Admittance of a Cavity-backed Annular Slot Antenna-3uq

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Admittance of a Cavity-backed Annular Slot Antenna-3uq

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The

edge fields are so large for small apertures that radiation

duetothetermshaving

a singularbehavior

a tt h e

apertureedges,formsthemajorcontributiontothe

fields scattered by such an aperture. For apertures of

largerthanresonantdimensions,however,itappears

thattheedgesingularitieshave

a n almost negligible

effect on the total scattered field.

I t is also formally possible to evaluate the

ponent of the aperture field. This may be expected to

be small i n the case considered here, since the incident

field contains no s conlponent and the edgesof the aperture are either parallel or perpendicular to the incident

electric field. The component of the aperturefield may

be represented by a series of functionssatisfyingthe

edgecondition,andthetwosides

of ( l i j canbeespanded in pouyer series to obtain algebraic equations i n

the unknown coefficients of the aperture field. Since the

power series on each side of ( I f ) is differentiated, h o w

ever, convergence is much slower and the solution cannotbeobtainedb>-simpl>.truncatillgthesystem

of

equations.Theresults

gi\len here for scatteringcross

of aperture field, since it cannot radiate for the range of

aperture spacings considered.

IS.CONCI.ITSIOSS

The problem of diffraction b>r an aperturein the range

of wavelengthscorrespondingtotheresonance

region

as aboundaryvalue

requiresarigorous,fornlulation

problem. Physical approxilnations can be made i n both

the long and the short wavelength limits, but these approximate solutions break down i n the resonance region

i n most cases.

A rigorousfornlulationhas

been presentedherefor

the problem of diffraction by ;I periodicall>- apertured

conducting screen. The form of the solution is very complicated, but is suitablefornumericalcomputation.

From numerical solution, the aperture resonance has

been demonstrated? and the relative importance of the

singularities of the field which occur a t t h e edges of the

aperturescanbeseen.Theedgesingularitieshave

a

pronouncedeffectonthescattered

field for apertures

smallerthanresonantdimensions,butonly

a small

effect for larger apertures.

J. GA4LEJSj',MEMBER,

IRE, AKD

T. W. THOMPSON,$

MEMBER, IRE

Summary-An annular slot antenna which is backed by acylincalculated [4]. This anal>-sis emphasizes the finite condrical or a coaxial cavity is excited by a current

sheet in the slot

ductivit!. of the cavit>and does not consider the

plane which exhibits no azimuthal (6)variation. The integral equaslot

susceptance.

tion which relates the radial electric field in the slot plane to the

linear source current density is solved by variational techniques. The The slot susceptance determines the bandwidth limitations of the antenna. Sizeable susceptances and narnumerical calculations emphasize narrow slots and shallow cavities.

The slot antennas may resonate with cavity depth z ~ < h / 4 .A resorow bandwidths maybe expected for cavit>--backed slots

nant antenna exhibits nearly the same bandwidth as the slot which of restricted size. Ob\-ious size restrictions arise in airis backed by h/4 deep cavity. Dielectric cavity loading decreases the

borne applications, but economical considerations m a > size of a resonant cavity, but it also decreases the antenna bandalso

limit thesize of ground based and possibly hardened

width.

band.

ADIXTIOK characteristics of annular slot antenThis paper \ d l consider the complex admittance of

nashavebeenconsidered

b>+ severalauthors

a cavity-backed annular slot antenna. The conductance

[1]-[3]. However,

there

is little

information

and the susceptance of such antennas which are excited

available on the effects of a back-up cavity. The radia- b,. a voltage impressed across the slot can be calculated

tion conductance of an annular slot antenna whichis

using thevariationaltechniques

oi Schwinger and

backedby a hemisphericalcavityhasbeenrecently

Levine [SI. Thecalculations ma>- follow thegeneral

procedure of Levine and Papas [ 2 ] \vho have considered

Received February 2.3, 1962; rex-ised manuscript recei\.ed June

the

principalmodeadnlittance

of a coaxialline t h a t

1962. This work was sponsored by the 1-S.AG Systems Command,

radiates in a semi-infinite space. The admittance of the

Y.

Rome -Air Development Center,

t Sylvania Electric Products, II'altham, Mass.

slot as seen b?- the source is the ratio of the source cur2 L3eparrment of ElectricalEngineering.CornellI-niversity.

rent I to the voltage across the slot

l,-. The magnetic

Itham,

1

'

.

I. INTKODL-CTIOK

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can be expressed as integrals of the electric field in the

current I=psJ,d#. Now I and J , are expressed a s integrals of theelectric field E , in the slot. The integral

equation for E , may be solved by the variational techniques used by Levine and Papas

[2].

The possible #+dependence of the excited fields which

is caused by a nonuniform distribution of the source

current density J , is ignored. Therefore, the results of

the present calculations are strictly applicable only to

a n idealizedsourcecurrentdensity

J s = 1 / ( 2 r p ) ,but

involveapproximationstootherforms

of excitation.

The electric field in the slot plane

E , is computed in

Section I1 from a formal solution of the integral equation as a series in powers

of pn, where is the radius and

where the integers n 2

1). However, the analysis becomes rather complex with increasing values

of n and

the numerical computations are restricted to

n=

1

and 0. The slot admittance is discussed in Section 111.

for cylindrical back-up cavities and

in Section IV for

for coaxial back-up cavities. When the cavity walls and

the conducting screen are perfect electric conductors,

only the upper half space reflects a conductance G into

theslotplane.Theupper

half spaceandthe

cutoff

cavity modes reflect a capacitive susceptance Beep into

the slot plane, while the propagating cavity modes reflect an inductive susceptance Bind. The cavity depths

where the antennabecomes self-resonant (B,,,

-Bind)

and the corresponding GIB,,, or G / [B i n d [ ratiosare

alsocalculatedinSections

I11 and 117. Self-resonant

antennas exhibit about the same bandwidth

as slots

backed by X/4 deep cavities unless resonance occurs for

cavity depths

<X/30. The antenna bandwidth is

significantly decreased by decreasing the cavity depth

below its value at antenna resonance. Dielectric cavity

loading is shown to decrease theG/B,,, ratio. However,

dielectric loading permits a decrease of the radius in a

cylindrical cavity and decreaseof the depth ina coaxial

cavity.Forsmallslots

of radius

thecylindrical

back-up cavity exhibits a larger G / [B ratio which is

still smaller than GIB,,, of a top loaded vertical electrical dipole of comparable volume.

Fig. 1-Geometry

where k l =

-40

R,,(P)

(3)

X J l ( X n P )

order m,

Jo(X,b)

and

N,-l

(5)

(b"2)J1'(X,,b).

AYn[Jl(hnp)

order m,

I'o(Xna)

J o ( L a ) Y ~ ( L P ) ](6)

of

Jo(Xna.) J'O(Xn6)

(7)

Yo(Ana)Jo(Xnb)

and

as

The condition E,

20)

is met with

11. INTEGRAL

EQUATION

exp (2jKlzo)

(10)

The geometry of the slotted coaxial and cylindrical

B,

exp

k I 2201.

cavities is shown in Fig.1. The subsequent development

The amplitudes A

, are related to the excitation field

will be carried out for both cavity types. For an exp

Multiplying

0), as

time variation of the symmetrical fields the mag- of the cavity E,(p, 0)

is given b y

[ 6 ] computed from (9), with R n ( p ) p d p and integrating from

netic field in the cavity H,-(p,

a to 6(a 0, for a cylindrical cavity) gives

Ao

H+-(p, z )

(eiklz

B0-j~1~)

A.R,(p)

-jml

&(p)Rn(p)p&

7l=l

A,,

l:

[exp (\An2

K12

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Z)

B n exp

e24AIa-k12

4/xn2

K12

196.2

integrating from p a to b gives

For

0, H,-(p,

673

for cylindrical cavities according to ( 2 ) , and where

source current I are determined from a solution of (18).

A variational principle for determining & ( p ) may be constructed by multiplying (18) with p & ( p ) and then integratingtheresultantequation

from p = p l to p = p z .

Llssunling t h a t

of (1) becomes

where B o , -4,>

and B, are given by ( l o ) , (12) and

respectivel!.. --lo and R,,are given b!- (2) and (3)for

cylindricalcavitiesand

by (13) and ( 6 ) for coaxial

cavities.

The fields excited by an aperture in a n infinite conducting plane may be determined from the distribution

of thetangentialelectric

fields in theaperture.

annular aperture is assumed to be excited b,, a radial electric field

which exhibits no

variations. The resultant magnetic field which has only a component is

givenfor a n exp (jut) timevariation of the fields by

121, [41, [51 a s

1 "

&(P)

C amprn,

(20)

m=O

HQ'(p,

where

-1

Qnpn p z

V

Jp:*6(p)dp

radii of the slot respectively. The last integral can be

n=l

p1

expressed in terms of Bessel functions

[X]. After

evaluating the 6 integral this gives

The followingnotation will be introduced to sinlplif\r

(21).

CO

H,+(p,

jL!eoJp~2&(p~)p'dp

0

esp

k?

]J1([p)J1([p')ld(

(17)

for

k,

k , respectively.

The tangential fields H,-(p, 0) and H,+(p, 0) differ by

linear source current density J,(p) across the slot. Eqs.

( 1 4 ) and (17) result in the integral equation

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result in

P,

Yo

If b1ZO

and (35) result in

Hol log ( P B / P ~ )

PI)

bl

Hol(pe

log

cy,

:I7,Yo(h,a)

(33)

a11

Pq

RJo(h,a)

(34)

follows that

(42)

PI)

as

it

X I m

or from (37) as

After defining

2blHo1

Hoo

Y1

bl(m

( 3 5 ) may be rearranged into

rv

m

CO

BOO 2

2rjwelao2

bnHon

,,=l

4-

bnbmHnm.

(37)

n = l m=l

or (37), can be shown to be stationary with respect

to the first variation in

or in bn [9].

Setting

l2

CTLINDRICXLCAVITY

The admittance with a cylindrical cavity will be calculated only for the zero order approximation

of the

field distribution across the slot (bn=O). Eq. (41) may

be rewritten as

i t follows t h a t

lL=l

b1Ell

m 1 3

bnHon

dV

bnbtnHnm]-

db,

m= 1

y+

[log

and the admittance reflected by the cavity is

The symbols

N, and f~(x,>

are defined b y (22), (5)

and

respectively.

Y+ of

is easily related to the principal mode adI t is seen that (39) represents an infinite set of non- mittance seen by a coaxial line that radiates in a half

linear equations for determiningbm. Approximate values space.Comparison of

with

of Levine and

of the coefficients b, maybeobtainedbyassuming

Papas

shows t h a t

b, 0 for m

and g, 0 for

Q. High JI and Q

values will result in more accurate expressions for b,.

Because of thealgebraiceffortassociatedwiththe

evaluation of b, and H,,, coefficients, X will berestrictedto

1 althoughhigher Q values will beconPlJ

sidered in the examples.

The simplest solution is obtained by assuming that where Y ( 0 ) ; Y 0 ] C denotes the normalized admittance

all the coefficients b, 0. In this particular case (35) and of the coaxial line [2] and where the asterisk denotes the

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675

(49)

where

Substituting (5) and (23) in (49) and approximating

log

by

gives

Fig. 2-Slot

will be considered a s a n

example. For

the

slot

admittance

is Y+= (4.8+j37.5)

millimhos. The

susceptance

B Im( I,'++ )E'

is calculated for Q= 100 and is plotted

inFig. 2. E'or ( b i X ) <0.384all thecavity modes are

belowcutoff and the cavity reflects a capacitive susceptance. By increasing the cavity radius (bihj

to

0.384

one of the cavit!; modes w i l l propagate. This mode reflects

inductive

susceptance

which is indicated by

dashes in Fig. 2. The inductive susceptance

is sufficient to tune out the capacitive parts

BCaI,ofI"and

E'+ if the propagating mode is near its cutoff. I t is seen

that Bindl at resonance (B= 0 ) is only slightly-less

than U for

unlessresonanceoccurs

for

Henceshallowself-resonantcavitiesexhibitsomewhat lower G:'B,,, ratiosthanca\litiesthe

depth of which approaches

The admittance ratio

of G = ReY to Be,,= -Bind

BI res a t resonance is plotted in Fig. 3 and the corresponding cavity depth is shown in Fig. 4. The effect

of dielectric cavity loading

>EO)

is indicated b!, the

dotted and dashed curves. For zo;'X=const, the slots of

larger radii require a slight increase in cavity radius b?

b u t the\- provide a significant increase of the G.':BI res

ratio. G/i B ' ratios of more than 5 percentare

achieved with

and b

Dielectric cavitlloading decreases the cutoff radius

of the first propagatingcavitymodewhich

is indicated bs- vertical

dashedlinesinFigs.

3 and 4. The cavity radius b is

decreased, but the G.1 U1 ratio is alsodecreased by

dielectric loading of the cavity.

susceptanre \vith

c>.lintirical cavity.

6'76

I

=b

cavities.

propagating modes in the cavity.

are below cutoff and they reflect a capacity into the

slot plane. Such cavitieswill be examined in conjunction

with slots which have a circumference 2xp2 comparable

to a wavelength X and with slots of p,<<X.

The plot of the GIB ratio of the larger slots in Fig. 5

is about the same

as the G! B res ratio in Fig. 3 for slots

whichhaveback-upcavities

of radius b>0.384h. An

increase of the cavity radius b from b = p 2 to b

may make the antenna self-resonant and obviate the

need for a tuning inductance, butit does not provide an

increase of GIB or of the antenna bandwidth.

The admittance ratio GIB is decreased for the small

slots and it is less than 10" for b=p2<0.0ZX, a s seen

fromFig.

6. Forsmallcavities

kl<<Xq= ( q - $ ) x i b .

G/B will become approximately proportional to

if

<<pJn, while B is only slightly dependent on

if

>p?/n. An upper bound to the possible increase

of GIB of a small slot

with an increasing cavit>size can be obtained from the admittance

of the same

slot in an infinite conducting screen G,+iB, which may

be readily computed from the impedance of a complementary loop antenna [lo]. I t follows that

IC!

OA06

Iz$A

backed by shallow cylindrical cavities.

Gs

B .max

2B.3

l 2 log

0.006

(kPd3

(2%)

an annular slot backed by a cylindrical cavity.

P1

6. The G / B ratio

of the small slots of Fig. 6 is compared in Fig. 7 with

the GIB ratio of a circular top loaded dipole,

which is

given by 11 as

3E,

the antenna,h is the antenna height and

a is its effective

radius.Theeffectiveradius

a becomesequaltothe

actual radius of the antenna disk p z if a<<k. The plot

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loaded dipole exhibits higher values

of G/B than the

slot with a cylindrical cavity of comparable size.

ADMITTANCE WITH A

COAXIAL

CAVITP

zero order (b,=

andthefirstorder

( b l # O ) field distributionacrosstheslot.Forthezero

order field distribution the admittance Yo isgiven b y

(45). The admittance reflected to the slot plane by the

outside space Y+ is the same as in (46) and (49). T h e

admittancereflected bs; the cavity is computedfrom

IO

b h

OF

Fig.9->1dmittanreratio

Fig. 8-Slot

G/IB

Coaxialcavity.

at

r

u

0

a s well

astheinductivesusceptance

reflected bythepropagating cavit\- mode Bind are plotted in Fig. 6. Xgain,

the cavity resonance is defined by the condition B = O

or Bind= -Bcap. I t is seen t h a t Bin,+]a t resonanceis

near]). the same as B for

except when resonance occurs for

This implies that a relatively shallow self-resonant cavity ( B 0) will exhibit

nearly the sameG/Bcap ratio as a

deep cavitli which

will requireadditionalinductivetuning.Whenthe

cavity depth is less than the resonant depth

the

slotsusceptance becomes inductive,theslotrequires

additional capacitive tuning, and the

Bind! ratio is

decreased relative to its value a t t h e self-resonance. -4

self-resonant antenna will exhibit near117 the same bandwidth asa slot with a

deep cavit>-. The bandwidth

of

the antenna is significantly decreased by decreasing the

cavity depth helow its value a t self-resonance.

The admittance ratio

of G = Re Ir to Bcnp -Bind

B res a t resonance is plotted in Fig. 9 and the correspondingcavitJ-depth

isshowninFig.

10.

G!!BI ratios of more than 5 percentareachieved

with b

and (b:a) 2. G/ B

of nearly 10 per cent

is reached with b = X / 4 and

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mi

k

u

3

Fig. ll--\.ariation

500

where the smaller depth

figures are associated with the larger

( b / a ) ratios. For

a given G/l I?

ratio the slots are of approximately the

same size for coaxial and cylindrical cavities. However,

the radius of the resonant coaxial cavit?. is almost one

half of the radius of the c>-lindrical cavity. T h e effect

of a dielectric cavity loading ( e l

is indicated bq; the

dotted and dashed curves. Dielectric loading decreases

theresonantcavit)?depth,but

i t alsodecreasesthe

G;]B,,,j ratio.The effects oi differentslotwidths is

indicated in Fig. 11.

isapproximatedbythe

first term of (53). Numerical

calculations show that this approximatesB within a few

per cent if

<0.02. S o w B is inductive and independent of the dielectric loading. The resulting GIB is

given by

G

B

20

log (b;a)

(54)

Bind

G/B

of (51) of the cylindrical cavity.

For the firstorder field distribution ( b 1 # 0 ) the admittance Y1 has been calculatedfrom (44). A rather

lengthy calculation resultsfor el eo and b

in

lmax

AY=

Y1-

x?

(55)

2 ? r

where

2(kpp)

Pl

(56)

Thecorrectiontotheadmittance

AY may beexpected to be small for narrow slots since it depends on

the square of

Considering

20,

b/a= 2 and b / X = 5 , ( 5 5 ) and (56) result in A II

(7.3

mhowhich is negligible with respect

to Yol 5

mho.

a self-resonantcoaxial

cavityantenna

of thesame

volume.

In the antenna of a small size the susceptance B is

capacitive with a cylindrical cavity and inductive with

a coaxialcavity. Thecylindricalcavityexhibitsthe

larger G;B ratio, which is still smaller than

GIB,,, of

a top loaded vertical electric dipole antenna

of comparable volume.

The above analysis tends to illustrate the bandwidth

limitations of annular slot antennas which are backed

by shallowcavities.However,theassumedexcitation

by a uniform current sheet in the slot plane is anidealization and the resultof the calculations can not beused

for estimating the admittance for excitation which exhibit a sizeable azimuthal field variation along the slot.

The variational formulation of the slot admittance

formally specifies the field distributions across the slot

with anarbitraryaccuracy.However,thesolution

is

rather simple only for the zero order field distribution

(b,) 0). There are already computational

difficulties for

the first order field distribution ( b J # O ) , and the present

method does not appear suited for determining highly

accurate field distributions across the slot which would

involve a large number of b,s for very narrow slots.

VI.

AACKNOWLEDGMENT

Theauthorsappreciatetheaid

of P. Kimball, E.

Larsen and Mrs. J. Van Horninthecomputerprogramming and numerical computations.

REFERENCES

V. DISCVSSIOX

A . Conclusions

The admittance of Y=G+jB of annularslotswas

calculated for cylindrical and coaxial back-up cavities.

The antenna self-resonance

-Bind or B 0 ) for a

givenratio of G/B,,, can be achievedwith a smaller

cavity volume

in

the coaxial geometq-.The

selfresonant antennas exhibit about the same G:Bca,, ratio

as slots backed by

deep cavities, unless the cavity

resonates for a cavity depth

<X,!30.

further decrease of thecavitydepthdeteriorates

GjB,,, ratio.

Dielectric cavityloadingdecreasesthe

G,:B,,, ratio,

although it decreases the cavity volumewhich is required for achieving self-resonance.

The radiusof the cylindrical cavity may be decreased

t o a point where all the cavity modes are below cutoff

and reflect a capacity in the slot plane. The resulting

PROC. IRE,

vol. 36, pp. 54-60; January, 1948.

H. Le\;ine and C. H. Papas, Theory of circular diffraction antenna, J. A$@. Plzys., vol. 22,pp. 29-43; January, 1951. (Eq.

(6.12)shouldbemultipliedwith

a factor2[(T-1)/(7+1)]*).

bIarcuvitz, \\.aveguide Handbook,McGraw-HillBook

Co., IIK., h-ew York,

Y.,Sec. 4.16; 1951.

J . Res.

J . R. \Vait, -4 lowfrequencyannular-slotantenna,

N B S . vol. 60, pp. 59-64; January, 1958. (Eq. (12) should be

multiplied with 2).

H. Levine and J. Schwinger, On the theory of electromagnetic

wave diffraction by an aperture in a n infinite plane conducting

screen, Comm. Pu.re. A p p l . X&., vol. 3, pp. 355-391; December, 1950.

S. Marcuvitz,iYaveguideHandbook,iVcGraw-HillBook

Co., Inc., Sew I7ork, N. Y . , Sec. 2.3 and

1951.

Levine and Papas,up. tit., see ( A S ) and (A.12).

-4..

Sommerfeld,PartialDifferentialEquations,Academic

Press Inc., Sew York,

Y., 1949. Eqs. (31.14) and (21.3a).

P. 31. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, hIcGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, IC. Y., pp. 11081109; 1953.

J . D. Kraus, -Antennas,McGraw-HillBook

Co., Inc., S e w

York,

Y.,pp. i69-371; 1950.

H. A. \\:heeler, Fundamentallimitations of smallantennas,

PROC.

IRE, vol. 35, pp. 1479-1484; December, 1947.

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