara

r?

with this unmeaning

formula, the Arians, semi- Arians and even the ortho

dox could make friends, since it directly contra


dicted no doctrine.
The Sirmian synods had not as
yet accomplished

what they ought, and they even

showed a passing tendency


SemiAriaus,

Synods

at

Seleueia

and
Rimini.

Ancyra

Two

(358)

to strict

Arianism.

At

the semi- Arians rallied powerfully.

great contemporaneous synods in the East and

West

(at Seleueia and Rimini) were expected to pro


claim the 4th Sirmian formula, a dogmatico-political
masterpiece of the emperor. But when the one as

sumed a

homoiusiaii, the other an orthodox attitude,

they were terrorized, kept in suspense, and the ho-

moiusian imperial creed was forced upon them in

exchange for concurrence in the expulsion of strict


Arianism (synods at Nice and Constantinople 360).

Afterward

all

homoiusians were nevertheless ban

ished from the influential positions, so that, in spite


of the expulsion of Aetius,

an Arianism, moderated

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


through want of principle, actually established
in the

3.

Church as the

259
itself

state religion.

Until the Councils at Constantinople, 381, 383.

In the year 3G1 Constantius died.

Julian sue-

ceeded him, and accordingly, instead of the artificial


union, the real parties succeeded again to their rights.

But the homoiusians were no longer the "middle


no longer the "conservatives" in the old
party",
sense; for in opposition to Arianism, they

had deep

ened and strengthened their doctrine (conservatives


Conservative and conciliatory
possess elasticity).

were the homoians who

inclined toward Arian

Here the change in the Orient at first, in


ism..
deed, only in the minds of the most prominent theo
The homoiusians, disciples of
logians is shown.
Origen, distinguished alike for ecclesiastical feeling,

asceticism

homousios,

and pure

capitulated to the
an alliance which Hilarius zealously
science,

urged forward.
Julian permitted the banished bishops, therefore
also Athanasius, to return.
(3G2)

The synod

marks the turning-point

of Alexandria

in so far as

Atha

nasius there admitted that the Nicene creed sans

phrase should be valid; that is, he expressly re


nounced the phrase "one being" (one hypostasis)
and thus allowed such
6/jioouffio?

as

made

"

it

an interpretation of the
(instead of one

one essence

"

"

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

260

which constituted therefore three hypostaBut this concession and the great leniency

being"),

ses.

toward those who once had signed the 4th Sirmian


formula provoked the displeasure of some of the
Lucifer,

prominent Occidentals (Lucifer) and martyrs of the


In the West one felt that the old doctrine
faith.
Deity is the rock and
the plurality is the mystery) had been inverted (the
trinity of the divine Persons is the rock and the
(the substantial unity of the

unity

not able to add real friends to his

new

scientific

friends in Asia Minor, Cappadocia and Antioch

now the
A

lh a ~
rS of

ami the
Three Cap
padocians.

was

the problem), and Athanasius himself

is

for

science of Origen had been rescued for ortho-

doxy. The great theologians, Apollinaris

of Laodicea

and the three Cappadocians, started from Origen and

now
but they recognized the
and were able to carry on their philosophical specu
lations with it and by the side of it for one could
the

tipotoufftog

o>ooo<rwy

say that there are three hypostases, and still be ortho


dox. By creating a firm terminology, they suc
ceeded at the same time in producing apparently
now received the middle sense

clear formulas.

Ou<ria

between the abstract idea of

"

"

being

and the con

however, that
it very strongly inclined to the former. TroTTa^? re
ceived the middle sense between person and attri
crete idea of

"

individual being

"

so,

bute (accident, i.e. modality), in such away, how


ever, that the conception of person was the stronger.
IJpoffwxov,

since

it

sounded

avoided, but not rejected.

Sabellian-like,

The unity

was

of the Deity,

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

261

which the Cappadocians were concerned about, was


not the same as Athanasius and the Occidentals had
Mia obeia

in mind.

formula.

rpidiv u-rroffTdffeffw

became the

In order to render clear the real difference

in the Persons within the unity of the Deity,

Greg

ory of Nyssa added to them rponot uxdpgew? (n^-nyre?


XapaxTypiZouvai, i^aipsra idid);j.ara)^ and indeed to the

Father the

ayewjjffta

(not as being, but as

of the Father), to the

Son the

mode

of

VV7J ff ^a

being ["7^?]
even the older homoiusians had been here more re

and

served than Gregory

to the Spirit ixTtopeuais.

The Origenistic-Neo- Platonic trinity-speculation became rehabilitated. The Logos idea again came to
The unity of the Deity was again proved
the front.
from the monarchy of the Father, not from the
ouffto?.
Thus science formed its alliance with the
<>>>-

"

"

Nicene doctrine.
also

among

While

in the beginning scientists

the heathen

acknowledged Arius

to

be in the right, now men became champions of the


Nicene doctrine, to whom even a Libanius extended
the palm branch.
scientific

They stood upon the

soil of

contemplation of the world, were in ac

cord with Plato, Origen and Libanius, and refuted

Eunomius amidst the applause of the philosophers.


At the same time it was a victory of Neo-Platonism
over Aristotelian dialectics. Thus orthodoxy in
union with science had from about 370-394 a beautiful spring-time, followed, however,

by destructive

by the blight of traditionalism.


Men dreamed the dream of an eternal union between

storms, or, rather,

fEn^S
doxy."

262

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

faith

and

The

science.

True,

it

was not undisturbed.


and in An-

old-faith orthodoxy in the Occident

tioch remained distrustful, even repellent.

In Anti-

och a kind of schism broke out between the old and


the

new

scientific

The

orthodoxy.

the former Sabellian, although


off the suspicion of
Political

Events
Favor

Homo-

teaching

it

latter considered

could hardly shake

"homoiusian".

But not only did science prepare the victory

for

the homousios, the course of the world s events did

usios.

In Valens the Orient obtained a power


emperor. The orthodox and homoiu-

so as well.
ful

Arian

and they drew nearer to


each other. They again sought support from the
orthodox West. Liberius of Rome was not disin
sians

had

clined,

to

go into

and Basilius

old

synods

was
of

standpoint, and

harsh
(in

of CaBsarea

Yet Damascus

orous activity.
the

exile,

after 370 in vig

Rome
it

the seventies) to convince

orthodoxy of the
last signed (at

new orthodox

returned to

needed several

him

Orientals.

of the

These at

Antioch 379) the formulas of faith of

Damascus, without, however, being able to settle the

But the subscription was already


a sequence of the world-historical events that in the
year 375 in the West the youthful Gratian, wholly
schism in Antioch.

Gratian
Succeeds
Valentinian.

devoted to the Church and orthodoxy (Damascus,

Ambrose) succeeded the tolerant Yalentinian, and


after 378 became sole ruler (Valens died at AdriTheodosius

comes

Be

Em

peror
in

Orient.

anople contending against the Goths). In the year


379 the orthodox Spaniard Theodosius was elevated
to

be co-regent and emperor of the Orient.

He was

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

263

determined to govern the Church like Constantius,


but in the sense of strict Occidental orthodoxy The
:

celebrated edict of Thessalonica

showed

this in the

year 380 (issued by the emperor immediately after


He deprived the Arians of all their
his baptism *).
churches in Constantinople and forbade the heretics
But he soon per

in general to worship in the cities.

ceived that he could rule in the Orient only with

Oriental orthodoxy, that he dare not apply the severe


standard of the West, and that he must win halffriends entirely over.

He

called, therefore, in 381

an

Oriental council at the capital and appointed as pre-

siding officer Meletius, that

is,

the leader of the

new

orthodox party in Antioch. Thereby he of course


gave offence to the Occidentals and Egyptians, but
secured to himself the Cappadocians and the Asia

At

Minor theologians.

the synod the contrast

so strongly expressed that a rupture

hand

new

(the

had

presiding

But

officer,

was

was near

at

Gregory Nazian-

synod (150 bish


sans
theNicene
doctrine
phrase, the
ops) proclaimed
complete homoousion of the three Persons, and also
zen,

to resign).

expelled the Macedonians.


ity of

"

being

*"Cunctos

finally the

In fact, however,

conquered in the sense of

populos

"

"

equal

equality of es-

in tali volumus religione versari,

quam

di-

vinum Petrum apostolum tradidisse Romanis religio usque ad nunc ab ipso


insinuata declarat quamque pontificem Damasum sequi claret et Petrum
Alexandrine episcopum virum apostolicae sanctitatis, hoc est, ut secundum
apostolicam disciplinary evangelicamque doctrinam patris et filii et
spiritus sancti unam deitatem sub pari maiestate et sub pia trinitate
credamus. Hanc legem sequentes Christianorum catholicorum nomen
-fubemus amplecti, reliquos vero dementes vesanosque iudicantes hceretici
dogmatis infamiam sustinere, divina primum vindicta, post etiarn motus
nostri, quern ex ccelesti arbitrio sumpserimus, ultione plectendos".

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

264

sence",

But the symbol, which,

not unity of essence.

and 530 in the Occident,


be that of this synod and obtained the

since about 450 in the Orient


is

considered to

highest consideration in the Church and which has

supplanted the

Mcene

enlargement of

it,

is

as being only a mere nominal

not the symbol of this synod,


only by a quid pro quo after-

which, moreover, was


d stamped as ecumenical.

The

stantinopolitan creed

it is

wai>

is older;

so-called

Con-

the baptismal

by Cyril soon
after 362 when he accomplished his transition from
semi-Arianism to the Opooufftos. In it the tx r/;?
of Jerusalem, probably edited

symbol

"

is wanting, and it contains a formula


about the Holy Spirit which does not proclaim the
orthodox doctrine, but avoids the question at issue
oufftas roo irarpo^

x6|0ov, TO

(TO

xal

3ta

"

CWOTTOC OV,

ui&

TO

TOL>

Ttarpos ixxopeuo/jLevov^ TO

ffi>v7rpoffxuvou/j.svov

r&v xpoyyTcuv)

How

xal
it

f>uvdo^a^6jj..vov

came

TO*

into the rec

ords of the synod (through Cyril? Epiphanius?) and


it afterwards became the symbol of the council

how
c

a
ticai

LegendMaking.

is

quite obscure.

Still ecclesiastical

h as nere exercised a strange

legend-making

justice in appending to

the synod of the newly orthodox bishops a symbol


which the anti-Arian anathemas and Nicene

in

watch-words are wanting.


cover of the

<jp.oobffio$

men

In reality under the


indeed continued in the

Orient in a kind of homoiusianism, which


this
*

day orthodox

Concerning the symbol see

Aufl.

is to

in all their churches. *

my

article in

Herzog

R. Encyclop.

2.

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

265

The Occident was highly displeased with the


course of the synod, since,

among

had acknowledged the orthodoxy


Rome were strongly suspected.

other things,
of

men who

it

council,

in

Representations

were made, a schism was threatened. But the Orient


was no longer disposed to bend further under the
dogmatic rule of Rome, and Theodosius, keeping the
two halves of the empire separate, remained firm

and prudent, and avoided consenting to a general


council, which Gratian (Ambrose) wished to call.
In the year 382 they drew nearer together, since in

Rome,

as well as in Constantinople, synods

were

contemporaneously in session, and since these showed


themselves more conciliatory regarding personal
questions

to this point

the controversy had nar

rowed down inasmuch as the Antiochian schism


But, above all this, circumstance greatly
contributed to a reconciliation; the spiritual leader
continued.

of the

Occident, Ambrose, went to school to the

science of the Cappadocians

influenced

by

and became powerfully

it.

In the year 381 perhaps nine- tenths of the Orient


was Arian. Theodosius endeavored to frighten

win them (synod of


them,
383 at Constantinople even Eunomius was invited)
Bat soon he abandoned the gentle method and Am
brose seconded him in the West.
One dare assume
later,

however, also to

that most of the Arian and semi-Arian Greek bish

ops did submit

(Eunomius)

only the extreme

left

remained firm

More rapidly than Hellenism did Arian

orient
Arian.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OP DOGMA.

266

ism die out among the Greeks.

True, the orthodox

laymen, always conservative, considered the ortho

dox formula more as a necessary evil and an inex


plicable mystery than as an expression of their faith.

The victory of orthodoxy was a triumph of priests


and theologians over the indeed deeply rooted faith
of the people; but

it

did not

make

this faith

any

clearer.

SUPPLEMENT THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT


AND OF THE TRINITY.
:

Dot

Hofy
spirit.

Since the early days, alongside of a belief in the

Father and Son, there was a belief in the Holy Spirit

but what the latter was, or what significance it has,


became wholly obscure after the declining of Mon-

tanism and the retiring of the combination

The

ecclesia".

"

spiritus-

scientific theology of the apologists

did, in general, not

know what

do with

to

it,

and

even in the 3d century the majority viewed the Holy


Tertullian.

Tertullian tried to

Tertullian admitted

the Deity.
"Person"

trinity

it

as

"

God

"

and as

descending but consubstantial


Now the Neo-Platonic
subiectus).

into his

(filio

speculation,
Origen.

However, already Irena3us and


honor it as a divine power within

Spirit as a power.

found three Divine hyOrigen in accordance with and

science, also

postases necessary.

following the Bible took the Holy Spirit into his


theology as the third constant Being to be sure as a
;

creature subordinate to the Son, governing the small-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


est sphere, the circle of the sanctified.

of disposing of the doctrine of the

26?

The manner
Holy

by

Spirit

Tertullian and Origen, wholly analogous to their

treatment of the Logos-doctrine, shows that in gen


eral there did not exist a specific Christian interest
in this point of doctrine.

That Sabellius

obliged to take into view the

Holy

was

also

Spirit is only

sabeiiius.

proof that the claims of the general scientific doctrine

and

of the trinity

no

of the Biblical formulas could

longer be passed over.


Nevertheless within the churches and

majority of the bishops

the

among

no notice was taken of these

SmNot
QueltSa
till

scholarly advances, even

century

by the beginning of the 4th

4th

Century,

the Nicene creed itself merely gives a place

to the belief in the

Holy

Spirit,

without addition or

explanation. Athanasius during the first decade never


thought of it. Whoever considered it Divine in the
full sense

deemed

it

a power

he

who

conceived

it

as

something quite subordinate In


fact it was really only a word and it remained such
within the trinity even afterward.
personal, took

The Arians

it

for

solicited the farther formulation of the

by the concession of the inferiority


of the Holy Spirit, they were able to support easily
doctrine, since,

the subordination of the Son.


son,

however,

Exactly for this rea


orthodox became thoughtful.

the

Athanasius, after about 358, gave his attention to


the Holy Spirit and never wavered a moment in re

gard to the formula Since he must be worshipped,


he is #eo9 6/j.ooufftos like the Son, and belongs in no
:

DCUSS

268
inserted in
creed.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

ad Scrap.). At the synod


doctrine of the Holy Spirit was

sense to the world (epp.

o f Alexandria this

placed under the protection of the Nicene creed

who

He

a hypocritical Arian (the attempts,


between the agency of the
Holy Spirit and that of the Son, remained empty
But thus strongly did the Occident agree
words)
denies

it is true,

it is

to discriminate

in the Orient not only the Arians

to this formula

but also the semi -Arians saw in


vation; even those

who

it

a manifest inno

in the doctrine of the

Son

accepted the homousios refused to acknowledge the

novum, and took under Macedonius, bishop of Con


Yet more even the Capstantinople, a firm stand.
padocians, although they countenanced the formula,

and confessed the lack

of all tangible tradition,

vised the greatest caution and considered


to keep

back the formula at

pealing to the fact that

by a

napddoffis aypayos.

first

it

ad

necessary

as a mystery, ap

it was indeed sustained only


In their embarrassment in as

signing to the Holy Spirit a proper kind of being in


relation to the Father, they decided to attribute to
nt

Forcls
Doctrine

on orient,

him, according to John, the eternal ^We/i^r? and ixxope w.


But after 362 the theologians in the Occident
i
n
were indefatigable in imposing upon the half-won
-i

-i

-n>

Oriental brethren the Holy Spirit as

and, in union with the Cappadocians, they succeeded.

year 381 the Macedonians


(pneumatomachoi) were invited to the synod, but
only to hear their condemnation and to be expelled.
It is true that still in the

The anathemas

of

Damascus strengthened the

situa-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

269

Henceforth one was no longer permitted to

tion.

teach that the Holy Spirit

is

subordinate to the Son

indeed, since to the Greek the Father remained the


root of the Deity, the homousios of the Spirit seemed
safely secured only

when he

is

traced back to the

Father alone, the Son thereby not being taken at

all

into account.
2.

The Cappadocians, and

before

them

their great

teacher Apollinaris, established the orthodox doctrine


One Divine essence
of the trinity (vid. page 260)

Trinity,

which contained

in three Subjects, the equal nature of

in their consubstantiality is distinctly stamped in


their qualities

and

activities; their differences in the

characteristics of their

alone

is afrwv,

world

mulas
trinity

of

nature

was

"

still

immanence).

now

said,

the two others ahtard, yet not as the

is (really
"

mode of being but the Father

Tertullian

and

had already used the

for

to him, however, the


person
a
trinity of revelation, not
entirely
"

"

By means

Christianity

of the trinity, so they

distinguished from the

is

pagan polytheism and the

"stark"

Jewish mono

theism.

Ever since the appearance


gard

of the homoiusians, re-

for Christology exerted in the Orient

an

ence upon the establishment of the doctrine of the


trinity (there also nature

and person

6fj.otw/j.a

origi

nated there, and also the turning to account of the

analogy of the conceptions

"

"

humanity

in their relation to the individual

and

man.)

"

ijSSrine o

influ- Has subo

Adam

"

A subor

dination and Aristotelian element remained in the

dination
Element.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

270

and

trinity-doctrine of Oriental orthodoxy,


later Christological contest the latter

sympathy with

grown

it

(however not strongly

already too stubborn).

in the

was drawn
for

it

into

had

few Apollinarian

monophysites worked after 530 upon the conceptions


nature and person in Christology in an Aristo
"

telian

"

"

"

way, and thus

the trinity at

also arrived in the doctrine of

tritheism or at

modalism

(<pf>fft<$

Askusnages, Johannes Philoponus, Peter of


Kallinico; against these Leontius of Byzantium and
uTtoffrafft?;

John

of Damascus).

theism, gave to the

The

latter, in opposition to tri

dogma

of the trinity a turn

proaching the Occidental conception (the

ap

a-jrev^ffta is

formally declared equivalent to the ^vi^c a, the &


aXXtjkots of the three Persons is strongly emphasized,

thereby the Tre^/w^^?, but not ffuva^oi^ and ffop.<pop(r^


the difference existing only for the Ixvoia) this con

ception, however,

remained without

the most decisive point

tionism to continue
proceedeth alone
Son).

allowed the fine subordina-

John

from

The Father,

it

effect, since in

also taught that the Spirit

the

Father

(i.e.

through the

therefore, remains the

OT

of the

one spiritual picture which


Deity. Consequently
the Orient, and again another which the Occident,
formed of the trinity in the former the Father reit is

and occi1

ceplions
Dissimilar.

mained the

root of the

two alnard

the full reciproc

ity of all three Persons appeared to the Orientals to

jeopardize the monarchy, and especially the deduc


to jeopardize the

tion of the Spirit from the Son

homousion.

Here Photius

(867)

struck

in,

search-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

271

ing for a dogmatic point of dispute, and reproached


the Occidentals,

who taught

the

immanente proand Son, with

cessio of the Spirit from the Father

innovations,

even with Manich^ean dualism, and


with the still severer charge

heightened this reproach


of falsifying the holy

the addition of

symbol of Constantinople by
This word was really an
"filioque
".

innovation therein that had originated in Spain.


which has never been settled, and

contest broke out


in

which

to the

suspicious.

Greek even the

The

"

8 to. TOJ

wf5

"

became

Occidentals, however, were obliged

to cling to their doctrine, because, according to their


spiritual picture of the trinity, they

found the true

faith expressed only in the full unity, therefore also

only in the full reciprocity of the Persons. The


Greeks did not understand this, because secretly they

always remained cosmologically interested, just as


the doctrine of the trinity, under incessant scientific
treatment, has remained the vehicle which the phi

losophy of antiquity has handed down to the Slavic


and Germanic nations: It contains the Christian
idea of the revelation of

ment

God

in Jesus

of the ancient philosophy in a

and the

testa

most peculiar

mixture.

In the Occident the doctrine of the trinity had not


as a rule been treated as an object of speculation. The

unity was the safest thing, discrimination between


substance and person was understood more in the
sense of a (through the jurisprudence) current formal
distinction.

Augustine in his great work,

"

de trin-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

272
itate

",

intended to give expression to this conception

of the trinity

by means

of (Nee-Platonic) science,

but he was guided also by his religious consciousness


which knew only one God.* The consequence was
a complete obliteration of every remnant of subordinationism, the changing of the Persons into relations
(the old

Occidental modalism merely veiled)

but

same time there arose such a mass of contra


dictory and absurd formulas as to cause a shudder
at the

even to the author himself, now exulting in the in


comprehensible and now skeptical (the three together
are equal to one the absolute simple must be under
;

stood as triple ; the Son takes an active part in his

generation sunt semper invicem, neuter solus; the


economical functions, also, are never to be thought
;

of as separate
sonae",

non ut

therefore:

dictum

est

"tres

per-

illud dicer etur, sed ne taceretur).

This confession and the analogies which Augustine


makes use of regarding the trinity (they are alto
gether modalistic) show that he himself never could

have hit upon the trinity, if he had not been bound


to tradition.
His great work, in which naturally
also the procession of the Spirit from the Father and

Son

emphasized for in every act all three are


concerned became the high school for the technicois

logical cultivation of the intellect

and the mine of

scholastic divinity in the Middle Ages.

Augustine,

first

Through

the Spanish church, then others also,

* In
regard to Augustine s relation to the establishment of the Oriental
doctrine of the trinity, see Eeuter, Zeitschrift f. Kirehengesch. V. 375 seq.
and VI. 155 seq.

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION. 273


permitted themselves to be induced to proclaim the
filioque.

The paradoxical formulas of the Augustinian docwhich deny every connection

trine of the trinity,

with the history of revelation and with reason, but


possess their truth in the endeavor to sustain com
plete monotheism, became wide-spread in the Occi
dent and were comprised in the so-called Syiribolum
Atlianasianum, which arose gradually during the

early part of the Middle Ages,


tion

and was on

its

recep

proclaimed as holy Church


will be saved must believe

(8th to 9th century)

doctrine.*
them",

i.e.

"He

who

must submit to them.

In the Athanasian

creed as a symbol stands foremost the transforma


tion of the trinity doctrine, as

thought of

adopted

law, upon the

pends.

faith,

into

an inwardly-to-bean ecclesiastical

observance of which salvation de

With Athanasius

the

ttytoou^os

was the de

with the Cappadocians the


over-subtle theological dogma; with

cisive thought of faith ;


intellectually

the later Greeks the hallowed relic

with the later

Occidentals the ecclesiastical law which

demands

obedience.
*

On

the "Athanasianum

works of Foulkes
18

(1871),

"

see Kollner,

Swainson

(1875),

Symbolik

Ommaney

I.

53 seq.

(1875),

and the

Lumhy

(1887).

^hanS

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

274

CHAPTER

VIII.

THE DOCTRINE OF THE PERFECT EQUALITY AS TO


NATURE OF THE INCARNATE SON OF GOD AND
HUMANITY.
Sources
The fragments of Apollinaris, the writings of
Athanasius, of the Cappadocians and of the Antiochians.
:

?f chSst

^ HE

^ on

Divinity of Christ was only


preparatory to the question of the union of the Divine
<

l lies

and human in

f ^ ne

Into this problem the whole

Christ.

of dogmatics flowed.

and afterward Atha

IrenaBus,

nasius, had established the Divinity


er with respect to redemption, i.e.

of the

Redeem

upon that assump

tion.

But the question

of the

union presupposed not only

a precise conception of the Divinity, but also of the

humanity

of the

Redeemer.

contest the reality of the

secured

(Tertull.,

de

True, in the gnostic

</>?

came

docetism had in spite of

it

of Christ

Cliristi)

had been

yet a fine

continued to exist, and

that not only with the Alexandrians but also with

them thought of a per


self-consciousness, and not a single one

all teachers.

fect

human

Scarcely one of

attributed to the
tations

human nature

tainly

and not as the

human

soul and a free will

tion between the

shown

of Christ all the limi

which surround our nature.

definitely

first
;

Origen

cer

attributed to Christ a

but he needed a connec

God-Logos and matter, and he has


in his Christology in so far as he

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

275

did not separate the Jesus and the Christ that the
remains active when one

most evident docetism


conceives the

<ra/,

because wholly material, as with

out quality and capable of every attribute.


With the Origenistic theologians, and among the
Christian people generally, existed at the beginning
of the 4th century the most varied conceptions re

garding the incarnation and humanity of Christ.


Only a few thought of a human soul and many
thought of the flesh of Christ as heavenly, or as a
transformation of the Logos, or as a vesture. Crass
docetic conceptions were softened by Neo-Platonic
speculative ideas (the finiteness a

the unfolding Deity


of

really thought

No

itself).

moment within

one in the Orient

two natures; one

eternal

God-

incarnate nature, one nature having become Godincarnate, a Divine nature having been changed for

a time into
in the
ity

human

human,

i.e.

nature, a Divine nature dwelling

clothed in the covering of

human

these were the prevailing conceptions, and the

answers were just as confused to single questions


(Was the flesh born of Mary, or the Logos with the
flesh?
Was the Christ made man, or did he assume

human

nature?

nature and

How much

it still

be considered human?) and to the

Biblical considerations

gered?
rance?

Or

Who

died?

The God

can be wanting to this

(Who

Who

or the

economic?).

Who

hun

acknowledged his igno

man, or the God-man?

in reality are not all these

A more

suffered?

^-^

only apparent,

or less fine docetism

was

i.e.

also

Theories

About In carnati o n
-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

276

But by the
and Novatians, stood upon

in concreto taught in the Occident.


side of

it,

after Tertullian

the basis of the symbol the juristic formula

Tivo

This formula, as though it


substances, one person.
were a protection and boundary thought, was never
further investigated

but

it

some day the saving phrase

was destined

to

become

in the conflicts of the

Orient,
person-

Fundamental.

The unity of the supernatural personality of Christ


was here the common startinsr-point. How to provide a place for humanity in it was the problem,
which in its sharpness and gravity Apollinaris of
Laodicea first discerned. The Arians had given the
impulse, since they conceived the humanity of Christ

merely as

/>

in order to express the full unity of

the personality of the Redeemer and at the

same

time to be able to attribute to their half -divine Logos


the limited knowledge and capability of suffering

found in the Christ.

They threw

dox, that their doctrine leads to

two natures (which were

or to

Ap

ina ~

s
ris.

tical)

was
(1)

Apollinaris

up to the ortho
two Sons of God,
it

still

considered iden-

now recognized that this reproach

justified he made the problem of his theology


To express just as strict a unity in the person of
:

Christ as Arianism did in

with the

ffdpE,

of Christ.

(2)

Here

Logos clothed merely


To unite with it the full humanity

is

its

the problem which occupied the

Church of the 3d century, and indeed Apollinaris sur


veyed it in its whole range as the chief problem of
Christian theology, as the nucleus of all expressions of

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


and he treated

faith,

it

ingenuity and with a


terminologies of

277

accordingly with the greatest


dialectics that anticipated all

the

With the orthodox

future.

(Athanasius) he found

because they, in order

fault,

to escape the objections of the Arians,

and in spite

of their better intentions, constantly discriminated

in Christ

between what the

did ; thereby

is

man and what

the

God

the duality established and redemp

made dependent thereon for Christ must so


have been made man, that everything which is valid
of humanity is also valid of the Deity and vice versa

tion is

Athanasius never used the expression Suo (puaeis


like Origen but he was obliged against his will to
(true,

divide the unity of the tyo? ffapxw&sfc in

He

tion).

take

away

its

applica

censured the Arians because they also


the comfort of redemption in so far as

Christ did not assume entire humanity, but only the

He

flesh.

himself, holding fast to the idea of unity

as to a rudder, but not rejoicing like an Aristotelian


in the

mystery of the

faith, as did

Athanasius, estab

God- Logos had taken

lished the doctrine that the

human flesh and a human soul (which


constitute human nature as nature) but not a human
Logos, i.e. as we should now express it not that

unto himself

which

in

man

constitutes the (individual) person,

therefore not free will.

human

With

the thus-constituted

nature, however, the Logos

was

able to fuse

into a complete unity, because there never existed

two subjects;

for the rocks

which Apollinaris had

recognized as dangerous were

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

278
(1)

the

The

idea of two Sons,

man and the God,

natures are two Sons


(2)

i.e.

the separating of

the Jesus and the Christ


")

("

two

The conception that Jesus was an

(3) The idea that he had a free, changeable nature.


The subject must be removed from the human
nature of Christ, otherwise one would arrive at a

double-being (hybrid, minotaur) whereas his concep


clear.
tion renders the /^
y^ais roD \oyou
;

<>vaf>-/.w!j.lvrj

Proves his
Doctrine
fc any,

Bib-

sSuia-

This Apollinaris proved soteriologically (what the


man did. God must have done and suffered, otherwise the same has no power to save

d#pd>-ou

tively

xarapyer rov ftdvarov

the y3? and

MY<S

became through Christ

the Deity

of the entire

humanity

nature became through Christ the

<r/>

the

human

of the Deity)

Biblically he was a very able exegete and speculatively (the human nature is always the thing moved,
the Divine is the mover; this relationship comes in

the

MYS

aapztafteis

to

its

manifestation; Christ

is

and

perfect development

the heavenly

Adam, who

consequently possesses incarnation potentially; in a

hidden

way he always was

6fi.oouffio$

voD? evffapxo?

to his Divinity, because

incarnation

his flesh is

he was

fitted for

therefore is the incarnation in no

accidental and differs from

all

mere inspiration

way
;

the

Logos is always Mediator [isao-cr^ between Deity


and humanity however, one does not know how far
Apollinaris went here)
;

If the

mystery two = one

(see the parallel to the

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


mystery, three

279

one) is at all to be described, then

the doctrine of Apollinaris, measured by the presup

and aims

tianity as religion,

Greek conception of Chris


For this reason, too,
is perfect.

he found faithful

disciples,

positions

of the

and

all

monophysites,
orthodox
even
the
Greek
are
at the bottom
yes,
pious
The
of
an
individual human
Apollinarists
acceptance
:

personality in Christ does

away with

Redeemer, just as the idea of


robs the incarnation of

its effect.

Apollinaris struck out the


believers before

and

and

his power as
unmixed
two
natures

after

human
him

For that reason


voo$ like all

Greek

he, however, openly

energetically.

But the demand

for a complete

human nature once

proclaimed could no longer be passed over in silence

One could
the
of

still

say according to Apollinaris, that

secedes.

human
? would not be saved; the doctrine
God also appeared to totter, if God was made

Therefore the full humanity was


already acknowledged at the Synod of Alexandria,

to

have

suffered.

and the Cappadocians rose against their revered


teacher, who was obliged (3 75)^ to withdraw from the
362,

Church, but formed a church of his own the West


also condemned him.
The full homousios of Christ
;

with humanity was exalted to a doctrine. Certainly


the gospel reports had a part therein but that which
;

the Cappadocians were able to set


to

up

in opposition

Apollinaris were only wretched formulas, full

There are two natures, and yet


there are not two Sons, but the Divinity

of contradictions

only one

Th
docfln

)ar

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

280

acts in Christ in one

way, the humanity in another


Christ had human freedom, but acted under Divine
;

In reality the Cappadocians thought like


Apollinaris, but they had to make a place for the

necessity.

man",

"perfect

mand

while the Greek piety did not de

this consideration.

had dictated the doctrine


Athanasian

to the

opoouffto?

The sovereignty
to Apollinaris;

of faith

he added

the corresponding Chris-

tology; like Athanasius he hesitated at no sacrifice


for the sake of his faith.

in upholding the full

His opponents, however,

humanity (human subject) did


Church of the future.

after all a great service to the

They were now obliged to try and reconcile the con


two Sons, and yet two independent
In what form that was to issue no one
natures)

tradictions (not
.

knew

as yet.

CHAPTEK

IX.

CONTINUATION: THE DOCTRINE OF THE PERSONAL


UNION OF THE DIVINE AND HUMAN NATURE IN
THE INCARNATE gON OF GOD.
Sources

The writings of Cyril and of the Antiochians,


Hef ele, Conciliengesch. Bd.I.and II.

the acts of the councils.,

^ The Nestorian
complete God and
being?

were

How

Controversy.

the complete

man

The most zealous opponents

his compatriots,

and in part

"

the

of Apollinaris

also his philosoph

ical sympathizers, the Antiochians.

from the formula,

can

be united in one

They deduced

complete God and complete man",

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


two

the consequence of
of

Tarsus and above

281

Diodorus

different natures.

Theodore of Mopsuestia,

all

he

a
dore

distinguished for their sober theology, excellent exe-

estia.

gesis and severe asceticism, were thorough Mcenes,


but they at the same time rightly recognized that

complete humanity without freedom and changeableness is a chimera; consequently Deity and human
ity are contrasted and cannot by any means be fused
into one (incapable of suffering, capable of suffering)

In accord therewith they constructed their Christology,

which was therefore not fashioned according


by the evan

to sotcriological conceptions, but rather

Christ consists of two sep-

gelical picture of Christ.

arate natures (no Zwatt

sumed the nature

of

4>o<rtxij)

Se p^ate

the God-Logos as

an individual man, that

is,

he

dwelt therein; this indwelling was not substantial,


and also not merely inspirational, but xard xdptv, i.e.

God united and

joined

(<n>vd<peia)

himself to the

man

Jesus in an especial manner, yet analogous to his


union with pious souls. The Logos dwelt in Christ
as in a temple

what

tially

it

his

human

was but
;

to a perfect condition

it

nature remained substan

developed

(Zvu<n?

ff^sTtxrj)

in the beginning only relatively perfect ;

itself

a moral union

exhibited

(ytopi^at

ra<$

was

ivoj
<f>uffi$

odore uses the later formula


"

and

it

it is

in

but by the verification and ex

altation one adorable subject

son

gradually

The union was

and constancy.

therefore only a relative one

was

itself

"

T^V

finally

and forever

Ttpoffxtjyyfftv}.

Two

The-

natures, one per-

but with him the unity of the person

is

j^

Pereon

merely

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

282

one of names, of honor and adoration in no sense a


substantial unity.
He has quite distinctly two per
;

two natures (person = nature) and,


believers an adorable icptiffwxov.
Of an

sons, because
besides, for

incarnation, therefore, one

may

not definitely speak,

but only of an assumption of the man on the part of


The functions of Jesus Christ are to be

the Logos.

strictly distributed

To

call

Tm s

Mary

between the Deity and humanity.

dsoroxo? is absurd.

doctrine

distinguished from that of the

is

Samosatians only by the assertion of the personal


In truth is Jesus
ity of the God-Logos in Christ.
invito

TJieodoro

nevertheless

an

avftpwicos

ev9eo?.

That the Antiochians contented themselves with


this

was a consequence

of their rationalism.

How

ever deserving of acknowledgment their spiritual


conception of the problem is, still they were farther

removed from the conception of redemption as a


new birth and as forgiveness of sin, than the repre
sentatives of the realistic idea of redemption.

knew

of a Perfecter of

They
humanity who conducts it

through knowledge and asceticism unto a new xardBut


ffrafft?, but they knew nothing of a Restorer.
since they did not docetically explain away, or

accommodation

set

forth

the

human

by

qualities of

Church the picture of the


a time when the Church was

Christ, they held before the


historical Christ, at

obliged to depart in

its

formulas of doctrine farther

and farther from the same.


have no great

effect in

True, a picture could

which they emphasized the

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


empty freedom and capacity

points of

283

of suffering

equally with wisdom and asceticism.


Their opponents, the Alexandrians, relied upon
the tradition which embarrassed the Antiochians,

and that he

that Christ possessed the Divine physis


really

became man;

and even

later,

their deductions lacked

and their faith was

Cyril of Alexandria, in

surer.

idea of piety, like Athanasius,


his side.

the

fundamental

and had tradition on

This piety demanded only a strong and

sure declaration of the mystery, nothing


Tcpoffxuvstfffta* TO apprjTov).

ment

all

respects de

many

serving of little esteem, strove for the

431,

but that

apprehensible clearness;

could not be otherwise

till

Upon

of the faith Cyril never

more

(fftwxTj

the theoretical state

wasted

many words

but he was immediately in danger of transgressing


the limits of his idea of faith, whenever he sought

and his terminology was in


did not proceed from the histor-

to explain the mystery,

His faith

definite.

God who was made man.


This God was incorporated in the complete human

ical Christ,

but from the

and

nature,

yet

lie

remained the same.

He

did not

transform himself, but he took humanity into the


unity of his being, without losing any of the latter.

He was the same afterwards as before, the one sub


What the body suffered, he suffered. Thereject.
foie Cyril used

phrases

el?

with special preference the following

xat 6

UTS, namely, the God-Logos,

TTOCcfV TTJV ffdpXCt


OlXOVOfJLtXWS^ fJ.fJ.y7)XV

OXSp

TjV^

ix d JO

dbo (pbffsiov xatf zvaxnv ddidffxaffTov


el?, ffuvAeufft$

idfav

</>UffWV

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

284
xai
fjiia

Hence

arp7:Tw<$.

<pbats

tween

TOO &sou

<pvci<s

Myou

and

zvwais

<puffixij

ffeffapxco/j-lvrj)

uKoffraais

and

(taff uxoffrafftv

The difference be

Cyril hardly touched upon.

xara ybG&.
Yet he never said t* 8uo uxoffTdffswv^ or
With him ybfft? and oKoffraffts coincide as regards the
vw<7:9

Divine nature

He

not.

as regards the

an
Nat"r

nature they do

became an

individual man, although he acknowledged

all

the

Christ

is

the

constituents of
Assumes

human

rejected the idea that Christ

humanity
Logos which has assumed
can he be the Redeemer.

in Christ.

human nature;

only thus
Before the incarnation

two natures, there


The God-incarnate, which is
The Deity s capacity
P.OV-Q.

there were, according to Cyril,


after only one, to wit

distinguished as
for suffering

ftewpia

to be sure, not the consequence of

is,

the unity; but the Logos suffers in his

Nevertheless he

is

For that reason,

5te<>9

ffraopiu^e^ and Mary

also,

eucharist give Divine

can the

life

ff&pZ

for the

own

flesh.

is ^eoroxo?.

Christi in the

same

is filled

with

the Deity.
cyrn Real-

This conception is at the bottom pure monophysbut it does not wish to be so, and, in assert
;

ing the humanity of Christ as not to be explained

guards against the consequent monophysformula.


Cyril was really orthodox, that is, he

away,
itic

it

taught what lay as a consequent in the orthodox doc


trine respecting Christ.

But the contradiction

is

both natures were to be present, una


bridged and unmixed, inclusive of a human Logos,
and yet there should be but one God-incarnate naapparent

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


and the human part

ture,

285

It is also

is subjectless.

apparent that the picture of the real Christ cannot

be maintained by this view: Docetic explanations


must necessarily be admitted (i.e. accommodation).
But this doctrine is after all more valuable than
that of the Chalcedon creed, because

make
plete

clear to itself

it

human

by it faith can
that Christ assumed the com

nature, substantially united

himself and elevated

it

it

with

The contro

to the Divine.

versy broke out in Constantinople through the vain,


blustering, but not ignoble bishop Nestorius (428),
who, hated by the Alexandrians as an Antiochian

and envied
dently by

up hatred impru
and by his attacks upon those

for his chair, stirred

his sermons

favoring Cyril, and specially by branding the word


feoroxos and the like as heathenish fables.
He sought

now

to eradicate the

linaris"

"

and Apolby no means

rottenness of Arius

as a Christologian, however, he

stood at the extreme left of orthodoxy, like Theodore.

He

up an agitation in the capital the monks


and the imperial ladies were against him, and Cyril
stirred

now

The formulas which each


used did not sound very differently Nestorius him
self was rather inclined to agree, with reservations,
took a hand in

to the &SOTUXO?

it.

but behind the formulas there lay a

deep dogmatic and ecclesiastico-political contrast.


Cyril fought for the one God-incarnate nature, and
for

He was able to
Roman bishop, to whom at

primacy in the Orient.

for himself the

the bishop of Constantinople seemed a

gain over
that time

more power-

Nestorius

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

286
Coeiestius.

f u j r i va i

than the one of Alexandria.

Coelestius,

also personally irritated at Nestorius, repudiated his

own

Christological view

which approached very

nearly to that of Nestorius, joined the anathematiza


tion of Cyril
tion.

and demanded

Cyril,

hurling

of Nestorius a recanta

counter-anathemas

against

Nestorius, compelled the calling of a general council

by the emperor who favored him.


of

to

c^uncii^

direct the general council at

But he was able


Ephesus

such a manner, that from the beginning

The decrees

split.

of the

it

(431)

in

began

to

Egyptian-Roman party

were recognized afterwards as the decrees of the


council, while the

emperor did not originally recog

nize either these, or the decrees of the Anticchiaii


party.

Cyril allowed no

new symbol

to be estab

lished, but caused the deposition of Nestorius and the


declaration of his own doctrine as orthodox.
Con-

trarywise the Council which was held by the Aiiti-

D?es !n
Exile.

The emperor
ochian sympathizers deposed Cyril.
at first confirmed both depositions and as regards
Nestorius the matter rested there. He died in exile.
-g u

Q vr ii

influential at court, succeeded in

main

taining himself, and in order not to lose his influ


ence, he even formed in the year 433 a union with
the Antiochians, whose ambiguous creed stood, ac

cording to the
ogy.

Yet

text,

nearer to the Antiochian theol

for that very reason Cyril

of the situation,

remained master

and he knew how to strengthen more

and more the Alexandrian doctrine and the


tical

domination.

ecclesias

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


The Eutychian Controversy

2.

and there were people

never

Mansi, Acts

Cyril died in the year

of the Councils, VI., VII.).

444,

(vid.

287

in his

own

party

versy<

who had
made

forgiven the union of 433 which he

through the desire to rule. Dioscuros became his


successor he was not equal to him and yet he was
not unlike him. Dioscuros endeavored to carry out

Dloscuros

the scheme of his predecessor in the chair of Alexan


dria, to

make

of

Egypt a domain, to rule the Church


and to actually subject to him

of the Orient as pope

Already Theophilus and


emperor and state.
had
relied upon the monks and the masses in
Cyril

self

this matter,

and

had an equal

also

upon the Roman bishop, who

interest in suppressing the bishop of

Constantinople.

They had, furthermore, relaxed the

union with Greek science (contest against Origenism), in order not to displease the great

the age, pious barbarism.


really gain his object

odosius

power of

Dioscuros seemed to

under the weak emperor The-

but close upon


the greatest victory followed the catastrophe.
This
was brought about by the powerful empress Pulcheria,
II. (council of

Ephesus, 449)

Empress

Pulcheria.

and her consort Marcian, who recalled to mind once


more the Byzantine state-idea of ruling the Church,
and through Leo

I.,

who

at the decisive

moment

relinquished the traditional policy of the Roman


chair to assist Alexandria against Constantinople,

made common cause with


of the capital

moment

the emperor and bishop

and overthrew Dioscuros.

of his

fall,

But

at the

the opposition between the hith-

LeoL

288

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

erto united powers (emperor


to

come

victory.

out.

Both wanted

and pope) was destined

to take

advantage of the

The emperor was not willing

to surrender

the Church of the Orient to the pope (who had been


for assistance), although he set up the
formula
of the pope as the only means of
dogmatic
called

upon

saving the Oriental Church and the pope could not


endure that the patriarch of the capital should sup
;

plant the other patriarchs of the Orient, that this

church as a creature of the emperor should be at the


latter s beck and call, and that the chair should be
placed on a level with that of

St.

Peter

s.

In con-

sequence of the Chalcedon council the state indeed


momentarily triumphed over the Church, but in giv

ing to the same its own dogmatic formula, which had


more than half the faithful against it, it split the
empire, laid the foundation for the secession of large
provinces, south and north, strengthened

its

most

powerful adversary, the bishop of Eome, at a

ment when by the

fall of

the

mo

West Roman empire

the latter was placed at the head of the Occident, and


thus prepared a condition of affairs, which limited

the Byzantine dominion to the eastern Mediterra

nean coast provinces.


These are the general circumstances under which
the Eutychian controversy occurred, and thereby
is

in
Eutyches.

declared

what an important part

politics

had

it.

Through the union of 433 the Christological ques


tion had already become stagnant.
According to

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

289

the interpretation of the formula, everybody could

The Alexandrian

be taken for a heretic.

doctrine,

with the faith of the Orientals,


and
more progress in spite of the
made in fact more

which

really tallied

energetic counter-efforts of the honest and best-hated

Theodore

and Dioscuros carried himself

like a chief

The emperor
bishop over Palestine and Syria.
him
to
Dioscuros
surrendered the Church
outright.
persecuted the Antiochian sympathizers, endeavored
to exterminate the phrase "two natures", and even

allowed creeds to pass which sounded suspiciously


But when the old Archimandrite
Apollinaristic.

Eutyches in Constantinople expressed his Cyrillian


My God is
Christology in terms like the following
"

not of like essence with us, he has no

but a

ffStfia av#p(6-ivov",

ffS>p.a

personal opponents

avfywizou,

(Domnus

of Antioch, then Eusebius of Doryla3um) took this

occasion to denounce

him

to the patriarch Flavian,

who, himself no decided Christologian, profited by


the opportunity to get rid of an ecclesiastic favored

by the

court.

At a synod

n
in Constantinople (448)
den^n e d
as a Valentinian and

Eutyches was condemned


Apollinarist, although he after some hesitation ac

knowledged the formula

"

Out of two natures, one

From both sides, the court, the capital


Roman
and the
bishop were now set in motion.
Dioscuros saw that the moment for settling the ques
Christ".

power had come, but not less did Leo I.


While the former obtained from the emperor the
tion of

calling of a council
19

and was being equipped

for it

at

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

290

with unheard-of sovereignty as the true pope, the


latter

now saw

in spite of the decision of his prede

cessor, Coelestius, in favor of Cyril

in

Eutyches the

worst heretic, in Flavian his dear, persecuted friend,

and sought

to frustrate

letters to influential

the council by numerous

persons and he wrote to Flavian

the celebrated epistle, in which, as respects Christology, he veered


ter

conception.
is strictly

toward the Tertullian-Augustinian


letter the doctrine of two natures

In this

carried out

("

agit utraque

alterius communione, quod


scil.

proprium

forma cum
est,

verbo

operante quod verbi est et carne exsequenti

and the old Occidental, juristic


expedient expounded, that one must believe in
one Person, which has two separate natures (sub

quod carnis

stances)

at

est"

its

),

disposal,

an

expedient which

truly neither monophysitic nor ISTestorian, since

is
it

sharply distinguishes between the Person and the


two natures, and therefore really introduces three

magnitudes but it certainly stands nearer to Nestorianism and does not do justice to the decisive inter
;

but excludes every concrete form of


thought and consequently satisfies neither piety nor
intellect.
Besides this Leo knows only the heresies
est of

faith,

of docetism

and Samosatianism.

Leo

certainly ac

our redemp
tion; but he gave an interpretation which Cyril
would have strongly repudiated.
knowledges in his letters the interest of

In

August; (449) the great council of Ephesus assembled under Dioscuros direction. Rome was at

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


first

treated as non-existent, then

persons of its legates,


uncertainty.

humbled

291

in the

who, moreover, acted with

Dioscuros put through the resolution

must stop with the synods of Nicsea


and Ephesus (431), which expressed the old creed:
that the matter

"After
nature"

the incarnation there exists one incarnate


;

no symbol was established

Eutyches was

reinstated and, on the basis of the Nicene creed, the


chiefs of the Antiochians

but at the same time Fla

vian, Eusebius of Doryla3um, Theodoret, and Domnus of Antioch were deposed in short, the Church
;

was thoroughly purified from "Nestorianism". All


this was done with almost unanimity.
Two years
later this unanimity was declared as enforced by

many

bishops

who had

Epliesinum, says Leo).

taken

part (latrocinium
Dioscuros certainly, with

sirmm,

the aid of his fanatical monks, terrorized the synod,

but a far stronger pressure was afterwards necessary


at Chalcedon.
Dioscuros in reality raised the faith of
the Orient to a fixed standard, and the incomparable

victory which he enjoyed had, unless foreign powers

Rome) should interfere, the guarantee of


permanence. But Dioscuros roused against himself
the pope and the Byzantine state-idea, and did not
(the state,

calculate

wing

upon the wide-spread aversion to the right


army, the masked Apollinarists. He

of his

rehabilitated Eutyches, without expressly

condemn

ing the doubtful terms which he and his followers


habitually used.

On

r<

the 28th of July (450) Pulcheria and Marcian

and Le

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

292

succeeded Theodosius; until then Leo had vainly


endeavored to raise opposition to the council. Now

Marcian, who was determined to break the indepen


dence of the Alexandrian bishops, stood in need of

Leo desired the condemnation

him.

of Dioscuros

and the acceptance of his own didactic epistle with


out a council; but the emperor was obliged to in
upon one, in order to bring about a wholly new
order of things. Such a one could succeed only if a
sist

new dogmatic formula were established, which placed


the Egyptians in the

wrong and

the point to the Antiochians.

formula of the Occident (Leo


f

chS?cedon

Tne

still

did not yield

Politics counselled the

as the only

s)

way

out.

council really took place at Chalcedon in 451;

to the pontificial legates

honor

were conceded the places of

Leo had instructed them

to derogate

nothing

from the dignity of Rome. The greater part of the


500 to 600 bishops were like-minded with Cyril and
all Nestorianism, hos
but
the
Theodoret;
emperor dominated the
It was settled that Dioscuros must be de
council.

Dioscuros, highly opposed to

tile to

posed and a dogmatic formula in the sense of Leo s ac


cepted, since the decree of 449 was annulled as having

been
8

Deposed.

"extorted".

But

it

was

just as sure that the

memory and doctrine of Cyril must not be sacrificed.


Dioscuros therefore was deposed after a most shame
ful process, not as

an

disobedience and

irregularities.

heretic, but

on account of his

The majority

of

the bishops disavowed their past before the face of


the imperial commissioners and abandoned Dioscuros

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

293

of 449 but only by false representa


and threats did the bishops allow themselves to
be induced to acknowledge the canon of Leo, which

and the decree

tions

every Oriental could not but understand as Nestorian, and to sanction the doctrine that also after the
incarnation there were two natures existent in Christ.

Even

hour

was attempted

although in
a
notional
distinc
dogma merely
At the 5th sitting the de
tion between the natures.
at the last

it

to exalt to a

vain

and 431 were confirmed and

crees of 325, 381

their

sufficiency acknowledged, but it was remarked, that


on account of the heretics (who, on the one side, re

jected the

tfeoTtfxtfs-

and, on the other, desired to intro

duce a ffuy/uffts and

xpdffis

"

of the natures,

irrationally

inventing only one nature of the flesh and the Deity


and considering the Divine nature as capable of
suffering

Cyril to

Nestorius and the

Ttpb rfjs

ivwff(i)<$

admit the

s-vaxal

&v

/.

Xp.

iv ftedryTt

(this

Xptarbv

dkr}$a)<s

rov aorov^
iv

duo

ulov

it
(^x

sacri

rofvuv roT?

rbv

xuptov

r^stov rov aurov

reads
duo

dX^a>^

^va xai rov

<pba(i)v

is

monophysitism
7

TW?, drplitrtos^ ddtatpsrws,

rwv

(fuffswv

d(.a<f>opa<$

d%ti)pi<jrax$ yva>ptofj.V,

dvr)p7]{jivr]$

did rrt

/JLSV

de

Was the

dvdpionoTrjTt^ fteov

then

<puffffiv

later correction, favorable to

fjiiav

E^pevot

oftoAoyetv

ixdtddffxofj.sv^

xa} riXeiov rov aurov

avftpioxov

avrbv

rov aorbv

aVayre?

ffuiJ.(f>(i)vu)<s

rou$ duo

xupiou p.u&UOVTa$ t

the thoughts of the heart).


Ttarpdatv

letters of

Orientals, as well as the

declaration reads
roo

<pbfft

to

Zvwffiv dva-xXdrrovras^ dvaft sparest

fice of

xai

The

of Leo.

letter

TTJV

was necessary

it
")

ouda/w )

Letters of
Cyril and

Leo Ad

mitted.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

294

ds fJLahAov TTjS lSio~7}To$ fxaT^oa?


fju av

xai

UKOffTafftv

Fun
secured.

ovx

aovTps%ouff-r}S^

aXXa

diaipobfj.evov^

Humanity

<f>baeax;^

xai els iv
efc

doo

va xai TOV aurov ulov

xai

By this distinction between nature and person the


p OW er of the mystery of faith was paralyzed, a con
ceivable mystery established,

and yet the clearness

of the Antiochian conception of the

of

Jesus was after

is

negative and cold

the pious

humanity
The formula

not reached.

all

How

saw

their comfort, the

our nature

profit

by what occurred in the Person of Christ?

The

evwffts

hated

yuffUTj,

vanish.

"moralism",

or the mysticism of the union of

the Logos with every

consequence.

shall

And,

human

soul,

besides, one

lieve in a yuffis dvo^oaraa^^ of

seemed

to be the

was expected

to be

which hitherto in the

Orient only a few had known anything


The gain
now secured the full humanity of Jesus
!

in having

as an incontestible article of faith, invaluable for the


future,

was

restored.

too dearly bought.

Emperor and pope were

the 28th canon, even

Monophytroversies.

Peace was also not

ter to

come

Orient

fell

to

if

at variance over

they did not allow the

mat

a rupture, and the Church of the

into dissolution.

Tfe Monophysite Contests and the 5th CounT YII _ IX; Loofs, Leontius von By( Mansi?
The century between the 4th and 5th
zanz, 1887).
3

cil

councils shows the


relations;

most complicated and confused

during the time the dogmatic situation

also constantly changes, so that a short survey is

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

295

Therefore only a few principal points

impossible.

can be here stated.


(1)

The opponents

of the

monophysites, were superior


spiritual power and activity.

Chalcedon creed, the


to the orthodox in
In Egypt, parts of

Syria and Armenia, they kept the upper hand, and


the emperors succeeded neither by threats nor
concessions in gaining

them over

for

by

any length of

time; these provinces rather alienated themselves


more and more from the empire and joined the

monophysitic confession with their nationality, pre


paratory to founding independent national churches
hostile

to

the

In the main persevering

Greek.

and rejecting
the farther-reaching Apolliiiarian-Eutychian form
ulas, the monophysites showed by inward spiritual
movements that in their midst alone the dogmatical
steadfastly in the doctrine of Cyril

legacy of the Church was

still

alive.

The newly-

awakened Aristotelianism, which as scholasticism


took the place of Platonism, found among them
learned defenders,

who

(John Philoponus) to be sure,


,

approached in their speculation very near to tri the


ism.

In regard to the Christological question there

were two main tendencies

Monoph.

(Gieseler,

Comment, qua

opin. illustr., 2 Part., 1835 seq.).

These

"

(Severus,

treans

")

Severians,

were

Agnoetians",

really opposed to the

"Phartola-

Chalcedon creed

only as a formal innovation, but agreed even to a


notional distinction between
Christ, and,

still

the

two natures

in

more, were zealously anxious to

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

296

keep the natures unmixed and to lay stress upon the


creature-ship and corruptibility (in theory) of the

body

of Christ as well as

upon the limits of knowl

edge of the soul of Christ, so that they offended even


the orthodox.
They might have been won, if the

Chalcedon formula, i.e. the epistolary teaching of


Leo, had been sacrificed. The others, on the con
trary (Julian of Halicarnasses,
thartodoketes")

rejecting

"

it is

"

true the transforma

tion of the one nature into the other,

consequences of the ZVOHTIS yuGUTj


of the

Aph-

Aktistetes,"

From

drew
the

the

all

moment

also should be consid

assumptio the body

ered as imperishable and, indeed, as uncreated;

all

the attributes of the Deity were transferred to the

human

nature;

strictions,

all

accordingly

which one observes

ture of Christ,

affections

and

re

in the evangelical pic

were assumed by him freely

xard

xdpw, but were not the necessary consequences of his

This conception, influenced solely by the

nature.

idea of redemption, alone corresponds to the old


tradition (Irenseus, Athanasius,
etc.).

Gregory of Nyssa,

Finally there were also such monophysites

yet certainly they were not numerous


A<

rites

as advanced

The
a pantheistic speculation
Adiaphorites
creature is in a mysterious manner altogether consubstantial with God; the
yufftxy in Christ is
*

("

")

vw<n?

only the expression for the general consubstantiality


of his nature and the Deity (Stephen bar Sudaili;
the mystics;
Erigena).

influence

upon the Occident; Scotus


still more since

Since the 5th Council and

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

297

the advent of Islam, the monophysitic churches have

pined away in isolation, the wild national and relig


ious fanaticism and the barren phantasy of the monks

have delivered them over


(2)

to barbarism.

Since coercion had no

effect,

a few emperors

sought, in order to maintain the unity of the empire,


suppress temporarity the Chalcedon creed (En-

to

cyclica of Basiliscus, 476), or to avoid


of Zeno, 482)

But the consequence

it

(Henotikon

of this policy

always was that they won over only a part of the


monophysites and that they fell out with Rome and
the Occident.

Thus

arose,

on the account of the

Henotikon, a thirty-five years

schism with

Rome

which served only to make the pope still


The emperors could not reach a
decision to sacrifice either Rome or the Orient, and
(484-519),

more independent.
finally

they lost both.

In the year 519 the Chalce

don creed was fully restored, in alliance with Rome,

by the emperor Justin, who was influenced by his


But the theopaschite contest
nephew Justinian.
(enlargement of the trishagion
ff-apa)ftii$
"

One

dl y;j.as, i.e.,

C Mtecon-

<?

the validity of the formula:

was crucified
They are not
one was a cultish innovation and

of the trinity

identical, for the

by the addition:
"

could be understood in a Sabellian way, while the


other

is

good orthodoxy) shows, since 518, that in -

the Occident every Cyrillian explanation

of

the

Chalcedon creed was regarded with suspicion, while


the orthodox in the Orient would tolerate the Chal

cedon creed only with a Cyrillian interpretation,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

298

hoping thereby

always for a reconciliation with

still

the monophysites.
e
of Byzan-

im

3)

While

in the 5th century the Chalcedon ortho-

doxy had upon the whole no noted dogmatic repre


sentative in the Orient

was

the strongest proof that

foreign to the spirit of the Orient

it

several ap

peared after the beginning of the 6th century. The


formula had not only in time become more venera
ble, but the study of Aristotle above all furnished

weapons

for its defence.

The scholasticism not only

permitted the retention of the Chalcedon distinction


between nature and person, but even also welcomed
still a strong CyrilThis was brought about by
the Scythian monk, Leontius of Byzantium, the most
eminent dogmatist of the 6th century, the forerunner

it

and gave

formula

to the

lian interpretation.

Damascus, and the teacher of Justinian.


pacified the Church by a philosophically conceiv

John

of

He

of

able exposition of the Chalcedon creed

the

dogma

and buried

in scholastical technicalities.

He

is

the

father of the Christological new-orthodoxy, just as

the Cappadocians were the fathers of the trinitarian

new-orthodoxy.

Through his doctrine

hypostasis of the

form of a

fine

human

of the en-

nature, he paid, in the

Apollinarianism, full regard to the

idea of redemption.
an

Jl

Boi?c

Henceforth the policy of Justinian, the royal


dogmatist, must be understood as a religious policy.

By unexampled

luck he had brought the whole

pire under his sway,

and he wished in

like

em

manner

to

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

299

law and the dogmatics of the


The following points of view guided him

settle finally the

pire.

em
(a)

Strict adhesion to the verbal text of the Chalcedon

capital decision equal in standing to

creed as a

and Ephesus,

those of Nica3a, Constantinople


Strict

of the

Cyrillian interpretation

emperor was inclined

symbol

(b)

(the

go as far as aphthartodoketism) in order to gain over the monophysites and to


The means to it were
follow his own inclination.
to

(a)

Numerous imperial

religious edicts in the sense

Public religious
The carrying out of the theopaschitic

of the Christology of Leontius,

discourses,

(c)

(b)

Suppression of every more liberal and


more independent theology; therefore, on the one

formula,

(d)

side, that of

among
tine,

Origen,

who had many

sympathizers

the monophysitic monks, especially in Pales

and, on the other side, of the Antiochian theol

ogy, which also

still

possessed numerous adherents

(as the emperor had closed the school at Athens, so

he intended likewise to close


only the

schools;

all

Christian scientific

scholastic should

remain),

(e)

Enforced naturalization of the new-orthodoxy in the


The execution of these plans was rendered
Occident.
difficult

(1)

By

the secret monophysitic co-regency

of the empress Theodora,

(2)

By

the refusal of the

Occident to consent to the rejection of the Antiochthree articles


ians, i. e. of the
(person and writ
"

"

ings of Theodore, anti-Cyrillian writings of Theodoret, letter of Ibas to Maris)

In the later condem

nation of the Antiochians, the Occident (Facundus

tered>

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

300

Hermiane) rightly recognized an attempt to do


away with the doctrine of the two natures, as Leo
of

had meant

it,

and

to substitute in its place a fine

However, the emperor found in


monophysitism.
Rome a characterless pope (Vigilius) who, in grati
fying the emperor, covered himself with disgrace
,

and jeopardized
schisms
"See?

eon-

demned,

his position in the Occident (great

in the Occident).

The emperor obtained

the condemnation of Origen and of the

"

three chap-

he restored the dogmatic ideas of the two


Ephesian councils of 431 and 449 without touching

ters";

the Chalcedon creed, and he caused

all

this to be

sanctioned by obedient bishops at the 5th council

But in

in Constantinople, 553.

one could

now speak with

spite of the fact that

Cyril of one God-incarnate

nature (by the side of the doctrine of the two natures)


and that the spirit of Oriental dogmatism had thus

gained the victory, the monophysites would not be


won for the Chalcedon creed was too much detested
;

s~

and
Mono-

ti?

theietic

Controversies.

and the antagonisms had long since become national.


4. The Monergistic and Monotheletic Contro6th Council

versies. the

and XI.).

and John of
J Damascus
With the decisions of the

( Mansi)
4th and 5th councils, the doctrine of one will in
T>

Christ would agree, as well as the doctrine of two


wills.

In fact before the 6th century, no one had


two wills in Christ for the Antiochians

spoken of
also

had

human

said, as once

was

Paul

of

Samosata, that the

entirely blended with the Divine


But
will (unity of will, not singleness of will).

will

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

301

the theology of Leontius tended on the whole toward


the doctrine of

come

two

to a controversy

Yet

would hardly have


the dogma had already, since

wills.

it

553, been surrendered to theological science (scho

and the cultus

lasticism)

(mysticism)

if politics

had not taken possession of the question.

The patriarch
the

of the capital, Sergius, counselled

emperor

powerful

Heraclius

(610-641)

to

strengthen his reconquered territory in the south

and east by making advances to the monophysites


with the formula: The God-man, consisting of two
natures, effected everything with one God-incarnate

energy.
in 633

Upon this basis a union was really formed


many monophysites. But opposition

with

arose (Sophronius, afterward bishop of Jerusalem)


and Sergius in union with Honorius of Rome now
,

Honorms,
Sophronius
-

sought to do justice to all by giving out the v/atchword One should be silent in regard to the energies
:

had only one ftlXrina was still considered


Thus also ran an imperial edict, the
self-evident)
(that Christ

ekthesis (638)

But not only in the Occident were

the consequences of the doctrinal letter of Leo re

membered, but

(Maximus

in the Orient the ablest theologians

the Confessor) were also so attached to

the Chalcedon creed through Aristotelian scholas


ticism, that they classed the will

with the nature (not

with the Person) and therefore demanded the dual


Now even monotheletism was condemned at a jJJj^cJn
ity.
Roman synod, 641 (Pope John IV.) The Orientals, a?iSl
.

who

rejected

the ekthesis, fled to

Carthage and

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

302

Rome and

prepared, in union with the pope, a formal

revolution.

tion

was

This, indeed,

was thwarted

as to the freedom of the

(the ques

Church in

relation

to the state ;

the effort continued in the image con


Yet
the emperor found himself obliged
troversy).
to surrender the ekthesis, replacing it by the typos
which forbade, under severe penalties, the contro
versy over one or two wills. But Rome did not

consent to this either.


(Martini.), which

Two-win
Doctrine

At

the Lateran synod, 649

many Orientals

attended, the con

spiracy continued against the emperor, who dared


to give orders to the Church.
The two-will doc^

rme was formulated

in

strict

language, but,
strangely enough, the right of the correctly under
stood Sentence

conceded.

P- -a

TOO fteou

large

number

patriarchs of the latter days


tin

showed

and

stirring

Myou

<f>u<n

ffsffapxiojii^

was

of Constantinopolitan

were condemned.

Mar

signs, like a second Dioscuros, of ruling

up the churches

of the Orient, but the

emperor Constans, the sovereign of the pope, suc


Dishonored and
ceeded in subduing him (G53).
Maximus
disgraced, he died in the Chersonesus.
the Confessor also had to suffer.

Constans soon

found in

Rome more accommodating

remained

until his death (668)

popes,

and

master of the situa

making the typos of importance and putting


forward the reasonable expedient, that the two nat
ural wills had become, in accordance with the hypotion,

static union,

The

one hypostatic

reaction

will.

which followed in Constantinople

is

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

Perhaps because one needed no

not perfectly clear.


longer to

because
wills,

"

to the monophysites, perhaps

pay regard
science

"

303

fgafhon.

was favorable to the doctrine of two

men

perhaps because

desired to fetter, through

dogmatic concessions, the uncertain Occidental pos


and bind them more firmly to the capital,

sessions

the emperor Constantino Pogonatus made advances


and sought to entice the powerful pope Agathon
to

new

Leo

I.

fallibility of the

At

The

negotiations.

epistle as

sent a doctrinal

latter

once had, which proclaimed the in

Roman

chair and the dyotheletism.

the 6th council in Constantinople (680)

it

was

carried through after diverse proposals of intermediation and under protest,


i.e.

which however finally ceased,

the formal consequences of the decree of 451

were deduced (two natural

fle^ /mra

energies ddtatpgrws, drp^-rw?^

and two natural

d/j.sptffTws,

dffoyyurws

in

the one Christ; they were not to be considered as


contradictory, for the

human

will follows

not resist nor contradict, rather

is it

and does

subject to the

Divine and almighty will; the human will is not


suspended, but, on the other hand, a communication
takes place: It
es the
less

human

is

the will of the God-Logos, just

nature, without suspension, neverthe

became the nature

of

the God-Logos).

At

same time many of the Constantinopolitan patri


archs and pope Honorius were condemned. Thus
the

Rome

again dictated

formula, balanced the 5th

and insinuated itself into the


But the agreement was of short duration.

council by the 6th


Orient.

its

Co

"

il

J nt J

nople 680

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

304

Already at the second Trullan council in 692 the


Orient took a strong position against Rome in mat
ters of cult

and these were already the more de

cisive things.
"

The formulas

of the Byzantine dogmatics are Oc-

cidental; but the

spirit,

which in 431 and 553 had

expressed itself, retained in the interpretation of


the formulas the upper hand, and the cultus and

mystic-system have always been understood monophysitically.

On

the-one side, this

was shown

in the

image-controversy, on the other, in the ChristologicIn spite of the


al dogmatics of John of Damascus.

and dyotheletical formula and the


sharp distinction between nature and person, a fine
dyophysitical

Apollinarianism, or monophysitism, has been here


preserved, in so far as it is taught that the God-

Logos assumed human nature (not of a man) in


such a manner that the same was first individualized

by the God-Logos.

That

is

the intermediate thing

already recognized by Leontius, which has no hypostasis of its own, yet is also not without one but
possesses in the hypostasis of the Logos
dence.

was adjusted by the

tures

doctrine of the

and the idiomae-communication.


w<7?,

foTtdoffts)

Damascan
of an

its

indepen

Furthermore, the distinction between the na

el?

The psTdd

of the attributes of the

two natures, the

will so definitely conceive that he speaks

aUrjXa

rtiv

;j.lp(t)v

-spt/a>prjfft$.

The

flesh in

directly became truly God and the Deity pervades the


deified flesh.

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

305

THE TEMPORAL ENJOYMENT OF REDEMP

C.

TION.

CHAPTER

X.

THE MYSTERIES AND MATTERS AKIN TO THEM.

ALREADY
opment

in the 6th century the

of the

dogmatic develGreek Church was concluded and

ualism

even before that each advance was obliged to con


tend against aversion and suspicion.
for

it

lay in the traditionalism or,

more

The reason
correctly, in

the ritualism, which more and more gained the

upper hand.
ent
This ritualism also has a tender, religious, even En
M
stenes
y
It originated in the endeavor to
Christian root.

^^

point out and realize the enjoyment of an already

which springs from the same


from
the God-incarnate Person of Christ and which,
therefore, is the same in kind as the latter.
Origin
salvation,

present

source from which the future redemption flows

ally

men

thought, touching the present enjoyment of

salvation,

more of spiritual

blessings, of knowledge,

of the strengthening of freedom unto good works,

But since the future redemption was repre


sented as a mysterious deification*, it was only con
etc.

sistent that they should consider the

as mysterious
secrations,

and

and

to

knowledge also
be communicated by holy con

that, in accordance

with the idea of

a future physical union with the Deity, they should


*

20

See page

199, note.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

306

endeavor to verify for the present time also the


unto,
Mathesis

becomes
Mystagogia

and

way

foretaste of, this divineness.

This tendency, however, leads directly over to the


paganizing of Christianity or, rather, is already a

The

becomes ^uaTayw^ a the


latter, however, originally a shadowy union of the
spiritual and sensuous, tends more and more to magic

symptom

of

it.

and juggle^.

ndftrjffts

In this the ritual

nothing, however,

is

more

is

the chief thing;

sensitive than a cere

mony it does not bear the slightest change. In so


now as the formulas of faith lost more and more
;

far

significance as

their

pAftrjats

and became

in ever

higher degree constituents of the ritual, expressing


at the
to

same time the meaning and purpose

make

of

it, i.e.,

divine, they permitted no longer of any

Wherever the dogma appear valuable

change.

only as a relic of olden times, or only in ritualistic

Mystagogic
Theology.

ceremony, there the history of dogma is at an end.


In its place comes the mystagogic theology, and
together and in close union with
took
scholasticism,
already in the 6th century the

indeed the

latter,

place of the history of

dogma.

theology, however, has two


in

sides.

The mystagogic

On

the one side,

creating for itself upon the earth a

and in making

of things, persons

terious symbols

and

for

to

vehicles, it leads to the relig

back to the lowest grade of


the masses, and finally even to

ion of necromancy,
religion;

new world

and times mys

i.e.

theologians, the spirit vanishes and the phlegma,

the

consecrated

matter,

remains.

As

the

Neo-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION. 307


Platonic philosophy degenerated into religious bar
barism, so also Greek Christianity, under the in

which bequeathed
idols, became image-

fluence of the expiring antiquity


to it its highest ideals

On

worship.

ogy

and

the other side, the mystagogic theol

retains for the "knowing

its

ones"

primitive

pantheistic germ, the fundamental thought that God


and nature, in the deepest sense, are one, and that

nature

is

the unfolding of the Deity.


also

The Christian

more or

mystagogic theologians
thought out and retained these ideas

less

clearly

Through specu
lation and asceticism one can emancipate oneself from
all mediums, mediators and vehicles.
Mysterioso.

phy takes the place of the mysteries these, like every


thing concrete and historical, become for the know
;

ing ones pure symbols, and the historical redemp


tion through Christ especially is explained away.
It is

not strange that two such different forms as

pantheism and fetishism, although balanced by ritu


alism, should be the final product of the development,

since both were lodged already in the beginning of

the

movement and

are blood-relations;

then they

have their root in the conception of the substantial


unity of God and nature. The history of the devel

and of the theology of mys


does
not belong here, therefore
strictly taken,

opment
teries,

of the mysteries

only a few hints will follow.


1.

At

the beginning of the 4th century the Church

already possessed a great array of mysteries, the

number and bounds

of which, however,

had by no

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

308

means been

definitely

determined.

Among them

baptism, together with the accompanying unction,


and the eucharist were the most esteemed; from

some

these also
evolved.

of the other mysteries

have been

Symbolic ceremonies, originally intended

accompany these mysteries, became independent.


Thus confirmation had its origin, which Cyprian al
ready numbered as a special sacramentum" Augus
to

"

tine pointed

out as

it

the Areopagite called

men

sacramentum chrismatis, and


it /weTr^ttov

r^h r-?^ iw[jou.

Later

spoke also of a mystery of the sign of the

cross, of relics, of exorcism, of marriage, etc.,


y
?eries

of~

^e

Areopagite enumerates six mysteries:

and

^ojriff-

ovv xoivw;ta$ y re^er^s p.()poo^ ispanxwv


TeXstuxreo^

and iJ-Offrr^pia

i~\

TWV

lepa)<s

The enumeration was very arbitrary;


mystery was anything sensuous whereby something
holy might be thought or enjoyed. They corre
sponded to the heavenly mysteries, which have their
source in the trinity and incarnation. As each fact
of revelation is a mystery, in so far as the Divine
has through it entered into the sensuous, so in turn
is each sensuous medium, even a word or action, a

mystery, so soon as the sensuous is a symbol or


vehicle there has never been a strict distinction be

tween them

of the Divine.

The

effects of the

mys

were celebrated in the highest terms as union


with the Deity; but since they cannot restore lost

teries

communion with God


able to do that)

strict

(only Christ

and freedom are

dogmatics was able

to

say very

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


little

about them.

The

309

true effect is purely one of

experienced in the fantasy: Men


saw, heard, smelt, and felt the celestial, but a dis
feeling,

i.e.

is

turbed conscience they could not comfort with the


mysteries, nor did one hardly try to do so.

On

this basis, since the

coarse instinct of the

masses pressed forward, mysteriosophy was develIts roots are as old as the gentile Church and
oped.

two converging developments may be discerned, the


Antiochian and the Alexandrian. The first (Ignatius,
the Apostolic Constitutions, Chrysostom) attaches
itself to

the cult and priests, the second to the true

gnostic, i.e. to the

The

monk.

worship and in the

first

sees in Divine

priest (bishop) the true bequest

of the God-incarnate life of Christ

and binds the

layman, viewed as entirely passive, to the cultus hier


archical system, by which one becomes consecrated
to immortality

the second desires to form indepen

dent virtuosos of religion.


riosophy is heterodox, but

The Alexandrian myste

did not neglect a single


phase of the positive religion, rather did it make
use of them all by the side of the graduated ad

vancing knowledge

it

(sacrifice,

blood, reconciliation,

atonement, purification, perfection, means of salva


tion, mediator of salvation)
true, viewing them all
;

as transition stages, in order to gain through specu


lation

and asceticism a standpoint from which each


and sacrament, everything holy which ap

vehicle

pears under a sensuous cover, becomes profane, be

cause the soul

now

lives in the

most holy and be-

310

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

cause in each

man

a Christ should be born

ra r^? aXr^sia^

r-^9 dlyftetas

del:

Tiotslv^

The two mysteriosophies, the

ou ra

ryjs

Tt
;

txuvo$.

hierarchical and the

gnostic, converge in the mysticism of the great

known Dionysius Areopagita

(preliminary

un

stages

are represented by Methodius, Gregory of Nyssa,


Macarius), who, on the one side, viewed the cult and

priesthood as an earthly parallel to the heavenly


hierarchy (to the graded world of spirits as the un
folding of the Deity), on the other, adopted the in

dividualism of the Neo-Platonic mysticism

Maximus Confessor

Through

combination became the

this

power which ruled the Church, tried to monarchize


to
it, and inoculated it with the monkish resistance
the state

Mystery of
Eucharist.

was or
The

is

the only form in


able to assert

its

which the Greek Church

independence.

peculiar character

of mysteriosophy,

as a

regarding the making of the Divine per


ceptible to the senses and the making of the sensuous
Divine, could in no mystery be more strongly ex
S p ecu i a ti On

pressed than in the eucharist (Steitz, Abendmahlslehre d.

griech

Kirche,

TheoL, Bd. IX-XIIL).

i.

d.

Jahrb.

f.

deutsche

This, long since recognized

as the ground upon which the sublimest spiritualism

can extend its hand to the most massive sensualism,


became so developed, that by it the Christological
formula, the fundamental dogma, appeared alive and
comprehensible.

on the Lord
the

same was

Without giving

to the speculation

Supper a strictly instructional

cast,

so treated in general, especially after

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


Cyril of Alexandria, that

it

was considered

311

as the

directly upon the incarnation


mystery which
and perpetuates the mystery of the d-lwffi?. All other
rest".

mysteries, in so far as they also contain the blending


into ono of the heavenly

and

only by reason of the Lord

earthly, exist in reality

Supper. Here only is


of the sensuous into

given an express transmutation

the divine body of Christ; for this conception gained

more and more ground, abolished symbolism and


The transubfinally carried its point altogether.
stantiation of the consecrated bread into the

Christ

is

body of

the continuation of the process of the in

Thereby pure monophysitic formulas


were used in relation to the Lord s Supper highly
carnation.

and gradually the conception even


way. that the body into which the bread

characteristic

made

its

transformed

per assumptionem the very


body
by the virgin, of which for
merly hardly any one had thought since the older
theologians also understood under evpZ Xptoroo some
thing "pneumatic". But as the Lord s Supper as a
sacrament was united in the closest manner with the
is

is

of Christ, borne

dogma

of the incarnation

and the Christological

mula (hence the sensitiveness


it

of this formula), so

for

was

likewise connected as a sacrifice with the death on

the cross (repetition of the sacrifice on the cross how;

ever, the

conception has not been so definitely ex-

pressed in the Greek

Accordingly

it

Church as

in the Occident)

re-enacted the most important histor

ical events, not as

a remembrance, but as a continu-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

312
ation,

a repetition, whereby those facts were

i.e.

meaning and significance. At the


same time the immoral and irreligious thirst after
deprived of their

changed the sacred act into a repast, in


which one bit the Deity to pieces with the teeth
"

realities

"

(thus already Chrysostom; completion of the doc


trine of the
p

tion^

eSS
e
p oiy-

^-

Lord

Supper by John of Damascus).


of Greek Christianity

The whole development

into image-worship, superstition

and poorly veiled

however, also be conceived as the

polytheism may,
victory of a religion of the second order, which

is

always prevalent in the Church, over the spiritual


religion.

The former became legitimized and was

fused with the doctrina publica, although theolo


gians enjoined certain precautions. As the pagan

temples were reconsecrated and made into Christian


churches, so was the old paganism preserved as
angel-, saint-, image-

and amulet- worship.

The

re

ligion whose strength had once been the abomination


of idols, finally surrendered to idols and became in a

certain measure morally obtuse.

True, the connect

ing links are found in the doctrina publica itself for,


(-\\
This was constructed out of the material of the
v
;

Religion of

Second
order.

Q reek

philosophy; but this philosophy was inter

twined by a thousand threads with the mythology


and superstition, (2) It sanctioned the Old Testa
ment, though originally prescribing a spiritual inter
pretation of it but the letter of the Old Testament,
;

which

in fact expressed a subordinate religious stage

of development,

became more and more powerful

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


and made advances

313

to the inferior tendencies of the

Church, which it then appeared to legitimize, (3)


The acts of baptism and the Lord s Supper, conceived
as mysteries, opened in general the doors and win

dows

The

to the

inroad of the mystery-nuisance,

faith in angels

(4)

and demons, handed down from

antiquity and protected by the doctrina publica,

grew more and more powerful, was fostered in a


crude form by the monks, in a spiritual form by the
Neo-Platonic theologians, and threatened more and
more

to

become the true sphere of

which the inconceivable God and the


of the

Church

was hidden
there are

"

piety,

(in

behind

consequence

doctrine) just as inconceivable Christ

The

in the darkness, (5)

saints

old idea that Worship

of

Saints.

"

(apostles, prophets, ecclesiastical

teachers, martyrs) had already very early been cul


tivated in such a manner that these saints interceded

and made atonement

for

men and

took

now more

and more the place of the dethroned gods, joining


themselves to the angel-hosts. Among them Mary of
stepped into the fore-ground and she she alone has

virgin

been specially benefited by the trend of the develop


ment of the dogma.
woman, a mother now ap
the
and
near
Deity,
thereby at last was offered
peared

the possibility of bringing to recognition the thing

most foreign to original Christianity the


Holy, the Divine in female form Mary became the
mother of God, the one who bore God*, (6) From the
after all

Concerning angel-worship, in so far as the angels serve as mediators


of the benefits of salvation, see the Areopagite concerning the spread of
angel-worship (especially of the idea of guardian angels) as early as the
;

of

Relics.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

314

earliest times, death

had been sacred

the birth-hour of true

to Christians as

accordingly everything

life;

which had any connection with the death of Chris


tian heroes obtained a real sanctity.
The antique
and amulet business made

home, but as
relic- and bone- worship in the most disgusting form
in the contrast between the insignificant, fright
idol

itself at

ful

form and

its

religious

worth Christians made

plain to themselves the loftiness of their faith,

and

the more unsesthetic a relic appeared, the higher

must be

its

worth

embodiment and
the guarantee of
of oracief,
etc.

to those

who

recognized in the dis

obliteration of all sensuous charms,


its holiness,

Finally the Church

(7)

opened its doors to that boundless desire to live in


a world of miracles, to enjoy the holy with the five
4th century, see Didymus, de trinit. II., 7.
The worship of saints
(churches consecrated to a certain saint) was already by about the year
but in the 4th century counter efforts were not
300 highly developed
wanting (also not concerning angel- worship see the synod of Laodicea).
The Gallic priest Vigilantius especially fought against it, as also against
the worship of relics. But the most eminent teachers (Jerome) declared
;

against Vigilantius and worked out a "theology of saints", reserving to God


fTLK *i (irpovie&rqa ijs). The relic
the Aarpeia, but conceding to the saints TI/AJJ
business, already in bloom in the 4th century, rose however only in the
<rx

monophysitic age to its full height. Finally each church had to have its
and the 7th canon of the 7th council confirmed and solemnly sanc
tioned the ecclesiastical use of relics. But the principal part in this reli
She alone became a dog
gion of the second order was played by Mary.
matical magnitude, tfeord/cos, a watch- word like 6/100 vo-tos "The name of the
bearer of God represents the whole mystery of the incarnation (John of
Damascus in his homilies on Mary). Gen. 3:3 was referred to her and an

relics,

"

active participation of Mary in the work of redemption was taught (espe


cially following Cyril of Alexandria; yet, see already Ireneeus and Athanasius, Ambrose, Jerome). Mary obtained a sacred history from conception
to ascension, a duplicate of the history of Christ (legends and feasts of

Mary) she was considered an indispensable mediator. Still with the


and "mother of sorrows
Greeks she did not become "queen of heaven
as with the Latins (Benrath, Z. Gesch. der Marienverehrung i. d. Stud.
u. Krit. 1886; Gass, Symbolik der griech. Kirche, S. 183).
;

"

"

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


senses, to receive miraculous hints

Even

the most cultured

did not
real

know how any

and unreal

315

from the Deity.

Church fathers

of later times

longer to discern between the

they lived in a world of

loosed completely the tie between religion

magic and
and moral

from asceticism), joining the latter thereby


the more closely with the sensuous. The ceremonies
ity (aside

out of the gray past of religion,


to the surface again:

kinds, judgments

little

modified,

came

Consulting of oracles of

of God, prodigies, etc.

all

The syn

ods, originally hostile to these practices, finally con

sented to them.

The newly gained


found

its

peculiarity of the

Greek Church
Worship

plainest expression in image-ivorship

the image-controversy.

and

After image-worship had

slowly crept into the Church, it received a

mighty

invigoration and confirmation, unheard of in anti


quity,

by the dogma

of the incarnation

and the cor

responding treatment of the eucharist (since the 5th


of God, and yet a living
Christ is
century).

^^

being,

yes,

TTVSD^O

OOTTO^V;

Christ

has rendered,

through the incarnation, the Divine apprehensible to


the senses;

the consecrated elements are ehoves of

Christ, and yet, at the same time, the body of Christ


itself.
These ideas called up a new world for con

Everything sensuous, which pertained


to the Church, became not only a symbol, but also a
templation.

vehicle of holy things

men and

monks and lay


But among
theologians.

thus

felt

the

thus taught the


sensuous things the image shows plainest the union

in

316

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

of the holy with the material.


of

Mary and

of saints

Images of Christ,
were already in the 5th (4th)

century worshipped after the antique fashion men


were naive enough to fancy themselves now secure
;

from paganism, and they transferred their dogmatic


from the deified matter in an espe

al representation
cial

manner

to the images, in

telian scholastics also

was

which

the Aristo

they were

called in to aid

able to see the veritable marriage of earthly matter

and the heavenly

form

(holy)

(besides, the supersti

images not painted by hand) Monasticism fostered image- worship and traded with it;

tious belief in

scholastics

and mystics gave it dogmatic form.


also advanced the struggle of the

But monasticism

Church toward independence, in contrast with Jus


which fettered the Church.

tinian s state constitution

In the ?th century the ecclesiastico-monkish resist


ance to Byzantium retreated behind dyotheletism,
just as

in the

5th and 6th centuries

behind

it

it

had

fled

grew more and more

monophysitism
powerful and sought to gain ecclesiastical freedom,
which the Occident already partly enjoyed. Power
;

ful but barbarous

emperors endeavored to put an end

by substituting the army for priests


and monks, and to break the independence of the
Church by striking at its peculiarity the imageworship. Thus originated the frightful image-con-

to this effort

imageControversy.

troversy,

which

lasted

more than a century.

In

it

the emperors fought for the absolutism of the state,

and had as an

ally only a single power, the military ;

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


for the

remaining

allies,

317

namely, religious enlight

enment and the primitive tradition of the Church,


which spoke against the images, were powerless.
The monks and bishops had on their side the culture,
of that time (John

and science

art

dorus Studita), the

Roman

Damsc., Theo-

bishop and, furthermore,

piety and living tradition they fought for the cen


tral dogma, which they saw exemplified in the image;

worship, and for the freedom of the Church. The


The outcome, rather,
latter they could not obtain.

was

that the

Church retained

definitely lost its

The 7th

state.

imaore-worship
vi;j.siv^
fJLOVTj

ob

Tfl

/j.ijv

TTJV

its

peculiarity, but

independence with reference to the


council at NicaBa (787) sanctioned
xal

(<J<nra<r/i3v

xard niariv

$>/
<f>Offt

y/j.a>v

^ T7,$

n/joyrtx^v

^poo /.wr^i^ axo-

dAyfttvrjV Xarpsiav^

IXOVOS

Tt/J.7]

in}

TO

i]

-xpi-xet
TTfilOTO-

development in its princi


The Divine and
concluded.
pal points was obviously
Holy, as it descended through the incarnation into
TOXOV dtaftabst).

Its logical

the sensuous, created for itself in the Church a sys

tem

which offer
The image-the-

of sensuous-super sensuous objects,

themselves for

man

s gratification.

osophy corresponds to the Neo-Platonic idea (joined


with the incarnation-idea) of the One, unfolding him
self in a multiplicity of graduated ideas (prototypes)
,

reaching down even to the earthly. To Theodorus


Studita the image was almost more important than
the correct dogmatic watch- word
tic

for in the

authen

image one has the real Christ and the real holy

thing

only the material

is different.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

318

CHAPTER
CONCLUSION.

XI.

SKETCH OF THE HISTORIC

BEGIN

NINGS OF THE ORTHODOX SYSTEM.

1.

Christian

System.

^e

CHRISTIAN system upon the foundation of


God, world, freedom and Holy

our p r i nc ipi es

Scriptures,

tending toward the doctrina publica,

and making use

of the total yield of the

EU^uij

Origen bequeathed; yet it was in many de


heterodox arid as a science of the faith it was

naiSeta,

tails

intended to outbid faith

Moreover the idea of

itself.

the historical redemption through the true God, Jesus

was not the all-controlling one.


The Church could not rest satisfied with the
system. It demanded, (1) The identity of the expres
Christ,

church not
Content
System,

2.

sions of faith with the science of faith (especially

Such a

restriction of the use of

since Methodius),

(2)

the

that the realistic sentences of the

EMijtxij Traidsta

regula fidei and of the Bible should remain intact


(the opponents of

Origen

Epiphanius, Apollinaris,

the monks, Theophilus, Jerome),


of the idea of the real

through the

and his

God-man as

followers)

and

(3)

The introduction

historical redemption

the central idea (Athanasius

These demands, thoroughly car

down the system


bottom was a philosophical

ried out, broke

of Origen,

the

system.

which at

But break

down, no one of the cultured Christians at first


either would or could for they estimated it as the

it

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

319

science from which one dare not depart and which

the Christian faith needed for

its defence.

In consequence thereof, indistinctness and freeruled till the end of the 4th century in the Ori-

3.

dom

ental Church, into which, since Constantine, the old

world had gained an entrance. To be sure, through


Arius and Athanasius the idea of redemption had

become a critical problem, and

later

recognition essentially in the conception

it

obtained

which the

Christian faith at that time demanded; but every


thing on the periphery was entirely insecure:

wholly spiritualistic philosophical interpretation of


the Bible stood side by side with a coarse realistic
one, a massive

anthropomorphism by the side

of

Christian-tinted Neo-Platonism, the modified rule of


faith

by the side

of its letter.

Between were innum

steersman and rudder were wanting,


and the religion of the second .order, thinly veiled

erable shades

paganism, forced

itself

by

its

own

into the Church, but also into the

power, not only

Church

doctrine.

Right well did the Cappadocians (Gregory of Nyssa)


maintain the science of Origen in the midst of at
tacks right and
that

it

was

and they lived in the conviction

left,

possible to reconcile ecclesiastical faith

with free science.

Ecclesiastically inclined

laymen
acknowledged them to be in the right,
the same time Greek theology penetrated into

like Socrates

and at

the Occident and

But by the side


the

fall of

became there an important leaven.

of

it

there

grew

up, especially after

Arianism, in close alliance with barbar-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

320

ism a monkish and communal orthodoxy, which was


very hostile to the independent ecclesiastical science,
and the latter surely neglected no means of warding
off the

Were

heterodox Hellenism.

there not even

bishops (Synesius), who either gave a different in


terpretation to the principal dogmas, or denied them?
Contest
Against

g
sys tem?

Under such circumstances the situation narrowed down to a contest against Origen. His name
4.

signified a principle,

EUyvtxy
it

Tcatdefa

was the

nius,

the well-known use of

in ecclesiastical science.

passionate, learned

who

the

In Palestine

and narrow Epipha-

disturbed the circles of the monkish ad

mirers of Origen, together with bishop John of


Jerusalem. In Egypt the bishop Theophilus found
himself obliged, in order to retain his influence, to
surrender Origen to the monks and to condemn him.

This

is

one of the most consequential facts in the

consequence was it,


that the greatest theologian of the Occident (Jerome),
living in the Orient, once an admirer of Origen,
history of theology.

Of not

less

made common cause with Theophilus, in order to


preserve his own ecclesiastical authority, and stamped
Origen as a heretic. In the controversy into which
he on that account fell with his old friend Rufinus,

Roman

bishop took a part. Origen was also con


demned in Rome (399) and Rufinus was censured.

the

However,

it

tical action
lost

did not come as yet to general ecclesias


against Origen.

The controversy was

sight of in the contest of Theophilus against

Chrysostom.

Even

in the 5th

and 6th century

Ori-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

321

gen had numerous admirers among the monks and


laymen in the Orient, and his heterodoxies were
partly hushed

up by them, partly approved.

The great controversy about the Christological


dogma in the 5th century next silenced all other conBut the difference between the Alexandrians
tests.
and the Antiochians was also a general scientific one.
5.

The former took

their position

intfaesth
Century.

upon tradition and

(concerning the realistically conceived


idea of redemption) counting still on some adherents
speculation

on the

left

wing who

inclined toward the Origen-

Neo-Platonic philosophy and who were tolerated


they hid their heterodoxies behind the mysticism

istic
if

were sober exegetes with a

of the cult; the latter

tendency, favoring the philosophy of Aris

critical
totle,

gen.

but rejecting the spiritualizing method of OriThe heterodox element in the Alexandrians,

in so far as they

the

arms

had not

fully

thrown themselves into

of traditionalism, pointed

still

in the direc

tion of pantheism (re-interpretation of the regula)


in the Antiochians

it

lay in the conception of the

Forced to stand on guard against

central dogmas.

wholly withdrawn
remained
the "antito the East, the Antiochians
gnostic theologians and boasted that they carried
the old

which had

heresies

"

on the battles of the Lord.


to his

appended
tieiwv
a 5th Book

doret,

The

last of

compendium

of heretical fables

"

recognized as the

SO^/MTOJ^ ^cro/j.^

first

them, Theo-

",

which must be

systematic effort after Origen,

and which apparently had great influence upon John


21

Theo-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

322
of

The

Damascus.

"epitome"

It unites the trinitarian

tance.

dogmas with the whole


upon the creed.

of great

is

impor
and Christological

circle of

dogmas depending
shows an attitude as obviously
It
ecclesiastical and reasonable.

It

Biblical, as it is

keeps everywhere to the

"golden

It is al

mean".

most complete and also pays especial regard once more


It admitted none of the
to the realistic eschatology.
offensive doctrines of Origen,

not, but the

and yet Origen was

A system

not treated as a heretic.

this epitome is

uniform soberness and clearness in the

treatment of details and the careful Biblical proofs


give to the whole a unique stamp. It could not of
course satisfy; in the

person of

its

first place,

on account of the

author, and then because everything

mystical and Neo-Platonic

is

wanting in

its

doctrinal

content.
G.
osopliy and
schoiasticism.

After the Chalcedon creed

a stand-still in the orthodox Church


"

longer
logical

Antiochians",

"

or

science

all
:

came

to

There were no

Alexandrians

work died out almost completely.

"

free theo

However,

the century preceding the 5th council shows two

remarkable appearances.

First,

a mysteriosophy

gained more and more ground in the Church, which


did not work at dogmas but stood with one foot upon
the ground of the religion of the second order (super
stition,

cult),

with the other upon Neo-Platonism

(the pseudo-Areopagite)

second, a scholasticism

grew up, which presupposed the dogma as given and


appropriated it by means of apprehensible distinc-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.

323

In the spirit of both


Byzantium)
tendencies Justinian carried on his religious politics.
Relying thereon he closed the school of Athens,
tions (Leontius of

also the old ecclesiastical schools, the Origenistic

Antiochian.

The

and

5th council sanctioned the con-

demnation of Origen (in 15 anathemas his heterodox


sentences were rejected) and the condemnation of the

Teaching
de

mn<

by

council.

Henceforth there was no longer a


theological science going back to first principles.
There existed only a mysticism of cult (truly, with a
"

three

chapters"

hidden heterodox trend) and scholasticism, both in

(Maximus Con
fessor).
Thereby a condition was reached for which
but
at all times had longed
the
conservatives
certain

ways

in closest connection

"

"

Origen and the Anti-

through the condemnation of


ochians one was now defenceless against the massive
Biblicism and a superstitious realism, and that was

a result which originally men had not desired. In


the image-worship, on the one side, and the fussy
Gen. 1-3, on the other,

literal translation of

is re

vealed the downfall of theological science.

As

7.

to

to the

fi(i&j)fft$ 9

all

were considered

as to the fwffTaywyta

the Areopagito

Athanasius and Cyril) above

authoritative;

and Maximus; as
6fuMa,
all

the Cappadocians (in addition

Chrysostom.

these,

who

to ydoitopta, Aristotle;

as to the

But the man who comprehended

transferred the scholastico-dialectic

method, which Leontius had applied to the dogma


of the incarnation, to the whole compass of the di
"

vine

dogmas"

as Theodoret had established them,

andchrysostom

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

324

Damascus

was J nn f Damascus. Through him the Greek


Church gained its orthodox system, but not the Greek
Church alone. The work of John was none the less
important for the Occident. It became the founda
tion of mediaeval theology.
John was above all a
scholastic.
Each difficulty was to him only a chal
lenge to artfully split the conceptions and to find a
new conception to which nothing in the world corre
sponds, except just that difficulty which

is

to be

removed by the new conception.

The fundamental
question also of the science of the Middle Ages was
already propounded by him The question of nomialism and realism he solved it by a modified ArisAll doctrines had already been provided
totelianism.
:

for him; he finds them in the decrees of councils


and the works of the acknowledged fathers.
He
considered it the duty of science to work them over.

Thereby the two principal dogmas were placed within


the circle of the teachings of the old anti-gnostically
Of the allegorical explanation
interpreted symbol.
of the

The

Holy Scriptures a very modest use

is

made.

dominates on the whole, at


any rate much more decidedly than with the CappaIn consequence of this, the natural theol
docians.

ogy

letter of Scripture

is also closely

concealed

highly realistic Scrip

ture narrations, which are piously received, twine


themselves around it. But what is most perplexing
the strict connection which in Athanasius, Apollinaris

and Cyril unites the

tion, in general, the

trinity

dogma which

and the incarna

is

associated with

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF INCARNATION.


the benefit of salvation,

is

entirely dissolved.

325

John

has innumerable dogmas, which must be believed;


but they stand no longer clear, under a consistent

The end to which the dogma once contrib


uted as a means still remained, but the means are
changed it is the cult, the mysteries, into which the
scheme.

4th book also overflows.


lacks an inward,

Consequently the system


In reality it is not an

vital unity.

explanation of faith, but an explanation of its pre


suppositions, and it has its unity in the form of treat

ment, in the high antiquity of the doctrines and in


the

Holy Scriptures.

The dogmas have become the

sacred legacy of the classical antiquity of the Church ;

but they have sunk, so to speak, into the ground.


Image-worship, mysticism and scholasticism dom
inate the Church.

numemwe"

Dogmas.

BOOK

II.

EXPANSION AND RECASTING OF THE DOGMA


INTO A DOCTRINE CONCERNING SIN, GRACE
AND THE MEANS OF GRACE UPON THE BASIS
OF THE CHURCH.

CHAPTER

I.

HISTORICAL SURVEY.
Baur, Vorl.

2. Bd., 1866.
Bach, Die
Schwane, DG. der mittl.
Thomasius-Seeberg, Die christl. DG., 2. Bd., 1.

DG. des MA.


Zeit, 1882.

iib.

d.

christl.

2 Bde.

DG.,

1873 seq.

Abth., 1888.
Basal Eie-

ments of

^HE

^e

^Dogma
Occident.

history of

fo Q

na ^ ons

dogma

in the Occident during

tnousan d years between the migration of


an(j ^he Reformation was evolved from

the following elements

(1)

From the distinctive pecu

liarity of Occidental Christianity as represented

Tertullian, Cyprian, Lactantius, etc.,

(2)

From

by
the

Hellenic theology introduced by the theologians of


the 4th century, (3) From Augustinianism, i.e. from

the Christianity of Augustine,

degree

From

manic

nations.

(4)

in a secondary

new needs of the Romano-Ger


The Roman bishop became in an
increasing measure the decisive authority. The his
tory of dogma in the Middle Ages is the history of
the

326

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
the

Roman Church, although theology


not
in Italy, but in North Africa
home,

dogma

had

327

SIN, ETC.

its

of the

and France.
2.

The carrying out

of spiritual

disclosure of individualism

monotheism, the

and the delineation

inward process of the Christian

life (sin

of the

and grace)

indicate the importance of Augustine as a pupil of

But since he

the Neo-Platonists and of Paul.

also

championed the old dogma and at the same time


brought forward new problems and aims for the

Church as the kingdom


rich

mind bore within

of

God upon

itself all

the earth, his

the tensions whose

living strength determined the history of

dogma in
Even the system of morality and the
sacramental superstition, which later almost absorbed
the Occident.

Augustinianism, were placed by Augustine


the

first

new
later

principles of his doctrine of religion.

element, Aristotelianism

among
As a

was added during the

Middle Ages, and this strengthened the afore

said system of morality, but on the other

hand

it

beneficially limited the Neo-Platonic mysticism.


3.

The

piety of Augustine did not live in the old

dogma, but he respected

it

as authority

and used

as building-material for his doctrine of religion.

cordingly
side,

dogma

in the Occident became,

it

Ac

on the one

Church discipline and law and, on the

other,

far-reaching transformations within theology it


self.

The consequence was that during the Mid

dle Ages, in spite of all changes,

men

surrendered

themselves to the illusion of simply persisting in the

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

328

dogma of the 5th century, because the new was either


not recognized as such, or was reduced to a mere ad
ministrative rule in the indeed still controverted au
thority of the

Roman bishop.

the Tridentine council,


of affairs.

first

The Reformation,

i.e.

put an end to this state

since the IGth century, therefore,

Only

dogma in the Middle Ages be sep


arated from the history of theology, and described.
can the history of

Especially to be observed are,

4.

sacra?

me

(1)

The history

of

"

en5ftc
Theology.

pietism (Augustine, Bernard,

Francis, so-called re-

formers before the Reformation) in

its

significance

dogma, (2) The doctrine of the sac


Scientific theology (Augustine and Aris

for the recasting of

raments,
totle,

(3)

fides et ratio) in its influence upon the free cul

tivation of doctrine.

Back

there lay in the later Middle

of

these developments

Ages the question of per

sonal surety of faith and of personal Christian

which was repressed by the active power


The latter was the silent co
the visible Church.

character,
of

efficient of all spiritual

until

it

and theological movements

became plainly audible in the contest over

the right of the pope.

Division

(1)

Occidental Christianity and Oc-

cidental Theology before Augustine, (2) Augustine,


(3)

Provisional Adjustment of Prse- Augustinian and

Augustinian Christianity until Gregory L,


Carolingian Revival,

Epoch,

(6)

lasticism
tion.

(4)

The

The Clugnian-Bernardine
Mendicant Orders, of Scho

(5)

of the

Epoch
and of the Reformers before the Reforma

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

CHAPTER

SIN, ETC.

329

II.

OCCIDENTAL CHRISTIANITY AND OCCIDENTAL THEO


LOGIANS BEFORE AUGUSTINE.
O. Ritschl, Cyprian, 1885.
Noldechen, Tertullian, 1890.
Forster, Ambrosius, 1884. Reinkens, Hilarius, 1864. Zockler,
Volter, Donatismus, 1882.
Nitzsch,
Hieronymus, 1865.
Boethius, 1860.

OCCIDENTAL Christianity, in contradistinction


to Oriental, was determined by two personalities
Tertullian and Augustine and, in addition, by the
policy, conscious of its aim in serving and ruling, of
1.

the

Roman Church and

its

bishops.

The Christianity of Tertullian was determined


through contrast by the old, enthusiastic and strict
2.

and the an ti -gnostic rule of faith. In accord


ance with his juristic training he endeavored to secure
faith

everywhere in religion legal axioms and formulas,


and he conceived the relationship between God and

man

as that of civil law.

Furthermore his theology

bears a syllogistic-dialectical stamp

it

does not phil

osophize, but it reasons, alternating between argu


ments ex auctoritote and e ratione. On the other

hand, Tertullian frequently strongly impresses one


by his psychological observation and indeed by an

empirical psychology.
ifest

Finally his writings

man

apractical, evangelical attitude, determined by

the fear of

God

as the Judge, and an insistance

upon

will and action, which the speculative Greeks lacked.

C1 r isfc n~
\t
of
Tertullian

330

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

In

these points

all

and

in their mixture his Chris

became typical for the Occident.


The Christianity of Tertullian, blunted in many
de opere et eleemosrespects and morally shallow
out
de unitate eccleworked
ynis"), yet clerically
siae"), became naturalized in the Occident through
tianity

Natural
ized in

Occident

by Cyp
rian.

3.

("

("

Cyprian, the great authority of Latin Christendom


side by side with it that Ciceronian theology with
;

apocalyptical additions, represented by Minucius and


itself.
Religion was "the
but after the Church had under compulsion de

Lactantius, maintained
law",

clared all sins pardonable (Novatian crisis), religion

was

also the ecclesiastical penitential institute.

theologian, however, before Augustine


really adjust

"lex"

and

"venia".

was

In

No

able to

Rome and

Carthage they labored at the strengthening of the


Church, at the composing of an ecclesiastical rule of
morals possible of fulfilment, and at the education of
the community through divine service and peniten
tial rules.

The mass- Christianity created the clergy

and the sacraments, the clergy sanctified the mon


The formulas were al
grel religion for the laity.
most entirely

Tertullianic, yet his spirit

was being

crushed out.
Occident
Receives
Origenistic

Theology
and Mo
nastic ism

4.

test

from
Orient.

The Occident and the Orient were already sep

arated in the age of Constantine, but the Arian con

brought them again together.

The Occidental

orthodoxy supported the Oriental and received from


it

two great

Scientific (Origenistic) theology

and monasticism.

These were in reality a single

gifts

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

331

monasticism (the ideal of divinely inspired


celibacy in close union with God) is the practical ap
gift, for

plication of

that

Thus the Occidental

"science".

theology of the last half of the 4th century

is

repre

sented by two lines which converge in Augustine

The

line

of

the Greek scholars

(Hilary,

Victor-

inus Rhetor, Rufinus, Jerome) and the line of the

genuine Latin scholars (Optatus, Pacian, PrudenIn both lines, however, must Ambrose be
tius).

named

as

theologically

most important fore

the

runner of Augustine.
5.

The Greek

scholars transplanted the scientific

(pneumatic) exegesis of Philo and Origen and the


speculative orthodox theology of the Cappadocians
With the first they silenced the
into the Occident.

doubts in regard to the Old Testament and met the


onset of Manicheeism, with the second they, espe
cially

Ambrose, relaxed the tension which existed


between the orthodoxy of the

until after the year 381,

Orient and that of the Occident.


cessive contributions

Through three suc


Greek speculation entered into

the theology of the Occident,

Victorinus and Augustine,

(1)

(2)

Through Ambrose,

Through Boethius

the 6th century (here Aristotelian), (3)

Areopagite in the 9th century.

in

Through the

In Victorinus

is al

ready found that combination of Neo-Platonism and


Paulinism, which forms the foundation of the Augustinian theology in Ambrose is already conspicu
ous that union of speculation and religious individ
;

ualism, which characterizes the great African.

pagi"

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

332
Problem of
Latin
Church.

The

G.

real

problem of the Latin Church was the

application of the Christian law,

and the

ecclesiasti

In the Orient they laid

cal treatment of sinners.

greater weight upon the effects of the cultus as a


single institution

and upon

silent

self-education

through asceticism and prayer ; in the Occident they

had a greater sense of standing in religious relations


which they were responsible to the Church,
but also might expect from it sacramental and pre

to law, in

catory assistance through individual appropriation.

The sense

of sin as open guilt

was more strongly

This reacted upon their conception of the

developed.

As

Church.

regards the development of the latter,


schismate
Donatistarum) was the fore
Optatus (de
runner of Augustine, as regards the stricter concep
tion of sin,
Donatist

Con
troversy.

Ambrose.

The Donatist controversy,

in

which the Montanist

and Novatian controversies were continued under a


peculiar limitation,
rels

but

it

had

its roots in

personal quar

soon acquired an importance on

principle.

The Donatist party (in the course of development it


became an African national party, assumed in oppo
sition to the state, which oppressed it, a free, eccle
and even cultivated a revolutionary
enthusiasm) denied the validity of an ordination
administered by a traitor, and therefore also the
siastical attitude

validity of the sacraments

which a

bishop, conse

crated by a traitor, administered (consequently the

demand
the old

for re-baptism)

demand

that in

was the last remnant of


the Church not only the inIt

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
stitution,

but above

the persons

all

and the Donatists were able to appeal

At

to the celebrated Cyprian.

least

SIN, ETC.

333

must be

holy,

for their theses

minimum

personal worthiness in the clergy should

be

still

Church might remain

necessary, in order that the

the true Church.

of

In opposition to it the Catholics


of the "objective" Church

drew the consequences


idea.

Optatus above

holiness of the

all

asserted that the truth and

Church resides

in the sacraments,

P tatus

and

that therefore the personal quality of the adminis

una est, cuius sanede sacramentis colligitur, non de superbia

trator is immaterial

titas

("

ecclesia

he furthermore showed,
that the Church, in contrast with the conventicle of

personarum ponderatur")

the Donatists, held the guarantee of

They

Catholicity.

also hit

its

truth in

its

upon an evangelical prin

ciple in so far as they emphasized faith at the side

and with the sacrament, in opposition to personal


sanctity. Thus already prior to Augustine the found
ation for the

Roman

Catholic doctrine of the Church

and the sacraments was

laid

by Optatus.

But

Am-

brose especially had emphasized faith in connection

with a deeper conception of

sin.

Since Tertullian

the conception of sin as vitium originis and as sin

against God was known in the Occident. Ambrose


extended the view in both directions and appreciated
accordingly the importance of the Pauline idea of
gratia, justificatio, and remissio peccatorum

("il-

lud mihi prodest, quod non justificamur ex operibus legis


gloriabor in Christo; non gloriabor,
.

Ambrose.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

334

quia ivstus sum, sed gloriabor, quia redemptus

sum

It

.
")

was

in the Occident
sin

of epochal significance that people

became attentive

and grace, law and

when they externalized


and created a doctrine

to Pauline ideas of

gospel, at

the very time

the conception of the Church


of the sacraments.

was strongly

Ambrose

influenced by the

himself,

it is true,

common

Catholic views respecting law, virtue and

merit.

The more
SStfan-

mg
of

vital conception of

^ responsibility to

God

as a moral

God, the strong

feel-

the Judge, the consciousness

Power

restrained or relaxed by no

speculations concerning nature, the conception

man whose work

Christ as the
sight of

God an

of

for us possesses in the

infinite value,

iheplacatio (satis-

factio) Dei through his death, the Church as a peda


gogical institution securely relying upon the means
of salvation (the sacraments), the

Holy Scripture as

lex Dei, the symbol as the sure content of doctrine,

the conceiving of the Christian

life

from the points of

atonement and merit, even if conceived


more ecclesiastically than religiously, in these are

view of

guilt,

represented the peculiarities of


Augustine
Affirms
ns ~

an

forms

tianity prior to Augustine.

transformed them.
^.

He

Occidental

Chris-

affirmed and yet

Above all the soteriological

Qn awa j^ e(j a solution.

By

ques-

the side of Manicheean,

Origenistic-Neo-Platonic and stoic-rationalistic con


ceptions of

evil

and

of redemption there flickered

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
also near the year 400 here

SIN, ETC.

335

and there in the Occident

Pauline conceptions, which, as a

rule,

covered moral

some representatives
evangelical convictions which

laxities, yet nevertheless in

were expressions for


did not harmonize with the times and would there
fore of necessity be fatal to the Catholic

vinian)

If

Church ( Jo-

one considers in addition that about the

year 400 paganism was still a power, one can


prehend what a problem awaited Augustine!

would not have been able

to solve it for the

Occidental Church, had the latter not been

unit at that time.

and

world-historical

it

work

He

whole
still

The Western Roman empire

almost seems as though


existed,
able existence had only been prolonged to
still

com

of

Augustine

CHAPTER

its

miser

make

the

possible.

III.

THE WORLD-HISTORICAL POSITION OF AUGUSTINE


AS REFORMER OF CHRISTIAN PIETY.
Bindermann, der h. Aug., 3 Bde., 1844-69. Bohringer,
Augustin, 2, Aufl., 1877 f. Reuter, August. Studien, 1887.
Harnack, Aug. s Confessionen, 1888.
Bigg, The Christian
Platonists of Alex. 1886.
,

ONE may

seek to construct Augustinianism from

the premises of the current Occidental Christianity


(see the previous chapter) or from the course of the

training of Augustine (the pagan father, the pious


Christian mother, Cicero s Hortensius, Manichseism,
Aristotelianism, Neo-Platonism with

its

mysticism

tinianism

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

336

and skepticism, the influence

Ambrose and

of

of

monasticism), but neither of these methods of proced


ure, nor even both of them, will entirely accomplish

ne

ited.
Religion,

^ ne

en d

n y i ew

Augustine in religion discovered


he
religion
recognized his heart as the lowest, the
living God as the highest good he possessed an en
i

and

inward
chanting ability
observations: In this consist his individuality and
his greatness.
In the love of God and in the sub
facility for expressing

dued grief of his soul he found that elation which


man above the world and makes him another

lifts

being, while prior to

him

theologians had dreamed

man must become another

being in order to be
able to be saved, or had contented themselves with
He separated nature and grace,
striving after virtue.

that

"

but bound together religion and morality and gave to


the idea of the good a
the

phantom

moralism;

new meaning.

He

destroyed

of the popular antique psychology

he discarded

the

intellectualism

and

and

optimism of antiquity, but allowed the former to re


vive again in the pious thought of the man who found
in the loving

God

true existence

and in terminat

ing Christian pessimism, he at the same time passed

Made^Re-

beyond it through the surety of pardoning grace.


B u more than all, he held before every soul its own

the Start,

g^ory and responsibility

t;

and

its

God.

munal and

He

God and

the soul, the soul

rescued religion from

cultus form

and restored

as a gift and as a gracious

humility and strength

to

it

its

com

to the heart

life.
Love, unfeigned
overcome the world, these

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
are the elements of religion

and

its

SIN, ETC.

337

blessedness ; they

spring from the actual possession of the loving God.


the men who consider Thee their
"Happy are

who from

strength,

walk in Thy

their heart

steps".

This message Augustine preached to the Christianity


of his time and of all times.
1. The Prse-Augustinian piety was a
wavering between fear and hope. It lived not in the faith.
Knowing and doing good, it taught, brings salvation,

man

has received forgiveness for past sins


through baptism but man does not experience sal
vation.
Neither baptism nor asceticism freed from
after that

fear

own

men

did not feel strong enough to trust in their

and believing enough to take


comfort in the grace of God in Christ. Fear and
hope remained they were tremendous forces. They
virtue, nor guilty

Fear and

shook the world and built the Church but they were
not able to create for the individual a blessed life.
;

Augustine advanced from sins to sin and quilt, from


baptism to grace. The exclusiveness and firmness
with which he
ing God
him from

is
all

affiliated

the

new

the guilty

man and

the liv

teaching which distinguishes

his predecessors.

"

Against Thee, Thee

Thou, O Lord, hast created


us in thy likeness, and our heart is restless till it
only, have

sinned

finds its rest in

quod vis

"

"

eo,

"

"

quod iubes, et iube


quod quisque novit, non fruitur,
Thee"

nisi et id diligit, neque


cipit, permanet nisi

"da

quisquam in

dilectione"

eo,

This

is

quod perthe mighty

concord which his ear caught from the Holy Scrip22

Guilt and
Grace.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

338

from the deepest contemplation of the human


heart and from the speculation concerning the first
tures,

A11

fm

is

nst

od

ari ^ l as *

In a spirit devoid of

things.

that the Spirit exists

Sin

is

is

God all

is sin

the only good remaining.

the sphere and the form of the inner

life of

every natural man. Furthermore, all sin is sin


against God for a created spirit has only one last
;

ing relationship, namely that to God. Sin is the


disposition to be an independent being (superbia)
In this un
therefore is its form desire and unrest.
;

appeased lust and fear.


the former when striving after

rest is revealed the never

The

latter is evil,

bliss (blessedness) is good,

perishable goods
("

infelices esse

numlst.

bestowed upon us by God


is only one good, one

but there
"

ilii

adliaerere deo

in the atmosphere of

Only
and rest.

est."

striving after

We must strive to be happy


nolumus sed nee velle possumus")

which cannot be lost


bliss and one rest:
live

when

is evil.

this striving is the life

Mihi Adhaerere

but

God

bonnm

does the soul

But the Lord who created us has

re

Through grace and love which have


been revealed in Christ, he calls us back from dis

deemed

us.

traction to himself,

makes ex nolentibus volentes and

bestows upon us thereby an incomprehensible

being which

consists of faith

and

love.

new

These orig

God they are the means by which the living


God imparts himself to us. But faith is faith in the
9 ra ^ a gratis data", and love is joy in God blended

inate in

"

Gratte
lta

with that humility which renounces


vidual.

The

all

that

is

indi

soul regards these favors as a perpetual

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
gift

and a holy mystery,

thing that

God

requires

in
;

which

it

SIN, ETC.

339

acquires every

for a heart

endowed with

and love acquires that justice which prevails


before God and possesses that peace which exalts
faith

above unrest and

ment

forget that

and in

fear.
it

it

It

is still

cannot indeed for a

mo

entangled with the world

always associates grace with sin.

sin, yet
Sin and misery overcome by faith, humility and love
In the absorbing thoughts
that is Christian piety.

of faith
rest

which thus continually recur the soul

and yet

it

is

at

ever strives irrepressibly upward.

In this mode of feeling and thinking religion disclosed itself


of piety

more

deeply,

and the Augustinian type

became the authoritative standard

in the

Occident.

Occident till the Reformation, yes even


day
however a quietistic, one might almost say a nar
cotic element is hidden therein which is not found
till

this

in the Gospel.
2.

In the foregoing the piety of Augustine

one-sidedly defined.

first

iC

only Efe^nt
also in his piety a

There was

Catholic spirit; yes, he

is

in

created that intermin

gling of the freest, individual surrender to the Divine

with the constant, obedient submission to the Church


as an institution endowed with the means of grace,
so characteristic of Occidental Catholicism.
tail

the following points are especially to be

sized, in

which he affirmed the

and even enhanced the same:

"

Catholic

(1)

First,

In de

empha

"

element,

he trans

formed the authoritv of the Church into a religious

power and gave

to practical religion a doctrine con-

Authority
of the

church.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

340

In this he was guided by two

cerning the Church.


considerations, viz.

Skepticism and an appreciation

communion as an histor
he was convinced that
power.
isolated individual could not by any means arrive

of the value of ecclesiastical


ical

the

In the

at a full

first place,

and safe understanding

of the truth of the

revealed teaching

blocks

arms

like as

it presents too many stumblinghe therefore threw himself into the

of the authority of the Church, so he taught in

general, that the

where the individual

the faith,

Grace.

same time

are a t the

is

not able to rec

and that accordingly acts

ognize the same,


church
Organ of

Church stands for the truth of


of faith

In the sec-

acts of obedience.

w hile

breaking with moralism he recog


nized that the gratia had had an historical effect and
on( j p} ace?

had made the Church


position of the

its

Church

organism.

Insight into the

Roman em

in the tottering

pire strengthened this view.

But not only as skeptic

and historian did Augustine recognize the import


ance of the Church, but also by virtue of his strong
This piety wanted external authority as
piety.
every living religious faith has always wanted
will

E
chan

ar5 lacra-

it

and

want

^ie

it.
Augustine found it in the testimony
Church. (2) Although he unequivocally ac-

knowledged in his Confessions


sessing of the living
of his theology

Religion

is

the pos

God, yet in the interpretation

he exchanged the living

God

for

the gratia, the latter for the sacraments, and thus

compressed, as

and most

it

were, that which

is

most living

free into a material benefit entrusted to the

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

341

Misled by the burning conflicts of the time


(Donatist controversy) he thus paid the heaviest
tribute to current ideas and founded the sacramental

Church.

Church

But wherever he goes

of the Middle Ages.

beyond the sacraments back to God himself, there


in subsequent times he has always been in danger
of neutralizing the importance also of Christ

and

of

losing himself in the abyss of the thought of the


sole-efficiency of
(3)

God

(doctrine of predestination).

Although he acknowledged with

his heart

all

the gratia gratis data and, consequently, the sover

eignty of faith, yet he also united with

it

the old

scheme, that the ultimate destiny of the single indi


vidual depends upon

He

accordingly saw

"

and upon these only.


merita resulting from

merits

in the

"

the fides caritate formata, which indeed are Dei

munera, the aim

of all Christian development,

and

he thereby not only made it easy for futurity to re


tain the old scheme under the cover of his words,
but he himself also failed to perceive the real essence
of

faith

(i.e.

steadfast confidence in

God, result

ing from the assurance of the forgiveness of sin) as


the highest gift of God.
instilled love

was

His doctrine, however, of

neutral as regards the historical

Although Augustine was able to testify


to the joy of that blessedness which the Christian
already possesses in faith and in love, yet he was
Christ.

(4)

not able to present a definite aim to the present life


he shared in general the traditional Catholic disposi
tion of mind,

and the quietism

of his piety

imparted

This Life

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

342

to Christian activity

no new impulses.

That

it

should receive such through the work de civitate


dei was in reality not intended by Augustine.
"

"

Augustine

theology

basis of the peculiar

is to

form

be understood upon the

His religious

of his piety.

theories are in part nothing else than theoretically

explained frames of
in these

were

mind and

experiences.

But

also collected the manifold religious

experiences and moral reflections of the old world


The psalms and Paul, Plato and the Neo-Platonists,

the moralists,

Tertullian

and Ambrose,

all

are

found again in Augustine.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE WORLD-HISTORICAL POSITION OF AUGUSTINE


AS TEACHER OF THE CHURCH.
Augustine

THE
the

Doctrines.

ancient Church expounded

centres

of

theology from
Christology and the doctrine of

Augustine drew the


The good became to him the

freedom (doctrine of morals)

two centres

together.

its

axis for the contemplation of all blessings. Moral


good and redemptive good should include each other
(ipsa virtus et

praemium

virtutis)

dogmatics down from the heavens

He

brought

yet did not dis

card the old conception but amalgamated it with


In his interpretations of the symbol this
the new.
I

trine howe
piicated

un i G

*s

most

clearly manifest.

Through

his prse-

"

Catholic development and conversion, then through

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
his conflict with

343

Donatism and Pelagianism, Chris

tianity appeared to

much

SIN, ETC.

him

in a

new form; but

inas

as he considered the symbol as the essence of

doctrine, his conception of doctrine necessarily be

came complicated a union of the old Catholic theol


ogy and of the old ecclesiastical scheme with his

new thoughts on
into the

frame

the doctrine of faith compressed

of the symbol.

This mixture of

ele

ments, which the Occidental Church has preserved


until this day, subsequently caused contradictions

and rendered the old dogma impressionless.


In detail the following discrepancies in the theology of Augustine are especially to be noted (1) The
:

Those
discrepancies between symbol and Scripture.
who place Scripture above the symbol, as well as
those

who

prescribe the opposite order, can refer to

Augustine strengthened Biblicism and at the


same time also the position of those ecclesiastics who

him.

with Tertullian refuted the

Biblicists.

(2)

The

dis

crepancy between the principle of Scripture and the


Augustine taught, on the
principle of salvation.

one hand, that only the substance

(i.e.

salvation) is

of importance in the Scriptures; yes, he

as far sometimes as that spiritualism

over the Scriptures

advanced

which skips

on the other hand, he could not

rid himself of the thought that every

Scriptures is absolute revelation.

(3)

word of the
The discrep

ancy between his conceptions of the essence of relig


ion on the one hand, it is faith, love, hope yet, on
;

the other, knowledge and super-terrestrial, immortal

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

344

it

life;

should aim to secure blessedness through

grace, and again through the amor intellectualis.


Faith as conceived by Paul and a non-cosmic mys

ticism contend for the primacy.

The

(4)

discrep

ancy between the doctrine of predestined grace and


a doctrine of grace that is essentially an ecclesias

and sacramental

tical

doctrine.

Discrepancies

(5)

Thus

within the principal lines of thought.

in the

doctrine of grace the thought of the gratia


(propter) Christum not infrequently

conflicts

per
with

the conception of a grace flowing independently from


Christ out of the original being of God as the sum-

mum bonum

summum

and

esse.

Thus, in his

ecclesiastical doctrine, the hierarchical-sacramental

basal element is not reconciled with a liberal, uni

versal view, such as originated with the apologists.


Predesti-

logic,

One can

and

Ecclesias-

ti

menSaf
Elements.

"

of

distinguish three planes in the theology

Augustine
e P^ ane
an(^

Q
if

The

predestinarian, the soteriologic,

^ e authority and of the sacraments

fa Q Churchj bu t one would not do

him

justice,

one should describe these elevations separately, for

in his

summary

of the

because his rich spirit


cies

and

characteristically represented

periences, has he
of the Occident.

Church and
mystics;

whole they are united. Just


embraced all these discrepan

become the father

He

is

them as ex

of the

Church

the father of the

Roman

of the Reformation, of Biblicists

and

of

yes, even the Renaissance and modern

empirical philosophy (psychology) are indebted to


him. New dogmas, in the strict sense, he did not

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
introduce.

It

was

left to

a very

to formulate strictly definite

much

dogmas out

formation wrought by him in the


material,

the

new

i.e.

345

later period

of the trans

old

dogmatic

the condemnation of Pelagianism and

doctrine of the sacraments.

Augustine

1.

SIN, ETC.

Doctrine of the First and Last

Things.
Siebeck, in d. Ztschr. f

Phil. u. phil.

Kritik, 1888, S. 161

Gangauf, Metaphys. Psychol. d. h. Aug., 1852. Storz,


Die Phil. d. h. Aug., 1882.
Scipio, DesAurel. Aug. Metaph.,
1886.
Kahl, Primat d. Willens b. Aug. 1886. Kiihner, A. s
ff.

Anschauung

The

With

v. d. Erlos.

fear of the

the

life of

bedeutung

Lord

is

Christi, 1890.

the beginning of

wisdom

prayer Augustine united an inward

contemplation which led him, the pupil of the NeoPlatonists and of Paul, to a new psychology and
He became the alter Aristoteles in
theology.
"

making

the inner

life

"

the starting-point for thoughts

He

concerning the world.

absolutely put away


mind and with it the
at the same time, however, the
He was
polytheistic view also.
first

the naive-objective frame of


antique-classical,

remnants of the
the

first

sense of

monotheistic
the word)

theologian

among

the

(in

tke

Church

strict

fathers,

since he lifted the Neo-Platonic philosophy above


himself.

Not unfamiliar with the realm

of knowl-

edge of the objective world, he yet wished to know


but two things, God and the soul; for his skepticism

had dissolved the world

of external

phenomena, but

Augustine
Alter Aristoteles

"-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

346

in the flight of these

inner

him

life

phenomena the

facts of the

had, after painful struggles,

remained to

Even

as facts.

God, there

still

if

there exists no evil and no

exists unquestionably the fear of evil.

Out of this, i. e. through psychological analysis, one


can find the soul and God and sketch a picture of the
Hence the

world.

edge of truth, for

skeptic can arrive at the

which the marrow

of

knowl

the soul

sighs.

The fundamental form

of the life of the soul is the

amor) as a desire

desire for happiness (cupido,


blessedness.

activity)

(as

and they are valid

spiritual life

The

All inclinations are only developments

fundamental form

of this

for

receptivity

and as

for the sphere of the

as well as for that of the sensuous.

will is connected with these inclinations, never

a power rising above sensuous nature


(Augustine is an indeterminist). In concreto it is
indeed bound to the sensuous instincts, i.e. not free.

theless

it

is

Theoretical freedom of election becomes real freedom

0n
oJwiii
is

Free.

only when the cupiditas (amor) boni has become the


ru ^ n S motive for the will, i.e. only the good will is

Moral goodness and freedom of will coincide.


The truly free will has its freedom in the impulse of

free

This bondage is
withdraws the will from the do

the good (beata necessitas boni)

freedom, because

it

minion of the lower instincts and

realizes the destiny

and disposition of man to be filled with true exist


ence and life. In attachment to the good, therefore,
is

realized the higher appetitus, the true instinct of

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

about his

own

347

while he gradually brings


destruction, if he follows his lower in

self-preservation in

stincts.

man

SIN, ETC.

For these lines of thought Augustine claimed

he knew that every man, meditat


With them
about
himself, must affirm them.
ing
Augustine united the results of the Neo-Platonic cosstrict validity, for

tonic Cos-

mological speculation; but the simple greatness of


his living conception of

them and coerced the

powerfully upon
artificially gained elements of

God again and again

the doctrine of
plest confession

God worked

"

The Lord

of

into the

sim

heaven and earth

love ; he is the salvation of the soul ;

whom

Adopted.

is

should ye

fear"?

Through the Neo-Platonic speculation (through


proof of the nothingness of phenomena and through
progressive elimination of the lower spheres of the

sensuous and conceivable) Augustine arrived at the


conception of the one, unchangeable, eternal Being
(incorporea veritas, spiritalis substantia, lux in-

commut abilis)

At

the

same time

this

summum

esse alone corresponds to the simplicity of the high


est object of the soul s desire.

alone

is in reality

This

summum

esse

the Being, since every other being

has the quality of non-being, and can indeed not ex


ist but really perishes.
But, on the other hand, it can
also be conceived as the development of the sole

Sub

stance, as the radiant artistic expression of the latter,

and in

this conception the metaphysically dissolved

phenomena and the interest therein recur


Yet this natural feeling is
thetic form.

in an a9Sstill

only

nium Esse
tl

On y

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

348

He

the establishing of the Augustinian conception.

does not surrender himself to

it,

but rather passes

over at once to the observation, that the soul strives

Being and seeks it in all lower good


with indestructible, noble concupiscence; yet after
all it hesitates to seize the same.
Here a dreadful

for this highest

Monstrous

paradox presented
as

"monstrum",

him, which he designates


that the will does not actu

itself to

viz.,

ally want, ivhat it wants, or rather

what it seems

Together with the whole weight of

want.

man

to

s in

dividual responsibility Augustine conceived this state

which was ameliorated by no a3sthetic


consideration, yet at times was so smooth to him
of the case,

(the

cosmos with light and shadow as the

chrum
Metaphys-

5to

",

formed for him

Hence metaphysics tuas


into ethics. Through the

of responsibility,

God

universal One).

to

him

as the

dividual

This

"pul-

as the simile of the fulness of life of the

life,

(the

summum

summum bonum;

summum bonum

is

life for

selfish, in

will, as the evil.

not only the constant rest

ing-place for the restless thinker,

ing joy of

feeling

esse) appeared

and the

which determines the

trans-

and the intoxicat

the life-loving mortal, but

it is

an expression for the shall-be, for that which


become the ruling fundamental motive of the
for that

which

shall give to the will its

therewith for the

first

also

shall
will,

freedom and

time

of the natural, for that


structible inclination of

its power over the sphere


which shall free the inde

man toward

the misera necessitas peccandi

the good from

expression of the

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
Thus

good.

and

ail

for

him

inferences of the intellect

all

eudemonistic wrappings dropped from the

For

conception of the good to the ground.


line of

But

349

SIN, ETC.

this

thought also he claimed general validity.


still another experience now followed and

scorned

all

f routed

him

Yonder good not only con-

analysis.

as the

it

"

shall

be",

but he

felt

himself

by it as love and lifted out of the misery of


Accord
the monstrous contradiction of existence.
seized

ingly the conception of

meaning

The good which

is

mighty,

God received an

Person,

is

Love.

is able to

do

new

entirely

this, the

The summum

esse

is

Al
the

holy good in Person, working upon the will as al


mighty Love. Metaphysics and ethics are trans

Evil

is not only privatio


7
substantiae and therefore not mere privatio oni,
but godlessness (privatio Dei) the ontological defect

formed into

religion.

in the creature existence

good

is

and the moral defect in the

a defect in the attitude of love toward

but to possess
free-will

God is everything,

and peace.

God

is

being, good being,


Henceforth a stream of Divine

thought flowed forth freely from Augustine. It is


just as inherently natural to God to be gratia, im
parting himself in love, as to be causa causatrix

non

man however

lives by the grace of love.


embarrassed by a monstrous existence,
which points back to a serious fall into sin can live

causata;

That he

be explained but that the


grace of love really exists is a transcendent fact.
Man does not arrive at freedom through indepen-

only by grace,

may

still

into
Religion.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

350

dence as regards God, but through dependence upon

him Only that love which has been bestowed upon


him by God renders man blessed and good.
:

^ n tne detailed

God
and

deductions of Augustine respecting


and the soul the notes of metaphysics, ethics

of the deepest Christian experience vibrate with

God

in one another.

be enjoyed (frui

is

the only

= alicui

"res",

propter se ipsam), other things


This sounds Neo-Platonic, but

which may

amore inhaerere

rei

may
it

is

only be used.
resolved in a

Christian sense into the thought fide, spe et caritate


:

person

colendum deum.
above

The

all

God is Person, whom one can trust

other things and

whom

one should love.

fides quae per dilectionem operatur becomes

the sovereign expression of religion.

The aBsthetically
emana

grounded optimism, the subtile doctrine of


tion, the idea of the sole

agency of God (doctrine of

predestination), the representation of evil as

the

which

limits the good, do not indeed


but
entirely disappear,
they are joined in a peculiar
manner with the representation of God as the Crea
"

non-existent

"

mankind which has through its own fault


become a massa perditionis, and of God as the Re
tor of

deemer and ordinator peccatorum. The striving


also after absolute knowledge and the conception of
the Christian religion in accordance with the scheme
f ^ ne

apologists (rationalistic) never failed in

Au-

gustine, and the love of God which he felt was secure


to him only under the authority of outward revelation,
to

which he obediently submitted

but in his relig-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

351

which the appreciation of the im


history was indeed not so well developed

ious thinking, in

portance of

as the capacity for psychological observation, the

Christian spirit nevertheless ruled.

From

his youth

up Christ was the

And

principle of his soul.

silent

guiding

the apparently purely

philosophical deductions were in

many ways

influ

enced by the thought of him. All of Augustine s


attempts to break through the iron plan of the im
mutability of God, and to discriminate between God,
the world and the ego, are to be explained by the

impression of history upon him, i.e. of Christ. Thus


Christ appeared to him, the religious philosopher,

more and more plainly as the

How

the authority.
tion in general

ivay, the

power and

often did he speak of revela

and mean only him

How often

did

he speak of Christ where his predecessors spoke of

The

revelation in general!
tion of the idea of the

speculative representa

good and of

its

agency as love

became a certainty to him only through the vision of


Christ and through the authoritative proclamation
of the Church respecting him.
The vision of Christ
was a new element, which he first (after Paul and

Just as his doctrine of

Ignatius) again introduced.

the trinity received a

new form through

the convic

experienced through faith, of the unity of God,


although he adopted the old formulas, so also did his

tion,

Christology, in spite of
(rigid

combating

all

adherence to tradition

new con
Ambrose and his own

of Apollinaris)

tent through the preaching of

receive a

Christ his

Guiding

princi P u

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

352

experience.

chrfst

Key-note.

(1)

In the

first

place as regards Christ

ti16

representation of his sublimity in his humility

was

of decisive importance to him, the actual veri-

fying of the sentence, omne bonum in humilitate


perficitur (the incarnation also he represented from
this point of view)

in this he

began to strike the

mediaeval key-notes of Christology,

whole

stress

He

laid the

now won, that man,


can apprehend God since he has

upon the

lying in the dust,

(2)

possibility

come near us in our lowliness (the Greek waits


an exaltation to be able to grasp God in Christ)

He

construed not

for
(3)

infrequently the personality of

human

Redeemer
same the great
example of the gratia praeveniens, which made the
man Jesus what he became, (4) He conceived the man
Christ also from the

soul of the

and he saw in the endowments

Je

e~

diito!?,

and

priest.

of the

Jesus as Mediator, as Sacrifice and Priest, through

whom WQ have

been reconciled to the Deity and re

deemed, whose death, as the Church proclaims

it, is

the surest foundation of our faith in redemption.


all

these respects Augustine introduced

new

In

ideas

dogma, joining them thereto indeed only


A new Christological
insecurely and artificially.
formula he did not create to him Christ became the
into the old

rock of faith, since he

knew

that the influence of

Person had broken his pride and given him


strength to believe in the love of God and to let him

this

be found by it. The living Christ is the truth,


and he who is proclaimed by the Church, is the way

self

and the authority.

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
The

SIN, ETC.

353

guided by the quae per dilectionem


This is the blessed
unto
the vita beata.
operatur
peace in the vision of God. Therefore knowledge
still

soul

is

remains the aim of man.

It is

holds the primacy, but the intellect.

vitaBeata.

not the will that


Finally

Augus

form of thought
in the hereafter to an adoring

tine retained the vulgar Catholic

which confines man


knowledge
answers to

in this life asceticism

it

(hence Augustine

ticism as against Jovinian).


so far as

it is

earthly, is also

and contemplation
defence of monas-

The kingdom of God,


The soul
perishable.

must be freed from the world of appearances, of sim


ilitudes and compulsory conduct.
Nevertheless Au
gustine exerted indirectly a powerful influence upon
Virtue is not
the current eschatological ideas: (1)
v
the highest good, but dependence upon
representation of

merita
(2)

God

the decisive significance of the

view was indeed abandoned),


ascetic life should be a spiritual

this point of

The

priestly

one; the magico-physical elements of Greek


ticism recede entirely
J (no cultus mysticism),
J
the thought,

"mihi

adhaerere deo bonum

est",

In

inteiiectnalisui Dis-

counted.

still

closely united,

(5)

remains also in the other world, then intellectualism reappears in a modified form, (6) Not the
If love

life,

but the earthly Church has a higher


is, so to speak, the holy above

meaning; the latter


23

Love
Abides.

world and the other are

earthly

in-

due position,
nity as that

^^f

mys
(3)

was broken down the will received its


(4) Love remains even the same in eterwhich we possess in this life therefore

tellectualism

this

ence upon

(in the

jJJ^f^J.

ahsm
Ecciesiasticism.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

354
all

that

is

most holy, and

it is

a duty to build

it

up

not a religion of a second order supersedes the relig


ion, but ecclesiasticism, the service of the Church as

Fides,
tas.

a moral agency for reforming society, as an organism


of the sacramental powers of love, of the good and of
the right in which Christ works, (7) Higher than

monasticism stand fides, spes and caritas; hence


the scheme of a dreary and egotistical contemplation
all

To be

Augustine succeeded in unit


ing in all directions, although indeed with contradic
tions, the new lines of thought with the old.
is

broken.

sure,

The Work, De CiviTheDonatist Contest.


Dei."
The
Doctrine
tate
of the Church and of
"

2.

Means of

the

Grace.

Reinkins, Gesch. phfl. d. h. Aug., 1866.


Reuter, a. a. O.
Ginzel, L. Aug. v. d. Kirche in d. Tub. Theol. Quartalschr.
1849.
Kostlin, D. Kathol. Auffass. v. d. K. in d. deutschen
Ztschr. f christl. Wissensch. 1856, Nr. 14.
Schmidt, Aug. s
,

Lehrev.

d.

Begriff

d.

K. ind. Yahrbb. f. deutsche Theol., 1861. Seeberg,


christl. K. I. Th., 1885.
Ribbeck, Donatus u.

Aug., 1888.
l n the contest

Augustine
Adopts

iSSrineof
cimrch.

with Manicha3ism and Donatism

Augustine, following Optatus, formulated his docChurch upon the basis of Cyprian s con

trine of the

ception, excluding, however, the Donatistic elements

Cyprian and moderating the hierarchical. In


describing the Church as authority, as an indestruc

of

tible institution

of salvation, he believed that he

was merely describing a divinely produced verity in


representing it as communio sanctorum, he followed
;

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
his

own

355

In the former he op
subjectivism of the Maiiichseans

religious experience.

posed the critical

"

and the puritanism

make

SIN, ETC.

"

of the Donatists

who

desired to

the truth of the Church dependent upon the

purity of the priests; in

the

he used his

latter

doctrine of salvation in defining his conception of

Complicated views were the conse

the Church.

Not only does the Church appear, now as

quence.

the goal of religion,

the conception
conceptions.

presented

Church
one

now

as the

way

to the goal, but

becomes a complexity of divers

Finally the doctrine of predestination


him as out-and-out questionable.

itself to

The most important

1.

I.

itself

is its

unity

(in faith,

side, in Catholicity

characteristic of the

hope and

on the

love,

on the other), which the same

Spirit produces that holds the trinity together

this in

the midst of the disruption of humanity

is a proof of
Since unity flows

the divineness of the Church.

only from love, the Church rests upon the governing


power of the divine spirit of Love; community of faith
alone

iae

not entirely sufficient.

is

follows

non potest

teneatis,

From this view

there

Caritas Christiana nisi in unitate eccles-

i.e.

custodiri, etsi

baptismum

unity only exists

love only where unity

is.

The

et fidem

where love

is

and

application of this

phrase with its consequences declares Heretics not


only do not belong to the Church (for they deny the
unity of the faith), but schismatics also stand out
:

side of it; for their very separation

from the unity

proves that they are wanting in love,

i.e.

in the

unity of
Church.

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

356

Therefore only the


operations of the Holy Spirit.
one great Church is the Church, and outside of it
there can indeed exist faith,

chSrch

heroic

deeds,

even

means of salvation, but no salvation.


2 Tne second characteristic of the Church is its
The Church is holy as the place of the
holiness.
and of the Holy Spirit, and as the
of
Christ
activity
possessor of those means which sanctify the indi
That she does not succeed with all, cannot
vidual.
-

even a numerical superiority


et hypocritae does not endanger this

rob her of her holiness


of the mail

otherwise one unholy

member would

der her right questionable.


discipline

already ren

The Church

exercises

and excommunication not so much

serve her holiness as to educate.

She

to pre

herself is al

ready secure against contamination with that which


is unholy, in view of the fact that she never sanc
tions

it,

and she demonstrates her

her midst, and

holiness, since in

only witfiin her, real saints are be

and since she everywhere elevates and sanc


In the strict sense only
the morals of men.

gotten,
tifies

the boni et spirituales belong to her, but in a wider


sense the unholy also, in so far as they are still able
to be spiritualized

the sacraments

dei

"

("

"in

sacramentorum

pus permixtum

",

of

vasa in contumeliam in domo

they are not the house of God, but

they are not


"

and remain under the influence


"

in

domo

"

communione sanctorum" but


Thus the Church is a cor
"

")

and even heretics and schismatics

ultimately belong to her, in so far as they

have ap-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

357

propriated the means of grace and remain under the


But the holiness of the
discipline of the Church.

Church includes as

its

aim the pure communio sanc

torum (communio fidelium), and all religious predi


cates of the Church are valid for this communion.
3. The third characteristic of the Church is its
Catholicity (universality as regards space).

This

furnishes the strongest outward proof of the truth of

Church

the

for it is a fact perceptible to the senses

and at the same time a miracle with which the


Donatists

church

have nothing comparable.


Carthage evidences

at

Church by

its

tal churches,

world

(in

itself

The great
as the

true

union with Rome, with the old Orien


and with the churches of the whole

opposition

the Donatists rightly said:

Quantum ad totius mundi pertinet partes, modica pars est in compensatione totius mundi, in qua
"

fides Christiana nominatur").

The fourth characteristic is its apostolicity, A ft fic


which manifests itself, (1) in the possession of the church
apostolical writings and doctrines, (2) in the ability of

4.

the

Church

to trace

apostolical churches

back

its

by the

existence as far as the

line of episcopal succes

sion (this point Cyprian emphasized

Among

these churches the

portant on account of

Roman

its first

more
is

strongly).

the most

bishop, Peter.

im

He

is

the representative of the apostles, of the Church, of


weak Christians and of the ecclesiastical function of
the bishops.

The

old theory that

it is

necessary to

be in union with the sedes apostolica and cathedra

358

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

Petri) Augustine retained


libility of the

Roman

see,

but as regards the infal

he expressed himself just

as undecidedly and contradictorily as in regard to

the councils and the episcopate (naturally to


council stood higher than the
5<

ch

The infantility O f

Roman

the Church Augustine con-

sidered as firmly established ; but he

produce the arguments for

and

bishop)

him a

it

was

able to re

only as relatively sound

In like manner he was convinced of

sufficient.

the indispensableness of the Church; but he pro

pounded ideas (regarding the doctrine of predestin


ation and the immutability of the eternal working

which annulled the same.


The Church is the kingdom of
J God upon earth.
^ s a ru e Augustine, indeed, in making use of this
conception had no reference to the Church, but to the
entire result of the work of God in the world, in con
But whenever he
trast with the work of the devil.
of God),

church

is

Kingdom

Earth

6.

-^

identifies

by

Church and kingdom

former

the

of

God, he means

communio fidelium

the

(corpus
only one Church, he
could not but consider, in a given case, the corpus

verum).

But since there

permixtum

also as the

with the abolition of

all

is

kingdom

of

God and
;

since

apocalyptic representations

he saw the millennium now already realized in the


Church, in contrast with the perishing evil state of
the world, he

was driven almost

involuntarily to the

consequence that the visible Church with


priests

and

its

regulations

(de civitate dei,

XX.

is

9-13).

its

ruling

kingdom of God
Thus the idea of the

the

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

359

of God passes with him through all stages,


a
from
historico-theological conception, which is
neutral as regards the idea of the Church (the king

kingdom

dom

God

of

is

heaven and has been organizing

in

it

Abel upon the earth for heaven) to the


Church of the priests, but it has its centre in the ecclesia as a heavenly communio sanctorum in terself since

"

Parallel with this conception


goes that other of the societas of the godless and re
probates (including the demons), which finally passes
ris peregrinans"

over into the idea of the earthly kingdom (the state)


as the magnum latrocinium.
In opposition to this

communion originating in

sin

and condemned to

nal strife, stands in general the state of

God

eter

as the

only rightful union of men. But the latter points of


this form of statement which ends in a real theocracy
of the

Church and

in a

condemnation of the state,

Au

gustine neither elaborated nor especially emphasized.


He had in mind almost throughout spiritual powers

and

spiritual strife the popes of the Middle Ages


drew the theocratic consequences. He also gave
his view respecting the state the turn, that, since
;

first

to

the

pax

terrena

is

a community (the
good.

But

a good (even
state)

since the

pax

if

which

a particular one),

protects

it is

also

terrena can be brought

about only by justice, and inasmuch as the latter

undoubtedly in possession of the

Church alone

is

(be

cause as resting upon the caritas it originates with


God) the state can obtain a relative right only by
,

submission to the state of God.

It is clear that this

to

church

360

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

view

also,

by which the earthly

state receives

a cer

has an especial mis


can
be easily introduced into the theocratic
sion),
scheme. Augustine himself drew only a few con
tain independence (because

it

drew these That the state must


Church by means of compulsory measures
against idolatry, heretics and schismatics, and that
the Church must in general exercise an influence
sequences, yet he

serve the

upon the

state s right of

^e

punishment.
Donatist contest also necessitated a

closer consideration of the

In the

first place,

it

sacraments

was the

(vid. Optatus).

greatest advance that

Augustine recognized the word as a means of grace.


The formula, "word and sacrament
originated
",

with him, yes, he esteemed the word so highly


that he even called the sacrament
verbum visi"

"

"

bile",

casti

gave

and with the sentence:

"

to

"

crede et

mandu-

working through mysteries and


the conception sacrament so wide a range

he opposed

all

"

"

that every sensible sign with which a redemptive

word is joined may be so named


accedit verbum
ad elementum et fit sacramentum
An especial
("

")

doctrine of the sacraments

from

is

not to be

drawn

there

Augustine indeed not seldom goes so far in


spiritualization, that the sensible sign and the aud
ible

word need only

imago

to be considered as

of the invisible act

accompanying them

giveness of sin, spirit of love)


Baptism
and Lord s
supper,

2.

signa and
(for

But, on the other hand, the sacraments

Au-

gustine has reference as a rule in this connection only

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
to

baptism and the Lord

thing higher.

They

Supper

SIN, ETC.

are after all

361

some

are signs, instituted by God,

of a higher object, with which,

by virtue of the con

stituted order of creation, they stand in a certain re

and through them grace is

lationship,
to

him who makes use

of

really imparted

them (assurance

of the

misericordia Christi in the sacrament, but on the


other hand, actus medicinalis)
This communica
.

tion is dependent

upon the administration

ity of the sacraments), but

where the

spirit of

it is

(objectiv

redemptive only

love (the true Church) exists.

Thereby arose the double contradiction, that the sac


raments are effective everywhere and yet only in the
Church, are independent of men and yet bound up
with the Church in their redemptiveness. Augustine
resolved this contradiction by discriminating between
the character which the sacraments impart (stamp
ing it, as it were) and the real communication of

The sacraments

grace.

"

sancta per se ipsa

"

can

be purloined from the Church and yet retain their


efficacy, but only within the Church do they tend
effectively to salvation

det sed quid


is

not yet

"

det,"

("

non consider andum, quis

but on the other hand,

utiliter habere

"habere"

.
")

Only with baptism (character: Inalienable relation to Christ and his Church) and ordination m
3.

(character:
rifice

and

Inalienable

preparation

to

sac

offer

to administer the sacraments), however,

could this view be harmonized, not indeed with the

Lord

Supper; for in this the res sacramenti

is

the

n
tioned

"

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

362

invisible incorporation into the

body of Christ (con

cerning the elements Augustine taught symbolically),


s Supper is the sacrijicium caritatis;

and the Lord

the

therefore

Church was

Catholic

with the Lord

and there could

exist

ever

allied

Supper (sacramentum unitatis)


no character", which was in
"

dependent of this Church.

Augustine glided over


His general doctrine of the sacra
ments was obtained from baptism, and he discrim

this difficulty.

inated therein thus artificially,

he

in order that

might, (1) place the Donatists in the wrong, (2)


maintain the characteristic of the sanctity of the
Church, (3) give to faith a firm support, upon which
it

independent of men.

could rely

discrimination

was made

the hierarchical sense.

upon the

"

word

"

the most

Afterward the
of, especially

But Augustine

emphasis

and his spiritualism have given

simultaneously offence in another direction (to


ther and to the Free-Reformers).

Augus tine
d
pictS?c

ideas in regard to the

of contradictions.

in

Church are

The true Church should

Lu

full

also be

visible, and yet to the visible Church belongs also


evil men and hypocrites, nay even heretics. The ex-

terna societas sacrament orum, which

is

communio

fidelium et sanctorum and finally also the numerus praedestinatorum are one and the same Church

The
In

"

in ecclesia esse

"

ecclesia"

"

has in truth a triple sense.

are only the praedestinati, including

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
those

still

lievers,

sia

"

unconverted;

are

all

The Church

those
is

ecclesia"

"in

who

including those

SIN, ETC.

are the be

will relapse ;

who have

36o

"

in eccle

part in the sacraments

heaven and yet visible as


is from the beginning and

properly in

civitas upon earth

It

founded upon
predestination, no upon faith, love, hope, no upon
the sacraments
But while taking account of these
yet

first

instituted

by Christ!

It is

divers important points

which are contradictory if


must not forget

there is to be only one Church, one

that Augustine lived as an

humble Christian with

the thought that the Church

Hum

is

the

communio fide-

sanctorum, that faith, hope and love are its


foundation, and that it in terris stat per remissioet

"

nem peccatorum

in caritate." The predestinarian


idea of the Church (in reality the dissolution of the

Church) belongs to the theologian and the theosophist, the empirical idea to the Catholic polemic.

It

not to be overlooked also, that Augustine first


rescued the sacraments from the magical aspect
is

under which they were to counterbalance a moralistic


thinking, and coordinated and subordinated

mode of
them to

faith.

He

first

rendered the doctrine of the

sacraments reformable.

3.

The Pelagian Contest.

Doctrine of Grace and

of Sin.
Jacobi, Lehre d. Pelagius, 1842. Worter,
1866.
Klasen, Die innere Entw. d.
Pelagianismus, 1882. Wiggers, Augustiuismus and Pela-

Renter,

a. a.

O.

Der Pelagianismus,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

364

gianismus, 2

Bdd., 1831 f.
(Meckl. Theol. Ztschr.

Gnade

Dieckhoff,
,

I.

1860)

A.

Lehre

Luthardt, L.

v.

d.

v. f r.

Willen. 1863.

Doctrine of
Sin and
Grace.

Augustine had not formulated his doctrine regard jn


g g race an(j sm when he permitted himself to be
baptized into the Catholic Church (see his antiManicha3an writings), however he had done so be
fore

he entered into the Pelagian

contest.

Pelagius

also did not formulate his doctrine first during the

but he held

contest,

when he

it

jube quod vis".


whether grace
it sets

took

offence

at

quod jubes et
The two great modes of thought

the Augustinian expression,

is to

nature free

"da

be reduced to nature or whether

rose in

arms against each

other.

The Occident, prepared through Ambrose, accepted


Augustinianism with incredible alacrity. Augus
tine, the religious

man and

the virtuoso, encountered

in Pelagius an earnest ascetic

monk, in

CaBlestius a

eunuch, in Julian a gay man of the world who was


also a resolute, determined rationalist and an inexor
able dialectician.
a ia

i?m

fs

Ra-

Redemp-

Pelagianism is Christian rationalism, consistently


developed under the influence of Hellenic monasticism

it is

stoic

and Aristotelian popularized Occi

dental philosophy, which

dinate to

The

itself

made

the attempt to subor

the traditional doctrine of redemption.

influence of the Antiochian theology can

shown.

The

Ipe

sources are the writings and letters of

Cselestius, Pelagius

and Julian (mostly in Augustine

and Jerome), the works

of Augustine, Jerome, Oro-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
sius,

Marius Mercator, the papal

SIN, ETC.

letters

365

and synodal

Pelagius himself was more cautious, less


aggressive and less truthful than Cselestius and
decrees.

The

Julian.

latter

first

the

completed

doctrine

"

(without him, Augustine says, Pelagiani dogmamachina sine architecto necessario remansis-

tis

Formally Augustiniauism and Pelagianism


are herein related and opposed to the previous mode of
set").

thought,

(1)

Each

is

founded upon the desire to unify

the religious, ethical knowledge, (2)

Each

an
itm.

expelled

from tradition the dramatico-eschatological element,

Each was not culto-mystically interested, but kept

(3)

the problem within the sphere of the spirit, and

(4)

Neither puts the highest emphasis upon traditional


proof (Augustine often confesses that the proof
difficult to

fathers)

is

deduce from the extant writings of the


Pelagius was anxious to show that in the

whole controversy it was not a question of dogma,


but a practical question Augustine carried on the
contest with the conviction that the essence and
;

power

must stand or fall


Ca3lestius was especially

of the Christian religion

with his doctrine of grace

interested in overthrowing the doctrine of hereditary

Julian was consciously defending the cause of


reason and freedom against a stupid and impious

sin

"

through which the Church was being


plunged into barbarism and the educated minority
given over to the masses who do not understand

dogma"

Aristotle.
I.

Pelagius appeared in

Rome and

proclaimed to

Pe
R?iUJ?.

366

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

common Christians monasticism and the ability


every man to rise in his own strength unto virtue,

the
of

avoided theological polemics but contended against

His

the quietism of the Augustinian confessions.


C

lec o?ds

Teaching,

R man friend

Both went

Ca3lestius seconded him.

North Africa, from which Pelagius however soon


Cselestius applied at Carthage for a pres
departed.
to

byter s

office.

But he was complained

by the Milanese deacon, Paulinus,

of (412 or 411)
at a

synod at

Carthage, because he considered mortality as some


thing natural (to Adam and to all men) denied the
,

universal consequences of

Adam

taught the
perfect innocence of the new-born babe, esteemed the
s sin,

benefit of the resurrection of Christ as not necessarily

attributable to

all,

misunderstood the difference be

tween law and gospel, spoke of sinless men before


the appearance of Christ and thought in general
superficially of sinlessness

and the fulfilment

of the

commandments

of Christ, if only one has good in


In spite of his assertion that he acknowl
edged the baptism of children (but not unto the for
giveness of sin) and was therefore orthodox, he was

tentions.

Ceeiestius

excommunicated.

Excommunicated.

He went to Ephesus and Constan-

Pelagius was

and sought to
maintain peace with Augustine and Jerome. His
tinople.

in Palestine

keen friend with his polemic against the traduxpeccati and the baptism of infants in remissionem pec-

catorum was uncongenial to him more valuable were


;

his

more recent

of Jerusalem.

friends in the Orient, especially

He and

others pronounced

John

him

in-

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

367

synods at Jerusalem and Diospolis


415), while the Augustinian disciples, Orosius and
Jerome, accused him of misunderstanding the Divine
nocent

(at the

atsynodof
415.

But only with a mental reservation did Pela-

grace.

gius give up the incriminating tenets of Cselestius,


which accordingly remained condemned in the Orient

In his literary labors he became simply more


The North African
cautious, but did not give in.
also.

churches (synods of Carthage and Mileve, 416) as


well as Augustine applied to Innocent I. in Rome for
the condemnation of the two

heretics.

The

pope,

have been approached by North Africa, com


plied (417), yet kept a pathway of retreat open for

glad to

himself.

Although Zosimus, his successor, induced

through a cunning confession of faith by Pelagius


and won over by Caslestius who now also grew more
cautious, reinstated

them and

to the representations of the

at first

remained deaf

North Africans

yet a

Carthage (418) and an imperial


general synod
edict, which expelled both heretics with their fol
at

lowers from Rome,


pope,

who

in

made an impression also upon

the

an epistula tractoria assented to the

condemnation and required the Occidental bishops

same (418). Still this imputation strength


ened the opposition party. Eighteen bishops de
Their leader was Julian of Eklanum. This
clined.
to sign the

juvenis confidentissimus now took up his sharp


He wrote daring letters to Zosimus and Rufus
pen.
of Thessalonica,

which Augustine answered

(420).

Therewith began a ten years literary feud between

innocent

i.

368

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

the two (fragments of the Julian writings in Aug.

de nuptiis et concupisc., libri sex


imperf.

c.

Jul.).

c.

Jul.

and opus

During the same Augustine was

often driven into a close corner by Julian

but the

feud took place post festum: Augustine was already


victor Julian wrote like one who has nothing more
He evolved therefore his naturalism and
to lose.
;

moralism out of his royal reason with great license,


casting aside all monkery, yet without any compre
hension of the needs and right of religion.

He was

with his companions into the

finally forced to flee

Orient and he there found protection with Theodore


Pe

ans

con
council of

P
43i

sus

^ Mopsuestia.
The Ephesian council, i.e. Cyril,
did the Roman bishop the favor of condemning the

Pelagians (431). In the Orient men had no compre


hension of the contest indeed at the bottom they were
;

inclined toward Pelagianism as regards the freedom

men were agreed


only on the points, that every baptism is in remissionem peccatorum, that there exists since the fall
of the will

but in the Occident also

Adam a tradux peccata which delivers the chil


dren of Adam over to death and condemnation, and
of

that the grace of

God

as a power for good

is

neces

sary unto the salvation of every man.

H- Pelagius cared nothing


system; Julian

s stoical

for

new dogmas and a

system with

its

Aristotelian

dialectics, Christian etiquette and tendency toward

naturalism belongs to the history of theology. Yet


it is important to note the principles of the Pelagian
doctrine; for it has made its appearance in a subtle

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

369

form again and again. The monastic tendency was


not an essential thing with Pelagius, but subordinate
to the

aim

character,

of the spontaneous development of

and

Just on that account one

do that which

of thought

may

and

class Pelagius

Courageous faith in man s ability


good, and the want of clearness

Julian together.
to

good

to the ancient idea of moderation.

is

on religio-ethical questions unite them.


is righteousness, there is a God.

Because there

God

is

the kind Creator and the just Leader.

thing that he has created


creature, the
is

law and

is

free-will.

then not convertible

Every

good, therefore also the


If nature is good, it

accordingly there can exist

no peccata naturalia, only peccata per accidens.

Human

nature can be modificated only incidentally.

The most important and best endowment of this


motus animi cogente nullo
is free-will

nature

")

("

comprised within the latter. Both bring


it to pass that man does not live under the condiIt is the
tio necessitatis and does not need help.
reason

is

glorious gratia

may do

prima

of

God, the Creator, that

both and can do either.

we

The possibilitas

boni comes from God, the voluntas and actio is


our concern. Evil is a momentary, false self -de.

termination

without

consequence

to the

nature,

originating in the sensuous faculties. According to


Pelagius these are bad in themselves, but can be

subdued; according to Julian they are not bad in


themselves, only so
wise, then

"in

excessu".

Were

it

other

must baptism abolish concupiscence


24

and

et Actio is

Ours,

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

370
if

is

concupiscence

Man

good.

must do

is

God

bad, then the Creator

is

not

able to resist every sin, therefore he

have indeed been

so; there

men.

sinless

According to Pelagius everybody goes

to hell

who

The attempt to
the Scriptures and ecclesi

acts contrary to his better ability.

adjust these teachings to

was fraught with difficulties. It was


admitted that Adam, endowed with freedom of
astical tradition

choice, fell; yet natural death, since

it

is

natural,

was not the consequence of his sin, but spiritual


Inasmuch as death has not descended from
death.
him,

much

less

tradux peccati

has not sin

for the acceptance of a

(original sin) leads to the absurd as

sumption of soul-generation and to Manichseism (evil


nature), abolishes the Divine justice, causes matri

mony
stroys
sin

is

an

the win.

to appear unholy, therefore unlawful,


all possibility of

a redemption

(for

and de

how can a

law influence nature?)


Sin
redemptive message
an
of
the
will
and
affair
each
is
always remains
or a

punished only for his


the condition of

arbitrium

et

own

Adam

post

All

sin.

men

before his fall

peccata tarn

plenum

stand in

("liberum

est

quam

only a sinful habit keeps them


down, the power of which is certainly to be acknowl
edged. On that account grace also must be acknowl

fuit ante peccata

")

edged as adjutorium.

According

to the degree of

convenience, the Pelagians declared grace as simply


necessary, as alleviating, as superfluous.
sidered

in truth only a comfortable crutch for

it

Christians

They con

for the sentence,

"

homo

libero arbitrio

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
emancipatus

est

a Deo

",

SIN, ETC.

371

excludes grace in princi

There exists also in truth only one grace, the


ple.
enlightening, deterring, reward-offering law but one
;

may

also

ment),

distinguish, (1) creational grace

(2)

gratiaper Christum:
of his

(endow

the law (illuminatio et doctrina),

work applied by baptism

On

giveness of sin.

(3)

(a) his example, (b) the fruit

to our benefit as for

this point the Pelagians

were

not permitted to waver; but they disclaimed the


gratia praeveniens, did not see in the baptism of
infants a baptism in

remissionem peccatorum and

did not acknowledge the absolute necessity of for

Children dying unbaptized are also saved,


giveness.
but are not admitted into the regnum caelorum.

The

thesis of the Pelagians, that Christian grace is

secundum merita,

conferred only
just as

much

abolishes grace

iprrGci

A
Ac-

to

Merft.

it works es
same manner as the law. While

as the other thesis, that

sentially in the

judging Augustinianism,
as ManichaBism,

now

now

as an innovation,

now

as inward contradiction, they

themselves brought forth the greatest contradictions


(dialectically concealed), and were innovators in so
far as they really held fast to the old ecclesiastical

doctrine of freedom but not to the opposite pole, the

mystical doctrine of redemption, and they accord


ingly sold religion to an irrational rationality and to

a profoundly immoral theory of morality.


III. Augustine did not start from the liber um

arbitrium, but from


its guilt in

God and

his presence

the soul which feels

and yet has experienced his

^J^*
Doctrines

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

372
grace.

In seeking to explain therefrom nature, the

and the history of the individual,


he fell into many contradictions and into assumptions
too easily gainsaid.
But there are theses which are,
history of the world

outwardly considered, entirely untrue, but, inwardly


grace and

Thus

true.

considered,

is

Augustine s doctrine of
As an expression of

sin to be judged.

is

psychological religious experience

it

projected into history

Besides

itself also

it

not consistent
"

thought that

God

for

",

it is

"

God

but

true;
it is

in

dominated by the

in Christ creates faith

as by the other thought that


ity

false.

is

is

",

as well

the only Causal

and these are brought only seemingly into con

sonance by the definition of grace as gratis data.


Besides Manicha3an elements are visible; the letter
of Scripture (generally misunderstood)

had

also

an

obscuring effect, and the religious view is accom


panied by a moralistic (merita) which finally

makes the

decision.

Humanity
peccati,

i.e.

he alone

Gratia
Data.

a massa
is, according to experience,
void of God; but the God-man, Christ,
his death brought the

power to re
with
Divine
love: that
plenish empty humanity
is the gratia gratis data, the beginning, middle
and end of our salvation. Its aim is that out of the

by

massa perditionis there


merus electorum. Such

shall be saved a certus

will be saved because

has predestined (Augustine


elected,

called,

them by virtue

justified,

is

nu-

God

an inf ra-lapsarian)

sanctified

and preserved

of his eternal decree.

This takes

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OP

SIN, ETC.

373

Church through grace, which, (1) ispraeveniens, i.e. withdraws man from his condition of sin
and creates the good will (
vocatio, but this and
place in the

all

further acts of grace take place in those also

who

finally are not saved, because they are not elected)


(2)

cooper ans

this is developed in a series of

HS.

gra

dations as far as the entire and actual regeneration of

man, which makes


with

love, to earn

lows the fides; this


is

possible for him,

it

merit a.
is

Out

filled

gradually augmented, since

developed upon the stages of belief,

fiducia and love.

when

of the vocatio fol

Parallel with

it

it

obedience,

goes the actual

working of grace in the Church, which be


gins with the remissio peccatorum, i.e. with bap
tism, which removes the reatus of hereditary sin and
(visible)

blots out past sins.

which

It

terminates in the just ificatio,

not a judgment upon the sinner, but the

is

completing of the process by virtue of which he has


actually passed from an impious to a just state.

This takes place through the infusion of the

spirit of

love into the heart of the believer (and through the

Lord
the

Supper), whereby, admitted into the unity of

communion with Christ (Church), he

as sanctus
desire
("

and spiritalis a new disposition and


est
and now

mihi adhaerere deo bonum

has the capacity for good works

quod

lex

receives

("fides

")

impetrat,

Justification

depends upon
the fides and is sub specie aeternitatis a concluded
act; empirically considered, it is a process never
imperat").

completed in this world.

The being

filled

with

faith,

Justiflca-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

374

hope, and love

is evidenced by the demonstration of


from the world (asceticism).
withdrawal
by

love and

This is in turn evidenced in good works, which now


have merit before God (merita), although they are
his gifts since they are begotten of his grace.
Not to
every one are perfect works granted (consilia evangelica) but every justified person has works of faith,

hope and

love, (3) the highest

and best

gratia is the perseverantia which


the

The vocati

elect.

is

gift of the

irresistibilis in

(et sanctificati 9)

who do

not

lost.
Why some only receive it,
not bestowed secundum merita, is God s

have this will be


since

it is

But

mystery.

certain is

it

in spite of predestina

and sovereign grace that at the final judgment


not the adhaerere Dei but the moral habitus will
tion

"

"

He

be decisive.

only

who can show merita

such are Dei munera) will be saved. The


cance of the forgiveness of sin and of faith
ever misconceived.
love

is,

sure of
sin, Fail

and Origin
al state,

On

there also

Augustine

is bliss

s thesis is:

(but

signifi
is

how

"Where

corresponding to the

mea

love",

Augustine formed his doctrine conthe fall and the original state.
Sin is

this basis

cerning

sin,

privatio boni (lack of being and of true being),


turning of man unto himself (pride) and concu

miser a necessitas non posse


although formal freedom exists
"

piscence (sensuality)

non

peccandi",

dominion of the devil (therefore redemption from


without is necessary). Augustine desires to retain
the

"

amor

sui

"

as the principal conception of sin,

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OP

SIN, ETC.

375

but in reality he ranks concupiscence above it. The


manifests itself above all in sexual lust. Since

latter

this acts spontaneously (independent of the will)

it

proves, that the nature is vitiated (natura vitiata).

For that reason

propagates sin

it

The

vitiata

act of genera

consummated with lust, is a testimony that


humanity has become a massa peccati. Since Au
tion,

gustine hesitated to teach traducianism as regards


the origin of the soul, the body contrary to the orig
inal deposition

becomes the bearer of sin which

infects the soul.

The tradux peccati runs as vitiam


This hereditary sin

originis through humanity.


sin,
life

is

origfnfs.

punishment for sin and guilt it destroys the true


and surrenders man to the non posse non mori
;

(unbaptized

poena

"),

vitia").

Church

children

after

it

Thus
Since

all his acts

"mittissima
("

splendida

testify Scripture, the practice of the

and the conscience

(infant baptism)

sinner.

however

also

has defiled

Adam

natura vitiata.

His

of the

this hereditary sin exists as


fall

of all heinous sins (pride

the more terrible, since

was

terrible,

a complexity

and concupiscence) it was


Adam had not only been
;

created good, but also possessed as adjutorium the

Divine grace (for without this there exists no spon


taneous goodness)
This grace he forfeited, and so
.

great was its loss, that in him the whole human


race was corrupted (not only because all were that
Adam, but also because from him the evil contagion
"

"

spread)

and even baptism

reditary sin

(human

lust),

is

not able to eradicate he

but can only remove

its

Race
Sinned
in

Adam

376

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

reatus.

Augustine

idea of the original state (posse

nonpeccare and adjutorium) stands


tradiction with his doctrine of grace

jutorium

in the original state

is

in flagrant con

for gratia as

ad

the grace of redemp

tion, in so far as, totally unlike, it leaves the will free

and

no

really has

effect,

but

is

merely a condition of

the free decision for good, therefore not irresistibilis.

This adjutorium

way

truth conceived in a Pelagian

is in

(his doctrine of the original state

ard of the

and of the stand

not compatible with his


judgment
doctrine of grace) and the natura vitiata(when taken
as

human

final

is

no longer a place for holy mat


therefore Manicha3an.
But all these

lust) gives

rimony, and

is

grave offences cannot


that

God works

the

dim
"

the greatness of the truth

willing and doing

",

that

we

possess nothing which we have not received, and that


to adhere to God is good and our good.

4.

j n order to

understand

how Augustine transformed

^Q traditional doctrine of
to

The

Exposition of the Symbol.


New Doctrine of Religion.

Augustine

know which

religion (the

dogma) and
,

of his thoughts have passed into ec

study his ex
planations of the symbol, especially his Enchiridion.
In the first place the common Catholic trend of his
clesiastical possession, it is necessary to

teaching is here revealed. Conformably with the old


symbol, the doctrine of the trinity and of the double-

nature

is

explained; the importance of the Catholic

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
Ohurch

is strictly

maintained.

SIN, ETC.

Baptism

is

377

placed in

the foreground as the most important mystery, and


is referred back to the death of Christ, by which the

dominion of the
is

it;

he has received his dues,

Faith often appears as something prelim

broken.

inary

devil, after

eternal life is granted only to those meriting

these continue in works of love, lastly however

But

in asceticism.

all

are not obliged to live thus;

one must distinguish between mandata and consilia.


His treatment of alms is broad; it constitutes

Within the Church there

penance.
of all sins,

is

forgiveness

under the assumption of the satisfactio


D e
There are degrees in sin, ranging from l?n Sd

congrua.
crimes to insignificant every-day sins in the same
manner there are also degrees of good and of bad men ;
;

even the best (sancti, perfecti) are not free from light
There is a gradation of bliss (according to the
sins.
merita)

The

are benefited

prayers

departed, but not perfected good souls

by the

sacrifice of the mass,

alms and

they are in a purifying fire of punishment.


superstitious views were in many ways

The common,

JJ^g

thus in regard to viewe^Emof the pun


amelioration
to
the
temporary
purgatory,
ishment of the condemned, to the angels who aid the
farther intensified

by Augustine

by the re
the heavenly Church which was deci

Church

of this world, to the completing

deemed

of

mated through the


of

fall of

Mary in partu and

the angels, to the virginity

to her singular purity

and

conception, to the mild beginnings toward the calcu


lation of the value of the sacrificial death of Christ,

378

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.


to the conception of salvation as visio et

finally

fruitio Dei, which again and again comes to the


surface, and to the joining of the spiritual powers to

meats A^dchurch

mysteriously operating sacraments.


But, on ^ ne ther side, the doctrine of religion in
the Enchiridion is new.
To the old symbol material

was added which could be united with it only very


loosely and which at the same time modifies the orig
In

inal elements.

three articles the treatment of

all

and perfection in love

sin, forgiveness of sin

main thing (Ench.


Everything

is

the

represented as an inward process, to

which the very

briefly treated old

dogmatic material
Therefore the 3d article

appears as subordinate.
is treated the most explicitly.
sketch the

is

10 seq. 25 seq. 41 seq. 64-68).

new

appears

faith, hope, love

Already in the brief

Everything depends upon


inward is religion (3-8)

so truly

In the 1st article no cosmology is given; indeed


physics as the content of dogmatics is expressly put
aside (9,16 seq. )

are also

all
is

dogma,

In reality
in

s in

nd

Hence the various Logos-doctrines

trinity,

handed down as

compressed into a unity It is the Creator.


one person (the persons are moments
:

it is

God and have no

n s)

The

wanting.

longer any cosmological mean-

Everything in religion is related to God, as the

sole source of all good,

and

tinguished from

Thus was a break made with

error.

the old intellectualism.

ence to

sin, there

is

to sin; the latter is dis

Whenever

there is a refer

also one to the gratia gratis

data, the predestining grace, which alone frees the

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF

SIN, ETC.

379

With a reference to the misericordia

shackled will.

praeveniens and subsequens the exposition of the 1st


How differently would its words have
article closes.
sounded, had Augustine been able to treat it unre
In the 2d article is touched quite briefly
strainedly
!

that

which the symbol

really contains (the return of

Christ, without chiliasm)

But the following come

The unity of Christ s personality as


homo with whose soul the Word united itself,

to the front:

the

the predestining grace

which brought

this

homo

into

unity of person with the Divinity, although he pos


sessed no deserts, the close connection between the

death of Christ and the redemption from the devil,


the atonement and baptism, on the one side, the

thought of the appearance and history of Christ as


exaltation in humility

and as the prototype of the

vita Christiana, on the other.


portance of Christ

was

The redemptive im-

Augustine as strongly expressed in this humility in exaltation and in the


prototype (vid. Bernard and Francis) as in Christ s
death.

to

The incarnation as such recedes, i.e. is placed


which was entirely foreign to the Greeks.

in a light

Accordingly the 2d article was quite changed


old dogmatic material is only the building
rial.

the

mate

In the 3d article the unrestrainedness and as

surance with which an ever-enduring forgiveness of


sins within the Church is taught is the principal

and the new


laxity

had

point.

Among

the masses the growing

called forth the inexhaustible

of atonement

but with Augustine the

sacrament

new knowl-

to?ogy of
Augus1

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

380

edge had been given through an intensifying of the


consciousness of sin and a burrowing into the grace
Augustine,

of God, as

Paul has taught

True, the question of

it.

the personal assurance of salvation had as yet not

he stands between the ancient

touched his soul

Church and Luther


of

my

sins

and be

the question,

filled

How can I be rid

with the power of God? was

his fundamental question.

In following the vulgar


Catholic teaching he looks about for good works but
he conceived them as the product of grace and of the
;

will which is dependent upon grace he accordingly


warned men against relying upon outward acts. Cul;

and even alms he put aside ; he knows that it is


a question of inward transformation, of a pure heart

tus

and a new
noMofsfn

spirit.

a ^ er baptism the

At

the

same time he

is

sure that

also to forgiveness of sins

way

ever stands open to the penitent, and that he

who

does not believe in this commits the sin against the

Holy

Spirit.

This

an entirely new interpretation

is

of the Gospel passage.

Very

explicitly

was the con

clusion of the symbol (resurrectio carnis) explained.

But the main point

here, after a short explanation

of the real theme, is

The new

doctrine of predesti

nation as the strength of his theology


the idea, essentially

new

as a doctrine

furthermore
(it

stands in

place of Origen s doctrine regarding the apokatastasis), of

a purification of souls in the hereafter, to

ward which

the prayers and sacrifices of survivors

are able to contribute.


Piety.

Piety: Faith and love in place of fear and hope;

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
religion

Something higher than

doctrine, a

new

tology

all

that

life in the strength of love

is
;

called

Reli e ion

the doc

The things (the Gospel, faith, love, D c trine


Trinity
God) the trinity The one living God ChrisThe one Mediator, the man Jesus, with whose

trine of Scripture

hope

381

SIN, ETC.

soul the Divinity has been united, without the former

having deserved it redemption Death for the benefit of enemies and humility in exaltation; grace:
:

The new

power of love; the sacThe Word along with the sign bliss The
beata necessitas of the good the good Dependence

raments

creative, changeless

upon God

history

God does everything according

to his pleasure.
Compare with this the Greek dog
old dogma grew the more rigid,
the
matics
True,
the farther they were pushed into the background
!

(not abolished)

The new

order.

they became ecclesiastical law and


doctrines remained

still

fluid

they

had not as yet received the form and value of dog


mas. Through Augustine Church doctrine became
and importance.
On the one hand it was traced back to the Gospel, on

more

indefinite as regards extent

the other

it

defined

its

limits less sharply in relation

to theology, since a definite formulation


ing.

Around the

was lack

dogma, which maintained

old

themselves in rigid validity, a large indefinite circle

was formed,

which the most impor


tant thoughts concerning faith lived, and which not
withstanding could be surveyed and firmly fixed by

of doctrines

no one.

in

That was the condition of the dogma dur

ing the Middle Ages.

By

jJents!

Grace.

the side of the rigidity

The Good,
History.

382

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

there

had already begun the process

of

inward dis

solution.

CHAPTER

V.

HISTORY OF DOGMA IN THE OCCIDENT TILL THE


BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE AGES (430-604).
2

Holier, Semipelagianismus R. E.
Wiggers, i. Z.
1854 f and elsewhere. Lau, Gregor d. Gr. 1845.
.

THE Western Roman


S

ee

west

Ro-

Empire,

f.

h. Th.,

empire

collapsed.

The

Catholic Church stepped in as the heir of the empire,

Roman bishop as the heir of the emperor (Leo I.


and his successors in the 5th century). But the
the

papacy, scarcely put at the head, experienced in the


time of Justinian a severe reverse, from which Gre

gory alone succored it. During the 5th and 6th cen
Roman church was not as yet able to disci

turies the

the barbarian nations; for they were Arian

pline

and Rome was not


The

free but chained to the Orient

from the 6th century on.

The Franks alone became

Franks.

Catholic, yet they at first remained independent of

Rome.
the

Nevertheless just at this time the claim of

Roman

bishop, that everything valid of Peter

(especially Mt. 16:17 seq.)

was

also valid of him, ob

Dogmatic efforts were limited


and toning down of Augustinianism
gluing it on to the common Catho

tained recognition.
to the reception

in the sense of
lic

bol,

teaching.
it

obtained

ent form,

in

regards the old Roman


in Gaul at that time its

As

which

especially the

new

sym
pres

expression

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
"

communio

sanctorum"

383

SIN, ETC.

(Faustus of Reji)

is

of

importance.
I.

Contest bettveen Semi-Pelagianism and

Augustinianism.
Grateful esteem for Augustine, rejection of Pelagianism, recognition of the universal hereditary
peccability and of the necessity of grace (as adiuto-

rium) did not as yet mean the recognition of predes


tination and of the gratia irresistibilis.
Justifi
for
himself
left a
cation by works,
which Augustine
concealed place, and a correct instinct of ecclesiasti
cal self-preservation reacted against these doctrines.

During Augustine s life-time they had already called


and doubt among the monks of

forth uneasiness

Hadrumet ( Aug. de gratia et


corruptions

et gratia)

libero arbitrio

his devoted friends reported to

Gaul (monks
was an opposition

at Massilia

of

and of the

and de

A year or two later (428-429)

him

that in the south

and other

places) there

to the doctrine of predestination

inability of the will, because

it

paralyzed

the Christian preaching.

Augustine by his writings


and
dedono
sanct.
depraedest.
per sever antiae con

firmed his friends, but rather goaded his opponents.

After his death the

advanced
for

more

Augustine

possessed

is

"

yet

great

of Vincent,

ecclesiastic

above, p. 221)

servi dei

daringly,

Commonitorium
strictly

"

in southern

not

quite

Gaul

openly

authority.

The

which formulates the

traditional point of

view

(see

aimed, at least indirectly, against

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

384

casSan.

^e

newness

of

Augustine

s doctrine;

John

Cassi-

an, the father of the south Gallic monks, gave in


his collationes
expression to semi-Pelagianism,
"

"

although he had learned


Points of
Semi-Pelagianism.

much from Augustine. The

decisive points of semi-Pelagianism are the actual

universality of grace, the accountability (responsi


herein is it evangelical and the
bility) of man

importance of good works.

praeveniens
grace.

God

is

Accordingly the gratia


in general admitted only as outward

created the conditions, opportunity and

possibility of our salvation

but inward (sanctifying)


is accord

grace concurs with the free will, which


ingly a co-ordinate factor.
as the other

Therefore the one as well

lead the way, and a gratia irre-

may
much excluded

sistibilis is as

as a predestination in

dependent of the Divine prescience (of free actions).


The latter involves an ingens sacrilegium (i.e. fatal
ism), even
Hiiarius

Author of
"Praedes-

the reservation

if

must stand that God

are incomprehensible (like Hilarius of Aries,

ways
and more

decidedly, but at the

lying, the

unknown author of the Praedestinatus

-.-

same time given

tinatus."

to

"

the origin of which

is still

a riddle

",

the representa

tion is fairly in keeping with that of Jerome, as

general doctrine

it

is

more hesitating than that

of

Augustine, as an expression of Christian self -judg

ment

it is

a desertion of the truth).

of Augustine, Prosper and the

The defenders

unknown author

of

the libri II. de vocatione gentium (milder than

Augustinianism) did not produce a decisive


,

effect,

although pope Colestius reprimanded their opponents

DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE OF
as over-curious people.

During the

385

SIN, ETC.
last

decades of

the 5th century semi-Pelagianism obtained an excel


lent representative in the renowned teacher of south

ern Gaul, Faustus of Reji, an amiable and mild


abbot and bishop, who turned as well against Pelagius

as against the grave error of pre

"pestifer",

destination (in his writing, de gratia dei et humanae


mentis liber o arbitrio), and who induced the strictly

Augustinian presbyter Lucidus to recant, after that


the doctrine of predestination had been condemned
Faustus in his doctrine

at the

synod of Aries

is still

more monkish than Cassian and

by Augustine.

He

itly the doctrine of

(475).

less influenced

already brought forward implic

meritum de congruo

et

condigno.

In the fides as knowledge and in the endeavors of


the will to reform itself there lies a meritum, born

prima, which participates in the re


deeming grace that now works in union with the
will, so that perfect merita are produced.
of the gratia

Like as Pelagianism and Nestorianism, which are


inwardly united, were once drawn into a common
fate, so also

was semi-Pelagianism entangled

Christological controversy
visional end.

and found therein

in the

its

pro

The theopaschite Scythian monks

Constantinople (see above,

p.

297),

who

in

in their

Christology especially emphasized the Divine factor,


denounced the Occidental theologians (Faustus) as

enemies of the correct Christology and as opponents


The
of grace, taking their stand with Augustine.
found
the
monks
but
an
evasive
decision,
pope gave
25

De Con-

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA.

386
allies

among

the bishops

who had been

from North Africa into Sardinia.

Ruspe wrote about 520

banished

Fulgentius

several important

of

letters

against the authority of Faustus, in which complete