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Diet therapy

A broad term for the practical application of nutrition as a preventative or cor

rective treatment of disease. This usually involves the modification of an exist
ing dietary lifestyle to promote optimum health. However, in some cases, an alte
rnative dietary lifestyle plan may be developed for the purpose of eliminating c
ertain foods in order to reclaim health. For example, the latter kind of diet th
erapy is often recommended for those who suffer from allergies, including those
that are not food-related.
• To increase or decrease body weight
• To rest a particular organ
• To adjust the diet to the body’s ability to use certain foods
• To produce a specific effect as a remedy (e.g., regulation of blood suga
r in diabetes)
• To overcome deficiencies by the addition of food rich in some nece
ssary element (e.g., supplementing the diet with iron in treating macr
ocytic anemia)
• To provide ease of digestion by omitting irritating substances,
such as fiber, spices, or high-fat foods
• Diets used in the treatment of disease are often spoken of by spec
ific names that show a special composition and often indicate the purpose for wh
ich the diet is intended.
Regular diet
A full, well-balanced diet containing all of the essential nutrients needed for
optimal growth, tissue repair, and normal functioning of the organs. Such a diet
contains foods rich in proteins, carbohydrates, high-quality fats, minerals, an
d vitamins in proportions that meet the specific caloric requirements of the ind
ividual. Also called normal diet.
Mosby s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.
• The regular diet is composed of all types of foods and is well balanced
and capable of maintaining a state of good nutrition. It is intended for conv
alescing patients who do not require a therapeutic diet.
• The amount of calories and protein that your teenager needs each day dep
ends on his age and weight in kilograms.
• The calories and protein needed for growth are higher if your teenager i
s active in sports or fitness programs.
From 12 to 14: about 45 to 55 calories per kg
Age 15 to 18: about 40 to 45 calories per kg
Age 12 to 14: about 1 gram per kg
Age 15 to 18: about 0.9 grams per kg
Serving Sizes: Use the serving size list below to measure amounts of food and li
1-1/2 cups (12 ounces) of liquid is the size of a soda-pop can.
1 cup (8 ounces) of food is the size of a large handful.
1/2 cup (4 ounces) of food is about half of a large handful.
1 ounce of cheese is about the size of a 1 inch cube.
2 tablespoons (Tbsp) is about the size of a large walnut.
1 tablespoon (Tbsp) is about the size of the tip of your thumb (from the last cr
1 teaspoon (tsp) is about the size of the tip of your little finger (from the la
st crease).
A serving means the size of food after it is cooked. Three ounces of cooked meat
is about the size of a deck of cards.
Daily servings for a teenager’s diet
Breads / Starches: Most teens need 5 to 10 servings per day. One serving is the
amount listed below.
1 bagel or muffin
2 slices bread
1/2 cup cooked cereal, pasta, potatoes, or rice
1 ounce or 3/4 cup dry cereal
Fruits: Most teens need 2 to 3 servings per day. One serving is the amount liste
d below.
1/2 cup canned fruit or fruit juice
1 piece fresh fruit, such as an apple, orange, peach, or pear
15 to 20 grapes
1-1/2 cups fresh berries or melon
Vegetables: Most teens need 2 to 3 servings per day. One serving is the amount l
isted below.
1/2 cup cooked or 1 cup raw vegetable
2 cups salad greens
1 cup vegetable or tomato juice
Meat / Meat Substitutes: Most teens need 3 to 5 servings per day. One serving is
the amount listed below.
1/2 cup cottage or ricotta cheese
3/4 to 1 cup cooked dried beans or legumes
1 egg
1 ounce lowfat or regular cheese
2 to 3 ounces meat, fish, or poultry
2 to 3 Tbsps peanut butter (after age 2)
Milk or Yogurt: Most teens need 4 to 5 servings per day. One serving is equal to
1 cup lowfat milk or yogurt. If your teenager does not like milk or yogurt, one
ounce of cheese or 1/2 cup of cottage cheese may be used instead.
Fats: Most teens need 2 to 4 servings per day. One serving is the amount listed
6 almonds or 10 peanuts
2 Tbsps cream cheese, avocado, or low calorie salad dressing
1 tsp oil, margarine, mayonnaise, or butter
1 Tbsp salad dressing
Sweets and Desserts: Eat only enough from this group to stay at a good body weig
ht. Many teenagers can eat 1 to 3 servings per week without gaining too much wei
ght. Remember too much sweets and desserts will also effect the amount of skin p
roblems your teenager has, like pimples. One serving is a medium portion, such a
s 1/8 of a pie, 1/2 cup ice cream, a 3-inch pastry,1/2 cup pudding, or 2 small c
Modified or Therapeutic Diets
Modified or therapeutic diets are modifications of the regular diet and are
designed to meet specific patient needs. These include •
• method of preparation (e.g., baking, boiling, or broiling),
• consistency (e.g., ground or chopped),
• total calories (e.g., high or low calorie),
• nutrients (e.g., altering carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, a
nd minerals), and
• allowing only specific foods (e.g., diabetic diet).
What are LIQUID diets?
• A diet containing no solid foods, is often prescribed for gastrointestin
al illness or before or after certain types of surgery involving the mouth or ga
strointestinal tract
• generally focuses on replacing solid foods with liquid nutrition
Benefits and Uses
• Weight loss (weight loss effect can be short-lived)
• Pre-op and Post-op Purposes (it can flush the bowels while decreasing st
rain on the digestive system)
• In conditions of the GI tract (patients with Crohn s disease, which caus
es inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, can benefit from a high-calorie l
iquid diet. By giving the intestines a much-needed rest, a liquid diet can help
suppress the symptoms of Crohn s disease.)
Liquid diets and health issues
• May not provide the needed nutrients to maintain adequate energy levels
in most individuals.
• Short-term weight loss can be achieved
• ‘Detoxify the system by cleansing it of impurities (there is no evidenc
e to prove it; body is a very sophisticated machine that has its own system of d
etoxifying through the liver and sweat)
• The lack of proteins and fiber
• Ultimately, nutrition and resistance to disease will suffer in the effor
t to achieve a more defined physique
• This diet approach will not teach individuals the necessary requirements
of healthy eating to maintain the weight loss.
Consuming a liquid diet without doctor supervision can be dangerous if caloric i
ntake is not monitored closely. (One ignores the essential vitamins, proteins, f
ibers, and other required sources for optimum health). Most Liquid diets may not
be suitable for long-term or excessive weight loss.
Types of Liquid diets
Clear liquid diet
• Consists of food and drinks that are clear, meaning you can see through
them. In this type of diet, you aren t limited to colorless food and drink; you
are limited to food and drink that are clear.
• Used to prepare for certain medical tests, more commonly bloodwork. It i
s very helpful when a patient is expereince nausea and has trouble keeping thing
s down. Also used before and after surgery.
• Only clear liquids and foods that are liquid at room temperature. This d
iet does not provide all of the nutrition that your body needs and is meant to b
e temporary--providing the liquids, salt, calories and limited nutrients to sust
ain the body until the person can eat regular food.
Clear juices and beverages. :
Apple juice, grape juice, cranberry juice are okay but without the pulp. Fruit p
unch is okay but you may want to dilute it with water. Strained lemonade and lim
Coffee, tea (hot or cold), Kool-Aid, clear sodas, and water are all acceptable.
Bouillon, broths, fat free consommé, and strained vegetable broth are all good c
hoices for the clear liquid diet.
Fruit ices without milk, fruit ices without fruit pieces, plain gelatin dessert,
popsicles, are okay.
Other Foods and Drinks:
honey are also acceptable.
1 cup apple juice (strained)
1/2 cup fruit-flavored gelatin dessert
1/2 cup broth
Hot, non-caloric beverage
Mid-Morning Snack
1 cup fruit juice
1 cup orange juice (strained)
1/2 cup fruit-flavored gelatin
1 cup broth
Mid-Afternoon Snack
1 cup fruit juice
1 cup orange juice
1/2 cup fruit flavored gelatin dessert
1/2 cup broth
Hot, non-caloric beverage
Evening Snack
1 cup fruit juice
Nutrient Content
Calories: 790
Protein: 3%
Carbohydrate: 92%
Fat: 5%
Cholesterol: 20 mg
Fiber: 3 g


Bread and Cereal Exchange List
Recommended: Gelatin
Avoid: All others
Fat Exchange List
Recommended: None
Avoid: All Fruit Exchange List
Recommended: Clear and strained fruit juices or drinks
Avoid: All others
Meat and Meat Substitute
Exchange List
Recommended: None
Avoid: All
Miscellaneous Exchange List
Coffee (black)
Carbonated beverages
Tea (black)
Fat free broth
Avoid:All others not noted above
Milk Exchange List
Recommended: None
Avoid: All
Vegetable Exchange List
Recommended: None
Avoid: All

Full liquid diet

• Full liquid diet is a diet that falls in between a clear liquid diet and
a soft liquid diet; eating or drinking foods that are liquid or foods that will
become liquid at room temperature.
• Transition from clear liquids to solid foods. Those who need a full liqu
id diet include persons having problems swallowing, chewing or digesting solid f
oods. Often, this type of diet is used after surgery or during illness.
• Individuals may need to consider a liquid vitamin and mineral supplement
since it can be difficult to get all of daily nutritional requirements from a f
ull liquid diet
• Not recommended as a weight loss plan.

All fruit juices and nectars, Bouillon, broth, Butter/cream/oil/margarine, Carbo

nated beverages, Cheese soup, Coffee/Tea, Fresh or frozen plain yogurt, Fruit dr
inks, Fruit punch, Honey/jelly/syrup, Liquid meal replacements, Milk, all types,
Ice milk, Milkshakes, Pasteurized eggnog, Plain cornstarch pudding, Plain gelat
in desserts, Potatoes pureed in soup, Refined/strained cooked cereal
Small amounts of strained meat in broth or gelatine, Smooth ice cream, Soft or b
aked custard, Strained lemonade/limeade, Strained or blenderized soup, Thin frui
t purees, Tomato juice, Tomato puree for cream soup, Vegetable juice


1/2 cup orange juice 1/2 cup cooked cream of wheat
8 ounces whole milk Hot, non-caloric beverage
Mid-Morning Snack
1 pureed banana
6 ounces soup, chicken broth 1/2 cup fruit-flavored gelatin dessert
8 ounces eggnog Hot, non-caloric beverage
Mid-Afternoon Snack
2 cups custard
6 ounces vegetable broth 1/2 cup apple juice
1/2 cup ice cream Hot, non-caloric beverage
Evening Snack
1 pureed apple
Nutrient Content
Calories: 1305
Protein: 7%
Carbohydrates: 75%
Fat: 18%
Cholesterol: 320 mg.
Fiber: 2 mg
Bread and Cereal Exchange List:
Recommended: Refined or cooked cereals which have been thinned with hot milk
Avoid: All others
Fat Exchange List:
Avoid: All others
Fruit Exchange List:
2 or more serving per day
Fruit juices
Pureed fruit without seeds
Avoid: All others
Meat and Meat Substitute Exchange List
Pureed meats added to broths or soups
Avoid: All others
Milk Exchange List:
3 or more servings per day
All milk and milk drinks such as:
Custard and milk shakes
Avoid: None
Vegetable Exchange List:
Vegetable juices
Pureed vegetables
Mild-flavored vegetables such as carrots, in soup
Avoid: All vegetables, especially:
Green pepper Broccoli Miscellaneous Exchange List
Broth Strained cream soups
Coffee Tea (black)
Carbonated beverages, such as cola drinks
Avoid: All others not noted above
Protein liquid diet
• Become popular for weight loss and weight gain; helps maintain caloric i
ntake, provides vital protein for muscle repair and regeneration, and gives a fe
eling of fullness. meant to replace a meal with a well-formulated protein shake
consisting of about 200 calories; simply reducing daily caloric intake while pro
viding necessary protein; decreasing calories will help with weight loss; howeve
r, without long-term lifestyle and diet changes, the joy of weight loss may be s
Protein Sources
• Powdered protein nutritional supplements are the most popular form of li
quid protein.
• Mixing powdered protein with whole milk, creams or half and half will in
crease calories; mixing protein powders with skim milk, soy milk or low-fat yogu
rts will decrease the caloric intake. Individuals who want no additional calorie
s, mix powdered protein with water. For those who cannot tolerate cow s milk as
a source, consider whey protein powders
Semi-Liquid Options
• Hospitals often consider foods such as Cream of Wheat or custard-style y
ogurts as semi-liquid protein sources. For those needing the calories, milkshake
s, ice creams or creamy soups made with whole milk or cream can add protein and
• It tends to leave individuals with imbalanced sodium/potassium levels, w
hich lead to amino acid imbalances.
• Amino acids are necessary for muscle growth and repair.
• Remember, the heart is a muscle, too, so attempt high-protein diets for
weight loss with caution and preferably under a physician s care.
Soft Diet
What is soft diet?
• A soft diet contains foods that are soft and easy for you to chew or swa
• These foods may be chopped, ground, mashed, pureed, and moist
• Eating soft foods may help if you have problems chewing or swallowing.
Soft diet is recommended for:
• dysphagia
• Surgery involving the jaw, mouth, GI tract
• Pain from newly adjusted braces
How is it prepared?
• Use a food processor to grind or puree foods to make them easier to chew
and swallow
• Chicken broth, beef broth, gravy, or sauces may be used to moisten and b
lend meats and vegetables.
• Fruit juice may be used to blend fruit.
• Do not eat the same thing every day. Prepare a variety of foods to make
sure you get all the nutrients you need.
Example of meal plan
1/2 cup fruit juice
2 eggs, scrambled
1 slice toast
1 tsp. butter or margarine
Sugar and cream
1/2 cup fruit juice
2 oz. meat, fish, or poultry
1/2 cup vegetable
2 slices bread
1 tsp. butter or margarine
1 cup milk
4 oz. meat, fish, or poultry
1 cup potato
1/2 cup vegetable
1 slice bread or roll
1 tsp. butter or margarine
1 serving fruit or allowed dessert
1/2 cup to 1 cup cereal
1 cup milk
Sugar snack
2 tbsp. creamy peanut butter
1/2 cup fruit or allowed dessert
1 cup milk, milkshake, or pasteuized eggnog

Bland Diet
• consists of foods that are easily digestible, mildly seasoned and tender
• designed to decrease peristalsis and avoid irritation of the gastrointes
tinal tract.
Indicated for:
• Peptic ulcer disease
• Chronic gastritis
• Dyspepsia
• Ulcers
• Vomiting
• Nausea
• Bowel problems
• Gas/ flatulence
• Avoid frying
• Avoid highly seasoned foods
• Avoid most raw and gas forming foods
(2-3 servings each day)
All milk and milk products
Plain mild cheeses
Cottage cheese MILK & DAIRY
(3-5 servings each day )
Mild flavored vegetable juices
Cooked, frozen or canned vegetables as tolerated (asparagus tips, beets,
carrots, green or waxed beans, mushrooms, pumpkin, green peas, white or sweet p
otato, spinach, summer or winter squashes)
Lettuce in small amounts
Salads made from allowed foods VEGETABLES
Raw vegetables, dried peas and beans, corn
Gas forming vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, onio
ns, cauliflower, cucumber, green pepper, corn, rutabagas, turnips and sauerkraut

(2-4 servings each day)
All fruit juice
Cooked or canned fruit without skins, seeds, or tough fibers
Avocado and banana
Grapefruit and orange sections without membrane
All other fresh and dried fruit
Berries and figs
(6-11 servings each day )
White, refined wheat, seedless rye breads. Plain white rolls, white melb
a toast, matzo, English muffin, bagel, pita bread, tortilla
Saltine, graham, soda or plain crackers
Cooked, refined cereals such as cream of wheat, oatmeal, farina, cream o
f rice. Dry corn and rice cereals such as puffed rice or corn flakes
Enriched rice, barley, noodles, spaghetti, macaroni, and other pastas
Whole grain and very coarse cereals such as bran
Seeds in or on breads, and crackers
Bread or bread products with nuts or dried fruit
Potato chips, fried potatoes, wild rice
(2-3 servings each day)
All lean, tender meats, poultry, fish and shellfish
Eggs, crisp bacon
Smooth nut butters
Soybean curd (Tofu) and other meat substitutes
Mildly seasoned meat stock, broth bouillon, or cream soups made with allowed foo
Highly seasoned, cured or smoked meats, poultry or fish such as corned b
eef, luncheon meats, frankfurter and other sausages, sardine anchovies, strong f
lavored cheeses and chunky peanut butter
(use sparingly)
Butter or fortified margarine
Mild salad dressings such as mayonnaise, French or vinegar and oil
All fats and oils
Sugar, syrup, honey, jelly seedless jam, hard candies plain chocolate ca
ndies molasses, marshmallows
Cakes, cookies, pies puddings, custard, ice cream sherbet, and Jell-O ma
de with allowed foods
Highly seasoned salad dressings with seeds or pickle relish
All sweets and desserts containing nuts, coconut or fruit not allowed
Fried pastries such as doughnuts
All beverages as tolerated
Herb teas, fruit drinks
Iodized salt, flavorings
Seedless jams, taffy, sugar, honey, jelly
Marshmallows, molasses
Mildly flavored gravies and sauces
Pepper, herbs, spices, ketchup, mustard and vinegar in moderation
Caffeine-containing beverages (coffee, tea, colas, orange soda, Dr. Pepp
Alcoholic beverages
Strongly flavored seasonings and condiments such as garlic, barbecue sau
ce, chili sauce, chili pepper, horseradish, pepper, chili powder and other highl
y spiced foods
Pickles, seed spices, olives, popcorn, nuts and coconut
Aspirin and aspirin-containing medicines
Sample Menu
Potato-egg omelet
Whole wheat bread
Soy coffee with milk
Tokwa adobo
Sautéed squash & string beans
Boiled nuts
Ginataang vegemeat
Fresh pineapple