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Biblioteca Ateneu Barcelonis

iiiijllfi

1005708540

Biblioteca Ateneu Barcelonis i i i i j l l f i 1005708540

1

DR. PHILIP BUTTMANN'S

INTERMEDIATE OR LARGER

GREEK GRAMMAR,

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN

D. BOILEAU, Esq.

WITH

A BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF THE AUTHOR:

EDITED, WITH A FEW NOTES,

BY

E. H. BARKER, Esa.

OJ Tlielford, Norfolk, and formerly of Trinity College, Cambriiiijc.

LONDON:

and formerly of Trinity College, Cambriiiijc. LONDON: PRISTED FOR THE EDITOR, PUBLISHED BY BLACK, YOUNG, AND

PRISTED FOR THE EDITOR,

PUBLISHED BY BLACK, YOUNG, AND YOUNG, 2, TAVISTOCK STREET.

MBCCCXXXIII.

Cambriiiijc. LONDON: PRISTED FOR THE EDITOR, PUBLISHED BY BLACK, YOUNG, AND YOUNG, 2, TAVISTOCK STREET. MBCCCXXXIII.

R 310313

LONDON:

FMNTID BT WILLIAM OLOWRS, Stamford Street.

R 310313 LONDON: FMNTID BT WILLIAM OLOWRS, Stamford Street.

TO THE

Rev. Dr. KEATE,

HEAD-MASTER OF ETON-SCHOOL,

THE FOLLOWING

GRAMMAR,

NOW FIRST TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH,

IS DEDICATED

RY HIS FAITHFUL AND RESPECTFUL SERVANT,

THE EDITOR.

THE FOLLOWING GRAMMAR, NOW FIRST TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH, IS DEDICATED RY HIS FAITHFUL AND RESPECTFUL SERVANT,

»

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

1. If " it cannot be denied that the author of a Grammar,

which contains not only sound practical rules, but the grounds and reasons of those rules, has treated his subject philosophically," Dr. Philip Buttmann, of whose Intermediate or Larger Greek Grammar, a Translation into English is now first offered to the public, is well entitled to that praise, whether we regard his School- Grammar, his Intermediate or Larger Grammar, or his Complete Grammar.

The American Professor Everett, who published a

Translation of the School-Grammar, at Cambridge in the United States,1 in 1822, of which a second edition appeared in 1826, pp. 336. thus attests the merits of Buttmann : " The Translator has been led, not less by his own reflection, than by the advice of judicious friends, to prepare a Translation of the most approved of the Greek Grammars in use in Germany. It is well known that the Germans have paid a greater attention to philological pursuits than any other people of the present day, and that among themselves the study of the Greek has been In consequence of the zeal, with which every department of Greek literature has been pursued in that country, that of Grammar has been enriched It will be sufficient to quote the names of Hermann, Buttmann, Matthias, and

with many very valuable elementary works.

2.

carried much farther than that of the Latin.

Buttmann and Matthia have particularly dis-

Thiersch.3

1 An abridgment of the Larger or Intermediate Greek Grammar has also been published in America: A Greet Grammar, Principally abridged from that of Buttmann, for the Use of Schools, Boston, U. S., 1824. pp. 112.

! The Greek Grammar of Frederick Thiersch, Translated from the Ger-

jian, with Brief Remarks, by Sl&D. K. SAMOrOBO, M. A. o/CurisI-Church,

of Frederick Thiersch, Translated from the Ger- jian, with Brief Remarks, by Sl&D. K. SAMOrOBO, M.

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

vi

tinguished themselves as the authors of the Greek Grammars in most extensive use. language, the Grammar of Professor Thiersch may be thought to deserve the preference. a Grammar not so much of the classical language, as it appears in the mass of the Writers, as of that earlier form of it, which is called the elder, the Homeric or Epic dialect, (Grieciiische 2d Ed. While it needs but a slight inspection of this Grammar to feel the necessity of studying Homer almost as a work of another language, this fact itself equally suggests the conclusion, that a Grammar, particularly founded on this more ancient form of the language, is not well adapted to be a guide to the classical Writers at large. translated into English by the late Mr. Blomfield, and is thought to have matical criticism accessible to the English student. sophical and practical grammarian, however, Professor Butt- mann, of the University of Berlin, is allowed by his country men to hold the first rank. by him, are now before the public ; they are his Greek Gram mar for Schools, the Larger Greek Grammar, and the Complete Greek Grammar.3 tended to contain a complete Grammatical Index of the Greek Language, in which all the facts furnished by the study of all the Authors should be referred to their systematic place, so far as The first Volume of this work was published in 1819, and not till the Larger Greek Grammar of the Author had attained its eighth edition. for the most part, finely printed pages, and is that, by which its learned Author attained, in the public estimation, the place

Considered as an historical analysis of the

It is, however, as its title indicates,

Dialects,

Grammatik Vorziiglich des Homerisciien

1818.)

The Larger Greek Grammar of MattiiijE was

made a great accession to the stores of gram

As a philo

Three Greek Grammars, drawn up

The latter work, as the title suggests, is in

they establish principles, or exceptions to principles.

This Larger Grammar is a work of more than 600,

Oxford, and Professor of Greek in the University of Glasgow, 1830. Vot.K.pp. 528. Appendix pp. i. xxxvi. Rrmarkt pp. 1 25. But the second vulurne, destined tocontain the Syntax, has not yet been published by the Translator. E.H.B. 8 Mr.Keigiiti.et has undertaken to translate this work into English, and I shall hail its publication with the greatest satisfaction. E. H. B.

to translate this work into English, and I shall hail its publication with the greatest satisfaction.

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

vii

The supe riority of this work, not only for philosophical investigation, but learned criticism, can scarcely fail to be apparent to all, who are able to judge of it.'

he is now allowed to fill as a Greek philologian.

3. This School-Grammar, translated and published in America

by Professor Everett in 1822, and re-published in 1826, was reprinted, from the first edition, in England by R. Priestley in

1824, pp. 292, at the press of Mr. Valpy, with the Preface, but without the mention of Professor Everett's name, and without any intimation that the word Cambridge, subjoined to the Pre face, referred to Cambridge in America.

4. The Translation of the Intermediate or Larger Grammar of

Buttmann, now for the first time published, was made from the 13th German edition by Daniel Boileau, Esq., and I trust The fact that the work has reached a 13th edition in a country abound ing with intellect and learning, proves of itself the value, which

his countrymen set on the grammatical labors of Buttmann.

that it will be found to be equally correct and terse.

5. The following testimony to his merits is borne by Augustus

Matthi/e in the Preface to the first edition of his Greek Gram mar, dated Altenburg, May 26, 1807 : . Grammars, but they are chiefly employed in treating of the ele mentary parts. More especially, since the method of Lennep has found followers in Germany, and every one has laid claim to the praise of a philosophical genius, in proportion as he deviated from the old method, and attached himself to the new one, the depart

ment of Syntax has been neglected, and confined entirely to the common rules. doubtedly claims the first rank among those, which have appeared more recently, is but meagre in the department of Syntax ; and although it contains many excellent observations upon the com mon rules, and many philosophical views, yet it embraces too small a proportion of those philological remarks, which are neces sary to a grammatical acquaintance even with the authors, who are commonly read in schools."

" We have not indeed of late years been deficient in Greek

Even the Grammar of Buttmann, which un

in schools." " We have not indeed of late years been deficient in Greek Even the

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

viii

And in the new edition, dated AllenbiiTg, May 1825, Matthijb adds : " I did not receive the second part of Buttmann's Larger Grammar till the greater part of ray own was already printed off.

I have availed myself of it as far as I could, without encroaching

on the property of another, in the correction of the proofs, but

still more in the Additions and Corrections." But Buttmann has in the editions, which have appeared since the dates of Matthias Prefaces in 1807, and 1825, greatly im proved his Intermediate or Larger Grammar. 6. Messrs. J. Fr. Gail and E. P. M. Longueville have, in their Translation of Matthias Grammar, (Grammaire Kaisonnée de la Langue Grecque par Aug. Matthi*, Traduite en Fran çais sur la Seconde Edition, Premiere Partie, Paris, 1831,) thus noticed Buttmann, p. viii. : " Le perfectionnement de la Grammaire Grecque a été lent ;

et, grâce à l'esprit d'analyse et de critique modernes, appliqué

aux détails grammaticaux, les notions se sont enfin complétées, modifiées, après avoir été débattues, et il en est résulté entre les mains d'un érudit, doué d'un esprit excellent, ce livre que nos aïeux ne sont point coupables de n'avoir pas fait, mais qu'il serait

fâcheux de ne pas répandre chez nous, maintenant qu'il existe. On accorde sans doute une juste estime aux Grammaires de MM. Buttmann, Thiersch, et de quelques autres savants étran gers. tribué au perfectionnement de l'ouvrage de M. Matthi.e ; mais elle n'a pas été terminée ; et, d'ailleurs, ce dernier Professeur aie mérite d'avoir réuni et classé avec le plus d'ordre, de clarté,

et d'équilibre, les faits isolés, les notions éparses dans une infinité

d'écrits, et les doctrines lentement élaborées par les autres savants.

II devait donc fixer notre choix." But, while the French Translators here represent Matthix have

to of Buttmann, though its learned author died before it was finished, they hold a very different, and the true, language in their note on Matthias Preface, p. xxv. :

largely by the Complete

Celle de M. Buttmann, en particulier, n'a pas peu con

profited

Greek Grammar

p. xxv. : largely by the Complete Celle de M. Buttmann, en particulier, n'a pas peu

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

ix

" M. Matthi/e ne parle ici sans doute que de la Grammaire Abrégée, dont la dixième édit. a paru en 1822.

Buttmann s'était occupé de rédiger une syntaxe plus développée et proportionée à

la première partie de sa Grammaire Gr. Raisonnée.

posait de reprendre ce travail, s'il recouvrait la santé, ainsi qu'il

nous l'apprend dans un Avertissement mis en tête de la deuxième

et dernière Section de son ouvrage, qui a paru en 1827.

mann est mort en 1830." It should seem that Matthias has used only the Intermediate or Larger Grammar, but not the Complete Grammar, of which the first Volume appeared in 1819.

The French Translators have inserted in the text of Matthi* the Corrections and Additions, of which he speaks ; and in the Introduction, p. 3, where Matthijï writes thus :

" The love of vivid representation produced the extraordinary

facility, which the Greek language has, of expressing those fine shades of meaning, which cannot be fully rendered in any other, and can even be apprehended only by a feeling formed by diligent reading. dides, the most concise of all Greek Writers, and the opposite quality of compression or brachylogia, where, though the expres sion may seem imperfect, the condensation of thought produces

a stronger impression on the sense than completeness could have done : hence finally those anacolutha, and frequent mingling of different forms of speech, which, sometimes bordering on pleonasm,

sometimes on brachylogia and ellipsis, by their pregnant sense make the fancy feel more than the words seem to imply:" The French Translators,^. 4., give this note as from MatthijE, which does not appear in the recent edition, (the 5th Engl, ed.) published by the Rev. John Kenrick, 1832 :

11 se pro

Butt

Hence the pleonasms, which are found even in Thucy-

" Ceci et ce qui suit, est ce que Buttmann Grammaire Rai

sonnée p. 2 Remarq. 2. appelle individualité et nationalité, mais qu'il réduit aux seuls Attiques, ce que j'attribue aux Grecs en général, quoique dans des proportions différentes."

Hence I infer that the latest German edition of MatthijE contains other matter, of which the learned Editor, Mr. Ken rick, has taken no notice.

latest German edition of MatthijE contains other matter, of which the learned Editor, Mr. Ken rick,

PREFACE OF TUE ENGLISH EDITOR.

The only other passage, which I shall extract from the French Translators, p. xxiv., is the following : " La France, pendant la lutte terrible de près de quarante ans, qu'elle eut h soutenir pour sa réforme politique et sociale, fut bien forcée d'abandonner l'étude des mots pour s'occuper tout entière des questions de faits, qui intéressaient si essentiellement son exis tence. doit l'érudition Grecque aux Philologues de chaque nation, se rattache toujours à un petit nombre de noms saillants, tels que ceux de Heyne, Hermann, Sch^fer, Buttmann, B ckh en- Allemagne, de Wyttenbacii, Hemsterhuys, Valckenaer, en Hollande, de Porson et Elhsley, en Angleterre, le nom seul de Brunck peut avoir quelque poids dans la balance pour la période, qui vient de s'écouler, et mettait notre pays tt l'abri de ce silence plus que rigoureux." The pardonable, but amusing anxiety of these gentlemen to rescue their country from the odium of having contributed so little, within the contemplated period, to grammatical science, and the lucky recollection of Brunck as the ornament and pride of critical learning, and the pillar of national glory, remind me of my vene rable friend, Dr. Parr's conversational attacks on the ^de- He once encountered a clumsy specimen of jEde-Christian erudition iri the shape of a student, who was more proud of the past glory of his College, than emulous to exemplify in his own person its living fame. tended antipathies to the College, good-humoredly and playfully allowed the Student ten minutes to name any very clever man, who belonged to the Society; the youth modestly ventured to name one such person, but the Doctor, to the great diversion of the company, and the woful confusion of his pigmy antagonist, replied that the scholar named found the impossibility of thriving within the walls of that foundation on the nutriment sparingly supplied there, and so was transferred to Oriel College, of which he was then a Fellow ! Christian reposed, with great and conscious satisfaction, on the

Cependant, comme la somme de progrès marquants, que

Christians, as he called the men of Christ- Church.

The Doctor, after some smart displays of his pre

On another occasion an jEde-

as he called the men of Christ- Church. The Doctor, after some smart displays of his

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

xi

name of Dr. Cyril Jackson1 as a ' tower of strength,' and was silenced by the inexorable Dr. Parr's remark, that he was a rush-light, with no body of flame, but glimmering feebly amidst surrounding darkness ! In a work more censured than read, a contributor has told the following anecdote : " This seems to have been one of those ebullitions of fancy, in which he indulged his wit at the expense,

Hence it

was that under a similar mood, and to indulge this peculiarity of character, he would give vent to his prejudices and partialities

about different Colleges. that he said to the Rev. Thos. P., son of my venerable instructor, the late Head-Master of the S. in B. : ' Mr. P., give me leave ' (Now I have no doubt that Parr knew * (His eye-brows were lifted up, and displayed the ferocious indig nity of an offended lion.)

a point of persecuting that College, and all its members, with still

the most unceasing and the most unrelenting asperity:' fastening his eyes upon him.

Poor Mr. P. was in speechless terror. it was time to come, Sir, notwithstanding this, I will drink a glass of wine with you ; not, you dog, because you are of Christ-Church, but because you are the son of that good man, your father, and he This was his favorite College, of which Parriana, or Notices of the Rev. S. Parr, Edited by E. H. B. 1828. K.I. p. 321. I know not that any apology is necessary for relieving the dry ness of grammatical discussions by stepping aside to tell a few plea sant stories.

it

he had had his joke, and

Of Christ-Church !'

if not of truth, at least of his more sober judgment.

It was at a dinner-party at Dr. E.'s

Of

to ask of what College at Oxford you were a member ?'

Christ-Church, Sir.'

his joke.)

this, but, he must have

' Then, Sir, let me tell you that I make

was all play.

I could not but look at him ; I saw

When

was of Magdalen.'

his friend Routh is President."

relax, he said : * But

If the authority of a philosopher be required, I

1 " Although a superficial acquaintance with the productions of the Poet is no rare attainment, there is little reason to doubt the correctness, with which the eminent Dean Cyril Jackson, in a letter to PitoFESsoa Dai.zel, speaks of 1 the few men, who understand Homer.' " Sim V. K. Sakdi?oiu/s Tratidation o/Tiususui'g Gr. Or., Preface.

of 1 the few men, who understand Homer.' " Sim V. K. Sakdi?oiu/s Tratidation o/Tiususui'g Gr.

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

xii

would quote the following passage from James Harris's Philo logical Inquiries, (fVorks 1801. V. 2. p. 462. 4to.,) which is not without its interest in our own times : " I shall quit the Greeks, after I have related a short narrative, a narrative so far curious as it helps to prove that even among the present Greeks in the day of servitude the remembrance of When the late Mr. Anson, (Lord Anson's brother,) was upon his travels into His pilot, an old Greek, as they were sailing along, said with some de

satisfaction,

the East, he hired a vessel to visit the Isle of Tenedos.

their ancient glory is not yet totally extinct.

There it was

manded ' what fleet?'

our fleet lay.'

Mr. Anson

replied the old man,

' What fleet!' (a little piqued at the question,) ' why, our Grecian fleet at the Siege of Troy ! ' himself." 7. The Rev. E. V. Blomfield, whom death snatched too soon from his useful and promising labors, conferred a great service on the scholars of England by preparing a Translation of Mat thias Greek Grammar, which it was reserved for his brother, The work has now passed into a fifth edition under the careful revisiori of the Rev. John Kenrick, who holds a very distinguished place

among those Dissenters, who have aspired to classical know ledge. the utility of the work in a way not to be misunderstood ; but yet with all its just fame, and its Author's merited celebrity, I am not willing to concede to it the palm of decided superiority over Buttmann's Larger and over his Complete Grammar, except in the copiousness of syntactical matter ; but even here it may be doubtful whether Buttmann does not in the particular points of comparison, i. e. in those instances where there is a coincidence of subject, write with more accuracy and precision, and with a His reasonings, throughout his work, convince our judgment, recom mended by their unsophisticated simplicity ; you pause not, as you read, to consider whether his explanations are correct, but push

more philosophical and satisfactory spirit of investigation.

The public have marked their sense of the excellence and

the present learned [Bishop of London, to publish.

This story was told the author by Mr. Anson

»

of the excellence and the present learned [Bishop of London, to publish. This story was told

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

Xlii

forward simultaneously with his own mind, free from doubt and difficulty ; he never overlays his subject with a mass of autho rities, but is often content with a solitary, because striking exam ple; amuse idle curiosity, and exercise youthful ingenuity ; the table spread before you exhibits a great variety of solid food for men, but yet with nutritious dainties for tender stomachs ; there is no ambitious display of learning in a multitude of references, but so much is given, as each topic seems naturally to demand from an delivers his opinions without the sanction of recorded criticism, the mere results of his own individual observation, and unaided research, you feel yourself in the presence of a master, to whose authority you are ready to bow, because the reasons, on which he founds his opi nions, are such as could have occurred only to one, who is well qualified to decide on grammatical questions by the extent of his acquirements, the profoundness of his views, the niceness of his taste, the acuteness of his remarks, the soundness of his judgment, the candor and impartiality, which pervade his mind, and the love of truth, by which he is everywhere actuated without contending for the palm of victory in ingenuity, or the triumph of argument ation in discussion. 8. The pretensions, then, of this work entitle it to the careful examination of all those Masters of Schools and Tutors, who are anxious for the improvement of their pupils, and desirous to march forward in the spirit of the times, improving and improved. One serious objection to the universal use of Matthias Gram mar, excellent as it is, is its large bulk, and its high price : Students are perhaps often deterred from the examination of it by its magnitude, and their finances frequently do not enable them to purchase it. opposite advantages, and will thus, it is presumed, be favorably received alike by the Master and the Student.

The book now offered to their notice combines the

you are never arrested by fanciful theories, which may

intelligent pen, and even in cases, where he

Thetford, Sept. 8, 1832,

E. H. Barker.

by fanciful theories, which may intelligent pen, and even in cases, where he Thetford, Sept. 8,

Xiv

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

P.

S.

Ia concluding the Preface, the Editor would direct attention to the following quotations :

1. Hiatus.

" The hiatus is avoided in every language.

In Greek the

insertion of n removes the difficulty ; in Latin it is remedied by the insertion of d in the middle, or at the end of words : thus In French t is added : thus, a-t-il The vulgar in this country, on the same principle, however inelegantly and barbarously, insert r ; thus for Maria is come, they say Maria-r is come, for / have no idea of it, they say / have no idea-r of it. hiatus, that in order to avoid it, it admits a solecism; thus, instead of ma ame, it says mon ame, for sa ennemie, son ennemie. So in English, mine eyes for my eyes." Corrector, in the Metropolitan Magazine, May, 1832. p. 26.

So abhorrent is the French language from the

for a-il, aime-t-il for aime-il ; thus also si-l'on for si-on.

redeo for reeo, med for me.

II. Inchoatives, Inceptives ;

'EipExnxa, Desideratives, Meditatives.

" We pass from aorists to the inceptive tenses. These may be

found in part supplied, (like many other tenses,) by verbs auxiliar:

fiiXka [ypxQtiv, scripturus sum, ' / am going to write.' Latins go farther, others, which do the duty of these tenses, and are themselves for Thus from caleo, ' I am warm,'1 comes calesco, ' J begin to grow warm ;' from tumeo,

But the

and have a species of verbs derived from

that reason called inchoatives or inceptives.

' I swell,' comes tumesco, ' I begin to swell.'

These inchoative

verbs are so peculiarly appropriated to the beginnings of time,

that they are defective as to all tenses, which denote it in its com pletion, and therefore have neither perfectum, plusquam-per- fectum, nor perfect future,

" There is likewise a species of verbs, called in Greek tysxrixi, in

Latin desiderativa, the ' desideratives' or ' meditatives,' which, if they are not strictly inceptives, yet both in Greek and Latin have

desideratives' or ' meditatives,' which, if they are not strictly inceptives, yet both in Greek and

PREFACE OF THE ENGLISH EDITOR.

XV

a near affinity with them : such are mXsiAiwniu, bellaturio, 'I have
a As all

desire [to 'make war,' fipwazlco, esurio, 1 1 long to eat.'

beginnings have reference to what is future, hence we see how properly these verbs are formed, the Greek ones from a future From mXeix-nau and @pwoa> come iroXenTiatlco and jSquauu : from bellaturus and esurus come bellaturio and esurio. Plato Phced. Ou nam ys pie vuv S« ye\aaelovra tTMWas yeXxaaa."

verb, the Latin from a future participle.

See Macrobius, p. 691. ed. Var.

J. Harris's Hermes, {Works, 1801. 4to. V. I. p. 284.)

III. Intensive

A\$a.

Dr. Lud. Doederlein has published a tract on this subject, which I have had no opportunity of inspecting, or it would have been noticed in the proper place, Commentatio cie"AX<p« Intensivo Sermonis Gr^ci, Erlang*, 1830.

or it would have been noticed in the proper place, Commentatio cie"AX<p« Intensivo Sermonis Gr^ci, Erlang*,

THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE

TO THE

Thirteenth Edition, published in 1829, at Berlin, in his lifetime.

This my Intermediate Greek Grammar is calculated for the Whatever requires a deeper critical inquiry into the Greek language will be found in my Complete Greek Orammar, which contains at length the observations and arguments, which lead to the results stated here ; but the Syntax of the Intermediate Orammar has been particularly attended to and considerably enlarged in this thir teenth Edition, because the Complete Grammar has, as yet, no Syntax. Several Grammatical points, which demand a more complete elucidation, than is compatible with any Elementary Treatise, are more fully elucidated in my Lexilogus or Contributions (Helps) towards explaining Greek Expressions, and chiefly those used by Homer and Hesiod, 1st and 2nd vol., to which Work the

instruction of the more advanced Student.

Student is referred on several occasions.

Philip Buttmann.

b

to which Work the instruction of the more advanced Student. Student is referred on several occasions.

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR

OF

Dr. PHILIP BUTTMANN,

WITU REMARKS OS HIS WRITINGS.

Doctor Philip Buttmann was born at Francfort on the Main, He was christened Philip Charles, and thus calls himself on the titles of some of his early His father, Jacob Buttmann, a wholesale stationer at Francfort, was de scended from French Protestant Refugees, who settled there during the persecutions of Louis XIV, and whose French name of Bocdemont was gradually changed by their German fellow citizens into that of Buttmann. in the Grammar-School of his native city, which was under the direction of the learned Purmann, but the rest of the Teachers were greatly inferior to the Rector, and little calculated to inspire Young Buttmann's pre dilection for the study of languages manifested itself, however, at an early period. English, and Italian languages, he also applied himself to the study of the Hebrew. ficial acquaintance with seven or eight widely different languages afforded to him the opportunity of observations and comparisons, In the spring of 1782, Buttmann repaired to Gcettingen to study Philology under Heyne. year to visit his brother-in-law,

on the 5th of December, 1764.

writings; but latterly called himself only Philip.

He received his first education

their pupils with the love of learning.

Independently of the French, Danish,

This premature, and of course super

in which he was fond of indulging.

In 1786, he returned to Francfort, and went the same

Dr. Ehrmann, an eminent

b

2

super in which he was fond of indulging. In 1786, he returned to Francfort, and went

XX

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR

Physician at Strasbourg in Alsace, through whom he was intro His intercourse with this celebrated man was of incalculable service to Buttmann. Schweighjsuber was at that time editing his Polybius, and availed himself of Buttmann's assistance. His university-friend, Hugo, afterwards Professor at Gosttingen, had just then been appointed Tutor to the Hereditary Prince of Anhalt Dessau. It was at his recommendation that Buttmann left Strasbourg to A residence of eight months at Dessau introduced Buttmann to several men of merit, and familiarised him still more to the manners of the polite world. ancients with the most particular attention, being constantly He never left any classical difficulty unresolved, but when he had thoroughly convinced himself of the impossibility of solving it to his complete satisfaction. the year 1788, took a journey to Berlin, where he formed the most interesting connections with men like Teller, Biester, His stay at Berlin had been so very agreeable, that after having again passed ten or twelve months with his family atFRANCFORT, he gladly returned to that city, having accepted the situation of an Extraordinary Assistant Librarian to the Royal Library ; but, as his remu neration was rather scanty, he saw himself forced to secure his subsistence by private teaching, and by writing some of his first Essays. Grammar on the plan of Gedicke's Latin and French School- Grammars, which is at its twenty-sixth edition in Germany, and which has been translated into English in America by Pro fessor Anthon. of the Greek language and literature. Authors over again in company with George Spalding, the lamented Buttm ann's Intermediate Greek Grammar, which we are offer ing to the English public.

duced to the learned SchweighjEuser.

teach Geography and Statistics to the Prince.

He employed his leisure-hours in reading the

guided by his favorite motto, Multum, non multa.

On quitting Dessau, Buttmann in the spring of

Gedicke, Nicolai, and George Spalding.

It was in 1792, that he published his short Greek

He now ardently devoted himself to the study

He read the Greek

University-friend of the English

Translator of

In 1796, Buttmann was appointed

himself to the study He read the Greek University-friend of the English Translator of In 1796,

OF DR. PHILIP BUTTMANN.

Xxi

Secretary to the Royal Library at Berlin, and in 1800, accepted the additional appointment of a Professor at the principal Gram mar-School of that city, called the Joachimthalsche-Gymnasium. He contributed several Essays to the Berlin Literary Journal, As Fellow of the then existing Philomathic Society at Berlin, he was His Biography of himself was inserted, in the year 1806, in the third No. of a periodical work, edited by I. Lowe, entitled Portraits of the now Living Learned Men of Berlin, with their Lives written by them selves. of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, and was shortly after appointed Secretary to From 1803, to 1811, he was the Editor of the Berlin- Gazette, As a member of the Royal Academy, he was one of the first Professors of the new Berlin- University ; he had resigned the Professorship of the Joachim- It was also about this time that he was selected to instruct the Prince Royal of Prussia In 1821, he was appointed Librarian to the Royal Library, and was successively elected a Member of the Academies of Munich, Naples, and Moscow ; and in 1824, the King of Prussia conferred on him the dis tinction of a Knight of the Prussian Red EagTk of the third Class. Buttmann had married at Berlin in 1800, the eldest daughter His ardent attachment to ancient Greece induced him to give Greek names to his children. and Hector and Achilles were the names of his sons. loss of a beloved grown-up daughter in 1820, gave the first shock to his constitution, which had been uncommonly healthy Repeated strokes of apoplexy, with which he began to be afflicted in 1824, under mined it gradually, and he died early in the morning of the Dr. Sciilkikrmacher

and robust till that unfortunate moment.

edited by Biester, entitled Berlinische Monaths Schrift.

a

induced to write his short Mythological Essays.

In the same year, 1806, Buttmann became a Member

its Historico-Philological Class.

published by Haude and SrENER.

thalsche Grammar-School in 1808.

in the Greek and Latin languages.

of the Privy Counsellor Selle, Physician to the King.

One of his daughters was called Helen,

The

21st of June, 1829, in his sixty-fifth year.

Selle, Physician to the King. One of his daughters was called Helen, The 21st of June,

xxii

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR

pronounced a Funeral Oration over his grave on the 23d of the same month. Buttmann is one of the most distinguished Philologists of With the most extensive reading he combined His Gram matical writings are in the hands of all scholars, and have been introduced into all those schools, which are really anxious to The Greek School-Grammar, which Buttmann first published in 1792, having been continually improved, assumed at last the form of an Intermediate Grammar for the more advanced scholar. This Intermediate Grammar had already reached the eighth edi It is from the latter The German original is indebted for the constant and general appro bation, with which it has met, to the circumstance that it traces the elements of the Greek language historically, clears them up with great sagacity, and reduces them to a beautiful philosophical order, as far as this can be accomplished with regard to a lan guage spoken by so many different tribes, and improved at periods widely distant from each other. When Buttmann found his Grammatical observations accumu lated to an extent beyond that, which he thought calculated for the more advanced student, he resolved to embody them in a more elaborate work, which he entitled A Complete. Greek Grammar, (Ausf Uhrliche Griechische Sprachlehre.) The first Volume was published at Berlin in 1819 ; the first Part of the Second Volume Had his life been spared a few years longer, he would have added a copious Syntax to his historical researches, and critical explana It was with the same view that he published what he thought exceeding the limits of school-books in his Lexilogus or Contributions to the Explanation of Greek Expressions chiefly in Homer and Hesiod, 1 vol., Berlin, 1818, 1824 ; 2nd. vol. 1825.

tions of the most important Grammatical points.

modern times.

the utmost sagacity, clearness, and conciseness.

adopt the best methods of teaching the ancient languages.

tion in 1818, and the thirteenth in 1829.

edition that the present English Translation is made.

in 1825, and the second Part of the same Volume in 1827.

in 1829. edition that the present English Translation is made. in 1825, and the second Part

OF DR. PHILIP BUTTMANN.

xxiii

The learned world is also indebted to Buttmann for 1.) A new edition (1811,) of Four Dialogues of Plato, origi nally published by Biester ; 2. ) Tbe Fourth Volume of the edition (1816) of QuintUian's Institutions, edited by the late George Spalding, which had been interrupted by Spalding's premature death in 1811 ;

3.) The enlarged and much improved reprint (1821,) of the Scholia of the Odyssea discovered by Maio ; 4. ) Several of the best Essays in Wolf's Museum of Archaeology, (1st vol., No. 1., 1807,) and in Wolf's Museum Antiquilatis, Fasc. 2., 1811.) Of Buttmann's smaller writings, which were mostly produced by his being a Member of the Berlin Royal Academy of Sciences, we will only mention :

(vol. 1. Fasc. 1., 1808.

5. ) TIte most Ancient Geography of the East, a Biblico-Philo- logical Essay, with a Map, Berlin, 1803, 6. ) The two first Narratives (Mythen) of the Mosaic History,

1804,

7. ) The Fable (My thus) of Heracles, 1810, 8.) The Narrative (My thus) of the Deluge, 1 812, 2nd edition,

1819.

9. ) The Fable o/Cydippe, 1815, 10.) The Mythical Period from Cain to the Deluge, 1811, 11.) The

Necessity of the Warlike Constitution of Europe,

1805.

An hypothesis of the celebrated Hirt, concerning the Historian Quintus Curtius, induced Buttmann, in 1820, to publish a short Essay on the Life of Quintus Curtius Rufus.

The sagacious views, and elegant urbanity, which distinguish Grammatical and Archaeological studies are not destructive of genius, and perfectly compatible with native wit. the most opposite talents. very circumstance induced him never to relinquish any subject, which he was investigating, before he had considered it in all its

His conception was slow ; but this

all these writings, are striking proofs that

It is true that Buttmann combined

all its His conception was slow ; but this all these writings, are striking proofs that

XXIV

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR.

bearings, and mastered it to his entire satisfaction ; and his un common sagacity made him discover in whatever was the object of his study, something which had not been discovered before. In all the relations of life he was most amiable ; and though his ready wit would frequently betray him into sarcastic remarks, his sarcasms never proved offensive ; they were always tempered by His last literary labor was the editing of a Complete Collection of his Mythological Essays in 2 vols., under the title of Buttmann's Mythologus.

his extreme good-nature, and indulgent disposition.

D. BoiLEAU.

in 2 vols., under the title of Buttmann's Mythologus. his extreme good-nature, and indulgent disposition. D.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

§ 1. §2. Of the Greek Language, and its Dialects in general. Of the Letters
§ 1.
§2.
Of the Greek Language, and its Dialects in general.
Of the Letters of the Alphabet.
$
3
5.
Of their Pronunciation ; (Diphthongs ; Iota Subscriptum.)
J
6.
Spiritus ; (Digamma.)
$
7.
Prosody.
§ 8 14. Accents.
§15. Punctuation.
§16. Interchange of Letters.
§16 25. Change of Consonants ; § 17,18. Aspirates.
§ 25.
19
Cumulation of Consonants.
§ 26. Moveable final Letters; (» ifix*iwnxw.) J 27, 28. Change of Vowels and Contraction.
§
26. Moveable final Letters; (» ifix*iwnxw.)
J
27, 28.
Change of Vowels and Contraction.
§
29, 30.
Hiatus; Crasis; Apostrophus.
§31.
Parts of Speech.

Of the Noun.

§ 32. Gender.

§ 33. Declensions.

§ 34. First Declension.

§ 35 37.

§ 38. Third Declension.

Second Declension ; Contracta; Attic leeond Declension.

§ 38. Gender; § 39 42. Inflection; § 43. Paradigms. § 44. Accus. Sing. ;
§ 38. Gender;
§ 39 42. Inflection;
§ 43. Paradigms.
§ 44. Accus. Sing. ; § 45. Vocative;
§ 46. Dative Plural.

§ 47. Syncope of some Nouns in *(.

§ 48 55. Contracted (third) Declension ; Attic Genitive, &c.

§ 56. Anomalous Declension ; Heteroclita; Metaplasmus, &c. § 56. 04s. 9.)

§ 57. Defectiva; Indeclinabilia, &c.

§ 58. List of Irregular Nouns.

§ 59. Adjectives.

§ 65 69. Degrees of Comparison, (Gradus Comparationis.)

§ 70, 71. Numerals.

$ 72.

§ 78, 79. Pronomina et Adjectiva Correlativa.

§ 80. Annexes; idemonstrativum.

(Final Syllable $>,»,

Pronouns, and § 75. Articles.

c

et Adjectiva Correlativa. § 80. Annexes; idemonstrativum. (Final Syllable $>,», Pronouns, and § 75. Articles. c

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Of the Verb.

{ 81. Of the Greek Verb in general ; Division of Tenses; (Principal and Historical
{
81.
Of the Greek Verb in general ; Division of Tenses; (Principal and
Historical Tenses.)
§
82 86.
Augment.
§
87.
Numbers and Persons.
§
88.
Moods and Participles.
§
89.
Activum ; Passivum ; Medium.
§
90
92.
Tenses, Characteristic ; Double Themes: (seealso J 111. 112.)
§
93.
Formation of the Tenses.
$
95.
Futurum Act.
§
96.
Aoristus 1 et 2 Act.
$
97.
Perfectum 1 et 2.
J
98. Perfectum Passivi.
§99. Futurum 3. $ 100. Aoristus 1 et 2 Pass. $ 101. Verbs in x,
§99.
Futurum 3.
$
100.
Aoristus 1 et 2 Pass.
$
101.
Verbs in x, /*, », {.
§
102.
Verbal Adjectives in t!»{ and «V.
$
103.
Verbum Barytonon ; Paradigm rurru : Paradigms of other Verbs;
Paradigm iyyi^M : Remarks on all the Paradigms.
§
104.
Tenses in use, and not in use.
J
105. Contracted Conjugation.
Irregular Conjugation.
§
106, 107.
Verbs in
$
108. "ltlfU,rHfuu,°EnvfulEl/<u,?Zfii.
J
109.
*tifu, KiT/uu, OTSa, Clrnfu.)
§
110 113.
Anomaly of Verbs; Double Themes; Syncopated Forms;
Metathesis.
$
113. Anomaly of Signification ; Causativa et Immediativa.
§
114.
List of Irregular Verbs.
$
115.
Particles and their Degrees of Comparison.
$
116.
ParliculcB Correlatives ; $ 117. Anastrophe.
7
$
1 18,
1 19.
Formation of Words by Terminations, (I. Verbs, II. Substan
tives, III. Adjectives, IV. Adverbs.)
§
121. Compound Words.
Syntax.
§
122.
General View ; $ 123. of the Noun.
§
124 127.
Article and Pronouns.
}
128.
Neuter of the Adjectives in general.
§
129.
Subject and Predicate.
§ 124 127. Article and Pronouns. } 128. Neuter of the Adjectives in general. § 129.

TABLE OF CONTENTS'.

xxvii

§ 130. Object; $ 133. Dative. Casus Obliqui ; § 131. Accus.; $ 132. Genitive;
§
130.
Object;
$ 133. Dative.
Casus Obliqui ;
§ 131. Accus.;
$ 132. Genitive;
§
134.
Verbum Passivum ; (Verbal Adjectives in tin and «s.)
J
135, 136.
Medium.
$
137, 138.
Tenses; v 138. Futurum 3.
$
139.
Moods ; Particles «»,
and others.
§
140 142.
Infinitive; Attraction.
§
143.
Construction with the Relative, and its Attraction.
§
144.
Construction with the Participle ; § 145. Casus Absoluii.
$
146.
Particles ; $ 147. Prepositions.
§
148.
Negative Particles ;
§ 149. Expletives, &c.
}
150. Peculiar Phrases.
$
151.
Particular Constructions ; I. Attraction, II. Anacoluthon, III. In
version, IV. Ellipsis.

APPENDIX. Lists of Words, &c. for Declination. Technical Grammatical Terms in Greek. Abbreviations.

INDEX.

English and Latin. Greek.

of Words, &c. for Declination. Technical Grammatical Terms in Greek. Abbreviations. INDEX. English and Latin. Greek.

A

GREEK GRAMMAR.

§ I. Of the Greek Language, and its Dialects in general.

1. The Greek Language, (ipwv^ *Exx»ivixy],) was anciently spoken, not only in Greece, but also in a considerable part of Asia Minor, the south of Italy, Sicily, and the Greek colonies of other coun tries.

cible, however, to two principal ones, the Doric, (v Awgix^i, Aupls,) and the Ionic, (v 'Icuvixi, 'Iar,) spoken by the two chief Greek tribes, the Dorians and Ionians.

2. The Dorians were the most considerable tribe, and founded

Like all languages, it had several dialects, (SiaXsxToi,) redu

the greatest number of colonies ; hence the Doric dialect prevailed in the whole interior of Greece, in Italy, and Sicily. It was harsh ; the long a., which was prominent in it, (see § 27. Obs. 5.) made on

the ear an impression called by the Greeks vXxTiHx.ay.os, (broad pronunciation ;) least improved. lateral branch of the Doric, early attained in the /Eolian colo nies of Asia Minor, and the neighbouring islands,(Lesbos, &c.) a considerable degree of refinement, which probably was confined to poetry.

The Ionians resided in earlier times chiefly in Attica, whence As these were in many respects highly civilised prior to the parent tribe, nay even sooner than all the other Greeks, the denomination of Ionians and Ionic applied principally, and at length exclusively to these colonies and their idiom : and the original Ionians in Attica The Ionic dialect, owing to But the Attic dialect, (rt 'Arnxri, 'ArSls ,) which was of later improvement, soon

the accumulation of vowels, is the softest of all.

itself were called Attics, A thenians.

they sent colonies to the coasts of Asia Minor.

and the Doric dialect was, on the whole, the

The iEolic dialect, (i Aio^ix^, Alo\U,) a col

3.

B

the coasts of Asia Minor. and the Doric dialect was, on the whole, the The iEolic

OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE,

2

excelled in refinement all the other Greek dialects, by avoiding, with Attic ingenuity, both the Doric harshness, and the Ionic softness. the Ionic dialect of the Asiatic colonies is yet considered as the parent of the Attic dialect, because it was improved at a period, when it had least deviated from the primitive Ionic dialect, the common parent of both.

Obi. 1. The ingenuity of the Attic dialect is most apparent in syntax, with regard to which it distinguishtis itself, not only from all the other Greek dialects, but also from any other language, by an appropriate conciseness, a highly effective co-ordination of the principal thoughts, and a certain moderation in asserting and discussing, which had passed from the refined tone of the social intercourse of Athens into the language itself. Obi. 2. Of other collateral branches of the mentioned dialects, as the Bceotic, the Laconic, and the Thessalic, &c, we hare only solitary words and grammatical forms in scattered fragments, inscriptions, &c.

But though the Athenians really are the parent tribe,

4. We must admit, as the parent of all the Greek dialects, an

ancient primitive Greek language, of which philosophical gram matical inquiries alone may discover or rather conjecture some traces. ancient language, and each must also undoubtedly have preserved something, which had gradually been lost in the other dialects. This circumstance obviously accounts for grammarians tracing Dorisms, jEolisms, and even Atticisms in the old Ionian Homer. Whatever was of habitual or frequent occurrence in one dialect, was exclusively ascribed to this dialect, and designated accord ingly, even if it likewise occurred, though less frequently, in other dialects.

Each dialect had naturally retained more or less of this

It is thus, for instance, that we must understand what

are called Dorisms in Attic writers, and Atticisms in writers, who are not Attics \

5. Most poetical forms and licences spring from this ancient The poet, it is true, improves his idiom, and through

language. him only it becomes a polished language, forming a harmonious, expressive, and copious whole.

Yet the poet never originates the changes and innovations, which he finds necessary; this would be the surest way to displease. out of the manifold extant forms of speech, those which best suited them.

The oldest Greek bards selected,

Several of these forms became antiquated in prac-

1 Ex. gr. the Doric fut. ttvpxi, l^ai, the Attic declension us, the Attic ?w for ch, &c.

became antiquated in prac- 1 Ex. gr. the Doric fut. ttvpxi, l^ai, the Attic declension us,

AND ITS DIALECTS IN GENERAL.

3

tice ; but the later poet, having these predecessors before him, would not be debarred from such treasures, and thus what had been originally a real dialect, and is justly considered as such, became a poetical peculiarity, or what is called a poetical licence s.

6. In all civilised nations one of their dialects generally becomes the foundation of their common written language, and the lan guage of polished society. with the Greeks. distinct locally and politically separated states. time of Alexander, the Greeks wrote in the dialect, in which they had been brought up, or to which they were most partial ; and thus arose Ionic, MoYic, Doric, and Attic poets and prose-writers, whose works are more or less extant.

Obi. 3. Only great works, which attracted general attention, as epic and dramatic poems, formed an exception. Their authors unquestionably wrote in the dialect of their country ; but an imitation of them in another dialect, which, besides, would have required an almost equal creative talent, would not have been well received, because all the tribes of Greeks were already familiarised to the language proper for this species of composition, and could not separate one from the other. The dialect, in which the first masterpieces of any species of writing were composed, continued to be the dialect of that species. (See the Text, 10. II.) Obs. 4. The most ancient poets, Homer, Hesiod, Theognis, and others, wrote in the Ionic dialect; but their language is rather that apparently mixed one, which comes nearer to the oldest language, and afterwards continued to be the poetical dialect used in most species of poetry. to be found in the prose-writers, of whom Herodotus and Hippocrates are the most The Ionic dialect, owing to its pectt* liar softness and early improvement, had already become pretty general, even iu prose, especially in Asia Minor. Obi. 5. The lyrics are the only poets of that time, who wrote in all the dialects. Bnt the oldest and most celebrated of them were jEoKanS ; at their head are Sappho and Alcseus, of whom some few scanty remains have been handed down to Anacreo, (of whom we have also but a few, partly crippled, and Most of the other lyrio, poets wrote in the Doric dialect; out of the manifold forms of this widely diffused dialect, they selected those which suited them, and created, as it were, each his own

partly questionable, remains,) wrote in the Ionic dialect.

ns in fragments.

conspicuous, though both Dorians by origin.

This was not immediately the case

They became civilised, when they still formed

Nearly up to the

The real, but more modern Ionic dialect is

! But this must not be understood, as if every expression of the ancient poet* had actually been once in common use. The privilege which, even in the most copious language, a modern poet enjoys of forming new words, and giving new inflections to the existing ones, must have been still more largely allowed to the The materials, however, out of which, and the form according to which, he models his expressions, are not of the poet's creation, but derived from the stock, and conformable to the analogy of the language. Neither can a slight polishing of the usual forms, practised in com mon life even by ordinary men, be denied to him, to whom harmony is a duty, and rhythmical metre a chain.

ancient poets, at a time when the language was poor.

B

2

to him, to whom harmony is a duty, and rhythmical metre a chain. ancient poets, at

OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE,

4

language. Pindar is the only one of these latter, of whom we have some entire poems. Obt. 6. The few prose-writings, which we have in the Doric dialect, are mostly on mathematical and philosophical subjects. With regard to Attic writers, see the following Obitrvaliom.

7. In the mean time Athens rose to such a political height,

that it maintained for a while a kind of supremacy over all Greece, The democratic constitution, nowhere so unmixed, introduced to the Attic forum, and the Attic stage, that freedom of speech, which, in con nection with other advantages, was alone sufficient to raise, not only these branches of literature, but also those congenial ones, history and philosophy, to the highest pitch, and impart to the Attic idiom a perfection and capaciousness, which no other dialect attained. Obi. 7. The most distinguished prose-writers of Greece, (we treat separately of its poets,) of this golden age of Attic literature, are Thucydides, Xenopho, Plato, Lysias, Isocrates, Demosthenes, and the other orators.

8. Greeks of all tribes repaired to Athens for improvement ;

and Attic masterpieces served as models in the most extensive fields of literature. which maintained its pre-eminence over all others, became soon after, when Greece acquired a complete political unity under the Macedonian monarchs, the court-language and the general lan guage of books, in which the prose-writers of all the Greek tribes

This language was now taught in schools, and grammarians pronounced, according to these Attic models, on what was genuine, or not genuine Attic. The central point of this later Greek literature was under the Ptolemies at Alexandria in Egypt.

But in proportion as the Attic dialect became general, it degenerate, partly because authors indulged in an admixture of their own provincial dialects, and partly because they substituted for anomalies and apparently affected expressions peculiar to the Athenians, more regular and natural ones, or introduced, instead of a simple term more or less obsolete in common life, a derivative one, which was now more generally used8. are called Atticists,) often endeavoured, with much pedantry and

and became the centre of all scientific culture.

The consequence was that the Attic dialect,

and countries composed almost exclusively.

9.

naturally also began gradually to

Grammarians, however, (this class of them

* Ex, $r, wi#ir9<n for tut, ' to swim ;' i(tr(ift for fym, ' to plough.'

however, (this class of them * Ex, $r, wi#ir9<n for tut, ' to swim ;' i(tr(ift

AND ITS DIALECTS IN GENERAL.

5

exaggeration, to prevent this, and in their schoolbooks contrasted the expressions of the old Attic writers with those, which they Thus arose the practice of calling Attic only the language found in the old Attic writers, and, in a more restricted sense, the peculiarities of those authors ; the usual language of persons of education, which was an offspring of the Attic, was now called xoiv^, the general language, or'Exx.*wx^, (the Greek, i. e., the common Greek ;) even the writers of later times were denominated ol xoivol, or ot'EWmst, in contradistinction to the genuine Attics. But this never can be considered as a parti cular dialect; for the xoivrj SiaXtxror continued in the main to be Attic, and hence Atticism is the principal object of every Greek Grammar.

Obs. 8. It may easily be conceived that in these circumstances, the denomina tion xmtif, tunh, was considered as imputing something faulty, and though it pro perly denotes ' the language common to all Greeks, not excluding genuine Attics,' it rather denoted, with grammarians, 'a language which was not genuine Attic' On the other hand, all which is called Attic, is not on that account exclusively of Attic Many an Attic locution was not in con stant general use, even at Athens, but alternated with other forms, (ex. gr. fikci'n Neither were the Athenians strangers to many Ionic forms, (ex. gr. not contracted, instead of contracted ones,) which therefore might be employed by authors, who all consulted the ear. This approximation to Ionism, is the principal criterion of strictly ancient Atticism, such as we find in Thucydides ; but Demosthenes wrote that later Attic, which forms the transition to the more modern x»m. Obs. 9. To make an accurate and proper division, we must commence the modern period, or the xantit, with the first non-Athenian, who wrote Attic. Of this class are Aristotle, Theophrastus, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch, and the other later authors, many of whom endeavoured, however, to excel, as much as possible, in the old Attic language. Arrian. Obs. 10. Of the provincial dialects, which crept into the later Greek language, the Macedonian is the principal. The Macedonians were a kindred nation of the Greeks, accounted themselves Dorians, and carried as conquerors Greek civilisation into the barbarian countries, over which tney ruled. In these countries Greek was now spoken and written, but not witnoHt an admixture of peculiarities, which the grammarians style Macedonian forms; and as the seat of this later Greek culture was chiefly in Egypt, at Alexandria, its capital, the same forms are likewise deno minated the Alexandrian dialect. But the inhabitants of these countries, who were not Greeks, now also began to speak Greek, (,Exa.ii>ig>»)) and an Asiatic, Syrian, Thus originated the practice of deno minating Hellenistic the language, which is mixed with several forms not Greek, and contains turns of expression peculiar to the East. This language is chiefly met with in the written Jewish and Christian monuments of that period, especially in the Greek translation of the Old Testament by the LXX. translators, and in the New Testament, whence it passed more or less into the works of the Fathers of the

criticised as faulty or less elegant.

form, not even in genuine Attic writers.

with piX»r, g» with ri»,) which were generally used.

more"

This is especially the case with Lucian, ./Elian, and

&c., who spoke Greek, was called 'EXP.wrn's.

more" This is especially the case with Lucian, ./Elian, and &c., who spoke Greek, was called

OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE,

6

Church. when Constantinople, the ancient Byzantium, vw the seat of the Greek empire, and the centre of the literature of that time ; hence arose the language of the Byzan- fine writers, and lastly the Modern Greet.

10. Rut the Attic dialect was not general with regard to poetry ;

the Athenians were models only in one species, the dramatic ; and as dramatic poetry from its nature merely is, even in tragedy, the ennobled language of real life, no other dialect reigned on the Athenian stage than the Attic, which was in the sequel re In the dialogued part of the drama, and especially in that which consisted of Trimetries or Senaries, poets, though indulging in the frequent use of the apostrophus, and of contractions, allowed themselves but few poetical licences and changes of forms. Obs. 11. These licences least indulged in were, as maybe supposed, by comic Of the Greek dramatists none have been handed down to us but genuine and old Attic writers, viz. the tragic poets, yEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and the comic poet Ari stophanes.

writers ? but many a Homeric form would suit the tragic Senary.

tained by all the other Greek theatres 4.

New barbarisms of all kinds crept into this language in the middle age,

11. Homer and the other ancient Ionic poets, whose works

were read in schools, continued uninterruptedly to be models for all other species of poems, especially those composed in hexa- metres, the epic, didactic, and elegiac ; and through these poems the old Ionic or Homeric idiom was preserved with all its pecu It thus became what the Attic was for prose-writers, the prevailing dialect or general language for epic, didactic, and elegiac poetry in the Alexandrian period and at a later time, when it was no longer readily intelligible to people, and required a learned education to be This language may be denominated the Epic idiom, as it was derived entirely from epic poetry. Obi. 12. The most eminent poets of this class in the Alexandrian period, are Apollonius, Callimachus, Aratus ; and later, Nicander, Oppian, Quintus, and others.

completely understood and relished.

the common

liarities, and antiquated forms.

12. But the Doric dialect was by no means excluded from It maintained itself in light and

poetry even in later times. especially rural and jocose poetry, partly because there were predecessors in this line, and probably also because several of

these poems describe the manners and expressions of country-

See Obi. 3.

this line, and probably also because several of these poems describe the manners and expressions of

AND ITS DIALECTS IN GENERAL.

7

people and of the lower ranks, whose language, owing to the almost general dispersion of the Dorians, was nearly everywhere the Doric. (Compare above 2.)

OA*. 13. Hence the Doric dialect prevails in the Bucolic writers, Theocritus, Moschus, and Bio, whose more modern Dorism is, however, greatly different from that of Pindar. The old epigrams were partly in the Ionic, and partly in the Doric dialect ; but the Dorism in this species of poetry was far simpler and nobler, and confined to a small number of characteristic Doric forms, which were familiar to the well-informed poets of every tribe.

13. The idiom, which prevails in the lyric parts of the drama, also usually called Doric, but this Dorism consisted almost entirely in the prevalence of the a long, especially in lieu of n, which was peculiar to the- old language in general, itself in solemn hymns, whilst the Dorians alone retained, it .in common life 5. epic in several respects.

i. e., in choruses and pathetic speeches, is

and, on account of its gravity, maintained

But this lyric language also approximated to the

There are, however, no Dorisms properly so called in the theatri

8 See par. 2. cal choruses, as infin. ending In m and »», accus. pi. in us and «, &c

so called in the theatri 8 See par. 2. cal choruses, as infin. ending In m

FIRST PART.

GRAMMATICAL FORMS.

WRITING AND PRONUNCIATION.

§ 2. Alphabetical Letters.

The Greeks received most of their letters from the Phenicians ; this is evident from the oriental names, by which they are called. They are the following : PRONOUNCED

NAMED

A a a, aw alpha B a c b, Brirx r v r & d,
A
a
a, aw
alpha
B
a
c
b,
Brirx
r
v
r
&
d,
AeXtoe
E
G
e, a short
*E ^.Xov
Z
ds,
Ztjto;
?
n
H
"Hrcc
0
e, a long
th,
©ijTSI
M
I
i
i, ee
'luiTZ
K
K
k,
Kiwt
A
\
I.
Ao/a/So*
M
m,
MO
N
V
a,
Nu
E
I
x,
S7
O
0
o short
*0 /jiixphv
n
it, vs
nr
P
Ps
p
r, rh
2,
C
a,
i
8,
T
t,
Tau
T
V
U, 00
«
f,
<Dr
X
X
ch,
xr
*
ps,
*r
n
01
o long
beta
gamma
delta
epsilon 1
zeta
eta
theta
iota, (notjota,)
cappa
lambda
my
ny
xi
omicron, (short 0,)
Pi
rho
sigma
tau
ypsilon 1
phi
chi
psi
omega, (long 0.)

1 *E ^iX«> and T¥ ^<Xo> take the additional ^iXii, that is tene, not aspirate, because in ancient Greek writings the figure 1 was at the same time one of the marks of the

that is tene, not aspirate, because in ancient Greek writings the figure 1 was at the

PRONUNCIATION.

9

Obi. 1. The double way of writing some letters, is used indiscriminately, except the small e and i : a stands only in the beginning and in the middle of a word, and t is employed merely at the end8: this s must not be confounded with ?, see the following Obs. Obi. 2. These letters have given rise to a number of abbreviations and flourishes, many of which occupy more space than the common character, which they are to

supply. Hence they have been rarely employed of late, and there is little difficulty

to be encountered in modern editions, in remembering that

^ In some the letters are but little altered, as of, «J, for mi, xai, ^ for xx, &c. Obi. 3. The Greeks employed their alphabetical letters also as numerals ; but to and after the u the 3 *. All letters when used as numerals, are distinguished by a stroke at { The thousands begin again with «, but with a stroke underneath,

26, £ 100, </ 200,

rX/3' 232, &c.

a 1000, /3, &c, £»X0' 2232.

the top in this manner: «' 1, g 2,

have a sufficiency of them, inserted after the t the r, after the * the

stands for tu for r3

h

©

for

is

for e%

r* for trr ^ for »«).

6,

10, ul 11,

x' 20,

§ 3. Pronunciation.

1.

The ancient pronunciation can no longer be accurately ascer Of the modern ways of pronouncing the Greek, the two We follow the latter, which not only is becoming more general every day, but also has most internal grounds in its favor, and is greatly con firmed by the way in which Greek names and words are written by the Latins, and Latin ones by the Greeks. Reuchlin's pronun ciation agrees chiefly with the pronunciation of the modern Greeks, who persist in defending it as the true and ancient way of pro nouncing the Greek. Obs. 1. The manner of writing Greek with Latin characters may be seen in the names of the letters, which we have given above in Latin characters, and may be learned from what is stated in this section, and in § 5 and 6. According to Reuch lin's pronunciation, the » is sounded like i, ee, the diphthong au like ce, and the sounds ii, ii, v, and vi are not distinguished from i : the u in all diphthongs, (except v,) is pronounced like v or f, as airit, aftos, Ziuc, Zeus. This pronunciation appears to be really built in the main on ancient pronunciation ; but never can have been the pronunciation of the prevailing dialect. This is unquestionably evident from the manner, in which the Greeks wrote Latin words and names : eiiCn, Thebe, Pom-

principal are those of Reuchlin and Erasmus.

tained.

spiritut atper, (h,) and v represented also the Digamma, (or LatinV, see § 6. Obs. 3.) The epithet \f-iX« was intended to distinguish them, when they were mere vowels, from the Bigns of aspiration.

1 With some moderns also at the end of syllables: this practice, when it goes

beyond the usual compounds, cum encliticis, and with wjif, n'f, if, and perhaps )vf,

offers great difficulties.

* This character or flourish is called sti, and sometimes also stigma.

* These three numerical characters, of which the first r agrees only accidentally

with the modern abbreviation r, were originally letters of an antiquated alphabet.

the first r agrees only accidentally with the modern abbreviation r, were originally letters of an

10

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

Were the modern way of pronouncing the m

pejut, Vcfurvias, C/audiia, KX«i!3/«. like i correct, the Latins could not have made Pozat of Ylnixt, or the Greeks KkuXia of Ciotlia; and even Kxtiixm, K*irn(, for Citcilius, Cmtar, &c, is not decisive in lie- half of <b for m, as we have no positive information respecting the pronunciation of the Latin diphthongs. As this method of pronouncing assimilates so many sounds to that of the iota, it is called iolaciimw, (or, from ita for eta,) itacismui ; that of Erasmus is called etaciamus. 2. With regard to some letters, it may be observed that 7 before another y, and before the other dentals, (x, ^. ?>) is pro nounced like ng, ex. gr. syyvs, eng-gus, (or like the Latin angustus,) avyxpiais, syncrisis ; 'Ayytfons, Anchises ; 2(p!yJ;, Sphinx

£ m is by some constantly pronounced like <b. must not be pronounced like ts,
£
m
is by some constantly pronounced like <b.
must not be pronounced like ts, but like ds, or the French z, dz.
In the ancient language it was sounded sd *.
It is barely possible
that it was pronounced as ce or 6 according as it was derived
from a. or e.
&
is generally not distinguished from r : but among the ancients
it belonged to the aspirate, and is still pronounced lisping by
the modern Greeks, like the English th.
i
is merely the i vowel, not the j consonant ; and Sa/AjSor, 'lewta
Yet the
Greeks employed it in foreign names for the j : for instance
'lovXios, Julius; ITojUOTjior, Pompejus.
must therefore be pronounced i-ambos, I-onia.
x
is always expressed in Latin even before e and i by a c, and the
Latin c is constantly ax in the Greek ; for instance Kfatw,
Cimo, Cicero, Ktxipuv, because the Romans pronounced
the c before all vowels like a x.
v.
See its pronunciation at the end of words, § 25, 06s. 4.
g.
See about its aspiration p (rh,) § 6, 3.
a
in general may be pronounced like the French q with e> cedille,
or like a sharp s.
t
in Latin.
Critics, TegEvrioy, Terentius.
v was in modern times long pronounced like (, but it is well as
certained that the Greeks and the Latins, who made it a y,
In Latin names it fre-
before i with another vowel must not be pronounced like a z as
Kpirlas,
Say YaXxrla, G alalia, not Galazia.
pronounced it like the French w.

' In all these cases the Latin n has the pronunciation of ng : from an inveterate mistake we say An-chites instead of Ang-chisea. * This sound with the progress of time became much softer, resembling the French z ; the modem Greeks still pronounce it in this way.

with the progress of time became much softer, resembling the French z ; the modem Greeks

DIVISION OP THE LETTERS.

11

quently supplies the short w, which was wanting in Greek ; Compare § 4. Obs. 3. Though the Greeks always used their ip for the Latin /, (as 3>a/Sioy, Fa- bius,) yet the Latins never used their /for Greek words with a (p, but always wrote ph. ignorant of the exact pronunciation either of the Latin f, or the Greek tp, ph, and the case is the same with %, ch. (Compare the following §.)

for instance 'Poi/a6\os, Romulus.

<p and

their exact pronunciation is still uncertain.

Hence it is evident that we are

§ 4. Division of the Letters.

1. The letters are divided into Vowels and Consonants ; the §

2. We must first detach from the consonants the three double £, each of which represents two letters, for which

See about them

7.

See

former are again subdivided according to their quantity.

letters, %{/, there is but one sign or character in writing. ;

§ 22.

and about £, § 3.

3. Simple Consonants are divided a) according to the organs, with which they are pronounced ; /3, n, <p, n, are labials, 5, r, &, v, X, p, a, Unguals, y, k, x> palatals :

b) liquids . . "K,y.,v,p. . a. . <p, %, &. . . & y,
b)
liquids
.
.
"K,y.,v,p.
.
a.
.
<p, %, &.
.
.
&
y,
5.
Hence it appears that each organ has the three mutes, and that
these nine consonants placed in this way
according to their properties ,
1. ) Semivowels, viz.
.
the simple hissing sound
2.) Mutes, viz.
aspirates, aspirates
media, medials
tenues, softs
.
,
v,
x,
r.

division, as well as in other grammatical matters, it is proper to adhere The ancients found in the humming and hissing of the letters /, m, n, r, s, a transition to the vowels, and therefore called them semi-vowels; and the first four were named They denominated all the other consonants mules in contradistinction to the vowels. Of these mules, those which are attended with an aspiration, appeared to have a kind of thickness or roughness, (Sari,) which was not perceivable in three of them j which on that account were called thin, soft, or smooth, (^tkx, tenues,) and the three media, medials, certainly stand ill the middle between the two former.

1 In this

to the Latin denominations, which are, as it were, proper names.

liquids on account of their mobility and easily combining with other letters.

which are, as it were, proper names. liquids on account of their mobility and easily combining

12

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

P X * 0 v 5
P
X
*
0
v
5

It T

X correspond lo each other in both directions, horizontal and per pendicular.

3. Of the liquid consonants, /a, v, are nasal sounds belonging

to the two first organs ; the y before another palatal consonant being attended with a nasal sound, is the same for the third organ, (§ 3, 2.) as may be seen on comparing syllabic combinations like EVTa There are thus in each organ four letters, which correspond one to another ; the lingual organ alone, owing to the greater mobi lity of the foretongue, and to the operation of the teeth, has a few

sounds more ; in Greek X, g, a.

EpLTTCC

EyXCt.

4. No genuine Greek word can end in any consonant but one

of the three semivowels, a, v, p , for £ and \J> belong to the a. Only ex and owe constitute an exception ; but they can be used in this form merely before other words, with which they coalesce in pro

nunciation.

§ 5. Diphthongs.

1. The ancient pronunciation of the Greek diphthongs is far

from having been ascertained ; hence we pronounce most of them separately or distinctly but in one syllable. The manner, in which they were rendered by the Latins, will appear from the following examples : ai pronounced ai, <ba.l$pof, Faidros, Phcedrus.

Ac/xeTov, Lukeion,

(See § 26.)

ei, NsTXof, Neilos, Nilus ;

oi 6i, Lyceum. BoiaiTt'aj Boiotia, Boeotia. ui ui or tty in lui, tuyau.) au ui,
oi
6i,
Lyceum.
BoiaiTt'aj Boiotia, Boeotia.
ui
ui or tty in lui, tuyau.)
au
ui, (like the French
E'ttefovia, Eileithuia, Ilithyia.
rXauxor, Glaukos, Glaucus,
eu
1
riu
j
ou
av is merely Ionic, for instance covtos, outos.
au,
eu EJgor, Euros, Eurus
' r>v%ov, (from au£u,) euxon.
u, (oo) Moura, Musa, Mnsa. (long u.)

1 Whenever a vowel follows iv and «», it is now usually written in Latin with a This evidently is a remnant of Reuchlin'a pronunciation ; but is incorrect. We ought to write and pronounce in Latin Agaue and Euan.

v, as Ebai, Evan, 'AyaOti, Agave, and pronounced accordingly.

We ought to write and pronounce in Latin Agaue and Euan. v, as Ebai, Evan, 'AyaOti,

13

SPIRITUS, BREATHING.

04*. 1. Bat the Latins are not steady in their manner of writing the diphthong

ii, as is proved by their writing 'Ifiyinm, Iphigenia, MijJuo, Medea, 'HfaxXnrn;, He- Some few words in cut, im, undergo no change in

raclilut, nakvx*.u<ris, Polyclettu. Latin, excepting' that the i vowel is changed into the / consonant : M«/«, 'A^«/«>

TftU, Maja, Achaja, Troj'a.

2. The improper diphthongs are written with an iota, (iota sub- scriptum,) underneath the three following vowels :

V- This changes nothing in their pronunciation, and merely serves to point at the etymology of the word, in which they occur ; but The ancients also wrote it in the line, and this is still done with capital letters : as, THI 204>IAI, -rf) <To<p/$r, to)"AiSti or aSVi.

Obt. 2. The old national Greek grammarians likewise rank nv, tie, and tit, among the improper diphthongs, of which they say, that one of their vowels is long, and the other short, whilst all the others contain but two rapidly pronounced short vowels. Hence it appears that in order to distinguish nu from iv, the ( must he sounded stronger, and the same ought to be observed with regard to an and im. It

is likewise very evident that the case must have been the same with a, «, », at the

time, when the i was sounded with them, which must have been the usual pronun ciation in the strictly classical times, as is proved by the Latins writing Iragoedut, comoedut, for roxyvits, xv/ttiSif. But it is also eq\ially manifest from the words adopted at a later period, as prosodia, ode, for TeosyVm, tfSit, that * was then no longer distinguished from ». We now adhere thoroughly to this equally genuine

pronunciation ; and as an improper diphthong can only be a diphthong, in which the two vowels are not sounded, the far more practical division, which we have adopted above, is fully justified. Obt. 3. The tv, indeed, sounds only as one vowel, and therefore is no real diph thong ; but we leave it in its old place, because it also differs essentially from the three others, in which there is only one of the two written vowels sounded, whilst in

bu there is, as it were, a third mixed sound of t and v, just as a has a sound between

and e. The short u was also in the oldest language, and remained in the j3?olic ex pressed by the kindred letters « and u, and in later times probably by the », a com pound of both letters. The Homeric lUktrSt is of this description. See Verb, Anom. V. $ov\o(*ett.

dialect, and in Latin, as the idiom most nearly related to that dialect.

a

originally it influenced the pronunciation.

?>

Vt

It was

§ 6. Spiritus, Breathing.

1. The Greek letters have 2 signs or marks :

' Spiritus lenis, (wvsD/xa \},iXov, the slight aspirate,)

' Spiritus asper, (wveu/Aa $xau, the strong aspirate.)

The Spir. asper is the h aspirate : the lenis is used when other languages begin the word simply with the vowel, as, lyu, ego :

But in Prosody and Grammar both kinds of words are considered as beginning merely with a vowel : thus

"Opvipoi, Homerus.

in Prosody and Grammar both kinds of words are considered as beginning merely with a vowel

14

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

with regard to the apostrophus, (§ 30.) and to the moveable v, (v JpeXxi/fixov, § 26.)

When the Spiritus falls on a diphthong, it is placed, like the But this is not done with the improper diphthongs : as"AiSnr, (^Swr.)

The Spiritus asper is attached to p in the beginning of a This is derived from a peculiarity of the ancient language, hence the Latins never neglect it in Greek words : as, prirup, rhetor, Hippos, Pyrrkus. Obi. 1. Both spiritus are distinct letters in other languages; the lenit is the ale/ or etif of the orientals. Neither is this an idle sign. Every vowel uttered without

a consonant, and consequently every vowel which is to be pronounced distinctly and separately from the preceding letter ', is actually introduced by a slight audible aspiration, which the ancients had greater occasion to mark in their writing, as they did not separate their words. Obi. 2. The ipir. aiper was frequently neglected by the Cohans, and sometimes by the Ion?ans : hence we meet in epics with vp.p.11 for isCt, «a.t« from Hwtpai, r/iKics for xXic;, &C. Obi. 3. The most ancient Greek language had along with these two spirithi an It

is usually called digamma, a double r, from the figure of its sign, F, and properly

additional aspiration, which maintained itself the longest among the Cohans.

word ; and two p in the middle are marked p p.

2.

accents, on the second letter : as, Kvpmiiw, ohs.

3.

was a consonant pronounced like the Latin V, and applied to several words, which, in the better known dialects, have either the ipir. atper or the lenit. But whatever relates to the digamma, is still involved in great obscurity, owing to the want of monuments. The Homeric digamma, so much discussed of late, rests on the fol lowing remarkable circumstance : A certain number of words beginning with a vowel, the principal of which are the pronouns il, il, !, and the words i"3», !«««, u'rut, £»{£, "IXus, «»«, Jxet, if yav, 7r«, Humrt, and their derivatives, so frequently have the

hiatus in Homer, (see § 28.) before them, that on omitting them, the hiatus, now so frequent in Homer, seldom occurs, and is then easily accounted for in the few in stances which remain. These very words, comparatively with others, have rarely

an apostrophns before them, and the long vowels and diphthongs, which are imme diately preceding, are much less frequently shortened than before other words, (see

§ 7. Obi.) so that we Thust conclude that there was something in the beginning
§
7. Obi.) so that we Thust conclude that there was something in the beginning
of
those words, by which both, (the apostrophus and the shortening of the vowels,)
was prevented, and the hiatus removed. And as short vowels with a consonant,
(for instance, «, «,) often become long in these words, even exclusively of the
casura, as if there were a position, it has been ingeniously conjectured in modern
times, that all these words had in Homer's mouth this aspiration, (V,) with the
power of a consonant before them, but had lost it at the far later period, when
Homer's poems were written down.
gone so many changes and additions before that time, and even after, the instances,
where the traces of the digamma in Homer have disappeared, are very obviously ex
plained.
the digamma may possibly have commenced in Homer's time, and that many a
word may have been pronounced sometimes with, and sometimes without it.
But as these poems are known to have under
We must also remember that the disappearance or gradual vanishing of

1 For instance, when we correctly pronounce Ab-oriyinet instead of A-boriyimti

the disappearance or gradual vanishing of 1 For instance, when we correctly pronounce Ab-oriyinet instead of

PROSODY.

15

§ 7. Prosody.

1. Prosody, according to the modern acceptation of the word, is

the theory of the quantity of syllables, that is to say, their length,

(productio,) or their shortness, (correptio.) 1

2. Every word and grammatical form had for each syllable,

with very few exceptions, a fixed quantity, which regulated the pronunciation of the Greeks in their common intercourse, and must therefore be known to pronounce the Greek correctly. Obs. 1. Hence it is evident how greatly they err, who detach Prosody from Grammar, and consider it merely as a theory necessary for the understanding of poetry. The error proceeds from the circumstance, that hearing no longer the common pronunciation of the ancients, we learn the quantity of syllables from the works of the poets, who indulged in peculiarities and licences. Thus we have in many instances, along with the fixed quantity, a poetical quantity, of which the most important points are stated in the Obtervationt.

3. Grammar notes the quantity of syllables with the following

two marks over the vowel, ( " ) long, ( " ) short ; for instance,

a short a, at long a. a. doubtful or fluctuating.

4. Any syllable, the length of which is not distinctly ascer tained, is presumed to be short.

5. A syllable is long either 1. by the nature of the vowel, or 2. by position.

6. A syllable is 1. long by nature, when its vowel is a long

one, as, for instance, the middle syllable of amare, docere, in Latin.

This is denoted in Greek partly by the characters them selves j of the simple vowels

*j and at are always long, e and o always short.
*j
and at are always long,
e
and o always short.

But the three others,

They therefore require no comment. v, are, like all Latin vowels, both long and short, and hence are doubtful or fluctuating, in Latin ancipites. Ohi. 2, But this must not be understood as if there were in the nature of the sounds a, i, u, something fluctuating between length and shortness. All vowels are fixedly, (positively,) long in some words, and fixedly short in others ; but it is only The quantity of a, i, u, is learned in the same way as we learn it, in Latin, of all the five vowels. But if one of the three vowels be actually fluctuating in some Greek words, ex. gr.

called

a,

»,

for e and o that the Greeks have particular characters in either case.

1 But the ancient Greek grammarians comprise In

' whatever affects the sound of a syllable,' and consequently alio ' both accents and spiritus.'

In ' whatever affects the sound of a syllable,' and consequently alio ' both accents and

1(3

A CREEK GRAMMAR.

the x in xxxls, the i in it'm, the case is the same with e and o heing written in two and visr, which

ways in the same words, as in rpx&v and rgu%dvt cZtt and cannot be distinguished in the most ancient writing.

7. With respect to the length by nature, it is a general rule

that two vowels, giving but one sound, constitute a long syllable.

Hence

1. ) All diphthongs, without exception, are long ; ex. gr. the

penultima in fiatolXetos, kitxtu.

2. ) All contractions are long, and in this instance the fluctu

ating vowels are constantly long, ex. gr. the a in Saim for dix.av, See

the i in Ipls for Upos, the v in the accus. fiorpvs for fiorpuxs.

§ 28. Obs. 3. But elisions, (e-r. gr. iriyu for «r«j«,) must be carefully distinguished

from contractions, as is stated in

28

30.

8. A syllable is long 2. even with a short vowel by position,

that is to say when it is followed by two or more consonants, or

a double letter ; ex. gr. the penultima in

/xeyurTor, xa§i\xu,

/Se'Xe/lavov, a-^appos, x.a$i%ai, vo/jLt^ui. Obs. 4. There is frequently a long vowel along with the position.

In this case

is a very customary fault to be satisfied with the length by position without It ought, however, to be lengthened not only in An^>«, (pronounce LeAmnos,) 'lptn\, XajsJvSa,-, &c, not only where there is

circumflex, (§ 11. i.) as in /ixkXn, whose x is obvious from the kindred forms, which have the circumflex, (tr«S|if, Tfiyfix,) whilst the x in txttk, ragw, is short as in rx\it . And just as we distinguish the final syllables of KinXjnp and Kiut^i we must observe the same distinction in were the first syllable is long, (gen. 9»(£*»f,) and in alxag, where it is short, (gen. xSxixcs.) tion, to obtain a correct pronunciation, must be learned by attending to the accents according to Obs. 1 1, and by consulting the kindred forms of the word in the way, which we have just stated.

but also in v(xttu, srfaSw, the length of

a

lengthening the vowel in pronunciation.

it

The length and shortness of the fluctuating vowels before a posi

9. Muta cum liquida, (§ 4.) in general does not make a posi

tion ; hence the penultima in cstexvos-, SiSpayrjAos, yEVE'SXT), $u<s<j[oti>.os, &c. is short. long, whence the common assertion that muta cum liquida makes

a doubtful syllable. Obi. 5. Hence beginners ought to be extremely careful to ascertain whether the vowel in such a word be not possibly long by nature, for in that case it remains long of course, as, for instance, in v'tvTxSxts, which comes from «9a«, (a contrac It is the same with -f'vxfis, the v

tion of xtSxa,) and consequently has a long x.

Only poets sometimes also use these syllables as

of which is long, because it comes from ^v^u, (see Obs. 8.) Learners are very
of
which is long, because it comes from ^v^u, (see Obs. 8.) Learners are very apt
to
fancy that muta cum liquida has the power of rendering the syllable doubtful.

10. The medice, medials, (/3, y, 5,) when before the three liquids

t\, (a, v, form, however, an exception to the preceding rule, and

medials, (/3, y, 5,) when before the three liquids t\, (a, v, form, however, an exception

PROSODY.

17

make a true position. instance, is long, (only the vowel must not be lengthened in pro nunciation,) itiTiXiyiMtt, TerpzfitfiXos, Et/'oS/xor : but in the following, It is short, yjtpoi&po., Me\txypos, poKofipos. 11. All syllables, the quantity of which is not determined by the preceding rules, which can be the case only with syllables with the vowels a, », v, without a position, are regulated merely by usage ; and as this is most safely ascertained in the works of the poets, and confirmed by passages of the same, this is called determining the quantity ex auctoritate, and in doubtful cases the The quantity of the radi cal syllable of words must be learned from Dictionaries, and private observations; we shall only notice the most important, and the quantity of syllables, used in the formation and inflection of words, will be noticed in the Grammar in their proper place. Obs. C. But with regard to the formation and inflection of syllables, we shall in general, (under the supposition of Text 4.) state only those, in which the doubtful vowels are long. Every syllable, therefore, of which nothing is observed, and the contrary of which is not apparent from the general rules, is to be presumed short ; ex.gr. the penultima in x(iiyfiam, Xrw^inni, and in the terminations employed in We thus have only to notice radi cal syllables, and a few derivatives, which are not easily comprised in the rules of grammar. Obs. 7. It is chiefly only the penultima in words of three or more syllables, which is rendered sensible in modern pronunciation ; and yet it is of great importance to be accustomed to pronounce such words correctly before the reading of poets is attempted.

the formation of words, as %uXims, iuuuttin, &c.

The penultima in the following words, for

authority of the Attic poets is decisive.

We, therefore, give the principal of such only, in which the penultima

is long : fXvcc^ci, i, futile talk. «v*«jcf, sad. rui^m, tiara* lxabis, attendant. «s3a«;, proud. with the words in ayis, derived from ayu and iyitifu, as kt^ayii, captain ; nuutytt, one who has been shipwrecked. xa/iivn, A, stove. ^otXiMf, i, rein* riXjiwv, parsley. xvfurov, cumin. rvMMfum, thefruit of the sycamore tree. xuxXupim, a plant. isn'nn, gift. a£i'vn, axe. Turin, a bottle having a covering of wieker-work. xlvbuvot, o, danger. (3«'9i/y«, i, cavily. uiMn, scrutiny.

xlfixXos, rogue.

axgaros, pure, unmixed.

Maws, young girl.

o-trawi, mustard.

cmyiii, i, jaw.

xptrfcurns, old man.

^'i/auSos, i, while lead.

xikuQot, to, hush.

fnrln. rosin.

JfuXtt, i, multitude.

<rTj»/3;X«, i, cone of a pine-tree,

friiAw, shoe.

X1^*"! *t swallow,

ic.So;, one who /abort for hire.

exact,

axe'tiror, aconite, wolf's-bane.

i'X°h «i -fried or salt-fish.

ti,papyrus.

C

one who /abort for hire. exact, axe'tiror, aconite, wolf's-bane. i'X°h «i -fried or salt-fish. ti,papyrus. C

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

}.u{vssvt spoilt booty, wlrugtt, bran. ayxv^a, anchor. and also te%v£oi, strong, (from ia%vu, to be powerful ;) but in ixveos and l^v^l;, forti fied, fast, (from ix.*> It is likewise safer to pronounce ftvtfK9i, the shrubtamarisk. vrkn/tfiupfifiood, tide. long, though they also occur short. The following proper names are long :

18

yifv^a, bridge,

Sxv^a, spelt,

xoXXv^a, small loaf of bread.

*"»e, hold,') and iu the other adjectives in «{ >, the v is short.

xafvvii, club,

r«*»n, ladle, shimmer, [frowf/.]

IrvfiQaXof, 'tug/raXo;, Tlglecrss."Afixref. An/tafaraf, 'A^KTflf, A'L-xuT't;, I'.vQokty,;, Stfarrif, 6f*w, 'larwy, "Apart:, Savant, (Serapis.*) Evftxes, 'Eviribf, Stji^p;, T^avixes, Ka\'xet,*Oftaif, Havctet;, 'Ay%irnt, Alyna, Kapa^iva,'AfBat'trri,*AuQirftrti. Atevvtr/yf, 'Aftfgveif, Kofl^Vffuf, 'Ao-^vra;. KvxvTtf, Rr.ourc;, "A&btt, BiSvvii, llixtiyn, Kifxafa, (Corcyra.) See in the Appendix to the third declension, a list of words of that declension, which have the penultima long in the gen. (and in the rest of their cases.) Obi. 8. But those words must also be treasured in the memory, the first syllable of which frequently becomes long through interchange and composition. The fol lowing ought to be particularly remembered on that account : ipiXt;, bald. X'^Si i,food. Xiplf, i, hunger. pitet, fi, shin. Xtros, tmall. Si/pot, 0, mind.

Tiur,, honor.

tixti, victory.

bed, couch,

whirlpool.

\vvat, common, mutual.

xvQos, crooked, bent,

^vX^t soul.

- X"r"fi £nXif, S, juice. Tfflo;, a, cheese. Twflf1, o, wheat. gold. irn, harm, ruin. iaXes, o, firebrand. (uxaii, little, small in stature. In the verbs, which end simply with an « annexed to the radical word, the i and v are constantly long, (ex. gr. t(!I3*i, ei$t>, -\ix»,) excepting yXuQai, to carve, engrave. But the a, (ex.gr. in ay, y^afu,) is short. See the quantity of the final syllable Of the verbs liable to contraction we particularly notice as having the first syllable long : xmu, to stt in motion. ptyiw, to shudder. jnyau, to shiver. ffiyaat, to be silent. The knowledge of these words is useful not only for usual compounds, as an/ic;, a^vx't, (?t{i/3s»,) "iiaT^u. IfifyAiif, arvXct, &c, but also for many proper names, as Hermotimus, Demonicus, Ertphyle, &c. ' There is likewise some assistance to be derived from the Ionic dialect for the quantity of the a, as that dialect frequently changes a into n, ex.gr. SrvftfriXac,

r. o, pole of a carriage.

Xevr°Sr

j"'cei *"P'

fv\ii, tribe, troop.

ukn, forest, materials.

Xvxfi, grief.

Tvyri, buttocks.

ffdruf, member of the same tribe,

cf^ay);, fi,seal.

r^ax^Sj rough,

of the Present Tense of the Verbs in aw, i'w, i/w, § 112. Obs.

3 But ri(if, the gen. of xH(, <ra,fire.

}i$av, to dive, search,

ev\aa>, to plunder,

Qutav, to blow, breathe,

Obs. 3 But ri(if, the gen. of xH(, <ra,fire. }i$av, to dive, search, ev\aa>, to plunder,

PROSODY.

19

Obs. 9. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective derived from verbs, and retaining their characteristic, may be assumed to be of the same quantity with these verbs, until the contrary be perfectly ascertained ; for some of these nouns have not the long vowel of the Present Tense, but the short one of the Aor. 2. This is the case :

a. with some substantives in », T{?/3n, JiarfijW, im^u^ti, Tutfa^C^ii. But ^'X'i («u/.)

b.

with some adjectives in lis, gen. its, tlxgms, irtffai, raXitrftfint, &c, and the substantive muifr^r.;. Obs. 10. The rule that a vowel before another vowel is short, which is unsafe in A long vowel before a vowel I(, however, more rare than before a simple consonant, and especially the many nouns in its, i", and /«, are always short, except xxXtsl, nest,aixtx, indignity, etna, sorrow, xavtx, dust; and the two last occur also as short in the Epic poets. Vowel before vowel was probably In many cases doubtful even in the common language, and poets, and more particu Hence, as we learn the quantity of syllables from poets only, we are left in uncertainty in many instances, especially respecting the final syllable of the Present Tense "of the verbs in uv and Many of those) which have a long vowel in the Future, are also constantly used as long in the Present Tense in the Senarius, viz., o*xxavu, fimvv, Irxvu, xXuv, Jiw, Bum, p<J«, Xvu, The

deserves to be remembered as long, particularly in Xxis, if nation j xiu, (for xxtu,) to burn. Long are also the penultima in 'Eviat, Bellona, and all those words in im and iut, which take an t in the gen. ; consequently all comparatives, (fx. gr. (ZiXrlm,) and many proper names, ex. gr. 'A/ifun, "tvitfm, Hx^inr, 'ApvSim, gen. ms but the That proper names compounded with Xxii, are long, is a matter of course; but remember that 'Ay.pacKs; is long, oWop&ts short. See about the particular cases, in which long vowels are employed as short in verses, Obs. 19. Obs. 11. Much of what regards the prosody of the ancients, concerns us only in the reciting of verses or what is called Scansion ; and a great deal, as we observed before, depends on the peculiarities and licences of the poets, which we shall denominate poetical usage, observing only that the various kinds of poetry and verses have a vast influence on Greek prosody, the laws of which differ con siderably in the Hexametre of the Ionic epic poem, and the Iambic Trimetrc or Senarius, the principal verse of the Attic drama, to which the Iambic and Tro Attic poets indulged in but few poeti cal licences, and conformed themselvesin the main to the actual pronunciation of the people of Athens ; whilst the Hexametre, grounded on the ancient pronuncia The other species of poetry lay between these two ; hence the parts of the drama itself, wherein an increasing emotion forsakes the common language, and above all the Lyric passages and choruses, admitted more or less the freedom of Kpic poetry along with its forms.

«

larly the Epics, enjoyed a great latitude in this respect *.

Latin, is still less to be depended on in Greek.

m>, most of which we are forced to leave to individual observation.

But several of them are fluctuating in other species of poetry.

'in, < -;/«, %(i*.

i is short in AtuxxXinv, tmuw, gen. »»»,-

chaic verses of this kind of poetry conform.

fetes, t, temple,

nXtist, (for xXxIv,) to weep.

tion of the Ionians, allowed great freedom to the poet in particular instances.

Even the Senarius of tragedy differed in this respect from the

' They might lengthen the t for the take of the metre, even in 'ArxXwi, 'lxln, See Obs. 15.

in/tiit, &c.

C

3

They might lengthen the t for the take of the metre, even in 'ArxXwi, 'lxln, See

f

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

Senarius of comedy, the language of which came nearer to that of common life. Compare § 1. 10. 11. Ob: 12. The difference is particularly sensible with regard to position. The meeting of mula cum liquida was rather harsh in the soft Ionic dialect; hence it generally makes a true position in the Epic poets, and especially in the ancient ones. But with the Attics the instances of short syllables stated above, (Text 9. 10.) are always observed as short in the Senarius of comedy, whilst Tragic poets frequently conform to the Epic usage. Obi. 13. Position has also its effects in two words following close one on the other. the two words, as fiXn rixtt. But when the second word begins with the two con sonants, the position is indeed justifiable, ex.gr. Homer, "E»3« ] ripiv xxri , X*T{i | Ji/V , II. (. 73, xZrt | TjJif, yet of rare occurrence, unless the Ictut comes to its assistance. See OA*. 16. In the Attics it is more particularly attended to; but in. this case mula cum liquida commonly makes no position, ex.gr. Eur.7/)/t. Tour. 131 7> p»»f ; t/ *tiu- | pa. Obi. 14. It is another peculiarity of the Hexametre, that it also varies with respect to quantity by nature, (Text 6. 7.) The words xttXts, beautiful, lew, equal, constantly short with the Attic poets, are long with the Epics, who therefore write

JV«5.

Epics, especially

20

This is without exception whenever the two consonants are divided between

There are several other words, the quantity of which is fluctuating with the

of which the first syllable else generally ccrnf, man, is "Afwf, short. Mart, In the exclamation TA{i,-, "Ajif, which frequently occurs in Homer, the two words, though placed together, differ in quantity. Obt. 15. In other instances it is clearly seen that a word had its fixed and usual quantity, and that the deviation is caused merely by the exigency of the rhythmus. But the licence of the old Epic poets must not be supposed to have been unbounded ; Their own feelings confined them within proper bounds, so that it was only with regard to certain words and forms, or to particular cases, that they indulged in this freedom. They resorted to it especially, 1.) in proper names: 'AraXX»rv«f, with a long *, 'EXsiwm'Saa, with the first i short, {Hymn. Ccr. 105. cf. 95.) 2.) in words with over-many short syllables, as in itrn'urthu, iSiv/trtf, the first syllable of which was made long ; hence this rhythmus of i3a»*T« was after wards steadily adopted by all poets. 3.) in the beginning of an hexametre: Homer has even 'Em | tit and fJi'Xi Obt. 10. Another rhythmical lengthening was occasioned by the ctesura. trical science teaches us that Arsis is that part of the foot, on which the emphasis In the hex ametre the Arsis always is at the beginning of the foot, where this kind of verse requires a long syllable, which never can be resolved into two short ones. When ever the last syllable of a word falls in this part, (the masculine caesura,) this syl lable alone must fill the^r«i». But the Epic rhythmus allows a short syllable in this part to be lengthened by the mere power of the rhythmus, ex. gr., It. i. 359,

of the rhythmus or the Ictus falls ; the remainder is called the Thesis.

this would have destroyed the charm of their masterly compositions.

xx- | eiyvn- | fl-.

Me

K 5 Observe also, that u^a,Epic, long with the Epics ; whilst ipi, misery to be deprecated, is likewise 6hort with the latter.

imprecation, is short with the Attic poets, and

; whilst ipi, misery to be deprecated, is likewise 6hort with the latter. imprecation, is short

ACCENTS.

«

51, pi-

| kit

21

\ irwxii i- | e}a'is. This length

ening, however, does not frequently occur in so glaring a manner as in the quoted examples, except when it is supported by the position, which, as we observed before, (0A». 13.) neither is of frequent occurrence, without this ictus, ex. gr.eri fi 3>n-

plXl *at- | aiyiti- | ti xlpi- | «*/,

Obs. 17. Another support is afforded to this productio by the following word

beginning with a liquida, which may easily be doubled in pronunciation ; ex. gr.,

11. 1. 748, "H;» I Ss pi- I fiyi , S. 274, Spa | 3< rifi | unrT , pronounce (lemma- The f in particular is so easily doubled in pronunciation in this

ttige dennephos. case, that even the Attic poets commonly employ a short vowel as long before the ; in both Thesis &i\d Arsis, (ex.gr. in the Arsisoi the Benarius, r»J | t(»«v | «r»u t£ \ pixx, Aristoph. Plut. 10G5, and in the Thesis of a spondceus among anapaests, avToit Si f7- I txs lable is required. Obs. 18. The productio of a short syllable in the ccesura was likewise favored by the short vowel being immediately followed by one of the words, which, according to § C. Obs. 3., were sounded with the Digamma, the breathing of which also was easily strengthened. sessive S'f from 1 in this manner : Si/ynri- | {« fo, xiVi- | 7 Z. Obs. 19. It is a general rule with dactylic and anapaestic verses, especially in hexametres, that the long final vowel or diphthong is made short before a following But when ever this occurs in the Arsis, the syllable retains its quantity : out of it very rarely, excepting cases of the Digamma, as has been observed, § G. Obs. 3. The Attic sena- rius, on the contrary, did not admit this shortening of long syllables: the case did

vowel : ex. gr. tirXtv a- | pros, tmrai \ aXyot, «- J puri^n [ aU«y.

I «», Nub. 343,) and even avoid the f, wherever a short syl

Hence verses in Homer end so frequently with the pron. pos

not occur as a hiatus. There are likewise instances of a long vowel or diphthong being shortened before a vowel in the middle of the word, but only in certain words and forms, which must have had something conducive to it in their pronunciation ; as in xenli, (which is frequently written nut,) reits and its correlatives and others. Such a vowel or diphthong is constantly shortened before the demonstrativum, (§ 80.) ex. gr. in ret/rout, etvrni, stuvsut, &c, and in the Epic ixim for \<rtibh.

§ 8. Of the Accents.

1. Independently of the quantity of syllables, (the province of

Prosody,) the Greek language also marks the tone, or what is called the accents ; this expression, however, according to our The Greek accent falling as frequently on a short syllable as on a long one,

habits and conceptions, still offers many difficulties.

must necessarily impair the quantity, when expressed in our ha bitual way: as t/St)/ai, Suxpirvis.

2. But this accentuation is proved to be as old as the language

itself by clear historical facts, and unquestionable testimonies of the ancients. false intonation was more and more invading the language of

1 That is to say, on the whole, for in individual practice accentuation, like any The adopted accentua

other part of the language, was exposed to fluctuations. tion is chiefly that of the flourishing Attic period.

Attentive grammarians began to note it, when a

to fluctuations. tion is chiefly that of the flourishing Attic period. Attentive grammarians began to note

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

22

common life, and it was undoubtedly at a far later period that these signs, which were now taught in the Greek schools, were generally used. of Greek accentuation. 3! Reflection and practice have already enabled us to remove between quantity and accent ; and it is worthy of the exertions of the learned to endeavour to restore this essential ingredient of the melody of the Greek language : but this cannot be effected with out an intimate acquaintance with the present system of Greek accentuation.

They thus transmitted to us, at least, the theory

in part the contradiction, which appeared to prevail

4.

But, independently of these considerations, the Greek ac They frequently enable us by their position to ascertain the quantity of syllables ; serve to distinguish many homonymous words, and forms of speech ; and even where they are of no immediate import, fami liarise us to the laws of accentuation, without which we could be no judges of the instances, where they are of practical service. Obs. Nothing can be more prejudical than the habit of applying the accents in reading in a way, which perverts the actual quantity of syllables, (see the Obi. to the following §.) If learners cannot remedy this fault by study, and attend to both

cents are not without great practical utility.

quantity and accents, they ought to attach themselves principally to quantity, which

is of still higher importance in reading.

§9.

accent on one of its vowels ; and this properly is but of one kind, viz. the

acute, o$±e7a, {sc. irpaaulU, accent,) that is to say, the sharp or clear tone, of which the mark is '.

2. The theory of the ancients respecting any sound, which, in

1 . Every Greek word, generally speaking, has the

our way of speaking, has not the accent, gives to it the grave, or

falling tone, fiapux, (Lat. gravis,) and grammarians had for it

a mark\ which, however, is not used in common writing.

3. A long vowel may also have the circumflex, vepntvwpuvn, Grammarians state

the lengthened that a thus accented long vowel is to be considered as two com bined short vowels, of which the first has the acute, and the But when the first vowel has the grave, and (he other the acute accent, thus od, and they are converted into a>, this long vowel then takes only the acute accent w.

other the grave accent : thus do, for instance, gives u.

tone, which is marked

vowel then takes only the acute accent w. other the grave accent : thus do, for

ACCBNTS.

23

Obi. The audible utterance of this difference in pronunciation has some difficul ties. (« or «,) must be carefully distinguished from the unaccented one, (grave «.) for But the opposite fault of lengthening accented short vowels, must equally be guarded against : twu, for instance, must not be pronounced like iVif8.

instance, in £v9{fl«r«, without, however, making it short (a.)*

Kvery accented long vowel,

We barely warn against the two principal faults.

§

10.

1. The acute accent and the circumflex can fall only on one

of the three last syllables ; the acute accent, indeed, may fall on

any of the three, but the circumflex can take place only on the last syllable, or on the penultimate. The 2d Obs. of § 14. shews that cSnvi and such words consti tute but a seeming exception.

2. It is the nature of the last syllable in particular, which gives

to the whole word its grammatical denomination with regard to the accent. 2. the circumflex, or 3. no accent, (viz. according to § viii. 2. when it has the grave accent,) the word is called Oxytdnon, as for instance, &eoc, or, Ttrvtyws.

According as this last syllable has 1. the acute accent,

Perispomenon

Baryfonon

<pCKSi, voSr.

rvitrw, itpayiux, <npiytx.a.rx.

3. Again, any dissyllabic or polysyllabic barytonon, according

as it has 1. the acute accent on the penultimate syllable, or 2. on

the antepenultimate, or 3. the circumflex on the penultimate, is

. See about the seeming barytona, as i^yfi, nrvfyws, etc., and about the atona or
.
See about the seeming barytona, as i^yfi, nrvfyws, etc., and
about the atona or unaccented wards, § 13.
called Paroxytunon,
Proparoxytdnon
Properispdmenon .
.
.
.
.
rvitru, nrv^iws.
Twroptsvor, &v6pwaos.
xpaypia, q>i\ouox.

* The first syllable of ayS/vra may be accented, and yet the second syllabic lengthened, as is done with Almighty. * The attempt to give the tone to a short vowel has the same effect with us as dou bling the following consonant,which creates a great difficulty, since it must obviously Hut in the first place this alteration of the sound is neither so frequent, nor so offensive, as when persevering application may certainly succeed at least in lessening the difficulty. To pronounce Xox^crn; compare thisword with three similar German monosyllables, to hit er, 'so has he,' the middle one of which is short, and may yet be accented. These words obviously differ from so that er, ' so did he,' and are nearly like so halt' cr, ' so had ho.' cult ; but not only the German wit, ' how,' but even the French Ji, ' fie !' may be accented ; it merely requires some little practice to pronounce a short accented syl lable immediately before another vowel.

be supposed that the ancients distinguished iVi from irn, and fcixi from fixXXi.

filXtf, for instance, are pronounced ins, /3?X«, and, in the second place,

To pronounce of la without lengthening the »', appears more diffi

pronounced ins, /3?X«, and, in the second place, To pronounce of la without lengthening the »',

24

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

11.

§ The place of the accent in words is best learned through atten tion and practice, and at first from the Dictionary. general rules may, however, be attended to :

1. The circumflex requires a syllable long by nature, (viz. by its vowel, and not by mere position :) (§ 7. 8.) ex. gr. xr,$or, <fus, rityjis, ouros, ay.v\yt/-oL,

and

The following

because the uncertain vowels, (§ 7. 6.) a, i, v, are long in these words. acute accent : as trepos, pirns, ha, Tipos, itoXv, mXiyixa. has the circumflex only on account of the », not because of the

Oil. 1. position yp. that x is here long by itself, not on account of yp and XX : pronouucc prnghma, mahllon.

And as, for instance, t-.S.-,i/.«, ^s>.>.», have the circumflex, it shews

Hence a short vowel, when accented, can only take the

2. But the acute accent may also stand on a long vowel : as

ootywrtpos, SitrEpos, (peuyu), Ti/Ari, fixaiXius, tydip.

3. Whenever the last syllable, being naturally long, is to have

the accent, it may be the circumflex ; and in case of a contrac tion, as in dX-nbios, aX-n^ovs, Troiiu, vmu, it almost always is the

circumflex, for the reasons stated below, § 28. Obs., but else it is not often the case. nots, oJv, vtv, have the circumflex. cepting the contraction, whenever the final syllable is accented, the circumflex is placed only on

Several monosyllabic words, as itvp, (iovs,

But in polysyllabic words, ex

a. ) the adverbial termination us.

b. ) the terminations of the gen. and dat.

See § 115. See §33. Obs. 9. See §45.

c. ) the terminations eu and o7 of the vocat.

4. If the penultimate syllable, being naturally long, is to be

accented, it must be the circumflex, whenever the last syllable is short, or long only by position ; as

pr,ixa, altos, -^vyps, j3<ZXa£, gen. axos.

Obt.2. This rule does not apply to words joined together with enclitics; hence we write UTt, tin, iSo-a-i}, fan, rovrii, &c. (See § 14. Obt. 2.) The particles which are but

101 and Hugi, (not ceptions.

5. But whenever the last syllable is naturally long, the penul timate cannot take the circumflex ; we write prtrup, oi'vr),

and mi lengthened, arc the only ex

^wpofc, gen. axos.

timate cannot take the circumflex ; we write prtrup, oi'vr), and mi lengthened, arc the only

ACCENTS,

25

6. According to §10. 1. the antepenultimate can take only the But when the last syllable is long, whether it be

acute accent. by nature or position, the antepenultimate cannot be accented at all ; we write ^,ajx.pa.rns, aoWiyu, £fi@£\z%.

7. The final syllables ai and oi, though long, have only the in

fluence of a short syllable, with regard to the two immediately preceding rules : we write Tplxivat, of rptaivx, 7rpotfriTT)f, itajhos, a.v%paii:os. n/Trro/Asci, rdwrsTatt, TvirreaSai, rirv^ai, passive forms of the verb. itoi-haau, aTr,aau, htivai, infinitives. nolwaxi, arrival, imperatives of the middle. Obs. 3. We except, however,

Hw\oi, avSpa/iroi, plurals

1. The third person of the opt. in ct and eti : as Qivyoi, irawtti.

2. The adv. mm/, at home; (hut the pi. sTxm, houses.)

3. Words joined together (§ 13.) with enclitics; as both when it comes from n, certain/i/, and from 3, or.

uioe is mc, Uroi,

8. Even the u in the terminations of the cases in the Attic declen

sion, takes the accent on the antepenultimate syllable, as zsoXeut, isiXea/v, (§ 51.) and (nom. and accus. sing, and gen. pi.) avaJyswv,

(§37.)

Obs. 4. Likewise the u in the Ionic gen. in ut of the first declension : as ttnrinn for hrrirct/, § 34. Obs. Obs. 5. It is obvious that a beginner, who uses correct editions, may learn the quantity of many words by their accents :

1. The circumflex shews that the syllable, on which it stands, is long.

2. The acute accent on such words as nmtmhsi, /3«3»ay, &c, shews that the penultimate syllable is short. (This follows from No. 4. of the Text.)

3. The accent of such words as tru;*, a»«uj<t. shews that the last syllable is short. (Text 4. 6.) and

The acute accent on x"tai 4. 6.) Even words and forms, the accent of which indicates nothing, may yet serve to remind those, who have read much with attention, of forms, whose accent is deci sive. They will pronounce acmt long, and BufiXts short, because e7res has the cir cumflex, and iplxm the acute accent. short, because the pi. Yuusi appears so frequently, that the attentive reader may But the circumflex of monosyllables decides nothing with regard to the quantity of their lengthened cases, the monosyllabic nominatives of the third declension being always long, (§41. Obs. 3. and § 42. Obs. 3.) for instance, srJ;, fiSt, gen. xipi, /tvis.

shews that the last syllable is long, (Text

4.

Thus will the i in Hxn, iiixis, be known to be

recollect that he never saw it with the circumflex, (Text 7 )

(Text 4. Thus will the i in Hxn, iiixis, be known to be recollect that he

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

2G

12.

% When a word is changed by its declension or conjugation, or in any other way, this change influences its accentuation in many cases : 1. ) It has a necessary influence, when the word undergoes such a change, as to prevent the accent being continued the same as it is on the principal form of the word, conformably to the rules stated above ; in that case The circumflex is converted into the acute accent, as olvos, gen.

01W,

The acute into the circumflex ; as ripco), gen. rums, (pevyco, imper. (peuye, (§ 11. 4.) Or the accent passes from the antepenultimate to the penulti mate syllable ; a§ aifopantos, gen. xvbpdnou, apovqa., gen. agoupas,

(§11.6.)

2. ) But even when it is not necessary in conformity with the above rules, the accent, though never changed, is yet sometimes transposed ; a.) The accent is removed backwards chiefly, 1.) when the word has before it an augment of any kind, as rvitru, Tvnn etmtte, oSor, ouvoSos, z}M$evTos} aital^ivros : 2.) when the reason, which attached the accent in the principal form to the penulti mate syllable, (§ 11. 6.) disappears ; as zyouliua, imper. iraiSsvs. More precise information and exceptions will be stated in the Obs. sub 1. to § 103. and in the Theory of Compounds, § 121. b.) The accent is only moved forward chiefly, when the word receives one of the terminations, which either always are accented, as the parlic. perf. in us : rirutpoc, partic. rervtpus, 4 or which take the accent under peculiar according to § 43. Obs. 4. Obs. With regard to the transposition of the accent, see in the anastrophe, § 1 17. 2.; with the apostrophus, § 30. Obs.; and on casting off the augment, Obs. 1. to § 103.

§ 13.

11. 5.) prifjux, gen. prt(J.a.ros, (§ 10. 1.)

11. 3. 6.)

circumstances, as bip, bnpos,

1. Hitherto we have considered the accent merely as it is regu

lated in itself by every word and form ; but it is also influenced

by the connection of words, but in a grammatical respect only in

* To these must be added some common terminations in the formation of words :

as, for instance, the verbal substantives in pit, (kcyirp.lt,) the adjectives iu *«, tit, to,-, rut, and some others.

: as, for instance, the verbal substantives in pit, (kcyirp.lt,) the adjectives iu *«, tit, to,-,

ACCENTS.

27

It is modified through the dependence of a

two principal cases. word on the following or preceding parts of speech ; which is expressed as, I. Inclination of the Accent towards the following word; 1.) by moderating the acute accent; 2.) by casting the accent off. natio. word. 2. Whenever an words in connection, the effect of the acute accent is moderated In that case the sign or mark of the acute is converted into the sign of the

II. Inclination towards the preceding word or Incli-

We treat (I.) of the Inclination towards the following

oxytonon,

(§ 10. 2.) stands before other

and approximates more or less to the grave accent.

grave accent1, which is used only on such occasions, (§ 9. 2.) But at the end of a period, viz. before a full stop or colon s, the

acute accent remains unchanged ; as, 'Opyri Se TtoWi S^jiv dvayxdi^et xscxa. Obs. 1. We must guard against considering as barylona words which cud with They are rather called oiytona, because their acute accent is merely at rest, and grammar, in looking at connected words, considers each word separately. Obi. 2. The interrogative pronouu rlt, rS, (§ 770 's tne on'v exception to this rule. With regard to the acute accent on terminations before enclitics, see § 14.

3. The following monosyllablic words, which all begin with a vowel, ov, (ovtc, oux,) not,
3.
The following monosyllablic words, which all begin with a
vowel,
ov, (ovtc, oux,) not, us, as, si, if,
into,
and these nominatives of the arliculus praposilivus, (§ 75.)
sv, in, els,
(ex,) out,
6,
o[, ai,

appear commonly unaccented in speech, because they coalesce with the subsequent word, and are on that account called atona, unaccented words, ex. gr. o vovs- rj\§ev li, 'Aulas' iis ev itapobu' ov yap vsxp-nv. But as

subsequent one, standing either alone or at the end or after the words, which they govern, they obtain their accent ; ex. gr. ov, no. xaxa/v Vz, (instead of ex xaxuv.) Obt. 3. As these words stand with regard to the accent nearly in the same pre dicament to the subsequent word as enclitics to the preceding word, they are now frequently calledproclitics alter Hermann. See Buttmunn't Complete Greet Gram mar, § 13.

nus ya% ov ; why not? &Eor us hrhro, (as a god,) oi/Se

4.

soon as such words are unconnected with the

5 It is owing to the old principle being misunderstood that mint moderns place the acute accent before every ton,ma.

the 5 It is owing to the old principle being misunderstood that mint moderns place the

28

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

§ 14. Enclitics.

1. A number of monosyllabic and dissyllabic words, owing to

their signification and pronunciation, may be so closely joined with And as these words in that case lean or incline, as it were, (l^xX/yeo-Sai,) on the preceding word, they are called Enclitics ; whilst, every word, which is accented by itself, and every enclitic, when it retains

the preceding word, as to throw the accent on that word.

its accent, is called Orthotonon, (fy&oTovot//x6vov, a word, as it were, with upright accent.)

2. Such enclitics are :

1. ) the indefinite Pronoun ris, ri, through all its cases, with toD, Tii, as belonging to it. (§77.) 2.) The following oblique cases of the personal Pronouns : lj.ov, lAot, fA£} aov, aol, as, oJ5, oT, £, /xiv, v!v, and those begin ning with up with some exceptions. (§ 72. Obs.)

) The Indicative Present of ei/xl and <pr\y.l, excepting the monosyllabic second pers. sing. (§ 108. IV. § 109. I.) 4.) The indefinite adverbs zjus, srw, woJ, ttou, noSi, noSh, zsors, which differ from the similar interrogatives, (iras ; hots, &c.) merely by their enclitical accents, (§ 116.) or Tzlp, pat, with the inseparable Sc. (See Obs. 2.)

3.

5.) The particles vu, re, rut,

yl, xtv

xl, vlv or w1,

3. When the word before the enclitic, (compare below, 7.) is a proparoxytonon , (aiSpviro*,) or a 'properispomenon, (owna.,) the enclitic throws its accent, which always is the acute accent, on the final syllable of that word, as, avSpwltos Ian, aui\t.i y.ov, and when it is preceded by an unaccented word, as for instance ii, it throws its accent on this word : 11 nr.

4. But if the preceding word has already of itself an accent

on its final syllable, or the acute accent on the penultimate, the same accent likewise serves for the enclitic, and the acute accent of such a final syllable does not in that case dwindle into the

grave accent ; § 13. 2. ex. gr. atrip Tir- xa» aof <pt\u of yvta.iy.Sii rnwv* avXga te" Xiyen n '.

1 Thii particle, (igitur,) contradistinguishes itself by this accent from the adverb of time *vt, {nunc, 1 now.') * The accentuation of ymunSt rnm and Srramr, and some other cases, which appear opposed to the general rules of accentuation, is not considered by modern gramma rians as enclitic.

See Buttmann's Complete Greet Grammar.

rules of accentuation, is not considered by modern gramma rians as enclitic. See Buttmann's Complete Greet

PUNCTUATION.

29

5. When one enclitic follows immediately after another encli

tic, the first generally takes the accent of the following enclitic,

and throws its own accent on the preceding word, and so on, if there be several enclitics, up to the last, which alone remains unaccented ; as for instance, st rls nvx (pvai pot nxqeTvaa.

See

1.) whenever the inclination is obstructed : viz., 1. ) when a Paroxytonon has a dissyllabic enclitic after it ; ex. gr. Xoyor wore Ejc&zger Evavn'or atpiaiv. 2. ) when the syllable, on which the accent of the enclitic should be thrown, is removed by an apostrophus; as

6. Enclitics retain their own accent : (become ortothona.

7. Otherwise enclitics in general become orthotona, only when

there is a kind of emphasis, particularly when it is grounded on an antithesis, resting on them, and when they begin the sentence. But many of these words, (especially those under 2. and 5.) can from their nature never be in that predicament, and therefore always occur as enclitics. Obi. I. See more details on the inclination and right accentuation of the per sonal pronouns, and of /uu and iftiu, Sua. in § 12. Obi. 2. 3., and also about C/u, if", and itn, § 108. iv. 3. Obs. 2. As such a word through inclination coalesces almost into one with the preceding word, many words, commonly combined with an enclitic for a peculiar meaning, are also written close together: as, for instance, Sm, tSrt, fiimi, irrit, Srmut, (see $ 770 merely in this way in fit, Merit, i'Ji, h'ftnlt, &c. ($$ 7C. and 79- b. § 110. 2. and 6.) only when the general Yet with regard to these matters there is no uniformity in the editions of Greek books ; espe cially in cases where the first word of such a coalition should, (according to the Text 3.) take two accents. We sometimes meet with "Eji/WSi, elirrt, correctly, and sometimes with the second accent only, 'Efi/W3t, dim. See about #r«, §11. Obs. 3. Obi. 4. The demonstrative pronouns, which are strengthened by it (§§ 79 -and 116. 6.) remove, in every occurring case, their own accent on their final syllable, for instance,vires, veto; merit, Teterif tjjAijm; rnXutirit' tvBa ifSetit' rein reiriit:

and as this is the accent of the principal word, the genitives and datives, conformably to § 33. Obi., retain likewise their circumflex on the long vowel, as ree-euit, rtrntt, roioitrit3whilst the nom. and acc. are reniit, Teiovrit.

The enclitic it, (which is very different from }i, but,') occurs

Such an enclitic takes the accent of a new subsequent one

rules require it, («7r»v tint, SH * «,) but commonly it does not, rSri n.

§ 15. Punctuation.

1. The Greek has the full stop and comma in common with Our semi-colon is comprised in the

our modern languages. Greek colon, marked by a dot over the line, (as owe ^X&ev dXXa ) The Greek note of interrogation is ( ; ). Obi. Modern editors have begun to introduce the note of exclamation ( I )

) The Greek note of interrogation is ( ; ). Obi. Modern editors have begun to

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

30

2.

The diastole or hypodiastole ( , ) must not be confounded to enclitically connected from other similar ones ; as for instance

with the comma;

distinguish little words

it serves merely

o,ti, (Epic o.tti,) the neuter of oans and r6,re, (and this,) from the particles on, (Epic 3tti,) and rors.

3. The Greek has farther marks referring to letters and syl lables, viz.

(§ 30.)

1 the apostrophu*.

' the coronis or the sign of the crasis. (§ 29.) the di&resis, (the trema of the French,) over a vowel, which does not make a diphthong with the vowel, which precedes ; as oiV, (o-is,) zs^xbs, (pra-us). See about the iota subscriptum i, (a, y, u,) § 5.

INTERCHANGE OF LETTERS.

§ 16. Consonants.

1. The formation of words and grammatical forms is attended

with so many changes in the letters, chiefly for the sake of euphony

and pronunciation, that the radical word is frequently so altered, as not to be known again. acknowledged fundamental laws.

But this alteration generally rests on

2. With respect to tbe Greek consonants, we may observe that

letters belonging to the same organ, or which have the same pro perty, (§ 4. 3.) though of different organs, are most apt to inter

change, whenever there is an alteration in the word.

3. This is likewise the foundation of the difference of the

dialects, as may be seen in the following Observations. Obs. 1. The dialects of the Greek language most frequently interchange a.) the aspiratai for instance, for Sx«», to bntise, Attice $Xmt. Thus the denomination <pltf, a centaur, is merely an antiquated form of £>>i;, beast, ' a man-beast h.) the media ; for instance, for yXnx"'i pennyroyal, Attice fiXn%ui, for yn, ancient Doric SS, for 1/iiXet, spit, Dorice iSiXlc. c.) the tenues ; thus the interrogatives,

tris, n'e;, irsTa, <r£, &c.) instead of the usual <r have in the Ionic dialect constantly x, {xtZ, xiii, xcim, ixust, x£, &c. ;) thus also Ten, when, is Dorice rixa, and rim,/h>e, /Eolice <r't/tTi. d.) the liquids; thus instead of Jx.9d», fiiXririi;, ipiXTxrct, the Doric dialect has J»3a>, £i»T/ro;, ipltrxrei : the Ionic, instead of trrtCpur, lungs, has rXiu/tuv : the Attic for xXlfixrsf, oven, «,. ;«> .,-: see about pti> and vi», the pronouns, $ 72- Obs. e.) the letters of the same organ : the Attic prefers yiclftii, fuller, to xtuQwi, runs, tapestry, and idm were both used indifferently ; and the Ionic dialect some times converted the aspirates into tenues, as iixepxi for tt%$/uu, to take, (tuns for aZSis, again ; the Attic itrfdgaysi is Jonice inrifxyes.

ejv/; has generally osnfiai in the gen., Dorice otvi^et.

for aZSis, again ; the Attic itrfdgaysi is Jonice inrifxyes. ejv/; has generally osnfiai in the

ASPIRATJE.

31

f ) the r especially with the other Unguals with r for rv, rXufln, near, IWnJiy, the Doric has to, <rXar;'», Hernia:

,, ,, f thus many Doric tribes ended the words in as, ns, is, m, with «{, ns,

g.) the double H> consonants with the kindred simple ones, especially i with as ^olic dialect, instead of { and \l>, transposed the two simple consonants ; as txitt;, The Doric dialect in particular, commonly has, instead of £ in the middle, ti, as, rVflri* for «{iJ*>, p'uritn for fii(«» or fuU^tt, &c. (Compare above J 3.) OA». 2. The conversion of letters into those, which are not of a kin to them, is of rare occurrence, and must he especially remembered ; as fiiyis for fuXis, hardly, «iir, Jonice for tun, to meditate, xtlxutis, xiXanh, poetically for ftikas, piXana, 1 black. Obs. 3. Most of the above-mentioned interchanges are stated by ancient and modern grammarians in general terms, as ' the Attic dialect changes 9 into f, the Ionic ir into »,' and so on. version is constant in such a dialect. ones, in which that conversion occurs, and it is but in some cases that this or that dialect inclines to some particular change, which merely serves to bring the cases, which may occur, under their proper analogy. Obt. 4. Two conversions founded on what we stated above, are, however, so fre quent, that they deserve a particular notice, viz. :

3 throughout in the Laconic dialect, as for 9i»f, Sun tiit, nits.

v the termination /iu is Dorice fits, (as rvXTopsv, Tumpi;.)

for 3»{J, roebuck, paiix Dorice for paT^a, dough, &c.

£,

rcraXis, for girw, stranger, ^a\i;, shears.

The old Greek and

But this must not lead us to suppose that such a con

The examples quoted are very often the only

rr and rt fp and or The former takes place in most of the words, in which these letters occur, and the latter in a great many of them : rr and ff are chiefly peculiar to the Attic dialect, and rr and (r to the Ionic ; as, for instance, Ion. Tarrui Tasaui, to arrange. yXeuTTct y\Zeea, tongue. But the Ionic forms are also met with in the best Attic writers, and particularly (See above, § 1. Obs. 8.)

in the most ancient authors.

All.

All.

Ion.

cttfnv «V>rv, male, masculine.

xoppn Koern, cheek.

§ 11. Of the Aspirates.

1. Each aspirata (§4.) must be considered as proceeding from Hence the

its kindred tenuis combined with the spiritus asper. Latin writing of ph, th, ch.

2. AVhen, therefore, a tenuis meets in its combination with a

spiritus asper, it becomes an aspirata ; as, for instance, the words

ivl, Se'xa, auTos, when they throw off their terminations to be com bined with riyiipx, make sipritxepos, oeytf/x.epof, auSyfJiepOf.

See about these and similar instances, Buttmann's Leiilogus, II. 109.

make sipritxepos, oeytf/x.epof, auSyfJiepOf. See about these and similar instances, Buttmann's Leiilogus, II. 109.
A GREEK GRAMMAR. 32 3. The same takes place in distinct words ; as (om)
A GREEK GRAMMAR.
32
3.
The same takes place in distinct words ; as (om) ou% halut,

30.)

and with the addition of the apostrophus, ilih, an' xp'ov : avTi, avr' av&' Siv. Obi. 1. The Ionic dialect retains the tenues in both cases : as it' ten, tlx us, Compare $ 1G. Obs. 1. e. Obs. 2. A remarkable change of the tenuis takes place, when there is another letter between it and the tpirilui, as in ri^inrn, four-hone carriage, from titjix- and "rrts: it occurs also ill some Attic contractions, Uu/tirm for to </isr«, (see § 29. and iS»V!.

Irititi ftiTira»ai, xxratrtf for xaSarif, (from x*3' arte.)

Obt.4.) fcfiht from

§

18.

1. There is in the Greek language a law, by which one of two

successive syllables beginning each with an aspirata, and gene rally the first, is converted into the tenuis of the same organ. This takes place without exception in all reduplications: as inQikmz, x.t%ojpr,x.a, t/Sti/lu, instead of (pEp, xEX> But this law is observed only in few instances of inflections and of the imper. has this pecu liarity, that it has no effect on the preceding syllable, but is itself converted into n, as for instance rvpSnrt, imper. Aor. 1. pass.

Some few words had already two aspirata in their root, the When ever the second is altered by some other law of formation, the first re-appears as an aspirata ; for instance, Root 0PE<I>: present rpiq>u, I nourish ; fut. Sfye\}>« ; deriva tives rpotyri, SpiTtT-npiov, hpiiMfj-x. But such r law of formation may already have occurred in the principal form, (nomin. or pres.) stated in the Lexicons, and not in some of the derivative forms; whence arises a seemingly oppo site case, (rpitpco, bpi-^m, tially the same :

first of which was consequently converted into a tenuis.

derivations, and the termination

2.

rpiyls,) which is, however, essen

Root ©PIX: nom. $pl%, hair; gen. rpiy^s, dat. pi. Spijiv, de rivative rpiyj>ai. There are but a few verbs, (see in the list of Anomalous Verbs &«ra, ©AO , Spuirru, rpex^, rvifu,) and the adjective -ra%vs, on account of its comparative 'biaam, (§ G7.) which belong to these two cases. Obt. 1. In some words the Ionic dialect changes the first aspirata, and the Attic the second, and vena vice; as, xiriir, Jon. xiBi/i,iwiSSn, itrav^x, Ion., i»9iuri», 'nbxyrx.

4 But the form fytlfum, (for wt lfun,j from r(i and ti/w, compared with Sgaeev,

a contraction of Tugieea, shews that even without a tpirilui atpcr before the {, the

tcnues readily became aspirata!.

a contraction of Tugieea, shews that even without a tpirilui atpcr before the {, the tcnues

ACCUMULATION OF CONSONANTS.

Obs. 2. The passive termination 3n», and what is derived from it, operates only on the preceding 3 of the verbs i>i!i», to sacrifice, Siirxi, '» place, i S>tx, \<rl$tn, tiSu',-. There is no change in any other verb ; for instance, \x,i§nt, agSwSw, (from »»3»»>,) SitfSiif, i3{i^ny, ttXixSni. The aor. 1. of the imper. pass, is the only certain in See below the verb tISh/ii, The imper. ifiQi from fti/i), and the Homeric t«$i*3i, (see Sv»Vx«,) are deviations. All other terminations afford no examples for this rule ; for we find SUSt, Kg£»S<&, «t>7av»9i», &c. Obti 3. In compound words the rule is followed only in ixi^nj/a, armitlice, from «VtT*J» an^ site aspiration, (according to § 17- 2-) the « before the spiritus atper, (ifii, if§i;,') ia omitted. fi(H, &c. ' Obi. 4. This law extended also to the tpiritus asper, which it converted into a /rail, as may be clearly seen in the following verb :

I have, fut. But the spiritus generally remains unchanged ; as, &fii, ifaim, fei, tStt.

stance with regard to the termination 3< of the imper.

J 107-

Obs. 1. 5.

*rtr'X"i see the anomalous verb

», Amf JW», where the requi

There is no change in any other compound ; iQvfxiva, i/npi^v^tis, a>9«-

Root 'EX, preterit

deriv. \xmxif.

ACCUMULATION OF CONSONANTS.

§

19.

1. The immediate meeting of consonants produces a kind of

harshness, which the Greek language avoids.

2. Three consonants, or one consonant and a double letter,

cannot, (except in compounds, as Suaip^apros, 'ixirruois, ex4>vx<>>,) stand together, unless the first or last be a liquid, or unless there be a y before a palatal letter; as for instance iteyifoeis, axknpos; riy^a. accumulation, or one of the consonants must give way ; see in stances below about the perf. of the pass, voice ; ex. gr. iatpik-aSai,

In other cases Greek writers either strive to avoid this

3. But even the meeting of two consonants only may produce

a harshness, and there are some fixed rules to avoid it, stated ia

the following §§.

Obt. 1. The introduction even of a third consonant facilitates the pronunciation in some rarely occurring instances. When through the omission of a vowel the liquid ft or » comes to stand immediately before the liquid X or (, the media (/3, S,) comes ^irn^/Sji'a, mid. day ; from fci/tixvrxt arose the Epic /tlftfiXtrxi: Mf has gen. itlftf. Obs. 2. Transposition sometimes, but equally rarely, puts a consonant in a more convenient place. Thus the nomin. xr<4 comes from the root riTKN, retained

which is of a kin to the first, is introduced ; as from

But

in the formation of the cases tuxnt, rvxi), (see the Anomalous Declensions.)

transpositions not suggested by euphony, especially in the pronunciation of liquids, will sometimes occur in all idioms, some of which the polished language does not scruple to use, as in the formation of the aor. 2., xi{9a/, ?sr{a3«», or for the sake of the metre, MfsXst for x«jJi'«: and also versa vicej aja^ris for ir(**tf, liie}if>s f°r

Af<»W«, etc.

D

of the metre, MfsXst for x«jJi'«: and also versa vicej aja^ris for ir(**tf, liie}if>s f°r Af<»W«,

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

Obt. 8. The meeting of two consonants was still more frequent in the old lan guage j one of them was subsequently dropped, but poets often retained such a con sonant for the sake of the metre, or to strengthen the sound of a word, as <rr<Xi,t»;, This also serves to explain how xxptii, on the ground, and %SzfixXif, low, are connected. Ois. 4. The r, on the contrary, frequently creeps in before other consonants ; as exilav, xiScw, Mirn, (whence

for instance the Ionic-AtticituikoIsfor/nxfif,andthus arose the forms

irriXw, and their compounds, instead of n'kt/tif, tri'kn.

fi'ityv, SrirSit,and many others, from the more ancient fuyuit &0.) cr&iy, Sec.

§20.

1. Two mutce of different organs can meet, in Greek only, when Hence the steady rule :

A tenuis can stand only before a tenuis, an aspirata only before an aspirata, and a media before a media, ex. gr. surd, vuxror, ayftos, (fi&i'vw, (?&zkvpos.

2. Hence when two heterogeneous consonants meet in the

the second is a lingual.

formation of a word, the first generally must assume the property of the second. For instance, the addition of the syllables ror, Im,

&Eir, makes of ypdpu, I write, ypznros, of wXe'xai, I plait, nXtyfids.

In case of two combined homogeneous consonants, no change Thus Ima, ox.ru, give e^ofjuos, 07SW, and when of two tenues, the second, owing to the spir. asp. (§ 17. 2. 3.) is changed into an aspirata, the first undergoes the same change ; as ewTct, 7)ix.epa ^£<p§v)f/.tpos, lasting seven days, wxrx

is undergone by one alone, but always by both.

3.

*j3o»]V,

wyfi' oXw, the whole night.

4. Only the prep. Ix remains unchanged before all consonants ;

6.

§ 26.

as Ix&E~yai, Ix&ouvai, Exj3aXXe<v, IxyEVEO&ai, extpeiyw.

§21.

See

1. The reduplication of a consonant is not so frequent in the

Greek, as for instance in the Germ, language, and beside the

semivowels X, /a, v, p, and a, it is the r, which is most frequently doubled.

2. Whenever there is a simple vowel placed before the p in the

formation or composition of a word, the beginning p of the word, from which it is derived, is always doubled ; as

eppsww, apptnw, from piiru with s and a we/x'^ooj from Kept and few.

,.

.

it is derived, is always doubled ; as eppsww, apptnw, from piiru with s and a

ACCUMULATION OF CONSONANTS.

See § 82. and 120. 6. as evpuaror, (from tZ and ptivyv/ju.)

3. The aspirates are never doubled, but take the kindred tenuis before; as

Zaar^w, Botxj^or, Ylir^evs. Obt. 1. The non-Attic poets frequently double the consonant for the sake of the rxirfm, for 'X»> rmi$$s. This, however, is not done arbitrarily, but frequently in some words, and never in others, (as Hn,'tnj» , tttm, an/us,) yet mostly with semi-vowels. {See also about these reduplications, } 27. Obt. 14.) OAs. 2. Sometimes, but much less frequently, they employ a simple consonant, where the usual language has a double one ; as 'A^iXiut, 'oWiiif, (for 'A^jXXi^, from pit*.

'Ofcrnfe,) and hence they also neglect doubling the {, as

metre ; for instance, Smt, Srri, irrcn, i»i<rt, for »«», &c. i and

But this is not the case with diphthongs ;

| 22.

stand before an a, they

are converted along with this a into the kindred double letters 4- ex. gr. the termination of <su of the fut. makes of \eliru Xtl-^/u, yp&tpu ypi-\u, \iyu \iifii, seixco fii^cu, and the termination m, mv, of the dat. pi., makes of "Apafief Apa4"> xipax.es x6pa%tv.

2. But here the prep, ex is likewise excepted : for instance

1. When the letters /3, ic, <f, and y, x,

or

See

§ 26.

6.

ixowt^u.

Obs. 1. It must not be supposed that the ^, when it proceeds from fir and ft, and the J, when it proceeds from yt and x'i were always pronounced like bi or/>, gt or cht. If that were the case, the double letters would have been a useless inven tion. and f into sr, and are then written together in the form of £ and ^. This is clearly proved by a comparison with the Latin tcribo, acripsi. Obs. 2. Though the ? is likewise a double letter proceeding from *i, (§ 3.) yet in the formation and inflection of words it never occurs as proceeding from these letters, except A3«'wji in for some ath, adverbs (§ 116.) of place formed with the addition of the syllable it, as

The fact is, that before the r the letters y and x are changed into x, and fi

§

23.

1. Labials before an v in the middle of a word, are constantly

changed into pt, as (in the perf. of the pass, voice, and in the for

mation of words,)

yq&Qco yQxy.-n,-fi.

2. The palatals and Unguals are likewise frequently changed before y., viz. x and % into y, as nXixw nhiy'iMt, Ttv%o> tirvypax,

D

2

Unguals are likewise frequently changed before y., viz. x and % into y, as nXixw nhiy'iMt,

36

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

and

S,

&,

r,

into <r, as

0J«. But in the general formation of words, the palatal and lingual consonants are frequently left unchanged before ft, as ix/tii, I&a*, H/ft, xtuS/tin, rir/u; . there are also other instances peculiar to some dialects ; as !$>, ((wn,) gives /om'ce Siftri, and usually <r/uh

§ 24.

&, t, £, can stand only before liquids, only

before y. they are frequently converted into a, according to the

preceding §.

1. The Unguals

2. Before other Unguals they are changed into <s, as r$tti ViS-hm, TTifocO WENT-Te'oV.

3. They are generally dropped before a, ex. gr. aSai jjc-au, OTEi'Sa; sstl-ou, auixarm au^n-ai,

Obt. With regard to the changes of r in the abbreviations of xxra, see § 117. Obt.

§ 25.

The consonant v usually remains unchanged only before t. palatal letters it is changed into y, which is pronounced like vg. Thus, for instance, the compounds of aim and ev become ovi/.ltiayju, kfx.ficilvio, av^L^u, £/*4'fXor> eyxotXv, ovyyttris, £7XiEigi£&>, *7XJU-

S, &, and

Before labials it is converted into /x, and before

1.

Obt. 1. The addition of an enclitic, (J 14. Obt. 2.) constitutes an exception for the sake of distinctness, but only in writing ; as rhyi, oW«(.

2. Before liquids the v is changed into the same liquid, as avKKtyu, eXXei'sw, e/H/ae'wu, avpfinru, the prep, ev generally remains unchanged before j, IvgaVrw.

3. Before a and £ the v is partly retained in compounds, partly

converted into a, and partly thrown off", (see Obs. 2.) but in inflec a, for instance in the

but

tions the v generally disappears before dat. pi.

4. If in addition to the v, a S, 5, or v, (according to § 24.) has been rejected along with it, the short vowel becomes a long one; as

"ssivr-is, 9r«-ov rv+avrsr, tv\JW», (§ 46.)

has been rejected along with it, the short vowel becomes a long one; as "ssivr-is, 9r«-ov

MOVEABLE FINAL LETTERS.

37

for which purpose, (according to § 27. 2.) e is changed into ei, and o into ou, as oiriv$-a, flit, avel-aw exovt-w, dat. ixov-aiv. Obi. 2. The exceptions to these rules, as r'ufatrai (2. perf. pass, of f »»,) rixaieis, tXfuts, are but very few and easily remembered by practice. Obi. 3. 'Ev remains constantly unchanged before r and £, (as bnim.) 2l» and xiXn convert their » before a single tr also into <r, (rvtriri*, trxXUrurcs,) but if there be another consonant following and before £, fit rejects it altogether, (rirrnfia, <ru- rxiifa, ru^uyta,) but iratX/» commonly retains it, (raXltmus.) "Ayctt simply throws off the iyax\vrtf. Obi. 4. The ancients also pronounced the , at the end of a word, when the next word began with a consonant, according to the principles of this §, particularly in the articles and prepositions. tin xnprZ, like nfifivftit, Iftruf), tvyKa^rZ. words are not separated, we frequently find them written thus.

wherever there is no reduplication, (as iyim$n, iyafptti,) iyxeHtris,

They would, for instance, pronounce tJ» /5*//k»», it

In ancient monuments, where the

§ 26. Moveable final Letters.

1. Some words and terminations have a double form, with and

without a consonant at the end ; the former is commonly em ployed before a vowel, the latter before a consonant.

2. Of this nature is especially the moveable v, orv EpsX.xt/s'ixbv

which may either be thrown off or retained by the dat. pi. in m, and in verbs by all the third pers. ending in ev and ty, as zsaaiv eiwev avro, aaai yaq eiirs tovto,

ETwj/EV EptEj ETWlJ'E OB, \tyovafo avro, Xeyovai vovro, risnmi vita 3 rihwoi x»rx .

1 3. The following words and forms have the v 1$£\xvtixov, viz. the o-iv, which denotes locality, (from the dat. pi.) as 'OXviJ-nlqcaiv, (§ 116.) the Epic end-syllable <piv, (§ 56. Obs. 9.) the numeral Eixoffiv, but which may also be used without the v before a vowel, the adverbs nt^vaiv and voffipiv, the enclitic particles xev and vvv, (§ 14.) and sometimes the demonstr. (j (§ 80. Obs.)

The case is exactly the same with the s in ovrcas ovru, and in /ae'%?", out the s before a vowel. Obi. 1. The Ionians cast off the » even before a vowel.

Poets, on the contrary, use it before a consonant to effect a position ; and even in Attic prose it was fre quently employed for the sake of intensity. It is besides met with in correct edi-

4.

: but the latter two are also frequently found with

1 So called, because it was considered as not properly belonging to the termination, and as being annexed to the final vowel merely to avoid the hiatus. See Obi. 2.

not properly belonging to the termination, and as being annexed to the final vowel merely to

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

tions, conformably to ancient HISS, and inscriptions, without any regard to the word which follows, at the end of sections and hooks ; in short, wherever the word is not closely connected with the subsequent one.1 Obs. 2. This last circumstance clearly shews that this > is not, as is commonly taught, a mere contrivance for euphony's sake ; but this », as well as the other final letters of the same kind, really is an ancient grammatical form, which was dropped before consonants, when the language was polished. Hence there are also other forms, which cast off their final letter in the Ionic dialect, or for the metre's sake, as the adverbial terminations Sin and xn : for instance, &>.Xe3t for HxXtSit, trtXXxxi for mkkaxti, irgi/ix and arfifixi. The » in compounds with the alpha privalivum (See

is exactly of the same nature with the f lfi\xurixi>, as for instance, italrui. below, § 120.)

6. The particle o£, not, no, takes a x before consonants, and

consequently a x before the spiritus asper, ex. gr. ou taaqifn, ovx. Eveyiv, oi/j(, Sgreriv. But -when it closes a sentence, the x is dropped ; ex. gr. toDto 8' but if

ou, but this not.

Ou, dkX' orav No :

6. The prep. IS;, out, has this form merely before vowels, and

at the close of a sentence, ex. gr. 1% tfMov, eQotou, xaxwv e'S; :

but the a, which sticks in the and it remains a x, hence . ex rovrov, ex §otka<j<ms, ex yrii. And this x continues unchanged, at least in writing, even in com pounds, in which it constitutes the exceptions stated, § 20. 4. and 22. 2. Obi. 3. That the two words six and ix end in a », is no real exception to the rule of § 4. 4. for both, being unaccented, belong to those little words, which are so closely combined with the next, that they form a separate word only for the mind, not for the ear. employs in that case the fuller form in J.

Hence one throws off its x at the end of a sentence, and the other

§

is dropped before all consonants,

§ 27. Of the Interchange of the Vowels.

1. Vowels are mutable in Greek as in other languages, with

out being subject to any steady law. The change is made through either inflection, or derivation ; as rplitu, I turn, %Tpqniov, I turned, rpbno!, a turn, mode.

2. This mutability comprises also the shortening and lengthen

ing of a vowel, commonly attended with some. other change. Thus

when e and o are lengthened for some reason or other, they are

1 Metrical motives induce modern critics to place this » also at the end of most kinds of verses, though the following verse begins with a consonant.

critics to place this » also at the end of most kinds of verses, though the

INTERCHANGE OF THE VOWELS.

39

seldom converted into n and u, but e commonly becomes et, and

on. 3. These changes constitute another principal peculiarity of the dialects, which are reviewed in the following Observations :

1. The Ionic dialect in particular lengthens the i and < of other dialects in this

manner, but chiefly only when there is a semi-vowel following, as {uhti iYhm, iruf,

for toret, disease, its/iu, name, vcXls, much, xipn, girl, or when there is another vowel fol lowing, as Xtitn for xiit, rrusi, cave, xt»'*"ii golden, for -us, of which licences poets, and especially the Epics, also avail themselves. But this, as we observed about reduplication, (§ 21. OA*. 1.) is not done arbitrarily; no one, for instance, ever allowed himself this licence with 1rii.1t, ens, fU'i, <r<f<, etc.

for £ivtt, strange, tvtxa, on account of, irrif, over; vWo* , apiofta, TtvXvt,

o Compare § 25. 4.

2. When A and » before a vowel are lengthened in the Ionic dialect, they become * °<x, ffrast, Ionice rolv-

m and oi, as siraV, eagle, Jttt, always, Jumce aliris,

3. In other instances the Dorians, Ionians, and poets do the reverse : they say,

for example, SSigi for fSiiJi, (from hixtu/ii,) /» £«», xpirtmt, x'f «i (Sen- °f Xl'ti) f°r ^u'£«r, &c. ; the ancient language has fitXirBi instead of /Wxs<r3i, (see § 4. OA*. 3.) and instead of the accus. in <v« the Dorians have «. (See the second Declension.)

4. Instead of < and to the Doric and Ionic dialect frequently has », and before i£>.ff Tor ttiXts, slave, it, (also

Ionic,) for tot, M«<rf*and Moifx (or Mai/fx, xxtift* for xxtvem, (from uxauu.)

an r even « for «v, as x««<c for *«';«, or ««»«(,

5. The n mostly proceeded from a, which prevailed in the ancient language, and

continued the characteristic sound of the Dorians, who generally employ the long

tt for ti, as &fU(K for rifU^u, fufut for fn/tti, rxtxi for rntxt and this likewise takes (See § 1, 2, and 13.)

place in the solemn poetry of the choruses.

6. But when the Ionians, (in a few solitary instances,) change the »into *, the a

is short, as in ifxfuTx for itnfoix, r&xXoix, etc. : hence the x must not be pronounced

long as in the Doric in such Ionic forms as xixxrfixi, (from x»3«,) niexpfyix for furnttfifim. I. The Ionians else prefer the », and commonly use it for the long a, as nuipv, ftfiti, for -at, mo, nuts, for ar,o, xipts, in<r*is, Sitrfc, for Ixrois, physician, S*fa£, armour, (gen. l)c*^v.*;,-.) trenfftt,trpnypx, for Taxtra-u, xoxyfjLx. Hence also nji/f, yttws, for »vf, >

8. The Ionic dialect has the instead of only in some inflections, (as fixnxiix,)

and in the diphthong u, which the Ionians frequently resolve into *<, as xXnis for

uXtis, iyyn'in for iyyun, fiariXni* for fae-iXilx, (§ 28. OA*. 3.) before vowels, n instead of u, as cxftyot for enputt.

liquid or vowel into t, as

j-Ua-igec for Titrffitois,four, 'iorr.v for xornt, masculine, otXos for ilxXts, glass, fit'ut for

praat, and in the verbs in xtj, (see § 105. OA*.)

I, as rexiru, vxftttt, for ret**, Tiuyu, ft'tyxSts for piy&ts.

In other instances they have a for

10. It is a peculiarity of the Ionic-Attic dialect, when a long a stands before e, to

change the former into i, and the latter into * : as, for instance, Xiit, nation, "tilt, temple, are Attice Xu\s, tuis, ^txtfuu, I use, is Ionice xtiv/txi, and thus the Ionic gen. in w is accounted for by the most ancient form in xt, (see the first Declension*.) II. In the compounds of aura;, and the words SxZ/ia, wonder, (§xu(ix%ti, Sec.) and Ttxuftx, wound, the Ionians change the ov into no, (not oi/,) l/Mtortt, \uurtt,

2 This change also takes place in the adj. "Xttts, tit, for iXxts,tt, in the gen. nan for »««, from taut, and in several names in Hot, as Min/.<t«, 'Af*.$ix°xts, or - «>, but not

in those in 4»(, a» oitiusut.

and even >? for a/ in the dat. pi. ft, «n, of the first declension.

The Dorians have,

0. The Ionians are also apt to change the a before a

in the dat. pi. ft, «n, of the first declension. The Dorians have, 0. The Ionians

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

40

(see § 74.3.) Stiupx, r;*^., The simple airh is unchanged by genuine Ionic writers ; and u'utIi is used merely for i cuiris. (See § 29. Obi. 6.)

12. Instances of other changes are : rx/ixXis, Dorice TcfixXjf, Srt/t*, jEolice hvfut, iri*, Ionice ir'm, hearth. Observation on the lengthening of Syllables in general, (to § 21 , and 27-)

13. The mere poetical lengthening of i and e is commonly effected in the Ionic

way, by changing them into u and nr. (04j. 1.) The » is very seldom converted into u, as "hit, Axiwts, for id, bmvres. When «, i, v, in common language short, are long in the ancient or poetical language, (as 'lkito with the middle syllable long, ini with the long a, and some others,) it is not apparent in writing, except some

times through the accent, as in 7«$ for Iris.

14. But in the most ancient writing they had no means to denote the lengthen

ing of a syllable, the letters i and » serving at the same time for n and u, and for i and mi, and the consonants, (according to $ 21. Obt. 1.) not being written double.

The writing continued uncertain until the grammarians settled it at least for the language in common use.

15. The grammarians also introduced into the ancient poets signs to denote

syllables metrically lengthened by reduplication, or long vowels and diphthongs. were frequently written in the common way, and the correct metrical pronunciation was left to the learned reader*.

as ixitt, ( //. «. 342. %. 5.) with a long syllable in the middle, and tn/teifan, ( Od. £. 434.) where the p ought to be sounded double, and to be written double, as in iupttSit. And when we find in Homer the first syllable of 'Atro'AXwre;, xTentrSxi, 0-vn%ls, fy't, employed as a long one, it may be doubted whether this was done by lengthening the vowel, or doubling the consonant.

But the practice was never perfectly settled. Such words

There are many traces of this in the poetical works handed down to us :

10. In modern times it has frequently been proposed to restore the ancient cus

tom so far as not to double the consonants ; which proposal has indeed been partly Beginners ought to be in- formed of this circumstance, that they may not be misled on finding sometimes mnXXHytit, and sometimes irtXnym with the same quantity, and seeing in the same editions the reduplication observed in some words, and not in others. But there is also frequently a double consonant close to a long vowel ; as ftmXXn, sVvtoftj Hrrvv, Krufris, 'T/uiTTts, \\v**w, xguV***, xftirrtn. with must be lengthened. Several editors prefer the ancient orthography in proper names, and write Kmris, Uxetnris, Kxfiris, &c. The proper names of places in drrx

But Ii^ixivnu .evftts, with ?i>(xxirit( short, were already in use among the ancients. (See Buttmann'i Complete Greek Grammar, § 21. Oil. 9.)

adopted, but in a very wavering and uncertain way.

This is likewise the case

(Ion. irg^rr*,) Hx^xgro;, (Ion. Tlopnvfflt^) KtiQirrif, in which the vowel

come from -tier*: 3x#T#w"r«, ntinxuvrrcu, *A^yniirexi, &c.

§ 28. Contraction. 1. A vowel, before which is another vowel in the same word, is called vocalis pura, because it sounds pure, that is to say, without being introduced by a consonant ; and especially the end-syllables beginning with a vowel, as a, or, w, &c. are called pure, when they are preceded by another vowel, as in ooipia,

8 The same was done in the opposite case, when long vowels were to be shortened. See $ 7. Obi.

vowel, as in ooipia, 8 The same was done in the opposite case, when long vowels

CONTRACTION.

41

2. The characteristic difference between the Ionic and Attic

dialect, is that the former is in most instances fond of the meet (See, however,

ing of vowels, and the latter mostly avoids it. Obs. 1. and 5.)

3. The usual remedies are 1. ) the elision, when one vowel is rejected, and the other remains unchanged. words meet together, and in compound words ; see § 29. and 120. 2. ) the contraction, when several vowels are combined toge This is done the following main principles :

conformably to

This is chiefly done, when single

ther in a long syllable.

a. Two vowels form a diphthong of themselves ; thus arises

ei and oi from tT and oT, as, vs'ty^u nly^ei, alSoV xl$o7, (§ 49.) The other proper diphthongs are generally not formed in this manner, but the improper always, a, ri, u, from a'i, w, cat, as, ynpai ynpx, (§ 54.) ®prii<s<sa. ©priaui,

XaJiYor Xutos, (§ 68.)

b. Two vowels are converted into a long kindred sound ; and we generally find

»i from e* tei'xe* ««%"» xe'«? xmp, (heart,) ei from 'sco ee wo/ee woi'ei, phSpov
»i
from
e* tei'xe* ««%"» xe'«? xmp, (heart,)
ei
from
'sco
ee wo/ee woi'ei, phSpov pilSpov, {stream,")
and aou -n/xaoptsv ti/xw/xev,
r
tiu.dou ti/xo),
u
irom !
oa.
(oo
OS
ana vn aiooa aiSu,
'pmT&OTjrE iMahurt,
zaXoos wXour,
/AIIT&OO/AEVE^ll'ffS'OE E/Alfl-Sotf,puff&oCplEV,
eo
niy^sos rtlypvs,
woie'o/xev voiovjxsv.

c. The doubtful vowels, (a, i, v,) absorb, when short, the fol lowing vowel, and thus become long ; as, at$\os, contest, (short a, ton.) a&Xor, (Att.) rlpae rifu* X/ior Xibr, (native o/Xi'or,)"I<pu "I<pi, (dat.) 'tyfivis and as, (short v,~) Ix^vs, (from the sing. «x$w.) d. A long syllable absorbs a vowel without any other change :

this occurs especially with a, before and after every kindred long syllable, and before the u, as for instance,

o,

e,

: this occurs especially with a, before and after every kindred long syllable, and before the

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

TifjAu ti/au, Tloaaoduv, (long a.,) no«iSaJy, \SLas Kas, (*/one,) /jLtaSoouai //.HtSovoi,

4. Whenever any diphthong, the improper included, formed with an i, is to undergo a contraction with a preceding vowel, the first vowels are treated according to the laws above stated, the « either becomes an iota subscriptum, as in (06s. II. to § 103.) dst-Scv x-$w, aoi-Sri di-Uri, ri/A-asi and rip-dri ri/A-gi, or it is thrown out, if the iota subscriptum be not admissible, as in /xktS'-oeiv (aioS-ovv, "OiroEir 'Onovs, (§ 41. 06s.) Obs. 1. These principles apply only to the regular and analogical contraction. Several exceptions and peculiarities will be found below in the Declensions and Con jugations ; and with regard to the crasis or contraction of two words, see the fol lowing J. But the Attic writers have not the contraction in every instance, in which it might take place conformably to the above laws, as may be seen farther on. and by attentive reading. Obs. 2. The Ionians, on the contrary, as has already been observed above, com monly neglect the contraction, and frequently resolve a long syllable into its indi vidual parts, though long ago disused by the other Greek tribes ; as, for instance, the second pers. sing, of the pres. indie, in the pass, voice rixnxt instead of rirrr,, even fiXU*^ iwmaiu*, &c, instead of f'Xii, which commonly is again contracted into $ iXri : (Attice ti/ttii, fiXu, according to Obs. 3. to § 103. many resolved forms in common with the Ionic. Obs. 3. It is likewise owing to this propensity of the Ionians that we so fre quently find in the Epic poets diphthongs separated in some words, as mtiipfor <r«uV, for etyyutr, &c. ; rowels extended, as <paa.i^iv) Kpr,nvov1 for and the Ionic introduction of an i, as it for », r,ix,cs for fix,.!, iuxi<ri for uKoffiy aiiXflog, Touriau, &C1. Obs. 4. Sometimes the Ionians favor the meeting of vowels by throwing out a consonant, as rifxes for t'i^xtcs, (see § 49.) Compare also ti/xtih/, &c. in Obs. 3 to

The Doric dialect has also

two

and

5 103.

Obs. 5. There are, however, instances, where the Ionic dialect has the contraction, and the Attic has it not ; as Ui, with a long §, Ion. for !t(of. The Ionians have also, in common with the Dorians, a peculiar contraction of u into tu, as, rXtuttt for But the Ionic dialect in the ancient Epic poets makes a much more frequent use of the con traction than the later Ionian prose-writers. 04s. C. The ancients frequently expressed all the vowels in writing, and left the This custom has been retained

contraction to the speaker, which is called synizesis.

9-xi»if, xoi-tiifiiiii from

for which we commonly have -oi/ttios.

1 The student ought, however, to remember that grammarians speak of these separations and introductions in constant reference to the common form ; but this common form itself may be a contracted form, derived from such a separation. This may be proved in some instances, as in it/' for tu, from its, since there is no word il» : separations, besides, occur only in a very limited number of forms.

for tu, from its, since there is no word il» : separations, besides, occur only in

43

HIATUS CRASIS.

in many nttanoea in the works of the ancient poets, especially the Kpics, ex. gr.

282. Apjtny 3i rtf9i«, where the terminations f(in aud dta must be pronounced Si pa Jraj btln, (pronounce In the Attics we have frequently in this way 3iif, Biiy, which else never occurs as a See about Xu^axa, ot>au in the list of Anomalous Verbs; and about a synizesis between two words, § 29. the last Obs. Obs. 7. That kind of contraction stated under d. (fixiu, pxii, and such like,)

might be considered as an elision, (viz. the dropping of the 1,) but it is more correct

to give that name only to those cases, in which one vowel is merely thrown off

without intending a mixed sound. This, (excepting such compounds as Way* for ixi-aym,) occurs in the middle of words chiefly only in some Ionic abbreviations,

as <pofiio for ftput. (see y 105. Obs.)

guage evidently intended a mixed cases, and the circumflex where it takes place, (Obs. 9.) aud the already existing

one long vowel was retained for that purpose.

Accent and Quantity. Obs. 8. When neither of the two syllables, which are to be contracted, is accented, the mixed sound generally is also not accented ; as -rigi'rJ.a« , iriftatt, emit r. <rifm-Aai/; , triftuv. . Obs. 9. But if one of the two original syllables has the accent, the mixed sound also takes this accent, which, if it be the penultimate or antepen. syllable, is regu lated by the general rule, (§ 10. and 11.) circumflex, (tits mt, fiXiet fiXa, &c.) unless the original form had the acute accent on the last syllable, which, however, is seldom the case, and then the acute accent

is retained, as !«» %r, irrxit io-toW, Suit S<«.

stated in § 9. 3. and in the Obs., aud exceptions in either instance are rare, (see, for instance, the actus, in i, $ 49.) Obs. 10. In some few contractions the accent is transposed ; as atfyes i(yi;, (§ 120. Obs. 6.) hxieertt iiXnros, &c. (§ 41. Obs. 7 ) X!""" XV"""> &c- (§ 60- 6.) See also the other cases of irijiVxauf, &c, § 36. Obs. Obs. 11. Though every mixed sound is essentially long, yet the pronunciation in some declensions, which have a contracted at or /, has again obscured this sound, so that it is sometimes short.

This is the case with the neuter pi. in «, asri^i, (see

II.

as one syllable, a<peu>i Ji f»'5>» : /3. 490.

contraction, and some proper names as NioyrAi/M?.

But in the first-mentioned instances the lan-< sound, as is shown by the analogy of the other

If it be on the last syllable, it takes the

Both is grounded on the theory

(in Herod.) to which must

J 64. Obs.) and a few datives, as KXi«/3i from Kxi«/3*f,

be added iat, ft) and a few similar Epic forms, (see § 50. Obs. 6.) But some of these instances at least may also be considered as elisions of the first vowel, as may

be seen in the 06*. to § 53.

§ 29. Hiatus Crasis.

1. When of two words immediately following each other, the first ends with a vowel, and the second begins with a vowel, the spiritus, which is heard between them, be it the asper or the le2iis, produces an effect called a hiatus, still more disagreeable to the ear of the Greeks, and especially the Athenians, than the accumulation of vowels in the middle of a word. This hiatus was not much tolerated in poetry, and hardly ever suffered in Attic poetry. Ionic,) its frequent recurrence was not liked. ,

But even in prose, (excepting the

hardly ever suffered in Attic poetry. Ionic,) its frequent recurrence was not liked. , But even

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

44

Obi. 1. The Attic verse allowed the hiatus only after the interrogative rt, after the particles in and o-igi, and in the expressions ei>3i i!s, unit »7f, (§ 70- 1.) i5 &c. &c. 2. The natural remedy against the hiatus is the coalition of two syllables into one1 ; which is of two kinds: 1.) when one of the vowels is entirely removed, it is an elision by an apostrophus, § 30. syllable, it is a crasis. only to a limited number of cases, which will be stated in the Obs. to this §. Obs. 2. With regard to the crasit, there are first three circumstances to be

noticed: a.) Every craiii renders the syllable long, ($ 7- 7-0 this distinguishes several of its instances from the elision through the apostrophus, ex. gr. riXtiSit, xx^itti, (for ti ix. xxl i(. with a short a.) nunciation, and t£>.xx, (for rk aAXa,) must be marked with the circumflex, which some grammarians will not allow, though they accent rakXa. But other cases, like rctbri, rxirx, (for ri nM, tA kvtcc,) must be treated in the same way for the sake of uniformity. (Compare $ 28. Obi. 7) b.) The iota lubtcriptum takes place only when the i is the last of the vowels, which are to be contracted ; therefore it is used in »« from xxl utx, but not is xit from xxi £>*. c.) There is commonly a ' over the crasis, which sign is called a coronis. Obi. 3. The crasis is most used with the article : as oiix, mrl, for i ix, i ixJ, TaitYxtr'itVj rtZvst, for ro fvavr/ov, ri Xxtf, Ttntfus, for ri oVo/eoe, rxttct. rxxl. for rk . iuM, ra lor),

2.) when both are blended together into one sound or

The latter, especially in prose, applies

Hence such as ritlfit must be lengthened in pro

,

a<

1

.

,

,

»«, , (with a long m «, see the preceding

rxyx3a, txWx, tor Tn ayxzx, TX xXXx, > TsXtidif, rxltxof, for Tff«X. aS. ortrxiTvt, itri^for a xirxtrut, i ftvflf 8, with which the less frequent craiis of the ar/i'c. poslposiliv. or pronoun relative

neuter agrees : as for ii Tsc%i, &i for <3 «», &c. Oil. 4. A crasis is not easily recognised, when diphthongs are absorbed : as aufMt, for tl iptl, ixxirims, for tl irx^rStrts,

(see 04s. 2. a.) and txvt9v} txvtZj (& 7^0 a,r' Txvrofixrev. and such like, or when d is used on account of the spir. asp. (§ 17. 06*. 2.) as for instance,

J

1 That the r ifiXxufixn cannot be considered as a remedy against the hiatus, may

be * seen This § rule, 26. Obs. through 2. a needless striving for distinctness, is frequently deviated from, and the writing of x£», xxvtutx, and such like, adopted.

' It is unquestionable, that, at least in the most obvious instances, as itrp «»&»«Krof,

Oixptt, the only usual contraction of the Attic dialect is that of J with a into a long and the meaning requires the article, it ought to be xthf, and is mostly written thus in all new editions. omitted before &ri(, &t\x. See Heind. ad rial. Phadon. 108.

This practice, however, is not safe, the article being also frequently

i, as im(, (pronounce h/inir,) and wherever we find merely

however, is not safe, the article being also frequently i, as im(, (pronounce h/inir,) and wherever

HIATUS CRASIS.

45

Satfiarw, pi. Ssi/tarm, for to In* ra l/i. Snftsriftv, for rsy zuiTiotu. Obs. 6. The vowels of the article are generally contracted into Z with ln(H, which comes from the ancient Doric form Unfit, (short a,) for iVtjos: thus, irlftf, Zrifoi, for d IVlfoe, */ Vrltfo*, Sxtijov, Sati*;-*, 3o£n*;ot, for Toy, t*7, w it. 04i. G. The crasis is even known set into *>, as rZyaX/ia, rvkvSis, vmx« tovtsv, for to «<ro revrov, and at the same time alters the ipir. asper into the /mi's, as *5fToy , for 0 flUiTdf, «AX<w, for oi aXXoi. The same with ailVoV, tawto, for a uvrie, to aiVo, (t«wt#.) Oft. 7. K« also frequently makes a crtwif, «f. jrr. x«v for *«i if, xZirura^ xixuvss, xiyZ, for xoti t-rurot, &c. (see OAs. 2. b.) xura, for xai i7t«, xoT^iTn, xtrts, for *«) «^iT»i, xou irte, xZltf, xcixt'a, for xai oTva;, slxia, for xa< o1 Other long syllables remain unchanged :

mi, xeut xitty for xeu u, sv, tit: kux**, for xxi iT-^av. The Ionian* and Dorians use * for i: as xif>, xHxurx. Obs. 8. The particles to!, uirrti, irst, make likewise a long a with the particles a> »tvrZi : but we com monly find t' J», t «{«, or t' «{«, &c in which case must not be confounded with t!. OA*. 9. Of many other erases, which we leave to the observation of the student, we only notice syZfjuu, lyZix, for lyZ tiftut, oToa. fuvciv, ffilhtxit, Sec. for //aj irtr, i&vztv, Tftupyev, 9TftiX!ytu, for <T{o tgyou, ixiysv. Obs. 10. We must also consider as erases all instances, in which the first vowel of a word is only absorbed by the preceding long syllable: as Svitxa, for ev'ttlxa, i&situus, for arou Zhxm, (compare Obs. 4.) till often erroneously written S'S' <£> ««, m^fwrt, uuf, uta\, for Z atSfuri, attf, For distinctness most of these words are, however, noted as elisions with the apo- strophus: as

and £fx, and should therefore be written as cratet, rat,

to the Ionic dialect, but this always contracts

for xeii it, and x«<

%eirtgof} for xaj iVi«o;

Z 'ymSi, (iy*3k,) tj 'pif*!*, Vii", (tV'»,) lyZ 'v to7i, (lv.)* OA*. 11. Many other contractions were never noted in writing, but left to pro nunciation, as a synizesis, (compare J 28. OAs.) which, however, is not easily ascer tained ; ex. gr. iti) ci as an iambus, (Soph. Philoet. 446-) p)i il in Attic poetry always as one syllable. And in Homer n nVoxiv as a daetylus, {II. i, 446.) |

Vr/Ji- | rm, 'nS

1 That there really is a cr<w* in these instances, just as Qik'ui, pkS, is a real con traction, is proved by the analogy of many known erases like *3o|i, riri, Sarifa, fry '"»«,) and by the fact that such an elision never takes place after a short vowel. To write a erasis distinctly, is often attended with some difficulty, especially when the absorbed syllable had the accent, which in that case is frequently marked over the empty space ; as u' must be considered as if they were written ftZxupi, r'neriftia, &c.

"x"r"t {?X"r"-) Such instances, and those stated above,

or,

//. {. 89.

r'neriftia, &c. "x"r"t {?X"r"-) Such instances, and those stated above, or, //. {. 89.

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

46

§ 30. Of the Apostrophus.

1. In the Greek, as in other languages, a short vowel at the end of a word before another vowel, is thrown out by elision, and the apostrophus ' is placed as a mark or sign over the empty space ; for instance,

lit iy.ov for in\ kfMv :

and if the subsequent word has the spir. asper, the eventually preceding tenuis, (according to § 17. 3.) is aspirated; as dty' ot, for dltO o5. 2. In prose, some words of frequent recurrence, most commonly are attended with an elision, especially d\Xd, apa, and apa, dva, 5ja, xara, /xefa, zsapd, diro, vno, dfxfpl, dvri, lul, Se, re, ye : or fre quent combinations, as vn Aia, (v« A/*,) wavr' civ, (forwocvra av,) The elision occurs less frequently in other words, Poets, on the contrary, avail themselves of this licence with almost all short vowels j only the short v, the monosyllables in «, i, o, (excepting the Epic pd,) and the prep, wept never admit the elision. Obs. 1. If the rejected vowel had the accent, this accent is always dropped in pre positions and conjunctions ; as i<r' from ari, iXX.' from ikXa, sSt from tiii. In all other words the accent is always thrown on the preceding syllable, and constantly as an acute accent : for instance, (xecxa,) x*V irrrt, (5m«,) 3nV tracer, (^»y*J,) Qrip' iyv, (rayaSci,) r*yei&' aS^trai, (iwra,) 'Ixv lagtv. Obs. 2. To determine when the elision is used in prose, and when not, is attended with great difficulty, because even 31, ixi, and such like,are often found without an apostrophus. quently did actually write down the vowel, which is to be dropped in speaking. Obs. 3- In the Attic dialect the dat. sing, in i and the particle SV; never undergo an elision, and in Epic poetry chiefly only when there is no possibility of confound ing them with the usually apostrophed accus. in a and the particle on, as iv 3anV ,

This difficulty is increased by its being proved that the ancients frer

and most seldom in Ionic prose.

and such like.

Obs. 4. Third persons taking the mutable t, may likewise be apostrophed by poets in case of need, and the same may be done with the dat. pi. ; only the terminations am, mi, um, of the first and second decl. most common in the ancient language, are then assimilated to the terminations ait, «(, «c, and hence admit of no apostrophus But the elision of the dat. pi. of the third decl. is avoided, because This elision is, however, sometimes admitted by the intensive Epic form in rn, as xs'tu"> Obs. 5. Poets also apply the elision, (though less frequently,) to the diphth. ai, but only in the passive terminations /««/, rtu, rai, c!}m, as fitiktrB' If*, l(Xf? >x">

it would almost always be like another casus, ending in s.

before a vowel.

1 There are also instances of elision quoted of the inf. aor. 1. act. in m, yet none where the diphthong dropping before^ shortvowel leavesthesyllableashort one; the metre everywhere requires or allows a long syllable in that case. All such instance*

leavesthesyllableashort one; the metre everywhere requires or allows a long syllable in that case. All such

GENDER.

That the datives fu), « >, were elided, is still very questionable. See Bnttmann's Complete Greek Grammar. undergone an elision, especially x«i and , (§ 29. Obi. 7- 8.) belongs to Grant, and o does the teeming elision of ri, ri, >\ 29. Obi. 2. a.) and that of initial vowels (in the same §, Obt. 10.) With regard to the apocope in if, « «{, At, (instead of «»«,) before a consonant, see below § 117. Ob:

Whatever else is stated as long syllables, which have

§ 31.-0/ the Parts of Speech.

1. There are, strictly speaking, but three principal parts of For every word, which names or denotes an object, is a

speech. Noun ; the word, by which something is predicated of an object, is called a Verb ; and all the words, by which the speech thus formed is particularised, connected, and animated, are comprised under the name of Particles. 2. But these three principal parts of speech are generally subdivided, so as to form eight parts of speech in the languages, 1.) The Noun, which is either substantive or adjective, gives 2.) the Pronoun, which also includes the article ', and 3.) the Participle, which with regard to syntax is part of the verb. the Particles are 5.) the Adverb, 6.) the Preposition, 7.) the Conjunction, and 8.) the Interjection ; but Greek gram marians commonly rank the latter among the adverbs.

with which we are best acquainted.

4.) The Verb remains undivided ;

OF THE NOUN AND ITS DECLENSIONS.

§ 32. Of the Gender.

1. The masc. and neut. Gender of the noun is mostly shown by It is indicated See its

the terminations, and will be noticed in each decl.

in the grammar by the article, b, (he,) w, (she,) to, (it.)

declension, § 75.

2. Personal denominations, (man, woman, god, goddess, &c.)

always agree with the natural sex, be the termination what it may :

for instance ft hvyimp, The diminutives in ov are, however, excepted, being always of the neuter gender ; as to 71/vaiov, little woman, from ywfi, womany, to (Mtpaxiov, little youth, from [jizTpat, youth.

daughter, ri mhos, the daughter-in-laiv.

are, therefore, to be considered as crasn, conformably to the rules laid down in the preceding § ; but, (if the syllable is not written in full as a synizesis,) the apo- for

strophus must be used for the sake of distinctness ; in one case thus, yiHr yiitcu ifuti, (long »,) in the other thus, yifiai soifi, (iirn{i.) 1 See the reason in the Note to § 75.

case thus, yiHr yiitcu ifuti, (long »,) in the other thus, yifiai soifi, (iirn{i.) 1 See

A GREEK GRAMMAR.

Obs. 1. In the class of diminutives mast also be ranked to rixm, or ri rixn, All words, however, which are not in immediate contact with such personal neuters, are always construed in reference to the real sex and number. rlxtn flXi. cause this denomination denotes the slave as a thing, and not as a person. Obs. 2. Hence every personal denomination, common to both sexes, is also generis (Aic homo,) a woman is god and goddess,

called A xtBfwrm, (hcec fcemina.)

communis in grammar: for instance, instead of

child, and the pi. raiiixa, used instead of the sing, to denote darling.

Homer even says

The word ri itirtitreim, slave, is scarcely to be mentioned here, be

It is the same with i and fi

S and ti Tfapif, tutor and nurse, I and h fuXal, male &ni\ female keeper or guard, &c., though several of these words have also their own peculiar feminine appella tions, as n Stu, goddess, which are not so readily used by Attic writers. Obs. 3. Several names of animals are likewise generis communis, as, for instance,

I and A fiiui, (ox, cow,) i and n Isrircs, (horse.) With regard to most animals, one

and the same gender serves for both sexes; and this gender, when it ismasc.or fem.,

is called genus epiccenum, (as for instance i \ixtt, wolf; i xXarrl, fux.)

in those, which are generis communis, one of the two genders applies to the species ;

as o TutTM is a horse in general and in an indefinite way, but a\ a!yn applies to the whole species. The fem. is mostly preferred ; thus at, t&u, (but only in the pi.) most commonly denotes horned cattle in general. "Aj*r«, bear, and xa/wXts, camel, when the sex is of no particular importance, are always employed as of the fem. gender, (A xfxmi, i xapnXts,) even in speaking of the male ; and this is also fre The fem. h iVr« signifies like

quently the case with ixafa, stag, and aim, dog. wise horse, cavalry.

But even

3. The names of trees, as t> (pnybs , beech-tree, 4> virus, pine ; and

of towns and countries, as fi Kd^iv&or, ri Klyvitros, fi Aaxetial/Am, are of the fem. gender, with very few exceptions. Obs. 4. Of trees, i filr& palm-tree; ixx^xtts, cherry-lree ; I i(mis, wild fig-tree ;

i ximtf, wild olive-tree, are of the masc gender ; and of the names of towns in ts,

'Of^a^u'flf constantly is masc, llvXet, 'E<r*3«yjaf, 'AXta^rlt, 'o^M-ej, are commonly so, and some others are sometimes masc. : the plurals in a, like ilxmai, and owing

to the constantly masc. termination of tut, »Zs, gen. wurai, at, gen. avrtt, as e iavtrivt,

SiXi»«Sf, Tifxs . perhaps in ancient authors only in poetry, (Pindarus makes 'Or'ms for 'OtrtVf, and The names in **

Ax(«yas always masc.) else only in later writers, as Slrabo, &c. are uncertain, but those most known are fem. : BafivXav is always so, and ZiKvur commonly. Names of towns ending in tt and «, gen. mi, also remain of the neuter gender; as ri iuvXixw, ri "Atyi.

i Vet there are also some in cut and as of the fem. gender ; but

§ 33. Declension.

1. The Greek declension has the five known cases of other

languages, without any particular form for the Latin ablative,

which is supplied partly by the gen., and partly by the dat.

There is an additional number in both the Greek declensions Yet It

and conjugations, viz. the dual, when the question is of two.

it is not always used ; many authors do not employ it at all. is mostly employed by the Attic writers.

2.

is of two. it is not always used ; many authors do not employ it at

FinST DECLENSION.

3. The dual has only two terminations, one for the nomin., acc, and vocat. ; the other for the gen. and dat.

4. The Greek grammar has three declensions^ which correspond

to the three first Latin declensions, and the terminations of which

are stated jointly in the following table :

Sing. 2d Dec!. 3d Decl. Nom. os, Neuter ov Gen. DO or (ojs) Dat. CO
Sing.
2d Dec!.
3d Decl.
Nom.
os, Neuter ov
Gen.
DO
or (ojs)
Dat.
CO
i
i
Acc.
0V
Voc.
e, Neuter ov
a. or v, Neuter like
the Nomin.
Dual.
N.A.V
a
u
E
G.D.
aiv
OIV
OIV
PI.
Nom.
sr, Neuter a
Gen.
at Si
oi, Neuter a
My
on
Dat.
a
is
01s
Acc.
ffiv or at
is, Neuter a.
Voc.
is ax
ovs, Neuter a
oi, Neuter a
Ef, Neuter %

It

is

See about what is called the second Attic decl. § 37. omitted here for the sake of simplicity.

5. these terminations are pure, and admit the contrac

When 28.) the contracted declension takes place, as it is stated The words, which admit this contraction in all cases and numbers, are called IXonoiSri, (completely suffering.) tracted first and second decl., but properly never with the third. (See § 48. Obs. 2.) 04*. 1. The gen.pl. is u» in all the three declensions. Obs. 2. The dat. ting, is i in all the three declensions; in the two first it is the tola subtcriplum. Obs. 3. The dat. pi. is properly eti or ci in all the three declensions ; for alt, en, is only an abbreviation of the ancient form */<ri», <wnv, or mri, un. (§ 30. Obs. 4.) Even where it has a separate form, thenom. is often used instead of it, especially by the Attic writers. Obs. 5. The neuters have as in Latin three cases alike, (nam. acc. voc.) and their u. Obs. G. The three Greek declensions are very much like the three first Latin n and

decl. ; the Greek n is in Latin us, or (in the gen.) is ; the Greek » in general is in Latin m. Obs. 7. In the two first declensions the nomin. has a particular termination, which is changed in the other cases. But iu the third decl. the terminations of the

pi. is in

tion,

below with regard to the three declensions.

This is always the case with the con

Obs. 4. The vocal, generally is like the nom.

ui is in Latin um, and

E