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Chemistry

[MRSM14-09] (a) Diagram 9 shows the apparatus set-up


and solution V. The observation is recorded in Table 9.

Workshop

of a voltaic cell using solution T

Zinc

Copper

Zink

Kuprum

Solution T/V
Larutan TN

Diagram 9 / Rajah 9
Solution
T

The different between structure

Deflection of voltmeter's
Yes
No
Table 9

needle

question and essay question is

NO LINE /NO SPACE

to write the answer

(i) Suggest suitable solutions for T and V. Explain the differences in observation for
solutions T and V.[4Mj

This is voltaic cell diagram.


But the observation is the deflection of voltmeter's needle

The question

Page

asking about electrolyte.

I 1

2015

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Tis electrode, contain

free moving ion- show by deflection.

Vis non-electrolyte. No free moving ion - show by no deflection

Answer:
T: any soluble ionic compound
Example : Copper(II) nitrate
V : any covalent compound
Example : Benzene, methanol
Reject: alcohol - this is homologous series.
Explanation:
T solution contains free moving ion that can conduct electricity
V solution exist as molecule, no free moving ion present

in the solution.

(ii) Explain the rocess that occurs in the voltaic cell in Diagram 9
when solution Tis
ed.
ould include the half equations involved. [6M]

Process that occurs in question is

Refer to redox

At negative terminal
1. Zinc as negative terminal
2. Zinc will be oxidation because zinc lost electron
or oxidation number increases from Oto +2
3. Zn "7 zn2+ + 2e

At positive terminal
1. Copper as positive terminal
[T solution is Copper(II)nitrate
Copper(II)ion and H+ ion present in the solution.
Cu2+ ion was choose to discharge because lower in
Electrochemical series/ less electropositive.}
2. Copper(II) ion will be reduction because gain electron to form copper metal
or decreases oxidation number
from +2 to 0.
3. Cu-" + 2e "7 Cu

(b) A standard solution can be prepared using dilution method.


Describe how you would prepare 100 cm-' 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide
solution from 2.0 mol dm-3sodium hydroxide solution.
Your description should include the followings:
List of materials and apparatus
Calculation involved
Procedure

[lOM]

Chemistry Workshop 2015

II
r

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Pipette

--------=--------- - - - - -- - -

2moldm-3
sodium hydroxide,
NaOH solution

(a) Calculate the volume of


stock solution required.

2.0 mol dm-3


sodium hydroxide,
- - - - - NaOH solution
(b) Use a pipette to draw up the required
volume of stock solution.

---Sodium hydroxide,
NaOH solution

Distilled water
Calibration mark

Volumetric
flask
(d) Add water to bring the level of the solution
to the calibration mark. Shake well to
ensure thorough mixing.

(c) Transfer the stock solution to


a volumetric flask.

List of materials and apparatus


Material
2.0 mol dm-3 of sodium hydroxide, distil water
Apparatus
100 cm-' volumetric flask, 25 cm-' pipet, 250 cm-' beaker,

Calculation involved
Used formula M1V1 = M2V2
Before/ original

after

Need to calculate the volume, V1


V1 = M2V2 = 0.5 X 100 = 25 cm3
M1
2.0

Page

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Procedure
Gunakan - Teknik ABC - untuk menulis laporan eksperimen
I Used - ABC Technique - to write the laboratory report
Simbol

Maksud

/Symbol

Contoh

/Mean

/Example

Arahan

Masukkan I add/ pour


Bersihkan I clean
Timbang /weights
Bakar /Burn

Kepingan Magnesium/

Bahan

magnesium ribbon

Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat I Copper(II)sulphate solution


# perlukan MV/needMV
M - Kepekatan I molarity
V- Isipadu /volume
Kertas litmus biru I Blue litmus paper

Container

Bikar [Nyatakan saiz] I beaker [state the size]


Tabung uji /Test Tube
Kelalang kun I Conical Flask
Buret I Burrete

Contoh menggunakan Teknik ABC

I Example using ABC Technique


Arahan

B Bah
an

Bersihkan

pita magnesium

Clean

magnesium ribbon

1.

Container

dengan menggunakan kertas


pasir.
by using sand paper.

2.

Masukkan
Add

Kertas litmus biru


lembab

ke dalam tabung uji.


into the test tube.

Wet blue litmus paper


3.

Timbang

Pita magnesium

Weights

magnesium ribbon

dengan menggunakan penimbang


elektronik
by using weighing balance

4.

Masukkan
Add

50 cm3 Larutan
ku prum(II) sulfat 1. 0

moldrrr-'
50 cm3 of 1. 0 moldm:" of
copper(II)sulphate
solution

ke dalam kelalang kun


into the conical flask.

Chemistry Workshop 2015


Suggestion answer
1. Calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide need.
2. Prepare

5 cm3 of sodium hydroxide by using pipe.

3. Transfer the sodium hydroxide in the 2i2etl into 100 cm3 volumetric flask.
4. Add the distil wate

into the volumetric flask that was filled half full with water.

5. Drop aistil water wiselY.l by using the pipet until reach graduation/ calibration mark
4. Close the volumetric flask and shaking the volumetric flask.

Overall
List of materials and apparatus
1. Material
2.0 mol dm-3of sodium hydroxide, distil water
2. Apparatus
100 cm-' Volumetric flask, 25 cm-' pipet, 250 cm-' beaker,
Calculation involved
V1 = M2V2
M1

0.5 X 100
2.0

25 cm3

Procedure
1. Calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide need.
2. Prepare 25 cm-' of sodium hydroxide by using pipet.
3. Transfer the sodium hydroxide in the i etl into 100 cm-' volumetric flask.
4. Add the distil wate into the volumetric flask that was filled half full with water.
5. Drop aistil water wiselyj by using the pipet until reach graduation/ calibration mark
4. Close the volumetric flask and shaking the volumetric flask.

Chemistry Workshop 2015


[SPM14-04]

Switch
Suts

.-----1111-----,

""""'==~-

Carbon electrodes
Elek trod karbon

Crucible
Mangkuk pijar

Mo1 ten lead{I


)
brom
Leburanide

plumbum bromide(II)

Panaskan

Diagram 4.1
Cathode/

Anode /Anod
1. Ion present
Ion hadir

Katod

lead(II), Pb2+and Bromide, Br-

2. Ion attract to
Ion bergerak ke
3. Ion choose
Ion dipilih

{Positive terminal}

{Negative terminal}

Bromide, Br-

leadll), Pb2+

Bromide, Br-

lead(II), Pb2+

4. Reason
Alas an

Position
Concentration
electrode

5. Observation
Pemerhatian
6. Comfirmatory test
Ujian Pengesahan
If gas/ jika gas
1. Method I Kaedah
2. Result I Keputusan

7. Product
Hasil

Page

I 6

Brown gas released

Grey solid deposited

none

none

Bromine gas

Lead

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Ceppertll) sulphate solution


Lannan kuprum,(D} suifa:

S'oivitch
Suis

~-------[--~
Diagram 4.2
Cathode/

Anode /Anod
1. Ion present
Ion hadir
2. Ion attract to
Ion bergerak ke

3. Ion choose
Ion dipilih
4. Reason
Alas an

Position
Concentration
electrode

5. Observation
Pemerhatian

6. Comfirmatory test
Ujian Pengesahan
If gas/ jika gas
1. Method I Kaedah
2. Result I Keputusan

7. Product
Hasil

Katod

Copper(II) ion, Cu>, Sulphate, SQ42Hydrogen, H+ ion, Hydroxide, OH- ion


{Positive terminal}

{Negative terminal}

Sulphate, S042Hydroxide, OH- ion

Copper(II) ion, Cu-"


Hydrogen, H+ ion

Hydroxide, OH- ion

Copper(II) ion, Cu-"

Less electronegative
{Position}

Less electropositive
{Position}

{40H- 7 2H20 + 02 + 4e}

{Cu2+ + 2e "7 Cu}

Bubbles gas released

Brown solid deposited

{test for oxygen}

1. Put the glowing splinter


into the test tu be contain
the gas.
2. Glowing splinter will
ignite.

None

Oxygen gas

Copper

[SPM 14-04] Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2 show the apparatus
cells with different electrolytes.
~---1111----,

Copper(ll) sulphate solution


Larutan kuprum(ll) suifat

Switch
Suis
Carbon electrod es
Elektrod karbon '"""='"--

romide
m(II)
Moltenlead(TI) b
Leburan plumbu
Panaskan
bromide

set-up for two electrolytic

Crucible

Switch
Suis
1---------<III---~

Diagram 4.1

Diagram 4.2

(a) State the meaning of electrolyte.


Chemical substance that can conducts electricity in molten or aqueous solution
........................................................................................................................
[lM]
(b) Based on Diagram 4.1,
(i) Why does the bulb light up when molten lead(II) bromide is used as electrolyte?
Contains free moving ion
........................................................................................................................
[lM]
(ii) Write all the formulae for the ions present in lead(II) bromide.
Pb2+and BrSebab molten
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(iii) State the observation at cathode.


Grey solid deposited
Sebab logam Pb yang terhasil
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(iv) Write the half equation at cathode.


Pb2++ 2e 7 Pb
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

Based on Diagram 4.2,


(i) State which electrode is anode?
Carbon electrode X
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) State the observation at the anode.


Bubbles gas released
Sebab factor kedudukan dan ion OH- yang terpilih
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(iii) Write the half equation at the anode.


40H- 7 2H20 + 02 + 4e
4 org hutan minum 2 air bersama oren 2 dan 4 epal
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(d) In Diagram 4.2, carbon anode is replaced with copper and electrolysis is carried out
for 20 minutes. State the observation at the anode. Give a reason.
Copper electrode became thinner.
Copper electrode dissolves/ I Copper electrode produce copper(II) ion
........................................................................................................................
[2M]

[MRSM 14-03] Diagram 3 shows the apparatus

set-up to investigate the electrolysis of


1.0 mol dm-3potassium iodide solution using carbon electrodes.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis larutan kalium iodida
1. 0 mol dm= menggunakan elektrod karbon.

Carbon T

Carbon R

Karban T

Karban R
--

- -

1.0 mol dm' potassium


iodide solution
Larutan kalium iodida
1.0 mol dm'

Cathode/

Anode /Anod
1. Ion present
Ion hadir
2. Ion attract to
Ion bergerak ke

3. Ion choose
Ion dipilih

Katod

Potassium, K+ ion, Iodide, I- ion


Hydrogen, H+ ion, Hydroxide, OH- ion
{Positive terminal}

{Negative terminal}

Iodide, I- ion
Hydroxide, OH- ion

Potassium, K+ ion
Hydrogen, H+ ion

Iodide, I- ion

Hydrogen, H+ ion

4. Reason
Alas an

Position
Concentration
electrode

5. Observation
Pemerhatian
6. Comfirmatory test
Ujian Pengesahan
If gas/ jika gas
1. Method I Kaedah
2. Result I Keputusan

7. Product
Hasil

Concentration

of iodide ion

Brown solution formed

1. Put 3 drop of iodine into 2


cm-' of starch in test tube.
2. Blue black/dark blue
produce

Iodine

Less electropositive
{position}

Bubbles gas released

1. Place the burning


splinter near the mouth of
test tube contain the gas.
2. Pop sound heard.

Hydrogen gas

[MRSM14-03] Diagram 3 shows the apparatus set-up to investigate the electrolysis of


1.0 mol dm-3potassium iodide solution using carbon electrodes.
~-----<II>------~

Carbon T

Carbon R

Karban T

Karban R

1.0 mol dm' potassium


iodide solution
Larutan kalium iodida
1.0 mol dm'

(a) What is meant by electrolyte?


Chemical substance that can conducts electricity in molten or aqueous solution
..........................................................................................................................
[lM]
(b) Write the ionic formulae for all ions present
K+,I-, a-, OH-

in potassium iodide solution.

[lM]
(c) (i) Name the ions attracted to anode.
Iodide and hydroxide
Reject formula sebab soalan nak nama
..........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) Write the half equation for the ion discharged at the anode.
21- 7 h + 2e
Sebab kepekatan, ion halida terpilih
..........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(d) (i) State the observation at electrode R.


Bubbles gas released
..........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i).


Hydrogen ion less electropositive than potassium ion
Hydrogen ion receive electron and produce hydrogen atom
2 hydrogen atom combine then produce molecule of hydrogen
..........................................................................................................................

[2M]

(e) In another experiment, 1.0 mol dm-3potassium iodide solution is replaced with 0.001
mol dm-3potassium iodide solution.
(i) Name the gas released at the anode.
Oxygen gas
..........................................................................................................................
[lM]
(ii) The volume of gas collected at anode is 24.0 cm3 at room condition. Calculate the
number of molecules of gas collected.
[Avogadro's constant: 6.02 X 1023moli: 1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room condition]
Mol =volume/molar

[24/ 1000] /24

volume

= 0.001

Mol = No of Molecules/Na
No of molecules=

0.001

mol X Na

X 6.02 X 102a = 6.02 X 1020Molecules

[2M]

Chemistry Workshop 2015


[SBPtrialOS-02] Diagram 2 shows the setup of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of
silver nitrate solution with carbon electrodes and copper(II) sulphate solution with copper
electrodes.

Carbon

Copper

Silver nitrate

Copper(II) sulphate

solution

solution

Cell 1
Cell 2
Anode /Anod
Cathode/ Katod
Anode /Anod
Cathode/ Katod
1. Ion present
Ion hadir
Silver, Ag+ ion, nitrate,
Copper(II),
Hydrogen,
2. Ion attract
Ion bergerak
{Positive
terminal}

N03- ion Hydrogen, H+ ion, Hydroxide, OH- ion

Cu-" ion, Sulphate, S042- ions


H+ ion, Hydroxide, OH- ion
to
ke

{Negative
terminal}

{Positive
terminal}
{Negative
terminal}

nitrate,

N03- ion, Hydroxide, OH- ion

Silver, Ag+ ion, Hydrogen, H+


10n

Sulphate, S042- ion, Hydroxide, OH- ion

Copper(II) , Cu-" ion, Hydrogen, H+


10n
3. Ion choose
Ion dipilih
Hydroxide, OH- ion
Silver, Ag+ ion,

Copper formed

Carbon

Copper

electrode

electrode

Silvernitrate

Copper(II) sulphate

solution

solution

(a) What is the energy change in electrolysis? [lM]


Electrical energy to chemical energy
(b) Write the formulae of all the ions present
Ag+,NOa-,ff+, OH-

in silver nitrate

solution. [lM]

(c) In the electrolysis of Cell 1


(i) What is the observation at electrode B? [lM]
grey solid deposited
(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode B. [lM]
Ag+ + e 7 Ag
(d) In the electrolysis of Cell 2.
(i) What is the observation at electrode C? [lM]
Copper electrode became thinner
(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode C. [lM]
Cu 7 cu2+ + 2e
(e) What are the processes that occur at electrodes A and D? [2M]
Electrode A
: Oxidation
Electrode D
: Reduction
(f) State which cells the concentration
Cell 2

of electrolyte remains unchanged.

[lM]

(g) State one application of electrolysis in industrial. [lM]


electroplating of metal/ I purification of metal I I extraction of metal

Chemistry Workshop 2015


[MRSM 13-03] Diagram 3.1 shows the apparatus set-up of a voltaic cell.
Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi suatu sel voltan p.

Magnesi

m---4---Copper

nn---+

Magnesium

Kuprum
r::t---

Magnesium nitrate----+-
solution

---

Larutan magnesium nitrat

2. Reason
Alas an

Copper(II) sulphate
solution
Larutan kuprum(II) su/fat

Cathode/ Katod
Positive Terminal

Anode /Anod
Negative Terminal
1. Determine Terminal
Kenalpasti terminal

Porous pot
Pasu berliang

Magnesium

Copper

More electropositive

Less electropositive

more electropositive
less electropositive

3. The direction of
movement of electron
Arah pergerakan
elektron
4. Ion present
Ion hadir

Magnesium to copper
Mg2+, N03H+, OH-

5. Ion choose
Ion dipilih
6. Half Equation
Persamaan setengah
7. Observation
Pemerhatian

Cu2+,S042H+, OHCu-"

Mg 7 Mg2+ + 2e

Cu-" + 2e "'7 Cu

Magnesium electrode thinner

Copper electrode thicker

-----!

Magnesiun---H
Magnesium

v,

----1--Copper
Kuprum

...,,..
Magnesiumnitrate-+'" solution

Porouspot
Pasu ber/iang

---

Larutan magnesium nitrat

Copper(II)sulphate
solution
Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat

Based on Diagram 3 .1,


(a) What is the function of porous pot?
Allow ion through it to complete the circuit
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) State the negative terminal of the voltaic cell.


Magnesium I /Mg
State - boleh NAMA/ / FORMULA
........................................................................................................................
(iii) Explain your answer in (a)(ii).
Magnesium more electropositive/ I
Magnesium higher than Copper in Electrochemical

[lM]

Series

Jawapan yg kedua - mesti sebut ECS


........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(iv) Name the type of reaction that occurred at copper electrode.


Reduction
Sebab -Terima elektron / /berlaku penurunan no pengoksidaan dari +2 ke O
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(b) Diagram 3.2 shows an incomplete cell Q to electroplate an iron ring with silver.

Chemistry Workshop 2015

Cell Q

sa

Iron

Mag:111:t">imrr-Fm1--11--=--c1
1
Afag1n1:1irm1

~----

ring

solution

..-. --

f.'<troJ,an

wgcnlum nilNU

~
Magne.siwn mitrate

.oolution
Ltmit(II!

Copper
Kfipn,m

nlfl'SJleSilll'l:I

C0pper(fil) sulphate
K~m(II)lulfat

mfnlt-~

(i) Complete the diagram of Cell Qin the space provided.


(ii) State one observation in Cell Q after 30 minutes.
Silver electrode became thinner I I
Iron ring coated with grey metal/ silvery
Iron ring became thicker - kurang sesuai
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(iii) Write the half equation for the reaction occurred at the iron ring
Ag++ e 7 Ag
Sebab ion Ag+yang terendah dan dipilih untuk dinyahcas
........................................................................................................................
(iv) What happens to the concentration

[lM]

of silver ions in Cell Q. Explain your answer.

Concentration of silver ion is equal/ I unchanged


Rate to produce silver ion at anode equal to rate discharge silver ion at cathode
........................................................................................................................
[lM]

[SPM12-06] Diagram 6 shows the apparatus


II. Cell I supplies electrical energy for cell II.

iagne mm

....,,.....

Magne tum

set-up for the combination of cell I and cell

C
opper

Kuprum

-=+------ Po m1.1 s pot


Pas u
ng
berlia
Magnesium nitirate
solution
Larutan magne firm
nit at

CelJ I

ell

(a) State all the ions present


Cu2+ , SQ42-, ff+ , OH-

oppe ( 11 ulphat ohnion


Larutan hprn.m(il si1lfa1

C HH

Se/II

in the copper(II) sulphate solution.

State - Boleh bagi nama atau formula


.........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(b) State the negative terminal in cell I.


Magnesium
Sebab - Mg higher than Cu in ECS
.........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(c) After twenty minutes,


(i) State the observation at magnesium electrode in cell I.
Magnesium became thinner
.........................................................................................................................
(ii) Write half equations for the reaction occurred at the magnesium and copper
electrodes in cell I.
Magnesium electrode

: Mg 7 Mg2+ + 2e

Copper electrode

: cu2+ + 2e 7 Cu [2M]

(d) State the change in colour of copper(II) sulphate solution in cell I and cell II.
Cell I : Blue CuS04 turn to colourless

[lM]

Cell II : Blue CuS04 unchanged I I remain blue [2M]


(e) A metal Z is found containing some impurities. Z is located below copper in the
electrochemical series.
(i) State the method used to purify the metal Z.
Purification of metal
.........................................................................................................................
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram for the apparatus

[lM]

set-up for 6(e)(i).

------11+Impure Z

i,-----

Pure Z

----Z .soJutio.D
Lukis dan berfungsi - 1 Markah
Label
- 1 Markah

[3M]

Chapter

12 - RedOX - Reduction

and Oxidation

ChemQuest 2015

[SPM03-05] Diagram 5 shows the setup of apparatus to investigate the reactions that

take place in test tu bes P and Q.


Displacement
Reaction - of
metal

Conversion of
iron(II) to iron(III)
~

Magnesium
Dissolve/ thinner
Mg7 Mg2+ + 2e
Oxidation
Reducing agent
Oto+ 2

Copperf Il)
__
sulphate ---.-,,,
solution
Magnesium
ribbon

Bromine Bromine
water

--=t-----i-">lr.

Test tube Q

Test tube P

Copper(II)
sulphate

Ferumtl l)
sulphate
solution

Diagram 5

water
Br2 +2e7 2Br
O to -1
Reduction
Oxidising agent

Ferum(II) sulphate
Fe2+ "'7 Fe3+ + e
Oxidation
Redcuting agent
Green "'7 brown

( a) State the observation for the reaction


(i) is test tube P. [ lM]
Brown solid is formed.//
Blue solution turns colourless.
(ii) is test tube Q. [ lM]
Green solution turns brown.//
Brown colour of bromine decolorises.
(b) Write the ionic equation for the reaction in (a)(i).[lM]
Mg

Cu 2+

--+

Mg2+

Cu

(c) State what is meant by oxidizing agent in terms of electron transfer. [lM]

A substance that receives electron.

(d) referring to the reaction that takes place in test tube p.


(i) What is the change in the oxidation number of magnesium? [lM]
Oto +2
(ii) State the oxidation number of bromine in bromine water. [lM]
0

(iii) What is the function of bromine water? [lM]


oxidising agent
(iv) Name another reagent that can replace bromine water. [lM]
chlorine water

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Adura Azlin Ishak

Update O 1 April 2015

I Since

2007

[MRSM14-06] Diagram 6 shows the apparatus set- up to investigate the reaction


between iron(II) sulphate solution and bromine water through the transfer of electrons
at a distance.
Iron(II) sulphate
Fe 2+ "'7 F3+ + e
Green "'7 brown
Oxidation
Reducing agent

rbon electrode L
ktrod karbon L

Carbon electrode

Elektrod karbon M

Iron(II) sulphate
solution
Lannan ferum(II) sulfat
--~

Bromine
water
Airbromin

Dilute sulphuric acid _


Asid sulfurik cair

Bromine water
Br2 +2e "'7 2Br
O to -1
Reduction
Oxidising agent

___.,.._

(a) What is the function of dilute sulphuric acid?


To allow the movement of ions complete the circuit
..........................................................................................................................
(b) Show the direction of electron flow in Diagram 6.
Shown in the diagram (from electrode L to electrode M through external circuit).
[r: answers in words]

[lM]
[ 1 M]

(c) Referring to the reaction that take place at electrode L:

(i) Name the product formed.


Iron(III)ion / Ferum(III) ion / Iron(III)sulphate
[r: formula]
..........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) Describe a chemical test to determine the product formed in (c)(i).


Alternative 1
1. Add sodium hydroxide/ammonia solution.
2. Brown precipitate is formed.
Alternative 2
1. Add potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution.
2. Dark blue precipitate is formed.
Alternative 3
1. Add potassium thiocyanate solution.
2. Blood red colouration is formed.
[2M]
(d) Write the half equation for the reaction that takes place at electrode M.
Br2 + 2e ~ 2Br [lM]
(e) The experiment is repeated by replacing bromine water with acidified potassium
dichromate(VI) solution. Predict the observation at electrode Mand explain your
answer.
1. Orange solution turns green
2. Cr2012- ion undergoes reduction to form Cr3+ ion

(f) Without using U Tube, draw another apparatus set up to investigate the transfer of
electron at a distance, using the same materials as in Diagram 6. Mark in the diagram
the positive and negative terminal of the cell.

l-i-oiiiiiiiiiiiapiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

lmn(II) swlplhate solution

suis

c
arbon electrode
orol!l.s po

Bromine wafer

Carbon

Iron(II) sulphate solution

Functional apparatus
Label apparatus and material
Label positive and negative terminal

[3M]

[MRSM09-06] ( a) Diagram 6.1 shows the apparatus set up to investigate the transfer of
electrons at a distance between potassium iodide solution and acidified potassium
manganate(VII) solution. After a few minutes, colourless solution turns brown at electrode R.

----r

Potassium iodide

Or---"'"

Potassium icdide

KMn04

Acidified potassium man.ganate (Y


Kalium manganal{Vli) berasid

Kali1.1m iodida

Sulphuric add
A std suifank
(i) Name the product formed at electrode R. [lM]

Iodine (solution)
(ii) Complete the half equation for the reaction at electrode S. [lM]
...... H+ + ..... e --+ Mn2+ +
H20
.. 8... H+ + .. 5.. e ----+ Mn2+ + .4 .. H20
(iii) State the change in oxidation number of manganese
S. [2M]
Change in oxidation number

: +7 to +2

Name of process

: reduction

and name the process

that occurs at

(iv) Suggest a substance that can replace potassium iodide solution in order to
obtain the same reaction. [lM]

sodium iodide
(b) Diagram 6.2 shows the setup of the apparatus to investigate the reactivity of metals J, K
and L. The different metals are heated consecutively.
Metal powder

Glass wool

Serbuk logam Kapas kaca

Solid potassium manganat (VII)

Pepejal kalium manganat (VII)


He at strongly

Panaskan kuat

Heat

Panaskan

Table 6.1 shows the observation of the experiment.


Metal
J

K
L

Name
Metal
Zinc
Copper
Mg

Observations
Burns brightly - 2
Glows dimly -3
Burns with a very bright flame -1
Table 6.1

Colour of residue
Hot
Cold
Yellow
White
Black
Black
White
White

(i) Name metal J. [lM]

Zinc

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between metal J and oxygen. [lM]

2 Zn + 02 ~ 2 ZnO

(iii) Based on the observation in Table 6.1, arrange


reactivity towards oxygen. [lM]

metals J, Kand

K,J,L

iv) A mixture of metal J and oxide of metal Lis heated strongly.


Predict an observation and explain your answer. [2M]

No changes.
Because Metal Lis more reactive with oxygen than metal J

Lin ascending order of

[SPM 14-05] Table 3 shows the information for four sets of experiment to construct the
reactivity series of metals.

Set
I
II

III
IV

Reactants
Carbon + Iron(III) oxide
Carbon + Oxide of X
Carbon + Magnesium
oxide
X + Iron(III) oxide

(a) Set I is a redox reaction.

Observation
Grey solid is formed
Brown solid is formed
No change

Reaction Happen
yes
yes
No

No change
Table 3

position
C> fe
C>X
C< Mg
X< Fe

(i) What is the meaning of redox reaction?


reduction and oxidation happen same time
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction.


3C + 2Fe203 7 3C02 + 4Fe
........................................................................................................................

[2M]

(iii) State the change in the oxidation number of iron.


+3 to O
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(iv) Which substance undergoes reduction?


Iron(III) oxide
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(b) Based on set II and set III, explain the difference in the observations.
In set II, carbon is more reactive than metal X
In set III, carbon is less reactive than Magnesium
........................................................................................................................

[2M]

(c) (i) Arrange X, carbon, magnesium and iron in descending order of reactivity.
Mg, C, Fe, X
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) Suggest X.
Copper
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(d) Draw a labelled diagram for the apparatus

set-up used in set II.

Carbon powder+
oxide of motal x
serbuk karbon +logam
oksida X

farapor,uinig

di I,
mangkuk pijar

[2M]

[MRSMlO-OSc] (c) Diagram 5.3 shows the set-up of apparatus for an experiment to compare
the reactivity of reactions between metal oxides and hydrogen gas.

Metal oxide powder


Serbuk oksida logam
Dry hydrogen ga
Gas hidrogen kering
Table 5 shows the result of the experiment:
Experiment
Hydrogen + oxide of metal J
Hydrogen + oxide of metal T
Hydrogen+ magnesium oxide

Result
Metal oxide powder glows
brightly.
Black powder turned brown.
No reaction. Powder turns
yellow when hot and white
when cold.
No reaction.
White powder remained.

Metal
Copper
Zinc
Magnesium

(i) Suggest a name for metal T. [lM]

Zinc

(ii) Arrange the reactivity of J, T, Magnesium and Hydrogen in ascending order. [lM]

J, H, T, Mg

(iii) Based on the observations,

explain how you obtain the arrangement

in (c)(ii).[3M]

1. Metal J lowest in arrangement because metal J can displace from it Metal Oxide by

hydrogen
2. Metal T and Metal Mg is higher than Hydrogen, because Hydrogen cannot react
with their metal oxide.
3. Mg is higher because, metal Tis Zn, it less reactive than Mg.

[SPM07-06] Iron is metal that rust easily.

(a)(i)State the condition for the rusting

water and oxygen

of iron. [lM]

(ii)Draw a labelled diagram to show the conditions for the rusting


of iron and the flow o! el~ctron. [3 M]

of iron involve the ionization

Water

Anode:

Cathode:

(b)(i)Describe the reactions that take place at the edge of water droplet (positive terminal)
during the rusting of iron after the Fe2+ and OH- ions are formed. [3M]

Fe2+ and OH- ions combine to form iron(II) hydroxide.


Iron(II) hydroxide is oxidised to iron(III)hydroxide.
Iron(III)hydroxide form hydrated iron(III) oxide/ rust.

(ii)State the change in the oxidation number of iron in 6(b)(i). [1 M]


+2 -----+ +3
(c) Diagram 6 shows the use of zinc plates on an iron ship to prevent rusting.

Iron ship

--------------------------

K.apal' besi
Zinc plete
K.epmgcm zi1;1t

Diagram 6
(i) Explain how the zinc plates protect the iron ship from rusting. [2 M]

Zinc is more electropositive than iron.


Zinc atoms lose electrons more easily than iron.
Zinc corrodes but iron does not.

(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction in 6(c)(i). [lM]
Zn -----+ Zn2+ + 2e

Seminar SKORA+ SPM 2015

- Kimia

Bersama Cikgu Adura

[SBPTrial14-06] Experiments I, II and III are carried out to investigate the factors
affecting the rate of reaction. Table 6.1 shows the reactants and temperature used in
each experiment.
Eksperimeri I, II dan III dijalankan untuk mengkajifaktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
kadar tindak balas. Jadual 6.1 menunjukkan bahan tindak balas dan suhu yang
digunakan dalam setiap eksperimen. Experiment
Experiment
Eksperimeri
I

II

III

Reactants
Bahan tindak balas
Excess zinc powder + 25 cm-' of 0.1 mol
dm-3hydrochloric acid
Serbuk zink berlebihan + 25 ems asid hidroklorik:
0.1 mol dm=
Excess zinc powder + 25 cm., of 0.1 mol
dm-3hydrochloric acid
Serbuk zink berlebihan + 25 ems asid hidroklorik: 0.1
mol dm=

Temperature
Suhu (0C)

(0C)

30

40

Excess zinc powder + 25 cm-' of 0.1 mol


dm-3 sulphuric acid
Serbuk zink berlebihan + 25 cm3 asid sulfurik: 0.1
mol dm=
Table 6.1 / Jadual 6.1

30

a) Write the ionic equation for the reaction in Experiment I. [2M]


Tuliskan persamaan ion untuk tindak balas dalam Eksperimeri I.

Tulis <lulu persamaan

Zn

penuh

2HC1

Kemudian, potong unsur

Zn

2H+

Zn Cb

yang tidak berubah,

zn2+

b) Based on the experiments, state two factors that affect the rate of reaction. [2M]
Merujuk kepada eksperimen, nyatakan dua faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak
balas.

Exp 1 dan 3 : Kepekatan/ I concentration


Exp 1 dan 2: suhu // temperature

Page

I 24

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Oktober 2015

(c) Compare the rate of reaction between Experiment I and II. Explain the difference by
using collision theory. [4M]
Bandingkan kadar tindak: balas antara Eksperimen I dan II. Terangkan perbezaan itu
dengan menggunakan teori perlanggaran.

Mesti bagi seperti ini

Faktor
Apa factor tu buat
FOC di antara apa dengan apa bertambah/meningkat
FOEC di antara apa dengan apa bertambah/meningkat
Kesimpulan - ROR bertambah

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Experiment II has higher temperature than experiment 1


The particles in experiment II has high kinetic energy
Frequency of collision between Zn and H+ ion increases
Frequency of effective collision between Zn and H+ ion increases
Rate of reaction experiment II is higher than experiment I

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Eksperimen II mempunyai suhu yang tinggi daripada eksperimen 1


zarah-zarah dalam eksperimen II mempunyai tenaga kinetic yang tinggi
Bilangan perlanggaran di antara Zn dan ion H+ bertambah
Bilangan perlanggaran berkesan di antara Zn dan ion H+ bertambah
Kadar tindak balas eksperimen II lebih tinggi daripada eksperimen I

(d) Diagram 6.2 shows the curve of the graph of total volume against time for Experiment
I. Sketch the curve obtained for Experiment III on the same axes.
Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan garis lengkung bagi graf jumlah isi padu gas melawan masa bagi
Eksperimen I. Lakarkan garis lengkung yang diperolehi bagi Eksperimen IIIpada paksi
yang sama.

Volume of
gas ( crn3)
III

Time (s)

Correct curve which shows the volume is double

[lM]

e) During a master chef competition, an apprentice found that a piece of meat is still not
tender after cooking for one hour.
Semasa satu pertandingan 'master chef', seorang pelatih mendapati ketulan daging yang
dimasak masih tidak lembut selepas satu jam.

State one method that should be taken to make the meat become tender in a shorter
time. Explain you answer. [2M]
Nyatakan satu kaedah yang boleh diambil supaya daging itu menjadi lembut dalam masa
lebih singkat. Terangkan jawapan anda.

1. Cut the meat into smaller size I I potong daging kepada ketulan kecil
2. Larger total surface area of meat will absorb more heat

OR
1. Cook in pressure cooker
2. High pressure in pressure cooker increase the temperature

[SPM 14-06] Diagram 5.1 shows the graph of the mass of zinc against time for the
reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. In this experiment, 5.00 g of zinc is added
to 100 cm-' of 1.0 mol dm-3hydrochloric acid to study the rate of reaction at the
temperature of 30 C.
Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan graf jisim zink melawan masa bagi tindak: balas antara zink dan
asidhidroklorik: Dalam eksperimeri ini, 5. 00 g zink ditambahkan kepada 1 00 ems asid
hidroklorik: 1. 0 mol dm= untuk mengkaji kadar tindak: balas pada suhu 30 C.

Mass of Zinc (g) / Jisim. zink (g)


50
,._

The

L~l"\'C

at the temperature of30 "'C

Lengk1111g pada suh,~ 30 "C

t,

Dia.g1M.115. I
Rtyah -.1

'firne(s)
M"asa(s)

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction. [2M]


Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak: balas ini.

Zn

HCl

Zn Ch

(b) Based on Diagram 5.1, / Berdasarkan Rajah 5.1,


(i) Why is the curve in the graph remains constant after t, second? [lM]
mengapakah lengkung bagi graf kekal mendatar selepas t, saat?

All hydrochloric acid was reacted completely with Zn


Semua asid hidroklorik telah bertindak balas lengkap dengan

Zn

(ii) determine the mass of unreacted zinc in the experiment. [lM]


tentukan jisim zink yang tidak: bertindak: balas dalam eksperimeri itu.

Kira semua mol: Zn dan HCl


Mol Zn= 5/65

= 0.077

Mol HCl = MV/1000 = 1.0 X 100/1000 = 0.1


1 mol Zn bertindak balas dengan 2 mol HCl
Used Zn:
0.077
0.077 X 2/1 = 0.154
0.1
x
1/2
=
0.05
0.1
Used HCl
Mass zinc reacted = mol X mass = 0.05 X 65 = 3.25 g
Mass zinc not reacted= 5 - 3.25 = 1.75 g

Atau

Daripada graf,

---

The c urv at the tern p,;;:ml\Ln: of3Q ~

Le11gkmig p.ad1 ulru 30 ac

Diagram:5.1

imc(
Masa(s)

Ro.juh 5.1

1.75

(c) In this experiment, the rate of reaction can also be determined by measuring the
volume of hydrogen gas produced at regular intervals of time. Draw the apparatus set-up
for the experiment.
Dalam eksperimeri ini, kadar tindak: balas boleh ditentukan dengan mengukur isi padn
gas hidrogen yang dihasilkan pada sela masa yang tetap. Lukis rajah susunan radas
untuk eksperimeri ini.

h drochlori - id
Zinc powder
[2M]
(d) The experiment is repeated at the temperature of 40 C with other factors remain
unchanged.
Eksperimeri diulangi pada suhn 40 C dengan semua faktor lain kekal tidak berubah.
(i) Sketch the curve obtained for this experiment on the same axis in Diagram 5.2.
Lakarkan lengkungyang diperoleh dalam eksperimen pada paksiyang sama dalam

Mass of Zinc (g)


Jisim. zink (g)

500

l 7

---\

The ur
c e at the temperature of 30
Lengkung' pada uhu 30 C

'-.. "-

ime()

Ma a()
Diagram 5.2
Rajah 5.2
[lM]
(ii) Based on your answer in 6(d)(i),explain how temperature affects the rate of reaction
by using collision theory. [3M]
Berdasarkan jawapan anda di 6(d)(i),terangkan bagaimana suhu mempengaruhi kadar
tindak balas dengan menggunakan teori perlanggaran.

1.
2.
3.
4.

The
the
The
rate

higher temperature, the higher kinetic energy of particles


frequency of collision between Zn and Hydrogen ion increases
frequency of effective collision between Zn and Hydrogen ion increases
of reaction is higher

1.
2.
3.
4.

Suhu tinggi, menyebabkan kandungan tenaga kinetic zarah bertambah


Bilangan perlanggaran di antara Zn dan ion H+ bertambah
Bilangan perlanggaran berkesan di antara Zn dan ion H+ bertambah
Kadar tindak balas lebih tinggi

(e) Apart from temperature, state one other factor that will also affect the rate of reaction
in this experiment. [lM]
Selain daripada suhu, nyatakan satu faktor lain yang juga boleh mempengaruhi kadar
tindak balas dalam eksperimeri ini.

Size of Zinc/ I concentration of HCl I I Add catalyst (CuS04)


Saiz zink/ / kepekatan HCl / / penambahan mangkin

Adura

[SBPtrial04-05] One experiment to determine heat of precipitate of lead(II) sulphate was


done by mix 25 cm-' of 0.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution and 25 cm-' of 0.5 mol dm-1
V
M
V
M
potassium sulphate solution. The result of the experiment in the table below:
Initial of temperature of lead(II) nitrate
Initial of temperature of potassium sulphate
The higher temperature of mixture

= 28.0 C
= 29.0 C
= 33.0 C

(a) What mean by the heat of precipitate of that reaction. [lM]


Heat change when 1 mol of precipitate /lead(II) sulphate formed from its ion
(b) Write the ionic equation for the reaction. [lM]
Tunjuk <lulu
Pb(N03)2+ K2S04 7 PbS04 + 2KN03
Solid

(c) Calculate the number of mol of lead(II) ions and sulphate ions that exist in every
solution. [2M]
(i) Lead(II) ions

(II) Sulphate ions


Mol sulphate ion = mol K2S04
= MV/1000
= 0.5 X 25/ 1000
= 0.0125 mol

Mol lead(II) ion= mol Pb(N03)2


= MV/1000
= 0.5 X 25/ 1000
= 0.0125 mol

(d) Calculate the change of heat in the experiment. [2M]


[specific heat capacity of the solution=4.2 Jg-1c-1J
Q=mcO
= [25 + 25] x 4.2 X [33.0 - (28.0 + 29.0)/2]
= 50 X 4.2 X 4.5
= 945J
= 0.945 kJ
(e) Calculate the heat of precipitate of this reaction. [2M]
i::1H = Q/ mole, n
= 0.945/ 0.0125
= - 75.6 kJ mol-1
(f) Draw the energy level diagram for the reaction. [2M]
Energy

1
Page I 73

L'.1H = - 75.6 kJ mol


PbSQ4

http:/ I cikguadura. wordpress. com

Oktober 2015

[SBPTrial13-04] Diagram 4 shows the apparatus set-up for an experiment to determine


the heat of displacement.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu eksperimeri untuk menentukan haba
penyesaran.
Excess zinc powder
Serbuk zink berlebihan

Polystyrene cup
Cmvan polistirena
O cm3 of 0.2 mol chu-3copper (II) sulphate
50 cm'kuprunull) sulfat 0.2 mo/ dm"

Diagram 4 Rajah 4
Based on the experiment,
Berdasarkan eksperimen di atas,
(a) State the meaning of heat of displacement.
Nyatakan maksud haba penyesaran.
Heat change when 1 mol of copper was displace from
opper(II) sulphate by zinc that more electropositive metal
[lM]
(b) Give one reason why polystyrene cup is used in the experiment.
Berikari satu sebab mengapa cawan polistirena digunakan dalam eksperimeri ini.
Polystyrene is a heat insulator I I to reduce heat loss to surroundings
[lM]
(c) The thermochemical equation below represents the displacement reaction.
Persamaan termokimia di bawah mewakili tindak balas penyesaran itu.
Zn + CuS04

ZnS04

Cu ; 11H

= -

210 kJ mol-!

Calculate / Hitung:
(i) the number of moles of copper(II) ion.
bilangan mol ion kuprum.
No of moles of Copper(II) ion=

0.2 x 50
1000

I I 0.01 mol
[lM]

(ii) the heat released during the reaction.


haba yang dibebaskan semasa tindak balas.

Q = 210 000 x 0.01

2100 J

1. 1 mol of Cu is displaced produce

210 kJ heat

2. 0.01 mol of Cu = 0.01 x 210 kJ


I I 2.1 kJ I 2100 J
[2M]

(iii) the change of temperature in


[Specific heat capacity of solution=
Perubahan suhu dalam eksperimeri
[Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J

the experiment.
4.2 J g-1"C:"; Density of solution=

ini.

1 gcm-"]

g-1c-1; Ketumpatan larutan =1 qcm:"]

Q =mcO
0 = Q/mc = 2100/[50 x 4.2] = 10 C

2100 J =

so x

4.2 x

11

e=

10

c
[lM]

(d) The experiment is repeated using magnesium powder to replace zinc powder. The
volume and concentration of copper (II) sulphate used is remained the same.
Eksperimeri diulang dengan menggunakan serbuk magnesium menggantikan serbuk zink.
Isi padu dan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat yang digunakan adalah sama.
(i) Predict the heat of displacement for the reaction.
Ramalkan haba penyesaran bagi tindak balas itu.
More than -210 kJ mol-1 I Higher I Increases

[lM]
(ii) Give a reason for your answer in 4(d)(i).
Ben sebab bagi jawapan di 4(d(i).
Magnesium is more electropositive than zinc I I magnesium is higher than zinc in
electrochemical series I I distance between Mg - Cu is further than Zn-Cu in
electrochemical series
[lM]
(e) Draw the energy level diagram for the reaction.
Lukis gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas ini.
Energy

Zn + CuS04 I
Zn-Cu2+

Aff

= -

10 kJ mor1

ZnSO .. + Cu/
Zn2+ + Cu

1. Label energy and diagram has 2 different energy levels


for exothermic reaction
2. Balanced chemical I ionic equation, LiH is written

[SBPTriallS-06] Table 6 shows the heats of combustion of some common fuels.


Jadual

6 menunjukkan

haba pembakaran

beberapa bahan api yang biasa digunakan.

Heat of combustion (kJ moli]


Haba pembakaran (kJ mol-1)
Methane / Metana
-890
Propane / Propana
-2 230
Ethanol / Etanol
-1 376
Propanol / Propanol
-2 016
Table 6 / Jadual 6
Fuel / Bahan api

(a) The combustion of the fuels is an exothermic reaction. What is meant by exothermic
reaction?
Pembakaran bahan api adalah tindak balas eksotermik. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan
tindak balas eksotermik? [ 1 M]
Reaction that gives out I released heat to the surroundings.
(b) Diagram 6 shows the energy profile for the combustion of ethanol.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan profil tenaga bagi pembakaran etanol.

Diagram 6 / Rajah 6
Mark i::1H for the reaction in Diagram 6.
Tandakan LJH bagi tindak balas itu dalam Rajah 6. [IM}

(c) (i)Compare the heat of combustion of methane and propane. [lM]


Bandingkan haba pembakaran metana dan propana.
Heat of combustion of propane is higher than methane
(ii) Explain your answer in (c)(i)./ Terangkanjawapan anda di (c)(i) [3M]
1. The number of carbon atom per molecule propane is higher
2. The More carbon dioxide I water produced when propane is burnt
3. More heat energy released
(d) Calculate the fuel value of propanol. / Hitungkan nilai bahan api bagi propanol. [2M]
[Molar mass of propanol, C3H70H = 60 g mol-1J
[Jisim Molarpropanol, C3H70H = 60 g mol-1]
Molar mass of propanol, C3H70H = 60 g mol-1
60 g of C3H70H burnt released 2016 kJ //
1 g C3H70H burnt released 1 x 2016 kJ
60
= 33.6 kJ g-1
(correct answer with correct unit)

(e) During a football game, a player found that his knee was swollen after being hit by the
opponent player.
Semasa perlawanan bola sepak, seorang pemain
dengan pemain lawan.

mendapati lututnya bengkak selepas berlanggar

A physiotherapy put ice cubes on his knee to relieve the pain. As a chemistry student,
suggest another method to help the player. Explain how the method you choose will help
the player. [3M]
Seorang ahli fisioterapi meletakkan ketulan ais pada lutut pemain itu untuk
mengurangkan kesakitan. Sebagai seorang pelajar kimia, cadangkan kaedah lain untuk
membantu pemain itu. Terangkan bagaimana kaedah yang dipilih dapat membantu
pemain itu.
1.
2.
3.
in

place the cold packs on his swollen knee


to absorbs heat from his swollen knee
constrict blood vessels and slows down blood flow I reduce the formation of fluid
the affected area.

Seminar SKORA+ SPM 2015

- Kimia

Bersama Cikgu Adura

Rajah 1 menunjukkanperubahan
keadaan tiqa jirim, X, Y dan Z bagi air.
Diagram 1 shows the inter-conversion of the three states of matter, X, Y and Z of water.
SPMl0-01

00
x

Freezing
Solid
Pepejal

condesation
liquid

gas
gas

cecair

Melting

boiling

(a) Apakahjenis zarah yang terdapat dalam air?


What type of particle is found is water?

Ada 3 jenis zarah

Iaitu

Atom, ion, molekul

Molekul/ I molecule
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(b) Di bawah suhu bilik; pada suhu berapakah ais berubah kepada

air?
Under the room temperature, at what temperature does ice change to water?

Jawapan MESTI bersama dengan

unit yang BETUL

0 C

........................................................................................................................

Page

I 14

http:/ I cikguadura. wordpress. com

[lM]

Oktober 2015

(c) Apakah keadaanfizikal yang berlabel Z


What is the physical state labelled Z?

Keadaan fizikal

Adalah

Pepejal, cecair dan gas

gas
........................................................................................................................

(d) Namakan proses apabila air berubah daripada keadaan X kepada


Name the process when water changes from state X to state Y.

[lM]

keadaan Y.

X (Pepejal)kepada Y (cecair)

Takat lebur/melting

point

SAL AH
Sebab soalan tanya proses

Peleburan/ /Melting
........................................................................................................................
(e) Apabila air berubah daripada keadaan Y kepada keadaan Z,
nyatakan perubahan bagi:
When water changes from state Y to state Z, state the changes in:

Y (cecair) kepada

Z (Gas)

[lM]

(i) Tenaga zarah


the energy of the particles.

Jawapan MESTI menunjukkan

Perubahan

High

Reject:

Strong [Salah term]


High [tidak menunjukkan

perubahan

Bertambah/ I Increases/ I Higher


........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(ii) Daya tarikari antara zarah-zarah itu


The forces of attraction between the particles.

Soalan menyatakan

air,

Sebatian kovalen

Daya tarikan

Van der Waals - antara

molekul dengan

molekul

Strong

Reject : tidak menunjukkan

perubahan

Berkurang I weaker
........................................................................................................................

[lM]

(f) Bau masakan kari di dapur merebak hingga ke ruang tamu.


Berdasarkan teori kinetik jirim, nyatakan proses yang terlibat. Terangkan jawapan anda.
The smell of curry cooking in the kitchen spreads to the living room. Based on the kinetic
theory of matter, state the process involved. Explain your answer.

Soalan nak Proses yang terlibat

Kemudian terangkan.

Proses : Resapan/ I diffusion


Penerangan / / explanation
1. The curry particles is tiny and discrete
Zarah kari adalah kecil dan diskrit.
2. move in between air particle from high concentration to lower concentration
bergerak di antara zarah-zarah udara dari kepekatan tinggi ke kepekatan rendah
........................................................................................................................
[3M]

SBP13-01 (a) Diagram 1 shows the set-up


Process I.

Rajah 1 menunjukkan

of the apparatus

an experiment to study

susunan radas bagi satu eksperimeri bagi mengkaji Proses I.

Solid agar
Agar-agar peja 1
olid potassium
S anganate(VII)
m
Pepejal kalium
mangana t(VII)

~--

-Whole agar
turns purple.
Seluruh agar
menjadi ungu

(i) Name the process involved in this experiment?


Namakan proses yang terlibat?

Resapan/ I diffusion

[lM]

(ii) State the type of particles present in potassium manganate(VII).


Nyatakan jenis zarah dalam kalium manganat(VII).

Potassium manganate(VII) adalah

sebatian

Ionik , maka zarah yang hadir ialah

[lM]

ion

(iii) Explain the observation in this experiment based on the kinetic theory of matter.
Terangkan pemerhatian dalam eksperimeri ini berdasarkan teori kinetik jirim.

Berdasarkan

teori kinetik jirim

1. The solid potassium manganate particles is tiny and discrete


Zarah pepejal kalium manganate adalah kecil dan diskrit.
2. The particles are constantly
Zarah sentiasa bergerak/bergetar

moving/vibrate
dan berputar

and rotate

3. move in between agar particle from high concentration to lower concentration


bergerak di antara zarah-zarah agar-agar dari kepekatan tinggi ke kepekatan rendah

SPM14-03 (a) Diagram 3 shows standard representation for three isotopes of carbon
which are carbon-12, carbon-13 and carbon-14.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan peruiakilari piawai bagi tiqa isotop karbon iaitu karbon-12, karbon13 dan karbon-14

12
6

13
6

14
6

(i) What is the meaning of isotope?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan isotop?

Atom of same element,


Atom unsur yang sama
Has same number of proton/ I proton number
Mempunyai bilangan proton yang sama/ / nombor proton
Different number of neutron or nucleon number
Berbeza bilangan neutron// nombor nucleon

Reject:

number of nucleon//

neutron number

[lM]

(ii) Determine the number of neutrons in carbon-13.


Tentukan bilangan neutron dalam karbon- . 3

Nucleon number=

Neutron

proton+

=n
eon number - proton
= 13 - 6

7
[lM]
(iii) State one use of carbon-14 in daily life.
Nyatakan satu kegunaan karbon-14 dalam kehidupan harian

To estimate age of fossil


Menentukan tarikh umur fosil

[lM]

(iv) Draw the atomic structure of carbon-12 and label the subatomic particles.
Lukis struktur atom karbon-12 dan label zarah subatomnya.

Biasa kita melukis

Susunan

electron

Soalan nak sekarang adalah

Atomic structure
Mesti melukis adanya

nucleus yang dikelilingi oleh elektron

[2M]

(b) Table 2 shows the physical properties of substance X and substance Y.


Jadual 2 menunjukkan sifat fizik bagi bahan X dan bahan Y.
Substance
Bahan

Melting point ( C)
Takat lebur ( C)
0

Boiling point ( C)
Takat didih ( C)
0

-23

77

801

1413

Electrical conductivity
Kekonduksian elektrik
Solid /Pepejal
Molten / Leburan
Cannot
Cannot/
Tidak boleh
Tidak boleh
Cannot
Can
Tidak boleh
Boleh

Based on Table 2,
Berdasarkan Jadual 2,

solid

Solid + liquid

liquid

Melting point
(0C) Takat
lebur ( C)

Substance
Bahan

Liquid+ gas
Boiling point
(OC)
Takat didih (
oC}

gas

-23
801

(i) what are the physical states of substance X and substance Y at room temperature?
apakah keadaan fizik bagi bahan X dan bahan Y pada suhu bilik?
X: liquid/ I cecair
Y: pepejal/ /solid

[2M]

(ii) Explain the difference in melting point of substance X and subtance Y.


Terangkan perbezaan takat lebur bagi bahan X dan bahan Y

Substance
Bahan

x
y

Electrical conductivity
Kekonduksian elektrik
Solid /Pepejal
Molten / Leburan
Cannot
Cannot/
Tidak boleh
Tidak boleh
Cannot
Can
Tidak boleh
Boleh

Compound
Sebatian
kovalen
ionik

1. Melting point Y higher than X


Takat lebur Y lebih tinggi daripada X
2. Compound Y has strong electrostatic force compare to X that has weak Van der
Waals forces
Sebatian Y mempunyai daya tarikan elektrostatik yang kuat berbanding dengan X yang
mempunyai daya tarikan Van der Waals yang lemah.
3. more heat energy needed by Y to overcome the attractive force between its
particles
Lebih banyak tenaga haba yang diperlukan oleh Y untuk memutuskan ikatan di zarah
zarahnya
........................................................................................................................
[2M]

(iii) state the type of particles in substance X.


Nyatakan jenis zarah dalam bahan X.
X ialah sebatian kovalen,

Maka,

molecule

[lM]

(a) Table 1 shows four substances and their chemical formulae.


1 menunjukkan empat bahan dan formula kimianya.

SPM2013-01

Jadual

Substance /Bahan
Argon / Argon
Bromine / Bromin
Napthalene /Naftalena
Sodium chloride /Natrium klorida
Based on table 1:
Berdasarkanjadual

Chemical formula /Formula Kimia


Ar
Br2
C10Hs
NaCl

1:

Substance /Bahan
Argon / Argon
Bromine / Bromin
Napthalene /Naftalena
Sodium chloride /Natrium
klorida

Chemical formula /Formula


Ar
Br2
C10Hs
NaCl

Kimia

Zarahnya
atom
Molekul
Molekul
10n

(i) State one substance which exists as atom.


Nyatakan satu bahan yang wujud sebagai atom.

[lM]

Argon

(ii) which substances has the highest melting point?


Bahan manakah mempunyai takat lebur yang paling tinggi?

Sebatian ion

Sodium chloride /Natrium klorida

[lM]

(iii) What is the physical state of bromine at room conditions?


Apakah keadaan fizik bromin pada keadaan bilik?
Sebatian kovalen

Cecair

[Ikut buku teks F4 - F & Cl - gas, Br - cecair, I- solid]

[lM]

(iv) Sodium chloride cannot conduct electricity in solid state but can conduct electricity
in aqueous solution. Explain why.
Natrium klorida tidak boleh mengkonduksi elektrik dalam keadaan pepejal tetapi boleh
mengkonduksi elektrik dalam larutan akues. Terangkan mengapa.

1. Sodium chloride in solid, its ion not free to move. Hold by strong electrostatic
force.
Natrium klorida di dalam pepejal, tiada ion-ion yang bebas bergerak. Di tarik oleh daya
elektrostatik yang kuat
2. in liquid, its ions is free to move
Di dalam cecair, ion-ionnya bebas bergerak.
[2M]

(v) Why argon is an unreactive element?


Mengapakah argon adalah unsur yang tidak reaktif? [lM]

Group 18

Already achieve octet electron arrangement


Telah mencapai susunan electron oktet

[lM]

(b) Diagram 1 shows the graph of temperature againts time when liquid naphthalene is
cooled.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa apabila cecair naftalene disejukkan.
Temperature (C)
Suhu (0C)

Q
p

Time(s)

Masa (s)

Berdasarkan

graf diatas,

3 soalan lazim yang akan ditanya

1. Takat lebur/ takat beku


2. keadaan fizikal pada graf yang malar
3. penerangan pada graf yang malar

Based on diagram 1
Berdasarkan Rajah 1:
(i) State the freezing point of napthalene.
Nyatakan takat beku bagi naftalena. [lM]

[lM]
(ii) Why there is no change in temperature from R to Q?
Mengapakah tidak terdapat perubahan suhu dari R ke Q? [lM]

Heat released
Haba di bebaskan
Was balance by heat released during the formation of bond between the particles
Diseimbangkan oleh haba yang dibebaskan semasa pembentukkan ikatan di antara
zarah-zarah
........................................................................................................................
[lM]
(iii) What are the states of matter from R to Q?
Apakah keadaanjirim dari R ke Q? [lM]

Liquid and solid/ I liquid + solid

Reject : liquid, solid

I I cecair dan pepejal


[lM]

[SBPTrial14-02] (a) (i) One mole of a substance is defined as the quantity of a substance
that contains the same number of particles as in n g of element A.
What are n and A?
Satu mol bahan ditakrifkari sebagai kuantiti bahan yang mengandungi bilangan zarah
yang sama seperti yang terdapat dalam n g unsur A.
Apakah n dan A?

A = carbon-12/ I karbon-12

n = 12

(ii) What is the number of atoms in 0.5 mole of methane gas, CH4? [2M]
Berapakah bilangan atom dalam 0.5 mol gas methane, CH4?
[Avogadro constant= 6.02 x 1023moli] [Pemalar Avogadro= 6.02 x 102s mol:i]

Telah diberikan:

0.5 mol

Soalan nak atom,

Diberikan molekul CH4

Maka

Ada 1 atom C dan 4 atom H

Maka ada 5~

=
=

membentuk

CH,

0.5 x 6.02 x 1023x 5


1.505 x 1024atom

(b) Diagram 2 shows an experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium


oxide.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan satu eksperimeri untuk menentukan formula empirik: magnesium
oksida.

Page

I 20

http:/ I cikguadura. wordpress. com

Oktober 2015

2M]

Iagne ium ribbon


Pita

111ng11

i11111

Diagram 2 / Rajah 2
(i) When carrying out the experiment, why does the crucible lid need to be opened once a
while? [lM]
Semasa menjalankan eksperimeri itu, mengapakah penutup mangkuk pijar perlu dibuka
sekali sekala?

To let oxygen enter to continue the combnustion


Membenarkan oksigen masuk dan meneruskan pembakaran
(ii) Why this method not suitable to determine the empirical formula of lead(II) oxide?[lM]
Mengapakah kaedah ini tidak: sesuai untuk menentukan formula empirik:plumbum(II)
oksida?

Bila melibatkan pertukaran

oksigen atau pembakaran

dengan

oksigen

Gunalah Siri Kereaktifan


Lead less reactive with oxygen than Magnesium
Plum bum kurang reaktif dengan oksigen berbanding dengan

Reject

magnesium

: plumbum(II) oksida

(c) Copper(II)carbonate, CuC03 is heated strongly to produce copper(II) oxide and carbon
dioxide gas. The reaction is given by chemical equation below;
Kuprum(II) karbonat, CuC03 dipanaskan dengan kuat menghasilkan kuprum(II) oksida
dan gas karbon dioksida. Tindakbalas ditunjukkan oleh persamaan kimia di bawah;

6.2 g copper(II) carbonate, CuC03 is heated during an experiment. Calculate the volume
of gas released. [3M]
6.2 g kuprum(II) karbonat, CuCOs di panaskan dalam suatu eksperimen.
Hitungkan isipadu gas yang dibebaskan.

[Relative atomic mass: Cu=64; C=12, 0=16; 1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room
conditions]
[Jisim. atom relatif: Cu=64; C=12, 0=16; 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilikj
0.05

CuCOa =

6.2
64 + 12 + 16(3)

1 mol CuCOa : 1 mol C02


0.05 mol CuCOa : 0.05 mol C02
Volume of C02 gas = 0.05 x 24 I 1.2 dm3

6.2 =
124

SPM14-02 Diagram 2 shows the apparatus

an oxide of copper.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan
oksida kuprum.

set-up to determine the empirical formula for

susunan radas untuk menentukan formula empirik: bagi suatu


Oxide of copper

Oblda htprum
Hidrogen gas

Gas hidrogen
Heat

Pana ka
.A. nhydrou ealei am chloride

.Kai. i'urn klorida ko'i"jumg -- -~


Diagram 2 / Rajah 2
(a) State the name of two reactants for the preparation of hydrogen gas. [2M]
Nyatakan nama dua bahan tindak balas bagi penyediaan gas hidrogen.

Tindak balas di antara

logam dengan

Zinc/magnesium/aluminium
Zink/magnesium/aluminium

asid kuat

I I hydrochloric

acid/nitric
acid/ sulphuric
/ / asid hidroklorik/asid nitrik/ asid sulfurik

acid

(b) What is the function of anhydrous calcium chloride? [lM]


Apakahfungsi kalsium klorida kontang?

Absorb water vapour I I to dry hydrogen gas


Menyerap wap air// mengeringkan gas hidrogen
(c) Table 1 shows the data obtained from the experiment.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan data diperoleh daripada eksperimeri itu.
Description / Penerangan
Combustion tube+ porcelain dish
Tiub pembakaran + pirinq porselin
Combustion tube+ porcelain dish+ oxide of copper
Tiub pembakaran + pirinq porselin + oksida kuprum
Combustion tube+ porcelain dish+ copper
Tiub pembakaran + piring porselin + kuprum
Table 1 / Jadual 1

Mass (g) / Jisim (g)


24.60
27.00
26.52

Based on Table 1, calculate the empirical formula for the oxide of copper.
Berdasarkan Jadual 1, hitung formula empirik bagi oksida kuprum.
[Relative atomic mass: Cu= 64; 0 = 16]
[Jisim.atom relatif: Cu = 64; 0 = 16]

Buatjadual

Element/unsur
Mass/ jisim (g)
Mol

Cu
0
26.52 - 24.60 = 1.92
27.00 - 26.52 = 0.48
1.92 = 0.03
0.48 = 0.03
64
16
Ratio
0.03= 1
0.03= 1
0.03
0.03
Simplest ratio
1
1
Empirical formula/ formula empiric= CuO

(d) How do you ensure all oxide of copper is reduced to copper?


Bagaimanakah anda memastikan semua oksida kuprum diturunkan kepada

[3M]

kuprum?

Repeat heating, cooling and weighing until constant reading achieved


Ulang panas, sejuk dan timbang sehingga bacaan malar di capai

[lM]

(e)(i)Can the empirical formula for magnesium oxide be determined by using this
method?
Bolehkah formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida ditentukan dengan menggunakan
kaedah ini?

NO
[lM]
(ii) Give one reason for your answer in 2(e)(i).
Berikan satu alasan bagi jawapan anda di 2(e)(i).

Magnesium more reactive with oxygen than hydrogen


Magnesium lebih reaktif dengan oksigen berbanding dengan hidrogen

[lM]