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Additional Maths Notes

(20 Oct 2014)


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Ex 3.1

Table of Contents
Ex 1.1

Simultaneous Equations ................................................. 5

Solve a Pair of Linear & Non-linear Eqns .............................. 5


Form Relation ................................................................................... 5
Ex 1.2

Sum and Product of Roots.............................................. 5

Sum & Product of Roots................................................................ 5


Form a Quadratic Equation from its Roots ........................... 5
Useful Formulae............................................................................... 5
Prove Identities involving Roots............................................... 5
Ex 1.3

Discriminant ........................................................................ 5

Complete the Square ...................................................................... 5


Sketch Quadratic graphs .............................................................. 6
Discriminant & Nature of Roots/Number of xintercepts/Number of Intersections ....................................... 6
Conditions for ax 2 + bx + c to be always positive or
negative ............................................................................................... 6

Polynomials and Identities.............................................8

Definition of Polynomials ............................................................ 8


Multiply Polynomials .................................................................... 8
Find Unknown(s) in an Identity ............................................... 8
Ex 3.2

Division of Polynomials ...................................................8

Long Division .................................................................................... 8


Division Algorithm ......................................................................... 9
Ex 3.3

Remainder Theorem.........................................................9

Remainder Theorem ..................................................................... 9


Ex 3.4

Factor Theorem ..................................................................9

Factor Theorem ............................................................................... 9


Sum/Difference of Cubes ............................................................. 9
Ex 3.5

Cubic Polynomials and Equations ...............................9

Factorize Cubic Expressions ...................................................... 9


Form Cubic Polynomial ................................................................ 9
Ex 3.6

Partial Fractions .................................................................9

Quadratic Inequalities ..................................................... 6

Break into Partial Fractions ....................................................... 9

Solve Quadratic Inequality .......................................................... 6

Cover-up Rule ................................................................................. 10

Solve Simultaneous Inequalities ............................................... 6

Compare Coefficients .................................................................. 10

Form Quadratic Inequality from Solution............................. 6

Juggling ............................................................................................. 10

Ex 1.4

Ex 2.1

Surds ...................................................................................... 6

Surds Properties .............................................................................. 6

Proper & Improper fraction ..................................................... 10


Ex 4.1

Modulus Functions and their Graphs ...................... 10

Simplify Surds................................................................................... 7

Modulus Definition ...................................................................... 10

Rationalize Denominator ............................................................. 7

Modulus Properties ..................................................................... 10

Solve Surds Equation ..................................................................... 7

Solve Modulus Equations .......................................................... 10

Method of Difference ..................................................................... 7

Sketch y = f(|x|) ............................................................................ 10

Ex 2.2

Indices ................................................................................... 7

Law of Indices ................................................................................... 7


Ex 2.3

Index equations.................................................................. 7

Ex 4.2

Power Graphs ................................................................... 11

Sketch Power Graphs .................................................................. 11


Ex 5.1

Binomial Expansion of ( + ) ............................... 11

Equality of Indices .......................................................................... 7

Factorial ............................................................................................ 11

Different Types of Manipulation ............................................... 8

Combination ................................................................................... 11

Exponential Functions..................................................... 8

Use Pascals Triangle ................................................................... 11

Sketch Exponential Functions.................................................... 8

Expand (1 + b)n ............................................................................ 11

Ex 2.4

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Binomial Theorem Cross-applications ................................ 12


Ex 5.2

Binomial Expansion of ( + ) ................................12

Equate Coordinates ...................................................................... 17


Ex 8.2

Linear Law ......................................................................... 17

Expand (a + b)n ............................................................................ 12

Linearization................................................................................... 17

Use Tr+1 ............................................................................................ 12

Gradient & Y-intercept ............................................................... 17

Ex 6.1

Mid-point of a Line Segment .......................................12

Scale.................................................................................................... 17

Distance Formula ......................................................................... 12

Graphical Reading ........................................................................ 17

Gradient ........................................................................................... 12

Intersection ..................................................................................... 18

Find line ........................................................................................... 12


Use point on line/curve ............................................................. 13
Ratio of Diagonal Segments ..................................................... 13

Ex 9.1

Graphs of Parabolas of the Form = ............. 18

Sketch y 2 = kx ............................................................................... 18
Ex 9.2

Coordinate Geometry of Circles ................................ 18

Use Vectors ..................................................................................... 13

Circle Equation .............................................................................. 18

Find Intersection .......................................................................... 14

Circle Equation Cross-applications ....................................... 19

Mid-point Formula ...................................................................... 14

Ex 10.1 Triangle Theorems ............................................................ 20

Ex 6.2

Parallel Lines.....................................................................14

Use Line Addition and Subtraction........................................ 20

Angle of Inclination ..................................................................... 14

Angle Properties of Line(s) ...................................................... 20

Parallel Lines.................................................................................. 14

Angle Properties of Triangles .................................................. 20

Collinearity ..................................................................................... 15

Congruency Tests ......................................................................... 20

Find Parallel Line ......................................................................... 15

Similarity Tests .............................................................................. 20

Ex 6.3

Perpendicular Lines .......................................................15

Perpendicular Lines .................................................................... 15

Mid-point Theorem ...................................................................... 21


Ex 10.2

Quadrilaterals Theorems ........................................ 21

Find Perpendicular Line ............................................................ 15

Definition & Properties of Quadrilaterals........................... 21

Find Perpendicular Bisector .................................................... 15

Prove Quadrilaterals ................................................................... 22

Ex 6.4

Areas of Triangles and Quadrilaterals.....................15

Shoelace Formula ......................................................................... 15


Ex 7.1

Ex 10.3

Circles Theorems........................................................ 22

Angle Properties of Circle.......................................................... 22

Introduction to Logarithms .........................................15

Chord Properties of Circle ......................................................... 22

Logarithm Definition .................................................................. 15

Tangent Properties of Circle .................................................... 22

Special Log Values........................................................................ 15


Convert between Log & Index Form .................................... 16
Ex 7.2

Ex 11.1

Trigo Ratios of Acute Angles .................................. 22

Special Angles................................................................................. 22

Laws of Logarithms ........................................................16

Convert between Degrees and Radians ............................... 23

Laws of Logarithm ....................................................................... 16

Complementary s....................................................................... 23

Ex 7.3

Logarithmic Equations ..................................................16

Supplementary s ........................................................................ 23

Equality of Logarithms............................................................... 16

Identify Quadrant ......................................................................... 23

Solve Log Equations .................................................................... 16

Find Basic Angle ........................................................................ 23

Ex 7.4

Log and Eqns of the form = ..............................16

Find General Angle ................................................................... 23

Use .................................................................................................. 23

Solve a = b .................................................................................... 16
Solve Index Equations ................................................................ 16
Ex 7.5

Ex 11.2

Trigo Ratios of any Angles ...................................... 23

Logarithmic Graphs ........................................................17

Trigo Function Definition .......................................................... 23

Draw Logarithmic Graphs ........................................................ 17

Use in Quadrant(s) .................................................................. 23

Ex 8.1

Reducing Equations to Linear Form ........................17

Reciprocal Identities ................................................................... 24

Linearize .......................................................................................... 17

Negative Angles ............................................................................. 24

Form Non-linear Equation ....................................................... 17

ASTC Rule ......................................................................................... 24

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Solve Trigo Eqn f(x) = k ........................................................... 24


Ex 11.3

Trigo Graphs .................................................................25

Solve Trigo Eqn f(x) = k by Graph........................................ 25

Ex 15.2

Increasing and Decreasing Functions ................ 31

Increasing/Decreasing function ............................................. 31


Ex 15.3

Rates of Change........................................................... 31

Range of Sine & Cosine............................................................... 25

Rate of Change ............................................................................... 31

Find Unknowns of Trigo Function af(bx) + c................... 25

Quantity & Constant Rate .......................................................... 31

Sketch Trigonometric Functions ........................................... 25


Use Symmetrical/Cyclical Nature of Trigo Graphs ........ 26
Inverse Trigo Function .............................................................. 27
Ex 12.1

Ex 15.4

Connected Rates of Change .................................... 32

Connected Rates of Change ...................................................... 32


Ex 16.1

Nature of Stationary Points .................................... 32

Simple Identities .........................................................27

Stationary Point/Value ............................................................... 32

Questions involving Identities ................................................ 27

1st Derivative Test ....................................................................... 32

Ratio Identities .............................................................................. 27

2nd Derivative Test...................................................................... 32

Pythagorean Identities............................................................... 28
Square Root of Trigo Function f(x) ....................................... 28
Ex 12.2

Further Trigo Eqns.....................................................28

Simplify to Tangent Eqn ............................................................ 28


Factorize Trigo Eqn ..................................................................... 28
Solve Trigo Eqn f(ax + b) = k................................................. 28
Ex 13.1

The Addition Formulae ............................................28

Addition Formulae ....................................................................... 28


Ex 13.2

The Double Angle Formulae ...................................29

Double Formulae...................................................................... 29
Half Formulae ............................................................................ 29
Ex 13.3

Ex 16.2

Maxima and Minima.................................................. 32

Maxima/Minima ............................................................................ 32
Ex 17.1

Derivatives of Trigo Functions.............................. 32

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions ............................. 32


Ex 17.2

Derivatives of Exponential Functions ................ 32

Derivatives of Exponential Functions .................................. 32


Ex 17.3

Derivatives of Log Functions ................................. 33

Derivatives of Log functions..................................................... 33


Use Logarithmic Differentiation ............................................. 33
Ex 18.1

Indefinite Integrals .................................................... 34

Integral Rules ................................................................................. 34

The R-Formulae ..........................................................29

Find Integral from Derivative .................................................. 34

R-Formulae ..................................................................................... 29

Find Curve from Derivative ...................................................... 34

Ex 14.1

The Derivative and its Basic Rules .......................29

Derivative as Gradient ............................................................... 29

Integrals of Power Functions ................................................... 34


Ex 18.2

Definite Integrals........................................................ 35

Power Rule ...................................................................................... 30

Definite Integrals .......................................................................... 35

Constant Multiple Rule .............................................................. 30

Definite Integrals Rules .............................................................. 35

Sum/Difference Rule .................................................................. 30

Integrals of Modulus Functions .............................................. 35

Differentiation from First Principles.................................... 30


Ex 14.2

The Chain Rule.............................................................30

Chain Rule ....................................................................................... 30


Ex 14.3

Ex 18.3

Integrals of Trigo Functions................................... 35

Integrals of Trigonometric Functions .................................. 35


Ex 18.4

Integrals of Exponential Fns & 1/x ..................... 35

The Product Rule ........................................................30

Integrals of Exponential Functions ....................................... 35

Product Rule ................................................................................... 30

Integrals of 1/x & 1/(ax + b)................................................... 35

Ex 14.4

The Quotient Rule ......................................................31

Quotient Rule ................................................................................. 31


Ex 15.1

Tangents and Normals..............................................31

Find Tangent .................................................................................. 31


Find Normal.................................................................................... 31

Ex 19.1

Area by Integration ................................................... 36

Area by integration ...................................................................... 36


Ex 19.2

Area bounded by Curves ......................................... 36

Strategies to find area bounded by curves ......................... 36


Ex 20.1

Kinematics .................................................................... 36

Tangent Properties ...................................................................... 31

Kinematics Relation ..................................................................... 36

Normal Properties ....................................................................... 31

Implications of Kinematics Statements ............................... 37

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Distance ............................................................................................ 37
Appendix 1

Geometric Formulae .............................................38

2D Shapes ........................................................................................ 38
3D Shapes ........................................................................................ 38
Appendix 2

Trigonometric Identities .....................................39

Appendix 3

Calculus Formulae .................................................40

Differentiation ............................................................................... 40
Integration ...................................................................................... 40

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Useful Formulae

Ex 1.1 Simultaneous Equations

2 + 2 = ( + )2 2
Solve a Pair of Linear & Non-linear Eqns

Step 1: Subject variable in linear eqn

= ( )2

( )2 = ( + )2 4

Step 2: Substitute it into non-linear eqn

4 + 4 = (2 + 2 )2 2()2
Form Relation
Prove Identities involving Roots

Step 1: Assign variables

To form useful equations (to be substituted),

Step 2: Form relation between variables


Ex 1.2 Sum and Product of Roots
Sum & Product of Roots
Step 1: Simplify to ax 2 + bx + c = 0

Step 3: Find SOR/POR

Product of roots = =

b
a

(iii)

Apply power of n to (1)

(ii) (1)2 :

4 = ( 3)2
4 = 2 6 + 9
4 = 2 6(2 + 3) + 9
[use (1) to make the subject]
4 = 2 62 18 + 9
4 = 52 + 9
4 + 5 9 = 0 (shown)

+
2

Find roots and unknowns


e.g. the equation x 2 4x + c = 0 has roots which
differ by 2. Find the value of each root and c.

To prove existence of positive & negative root, use


< 0
Convert to quadratic equation in y by substitution

(1)

3 = 2 3 (2)
sub (1) into (2):
3 = ( 3) 3
3 = 2 3
3 + 2 + 3 = 0 (shown)

2
3

Multiply n to (1)

(1) :

Given context
e.g. the heights of two men satisfy
40x 2 138x + 119 = 0. Without solving the
equation, find the average height of these two
men. Average height =

(ii)

Solution
(i) is root, 2 = 3

Applications
Evaluate expressions involving its roots
2
2
e.g. find +

is a root of ax 2 + bx + c = 0,
a2 + b + c = 0
(1)

Question
Given that is a root of the equation x 2 = x 3, show that
(i)
3 + 2 + 3 = 0
(ii)
4 + 52 + 9 = 0

Step 2: State roots

Sum of roots = + =

(i)

Ex 1.3 Discriminant

1
3

e.g. x 2x + 3 = 0 has roots &

Complete the Square

sub y = x 3 :
1

y 2 2y + 3 = 0 has roots 3 & 3

k 2

k 2

x 2 + kx = (x + ) ( )

Form a Quadratic Equation from its Roots


Step 1: State roots
Step 2: Find SOR/POR
Step 3: Form equation
x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Sketch Quadratic graphs
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:

Ex 1.4 Quadratic Inequalities

Express as y = a(x h)2 + k


Obtain turning point (h, k)
Determine or shape from a
Sub x = 0 to find y-intercept
Sub y = 0 to find x-intercept

Solve Quadratic Inequality


Step 1: Simplify to ax 2 + bx + c vs 0, a > 0
Step 2: Factorize
Step 3: Draw sign diagram
(Arrange roots & alternate signs with + at left)
+ +
1 2

Note: x = h is the line of symmetry


e.g.

= 2 + +

Solve Simultaneous Inequalities

1
2
(5, 3)
To find x1 ,

Step 4: Find range of x

2+x1
2

f(x) < g(x) < h(x)


f(x) < g(x) and
= 5 x1 = 8

Step 1: Split into 2 inequalities using and


Step 2: Solve each inequality

Discriminant & Nature of Roots/Number of xintercepts/Number of Intersections

Step 3: Take intersection of both solutions

Step 1: Simplify to ax 2 + bx + c = 0
(by substituting line into curve)

Form Quadratic Inequality from Solution

Step 2: Use relation between b2 4ac


& nature of roots/x-intercepts/intersections
Discriminant
2

b 4ac > 0
b2 4ac = 0
b2 4ac 0
b2 4ac < 0

Nature of
roots
2 distinct
2 equal
2
0

g(x) < h(x)

No. of x-intercepts/
intersections
2
1 (tangent)
1 or 2 (meet)
0

Conditions for ax 2 + bx + c to be always positive or


negative
ax 2 + bx + c > 0 for all x a > 0,

b2 4ac < 0

ax 2 + bx + c < 0 for all x a < 0,

b2 4ac < 0

Step 1: Simplify inequality to ax 2 + bx + c vs 0


Step 2: Use 2 conditions (i) a > 0 or a < 0
(ii) b2 4ac < 0

k(x x1 )(x x2 ) < 0

x1 < x < x2

x < x1 or x > x2 k(x x1 )(x x2 ) > 0


Ex 2.1 Surds
Surds Properties
For a > 0 and b > 0,

a b = ab

a
b

a a = a

Notation
n
For x,
n
index
x
radicand

radical sign or radix or root symbol


n
surd (if x is irrational)
n

Note: For x and x < 0,


Even n results in non-real number
Odd n results in real number
3
e.g. 4 does not exist but 8 exists

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Simplify Surds

Ex 2.2 Indices

Factor out largest square number


Law of Indices

e.g. 45 = 9 5 = 35
Prime factorize (for more challenging numbers)
e.g. 540 = 22 33 5
= 2 31.5 5
= 2 33 5
= 615
Rationalize Denominator
1

a0 = 1

an =

a n = ( a) = am

(am )n = amn

am an = am+n

a a
=
a
a a
1
1
1

= 2
ah + bk ah bk a h b 2 k

= amn

an

am

1
an

Same Base

an bn = (ab)n
a n

an

=( )

bn

Same Power

When you multiply/divide terms, identify common


base/power

Solve Surds Equation

Square both sides


a = b a = b2

e.g.

Equate rational & irrational terms


a + bk = c + dk a = c, b = d

e.g. ( a3 + b 2 + b) ( a3 + b 2 b)

33 30 93
2

(common base is 3)

273
3

Note: Check the answer mentally by substituting it into


the original equation.
e.g. 6 5x
= x
6 5x
= x2
2
x + 5x 6 = 0
(x + 6)(x 1) = 0
x = 6 or x = 1 (rej)
When x = 1,
LHS = 6 5 = 1
RHS = 1
LHS RHS

(common power is )
3

When you add/subtract terms, identify highest common


factor
e.g. 8x+2
34(23x )
3
x+2
= (2 )
2 17(23x )
= 23x+6
17(23x+1 )
(HCF is 23x+1 )
= 23x+1 (25 17)
= 23x+1 (15)
Note: Equations involving even power functions may
have multiple solutions
e.g. x 4 = 16 x = 2 or x = 2

If you cannot simplify to a = b or a + bk = c + dk,


consider solving surds equation by substitution
e.g. 2x + 3x + 1 = 0
sub u = x:
2u2 + 3u + 1 = 0

Ex 2.3 Index equations


Equality of Indices
ax = an , for a > 0, a 1
x =n

Method of Difference
Step 1: Break each term into partial sums
Step 2: Arrange partial sums vertically
Step 3: Cancel diagonally

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Different Types of Manipulation
Manipulate
Simplify
Express
Evaluate
Show
Solve
Given

Find Unknown(s) in an Identity

Key Words
Complex to simple
In terms of
Find numerical value
Work towards distinct characteristic
Equation
Consider rearranging given equation.

Ex 2.4 Exponential Functions


Sketch Exponential Functions
y = ax , a > 1
(slopes up)
x

y=a , 0<a<1
(slopes down)

Note: y = ax 0 for 0 < a < 1


Ex 3.1 Polynomials and Identities
Definition of Polynomials

Substitute
Compare coefficients

Tip: Sub values of x that makes a factor zero


e.g. a(x 2) + b = 5 3x
sub x = 2:
a(0) + b = 5 3(2)
b
= 1
compare x:

a = 3

Ex 3.2 Division of Polynomials


Long Division
Step 1: Surface out hidden terms and express polynomial
in powers of decreasing integers
Repeat step 2-5 until Deg(R) < Deg(divisor)
Step 2: Divide
Step 3: Multiply
Step 4: Subtract
Step 5: Bring down
e.g. (3x 2 2x + 5) (x + 2)

Polynomials must have


non-negative power
integer power
Multiply Polynomials
Expand using strategic alignment
e.g. (x + 1)(x 2 + x + 1)
= x3

+x 2
+x 2

+x
+x

+1

Find coefficient using selective multiplication


e.g. Find coefficient of x 2 in
(x 2 + x + 1)(x 2 + 2x + 3)

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Division Algorithm

Ex 3.5 Cubic Polynomials and Equations

Quotient Q(x)
Divisor g(x) Dividend f(x)

Remainder R(x)

Factorize Cubic Expressions


Step 1: Guess factor (factor thm)
(x )

Dividend = Divisor Quotient + Remainder

Dividend

Deg(Dividend)

Deg(Remainder) < Deg(Divisor)

Divisor

= Quotient +

Step 2: Compare x 3

Remainder

(x )(px 2 + + )

Divisor

= Deg(Divisor) + Deg(Quotient)

Step 3: Compare x 0
(x )(px 2 + + r)

For quadratic divisor,


f(x) (px 2 + qx + r)
R(x)= ax + b
f(x) = (px 2 + qx + r)Q(x) + ax + b

Step 4: Compare x 2
(x )(px 2 + qx + r)
Step 5: Compare x (optional)
(x )(px 2 + qx + r)

Ex 3.3 Remainder Theorem


Remainder Theorem

Form Cubic Polynomial

Polynomial f(x) (ax + b) R = f ( )


a

Tip:

Insert value of x that makes the divisor zero

Note: If polynomial is not given, use division algorithm


Ex 3.4 Factor Theorem
Factor Theorem
b

Polynomial f(x) has factor (ax + b) f ( ) = 0


a

Tip:

Insert value of x that makes the factor zero

Sum/Difference of Cubes
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 ab + b2 )

Given 1 distinct root x1 ,


f(x) = k(x x1 )3

Given 2 distinct roots x1 and x2 ,


f(x) = k(x x1 )2 (x x2 ) or k(x x1 )(x x2 )2

Given 3 distinct roots x1 , x2 and x3 ,


f(x) = k(x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 )

Ex 3.6 Partial Fractions


Break into Partial Fractions
Step 1: Convert to proper fraction
Step 2: Factorize denominator
Step 3: Break into partial fraction forms
Denominator Form
ax + b
(ax + b)2
x2 + c2

A
ax+b
A
ax+b
Ax+B

+ (ax+b)2

x2 +c2

Step 4: Solve for unknowns


Cover-up rule
Substitution
Compare coefficients

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Proper & Improper fraction

Cover-up Rule

Proper Fraction:
Deg(Numerator) < Deg(Denominator)

To solve for unknown with linear factors,


Step 1: Insert root
Step 2: Cover up linear factor (that becomes zero)
Step 3: Equate unknown (highest power)
e.g.

f(x)
(xx1 )(xx2 )2

= (xx ) + (xx ) + (xx


1

Improper Fraction:
Deg(Numerator) Deg(Denominator)

2)

Ex 4.1 Modulus Functions and their Graphs

insert x1 , cover up (x x1 ) and equate A


x = x1 :

f(x)
|
( )(xx2 )2 x=x

Modulus Definition

=A
1

|x| = {

insert x2 , cover up (x x2 ) and equate C


x = x2 :

f(x)
|
(xx1 )( )2 x=x
2

e.g. Given a > 2, simplify |3 2a|


a
>2
2a < 4
3 2a < 1
<0
|3
2a| = (3 2a) = 2a 3

Step 1: Clear fractions by multiplying denominator


Step 2: Simplify to polynomial of descending power
Step 3: Compare coefficients
x2 +2x+15

Bx+C

x2 +3
2

= +

x(x2 +3)
2

x0
x<0

Tip: Use given condition to determine


if |f(x)| = f(x) or f(x)

=C

Compare Coefficients

e.g.

x
x

x + 2x + 15 = 5(x + 3)
+(Bx + C)x
2
= 5x + 15
+Bx 2 + Cx
= (5 + B)x 2 + Cx + 15

|a| = |a|

Compare coefficients:
x 2 : 1 = 5 + B B = 4
x:
C=2

|ab| = |a||b|

| |

|an | = |a|n

|a|2 = |a2 | = a2

x2 +2x+15
x(x2 +3)

4x+2

x2 +3

= +

Modulus Properties

= |b|

Tip: differ is the trigger word to use modulus

Juggling
Step 1: Copy denominator to numerator
Step 2: Multiply to match term with highest power
Step 3: Add to balance
e.g.
4x 2 + 3
x2 2
(x 2 2)
2
x 2
4(x 2 2)
2
x 2
4(x 2 2) + 11
=
x2 2
11
=4+ 2
x 2

|a|

e.g. A differs from B by 10


|A B| = 10
Solve Modulus Equations
|f(x)| = g(x)
f(x) = g(x) or f(x) = g(x)

copy ( 2 2) to the to numerator

Note: Check the answer by mentally substituting it into


the original equation.

Multiply 4 to match term with highest


power

Tip:

add 11 to numerator to balance


Divide each term in numerator by
denominator

Consider squaring both sides to remove mod


|f(x)| = k
[f(x)]2 = k 2

Sketch y = |f(x)|
Step 1: Sketch y = f(x)
Step 2: Reflect negative part of f(x) in x-axis

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10

Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Use Pascals Triangle

Ex 4.2 Power Graphs

To create table,
n Binomial coefficients
0
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
Step 1: Insert 1 at the sides

Sketch Power Graphs


For y = ax n , a > 0
Integer
Integer
Negative
Positive
Even
Odd
Even
Odd
( 1)
1
1
y= 2
y=
y = x2 y = x3
x
x

Step 2: Form numbers inside triangle by adding the


2 numbers above it
Step 3: Use formula
(1 + b)n = (1st coeff)b0
+(2nd coeff)b1
+ + (last coeff)bn

Rational
Rational
0<n<1

n<0

Expand (1 + b)n
n
n
n
n
(1 + b)n = ( ) b0 + ( ) b1 + + ( ) br + + ( ) bn
0
1
r
n
n r
=1
+nb
+ + ( ) b + + bn
r

n>1

( at rate) ( at rate) ( at rate)


Ex 5.1 Binomial Expansion of (1 + b)n
Factorial

n! = n (n 1) 2 1
= n (n 1)!

0! = 1

To divide between factorials,


Step 1: Expand bigger factorial till smaller factorial
Step 2: Strike out smaller factorials
e.g.

7!
5!

765!

(n+1)!
(n2)!

5!

= 7 6 = 42

(n+1)n(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!

= (n + 1)n(n 1)

Combination
n
n!
( ) = (nr)!r!
r
n
( )=1
0
n
( )=n
1
n
n(n1)
( )=
2
2
n
n(n1)(n2)
( )=
3!
3
n
n(n1)(n2)(n3)
( )=
4!
4

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Binomial Theorem Cross-applications
App 1:
App 2:
App 3:

Ex 5.2 Binomial Expansion of (a + b)n

Multiply selectively
Substitute value/terms
Compare coefficients

Expand (a + b)n
n
n
n
(a + b)n = ( ) an0 b0 + ( ) an1 b1 + + ( ) ann bn
0
1
n

Question

=1

+nan1 b

+ + bn

(i) Expand (2 x) (1 + x) in ascending powers of x, as


2

Use Tr+1
n
Tr+1 = ( ) anr br
r
To find particular term,
Step 1: Simplify to (a + b)n

far as the term in x 3 .


(ii) Hence estimate the value of 1.9 (1.05)8
Solution
Multiply selectively
(i)

(2 x) (1 + x)

Step 2: Use Tr+1


Pull out x

= (2 x)(1 +4x + 7x 2 + 7x 3 + ) [by Binomial Thm]


= 2 +8x +14x 2 +14x 3
x
4x 2 7x 3 +
= 2 +7x +10x 2 +7x 3 +

constant

power = 0

Step 4: Insert r into Tr+1

Substitute values
(ii) 1.9 (1.05)8
= (2 0.1) (1 + 0.5)8
= [2 (0.1)] [1 + (0.1)]

Step 3: Find r
Equate power
n
middle term r =

Ex 6.1 Mid-point of a Line Segment


8

Distance Formula

= 2 +7(0.1) +10(0.1)2 +7(0.1)3 +


[sub x = 0.1 into (i)]

(x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2

2.807

Gradient
y1 y2
m=
x1 x2

Question
The first three terms in the expansion, in ascending
powers of x of (1 + 2x)n are 1 + 16x + ax 2 .
Find n and a.
Solution
Compare coefficients
(1 + 2x)n
= 1 + 2nx + 2n(n 1)x 2 +
1 + 16x + ax 2
Compare x:
Compare x 2

(by Binomial Thm)


(given)

2n = 16 n = 8
2n(n 1) = a
Sub n = 8:
2(8)(8 1) = a
a = 112

Find line
If y-intercept is not given,
Step 1: Find point
Step 2: Find gradient
Step 3: Find line
y y1 = m(x x1 )
If y-intercept is given,
Step 1: State y-intercept
Step 2: Find gradient
Step 3: Find line
y = mx + c
Note: For m = 0, horizontal line y = c
For m , vertical line
x=a

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Use point on line/curve

Use Vectors

(x1 , y1 ) lies on y = f(x)


y1 = f(x1 ) (form eqn)
(x1 , f(x1 )) (express coordinates in only 1 variable)
e.g. (2,1) lies on y = kx 2
1 = k(2) 2
2k = 3
3
k
=
2

e.g. A(a1 , a2 ) lies on y = 2x


A(a1 , 2a1 )
Ratio of Diagonal Segments
By similar triangles,
B F
A: B (diagonal) A
E
= C: D (horizontal)
C
D
= E: F (vertical)

AB

+ OB

= AO
OA

= OB

Question

(0,9)

Given A is (0,9) & C is (6,3) and


AB: BC = 2: 1, find the coordinates
of B.

(6,3)
1

Solution
= OA

OB

= OA

+AB
+

2
2+1
2

AC

= OA

OA
)
+ (OC

= OA

2
2 OA

+ OC

3
3

1
+ 2 OC

= OA
3
1

2 6
0
= ( ) + ( )
3 9
3 3
4
=( )
5
B(4,5)

Question

(8,8)
A is (0,6), B is (2, 2) and D is
(0,6)
(2, 2).
AB is parallel to DC and

AB: DC = 1: 2.
(2, 2)
Find the coordinates of C

Solution

OC =
OD
=
OD

+DC

+2AB

=
OD

OA
)
+2(OB
8
0

= OD
+2 [( ) ( )]
8
6
8

= OD
+2 ( )
2
2
16
= ( ) +( )
2
4
18
=( )
2
C is (18,2)

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Question
A is (2,4) and B is (6,10).
ACB and MDB are 90.
AC: MD = 3: 1.
Find the coordinates of M

(6,9)

M=(

(3,3)
Solution
ACB ~ MDB.
AB
MB

=
=

AC
MD
3

(corr. sides or ~ s)

=3
AB = 3MB
AM: MB = 2: 1
= OA

OM

= OA

= OA

+AM
2
+
AB
3
2

)
+ (OB OA
3

+ 2 OB

= OA
3
1

2 6
3
= ( ) + ( )
3 3
3 9
5
=( )
7
(5,7)
M is

Find Intersection
Solve a pair of equations

Mid-point Formula

x1 + x2 y1 + y2
)
,
2
2

To find endpoint,
Step 1: Denote endpoint
Step 2: M = (

x1 +x2 y1 +y2
2

Step 3: Equate coordinates


To find curve traced by mid-point,
Step 1: Find midpoint M
Step 2: Let M = (x, y)
Step 3: Equate coordinates
Step 4: Connect x & y
Shapes
Parallelogram ABCD
A
B
M
D
C
iso. ABC with AB = AC
A
B
C
Circle with diameter AB
A
B

Implications
MAC = MBD

MBC = Foot of
from A to BC
MAB = Centre

Question
A is (2,4) and B is (6,10). AC: MD = 2: 1.
Given the diagram below, find the coordinates of M.

(6,10)

2
(2,4)

Solution
M = MAB = (

2+6 4+10
2

) = (4,7)

Ex 6.2 Parallel Lines


Angle of Inclination
m = tan (wrt positive x axis)
Parallel Lines
l1 l2 m1 = m2

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Collinearity

Ex 6.4 Areas of Triangles and Quadrilaterals

If A, B & C are collinear,


mAB = mAC (any two line segments)

Shoelace Formula
Area of triangle
1 x1 x2 x3 x1
= |y y y y |
2 1
2
3
1
1
= (x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1
2
x2 y1 x3 y2 x1 y3 )

Find Parallel Line


Step 1: Find point/y-intercept
Step 2: Find gradient (m1 = m2 )
Step 3: Find line
y y1 = m(x x1 )
y = mx + c

Area of quadrilateral
1 x1 x2 x3 x4 x1
|
|
2 y1 y2 y3 y4 y1
1
= (x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y1
2
x2 y1 x3 y2 x4 y3 x1 y4 )

Ex 6.3 Perpendicular Lines


Perpendicular Lines
l1 l2 m1 . m2 = 1
1
m1
=

Area of polygon
1 x1 x2 xn x1
|
= |y y y
2 1
2
n y1
1
= [(sum of products )
2
(sum of product )]

m2

Shapes
Rhombus ABCD
A
B

Implications
mAC mBD

D
C
P is equidistant from A
and B
A
P
B

AB intersects P

Find Perpendicular Line


Step 1: Find point/y-intercept
Step 2: Find gradient (m1 =

1
m2

Coordinates should be in anti-clockwise order to have


positive output. On the contrary, if coordinates are in
clockwise order, the output is negative.
Use modulus if unsure anti-clockwise or clockwise
Zero area implies points are collinear
1

App 1:

To find angle, use area = ab sin C

App 2:

To find height ( distance from point to line),

use Area = (base)(height)

Step 3: Find line


y y1 = m(x x1 )
y = mx + c

Ex 7.1 Introduction to Logarithms


Logarithm Definition

Find Perpendicular Bisector

A logarithm must have


(i) base > 0
(ii) base 1
(iii) arg > 0

Step 1: Find mid-point (MAB )


Step 2: Find gradient

1
mAB

Step 3: Find bisector (AB )


1
(x x1 )
y y1 =

Special Log Values

mAB

Tip: To find the line equidistant to points A & B, find the


perpendicular bisector of AB

log a a = 1 Same base & argument results in output of 1


log a 1 = 0 argument of 1 results in output of 0

If the 2 points have the same x or y-coordinate,


bisector = average of the other coordinates

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Solve Log Equations

Convert between Log & Index Form


x = log a y y = ax

Step 1: Use laws of log

Step 1: Identify base

Laws of log

Step 2: Connect base to opp. side of eqn


Step 3: Switch form keeping base
e.g.
Log Index
Base is a.
log a y = x
Connect base a to x
y
= ax Switch from log to index form.
Keep the base a, therefore power is x.
Index Log
Base is a.
Connect base a to y
= log a y Switch from index to log form.
Keep the base a, therefore argument is x.

ax = y
x

Action

Change-of-base law convert to common base


Power law

move coefficient to power

Product law/
Quotient law

combine to single log

Step 2: Remove log


Equality of log
Change to index form
Step 3: Check log conditions
Note: Use substitution u = log a x
if you cannot simplify to log =
Ex 7.4 Log and Eqns of the form ax = b

Ex 7.2 Laws of Logarithms

Solve ax = b
To solve ax = b, log both sides

Laws of Logarithm
Product Law

log a xy = log a x + log a y


x

Quotient Law

log a

Power Law

log a x r = r log a x

Change-of-Base
Law

log a b =

= log a x log a y

logc b
logc a

Ex 7.3 Logarithmic Equations


Equality of Logarithms
log a x = log a n

x=n

1
logb a

Solve Index Equations


Method 1:
Method 2:
Method 3:
Method 4:

ax = an x = n
ax = b (log both sides)
Convert to log form
Substitution

Step 1: Use laws of indices to simplify to ax = an or b


When multiply/divide terms, identify
common base/power
When add/subtract terms/identify highest
common factor
Step 2: Remove base
Equality of indices (ax = an x = n)
(ax = b)
Log both sides
Convert to log form
If you cannot simplify to ax = an or b,
use substitution u = ax
e.g.

9(3x )2 + 1 = 10(3x )

e.g.

x 2 8x 2 = 7

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Equate Coordinates

Ex 7.5 Logarithmic Graphs

The first and second coordinates are not necessarily x and


y respectively!

Draw Logarithmic Graphs

y = log a x,
a>1
(slopes up)

Question

y = log a x,
0<a<1
(slopes down) 1

If C(9, 8) lies on the graph of yx against x, find the value


of y corresponding to c.

Solution
Equate 1st coordinate:
Equate 2nd coordinate:

Note: For base > 1, there is an inverse relation between


base & rate of increase

x =9
yx = 8
y9 = 8
8
y
=
3

For a > b > c > 1,

= log
= log

= log
1

Ex 8.2 Linear Law


Linearization
Step 1: Simplify to Y = mX + c
Step 2: Complete table
Gradient & Y-intercept

Ex 8.1 Reducing Equations to Linear Form

Step 1: State 2 points:


(i) On y-axis
(ii) Halfway-down

Linearize
Contains
x&y
X&Y

m&c

Contains
constants

Step 2: Equate gradient & Y-intercept


Scale
a

e.g. if ax 2 + by 3 = 1, then y 3 = x 2 +
a

i.e. Y = y 3 , X = x 2 , m = , c =
b+x
a

e.g. if y = e

, then ln y = x +
1

i.e. Y = ln y , X = x, m = , c =

Step 1: Estimate Y-intercept


Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
Step 2: State domain & range
Step 3: Find X & Y interval
X
X
X-Interval = last 1st
10
Ylast Y1st

Y-Interval =
12
(Round down to 1, 2, 25 or 5)

To find unknowns,
Step 1: Linearize to axes variables
Step 2: Equate gradient & Y-intercept
or use points on line
(whichever is given)

Step 4: State X & Y scale


Graphical Reading

Step 1: Find point/gradient/ Y-intercept

Step 1: Simplify to (X or Y)
Step 2: Identify point
Step 3: Equate (Y or X) & solve for desired variable

Step 2: Form linear equation


Y = mX + c
(If Y-intercept is given)
Y Y1 = m(X X1 ) (If Y-intercept is not given)

Note: Graphical reading is reliable only within the data


range (interpolation) & not reliable outside the data range
(extrapolation)

Form Non-linear Equation

Step 3: Form non-linear eqn by replacing X & Y with


axes variables

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Intersection

Ex 9.2 Coordinate Geometry of Circles

Step 1: Work towards 2 curves on each side


Step 2: Plot 2nd curve & use intersection

Circle Equation

Standard form (x a)2 + (y b)2 = r 2

Ex 9.1 Graphs of Parabolas of the Form y = kx

General form

x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

Sketch y 2 = kx

Centre

(a, b) = (g, f)

Radius

r = g 2 + f 2 c

y = kx,
k>0

Note: It appears to be a counter-intuitive convention that


g comes before f in the formula

Note:
y = 0 is the line of symmetry

Trigger/Setup

Action

Question
Given the graph y 2 = 2x, draw a suitable line to solve
x 2 8x + 9 = 0.

2 points

Find bisector of chord where


centre lies on

Centre & point

Use distance formula to find


radius.

Solution
x 2 8x + 9
x 2 6x + 9
(x 3)2
y=x3

Diameter

Use midpoint formula

=0
= 2x
= 2x
or y = (x 3)

Touches
Sketch graph. Deduce
horizontal/vertical coordinates, centre, radius or
line
point on circle. (see example)
Right angle
triangle drawn

Use Pythagoras Theorem

0,1 or 2
intersections

Use discriminant.

Touches another
circle

Connect centres with a line.

Line is tangent to
circle

Identify right angle (tan rad)


Find normal.

If the centre cannot be found from the approaches above


(or only 1 coordinate can be deduced),
use given information about centre (if any)
e.g. centre C(h, k) lies on line y = f(x)
C is (h, f(h))
e.g. centre C(h, k) is 6 units away from point A(1,2)
(h 1)2 + (k 2)2 = 6

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insert parameters into (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r 2 and


solve for unknowns by elimination.

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Examples of sketching graph to deduce information
Touch axis
Given:
centre (3, 2),
touches x-axis
Deduce:
Cut axis
Given:
Deduce:

radius = 2

2
(3, 2)

Cuts y-axis at 2 and 5


y coordinate of centre
1+(5)
=
= 3
2

Touch line(s)
Given:
Touches x = 2 & x = 8
Deduce:

radius =

82
2


1
(1 , 3)
5

3
(5, 2 )
=2 =8

Pythagoras Theorem
Find length of PT, given radius is 13.
C(2, 1)

Find line
Find tangent/normal at point of contact
e.g. Find AB

P(3, 10)
210

Idea: Find PC by distance formula


PT = PC 2 CT 2 (Pythagoras thm)

Use Distance Formula


Find radius
To check if point A lies within circle, compare distance
between A and centre with the radius
Use Midpoint Formula
Given that A(2,3) and B(4,5) are points on the circle,
the find the centre.
Given A is (2,3), the centre C is (4,5) and AB is the
diameter of the circle, find the point B

Circle Equation Cross-applications

P(9,2)

Find Intersection Point


Find point on circle
Find point of contact between tangent & normal
Find centre where line through centre meets
perpendicular bisector of chord

=3

x coordinate of centre
2+8
=
=5

Use Discriminant
Find number of intersections between line & circle
(you can also compare the perpendicular distance
with the radius to determine the number of points of
intersection)
Find unknown c in line eqn given line is tangent to
circle

AB

Find AC

C(1, 4)

Find bisector
Whenever two points on circle are given, consider
finding the perpendicular bisector. The perpendicular
bisector of the chord passes through the centre of the
circle

6B r = 5
A
C
2

Idea: AC = r 2 AB 2 (Pythagoras thm)

Use Properties of Circle (refer to Ex 10.3)


Solve System of Equations
To find circle equation given 3 points on the circle,
insert the points into general form of circle

A
B
bisector
of chord

tan rad

Complete the Square


Convert general form to standard form

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Similarity Tests

Ex 10.1 Triangle Theorems


Use Line Addition and Subtraction
A

SSS
3 sides

AB + BC = AC
AC AB = BC

Question (prove product of sides)


Given ABC ~ DEF, prove that AB DF = AC DE

Question
Given AB = CD, prove AC = BD
A B

Solution
Whenever you encounter
product of multiple line
Given ABC ~ DEF,
segments, consider using the
prove that
property of similar triangles:
AB DF = AC DE
ratios of corresponding sides are
equal.

C D

Solution
AB
= CD
AB + (BC) = CD + (BC)
AC
= BD
Angle Properties of Line(s)
a b

SAS
AA
2 sides,
2 eq.
1 included

b
a

AB
AC

Identify which line segments in


the above product correspond to
the triangle ABC. AB and AC.
AB
Take ratio at the left. Note the
AC
sequence. AB is 12 and AC is 13.
12 over 13.

Use same sequence on the other


triangle DEF at the right. 12 is
DE
DE and 13 is DF. Take ratio at
DF
the right.

ab

s in line opp. int. corr. alt.

Prove straight lines by s in line = 180


Prove parallel lines by int., corr. & alt.

AB
AC

DE
DF

Angle Properties of Triangles


b
a c
s in
= 180

bc

ext.
= sum of
int. opp. s

ab

ab

c
ab

AB DF = AC DE
[proven]

iso. eq.

Prove equal sides/angles using iso. & eq.


Congruency Tests

Question (Prove relation/ratio of line segments)


Given ABC ~ DEF & DE: EF = 1: 2, prove that
1
AB = BC (or AB: BC = 1: 2)
2

Solution
AB
BC

=
=

SSS
3 eq.
sides

SAS
AAS
RHS
2 eq. sides, 2 eq. s,
1 rt ,
1 included 1 corr. 1 eq. hyp,
sides
1 eq. side
Note: Order of Points matter
e.g. ABC XYZ is not the same as
ACB XYZ

Cross multiply.

DE
EF
1
2
1

AB = BC
2

AB: BC = 1: 2

Prove equal sides/angles using congruent s

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Question (Use ratio of area of similar triangles)
Given ABC ~ EDC,
B 1
E
BC: CD = 1: 2 &
C
area of ABC = x,
A
2 D
find the area of DEC
Solution
2 2

Area of DEC = ( ) x = 4x
1

[use

Mid-point Theorem
D = MAB , E = MAC
1
DE BC, DE = BC
2

A2

= ( 1) ]
l2

Definition & Properties of Quadrilaterals


Kite
Quad. with two pairs of equal adjacent sides
s between unequal sides are equal
(angle)
One diagonal bisects the other
(diagonal)
Longer diagonal bisects s
(diagonal)
Diagonals are
(diagonal)
Note: Concave kite have interior s > 180

A
D
B

A1

Ex 10.2 Quadrilaterals Theorems

E
C

Trapezium
Quad. with exactly one pair of parallel sides
supplementary interior s
Parallelogram
Quad. with two pairs of parallel sides
Opp. sides are equal
Opp. s are equal
interior s are supplementary
Diagonals bisect each other

(side)
(angle)
(angle)
(diagonal)

Rectangle
Quad. with four right angles
Opp. sides are parallel
Opp. sides are equal
Diagonals bisect each other
Diagonals are equal

(side)
(side)
(diagonal)
(diagonal)

Rhombus
Quad. with four equal sides
Opp. sides are parallel
Supplementary interior s
Diagonals bisect s
Diagonals are bisector of each other

(side)
(angle)
(diagonal)
(diagonal)

Square
Quad. with four equal sides & four right angles
Diagonals bisect angles
(diagonal)
Diagonals are equal
(diagonal)
Diagonals are bisector of each other (diagonal)

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Tangent Properties of Circle

Prove Quadrilaterals
Parallelogram
2 pairs of sides
2 pairs of equal & opp. sides
1 pair of equal & sides
2 pairs of equal opp. s
Diagonals bisect each other

(definition)
(side)
(side)
(angle)
(diagonal)

Rectangle
4 right s
Parallelogram + 1 right

(definition)
(angle)

Q
b

R
tangents
from
ext. point

alt. segment tan rad


thm

Ex 11.1 Trigo Ratios of Acute Angles


Special Angles

Rhombus
4 equal sides
(definition)
Parallelogram + eq. adj. sides (side)
Parallelogram + bisecting diagonals
(diagonal)
Parallelogram + diagonals (diagonal)

Table

Square
4 equal sides & 4 right s
Rectangle + eq. adj sides
Rhombus + 1 right

tan 0

0 30 45 60 90
0
sin 0
cos 1

(definition)
(side)
(angle)

6
1

2
2

3
2
1

2
3
2
1
3

2
2

1 3

Triangle

Trapezium
Parallel opposite sides

(definition)

Kite
2 pairs of equal adjacent sides (definition)

45
1
Unit circle

30

60

60

Ex 10.3 Circles Theorems


Angle Properties of Circle
a

a b

a
in
semicircle

b
a

at centre
s in same s in opp.
= 2 at
segment
segment
circumference

Chord Properties of Circle

O
B

bisector of chord
passes through centre

A
C

O
Y D

Equal chords are


equidistant from
centre

Equal arcs results in equal chords

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Find Basic Angle

Convert between Degrees and Radians


rad = 180

To convert from degrees to radians, multiply

To convert from radians to degrees, multiply

180
180

Tip:
Track the unit conversion to avoid the mistake of
multiplying the wrong fraction
e.g.
60 = 60

180

=
3

[rad]

[deg] = [deg] [deg] = [rad]

60 = 60

[deg] = [deg]

180

[deg]
[rad]

=
=

10800

[deg]2
[rad]

Step 1: Add or subtract 360 until 0 360


Step 2: Use table
Quadrant

2
180
3
180
4
360
Find General Angle
Quadrant
1
2
3
4

180
180 +
360

Use
Step 1: Draw
Step 2: Find all 3 sides (by Pythagoras Thm)

Complementary s

Ex 11.2 Trigo Ratios of any Angles

sin(90 ) = cos

cos(90 ) = sin

tan(90 ) =

1
tan

Supplementary s

Trigo Function Definition


y

sin =

cos =

tan =

r = x 2 + y 2

r
x
r
y

y
x

sin(180 ) = sin

cos(180 ) = cos

tan(180 ) = tan

Angles measured anti-clockwise from the positive x-axis


are positive.
On the contrary, angles measured clockwise from the
positive x-axis are negative.

Identify Quadrant
Step 1: Add or subtract 360 until 0 360
Step 2: Use table
Angle
0 < < 90
90 < < 180
180 < < 270
270 < < 360

Quadrant
1
2
3
4

Daniel & Samuel


Math Tuition 9133 9982

Use in Quadrant(s)
Step 1: Identify quadrant
Step 2: Draw in quadrant
Step 3: Find coordinates

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Question

Reciprocal Identities

Given that tan A =

5
12

and that tan A and cos A have

opposite signs, find the value of each of the following.


(i) sin(A)
(ii) cos(A)

(iii) tan ( A)

sec =

csc =

cot =

1
cos
1
sin
1
tan

Negative Angles

Solution
Thought Process
Step 1:
Identify quadrants Observe that ratio for tan is negative.
5
tan A = < 0
Tan is only positive in 1st or 3rd quad.
12
Therefore, it is in 2nd or 4th quad.
2nd or 4th quad.
tan A & cos A have In 3rd quad., only tan is positive
opp. signs
In 4th quad., only cos is positive
3rd or 4th quad. Therefore, it is in 3rd or 4th quad.
Take overlap of above deductions.
Therefore it is in 4th quadrant.

4th quadrant
Step 2:
Draw in
quadrant

cos() = cos()

sin() = sin()

tan() = tan()
ASTC Rule

sin is + S A all are +


tan is +T C cos is +
All trigo functions can be converted to trigo function of
basic angle with positive or negative sign depending on
ASTC rule.
e.g. sin(210) = sin(30)
Solve Trigo Eqn f(x) = k
Quadrants method
Step 1: Find = f 1 (|k|) & identify quadrants
Step 2: State interval
Step 3: Find x using quadrants

Draw in 4th quadrant.

12
r

Step 3:
Find coordinates
5
y
tan A = =
12

180 2 1
180 + 3 4 360

tan A = by definition.
x

2 1
+ 3 4 2

y = 5,

Equate numerator, = 5.
y-coordinate is negative in 4th quad.
Equate denominator, = 12.
x-coordinate is positive in 4th quad.

x = 12,

r = 122 + (5)2 Find hypotenuse r by Pythagoras


Theorem
= 13
y

r
x

13
12

13

sin A = =
cos A = =

Find other trigo ratios to serve as


useful inputs. The rest of the
question makes use of the 3 basic
trigo ratios: sin A , cos A & tan A.

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Sketch Trigonometric Functions

Ex 11.3 Trigo Graphs

Step 1: Simplify to y = af(bx) + c


Solve Trigo Eqn f(x) = k by Graph

Step 2: Find amplitude & period


Sin/Cos
Tan
|a|
Amplitude
Nil

Graphical method
When = 0 or 90,
i.e.

Period

sin f(x) = 0, 1

tan f(x) = 0
Step 1: State interval
Step 2: Find x using graph
y = cos x y = tan x

180
90

360

180

270

90

270

180

y = sin x

360

Step 3: Complete table and sketch graph


Domain
x1 x x2
Axis with
y = c |a|
Amplitude
Shape
sin/cos/tan
x2 x1
Cycle
T

cos f(x) = 0, 1

y = sin x

270

90

Range of Sine & Cosine

90 180 270 360

90 180 270 360

90 180 270 360

sin x = 1
at x = 270
sin x = 1
at x = 90

Max

sin x = 0 at x = cos x = 0 at x = tan x = 0 at x =


0, 180, 360
90, 270
0, 180, 360
sin x = 1
cos x = 1
Min
Nil
at x = 270
at x = 180
sin x = 1
cos x = 1
Max
Nil
at x = 90
at x = 0, 360

y = cos x

Min

1 sin x 1
1 cos x 1
y = sin x

90 180 270 360

y = tan x

90 180 270 360

y = cos x

360

cos x = 1
at x = 180
cos x = 1
at x = 0, 360

Find Unknowns of Trigo Function af(bx) + c


Sine/Cosine

Tangent

max
A = |a|

A = |a|
min
T=

360

T=

Amplitude A = |a| =

maxmin

360

Period

T=

Axis

c=
2
= min + A
= max A

180
b

Period T =

180
b

b
max+min

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Question

Use Symmetrical/Cyclical Nature of Trigo Graphs

Sketch y = 3(1 2 cos 4x) for 0 x 270

Symmetrical
Question
Given & are roots of 3 cos x + 2 = 2 where
3 < k < 4. Find in terms of , given that <

Solution
Step 1: Simplify to = () +
y = 3(1 2 cos 4x)
= 3 6 cos 4x
= 6 cos 4x + 3

Solution
y

Step 2: Find amplitude & period


A = |6| = 6
T=

360
4

= 3 cos + 2

= 90

Step 3: Complete table and sketch graph


Domain
0 x 270
Follow the
Axis with
y=36
sequence from
Amplitude
top down to
Shape
cos
sketch the graph.
2700
=3
Cycle
90

-1
x = is line of symmetry,
+
=
2

= 2
Cyclical

270

Mark the
endpoint of
domain, 270.

9
3

270

Mark the axis 3.


Add and subtract
6 to get max 9
and min 3.

Question
Given that is the smallest positive root of the equation
2 cos 4x = 3.1 tan 2x, where 0 x 360, state the
other roots in terms of .
Solution

1 = 3.1 tan 2
2

Draw 1 cycle of
negative cosine.

270

90

= 45

2 = 2 cos 4

180

= 135

Period = 90,
x = , + 90, + 180, + 270

9
3

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270

There are 3 cycles


in total.
Draw 2 more.

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Note: If basic angles cannot be found, use in quadrant

Inverse Trigo Function

Question (Evaluate compound inverse trigo functions)

Principal values

sin1 x

0 cos 1 x

< tan

x<

Find the exact value of sin [cos 1 ( )]


5

Solution

Step 1: Identify quadrant

Let A = cos 1 ( )
5
2nd quadrant

Step 1: Identify quadrant


Step 2: Find basic angle
Step 3: Find general angle

Since 0 cos 1 x , it is
in the 1st or 2nd quad.
Because of the negative sign
1
of , it is in 2nd quad.
5

Step 2: Draw in quad.

Question
1

Evaluate cos 1 ( ) without using the calculator.


2

5
1

Solution

cos 1 ( )
2

= ( )
3

2
3

Step 3: Find coordinates

cos A = =

Thought process
Step 1: Identify quadrant
0 cos 1 x
Strike out 3rd and 4th quadrants

Input is negative.
2
1st quadrant always
corresponds to positive ratios.
Strike out 1st quadrant

Step 2: Find basic angle


Mentally use table of special
angles and ignore the negative
1

sign of ,
0
cos 1

3
2

2
2

3
1

basic angle =

cos A = by trigo definition


r

x = 1,

Equate numerator: x = 1.
x-coordinate is negative in
2nd quad.

r=5

Equate denominator: r = 5.
r is always positive.

y = 52 (1)2
= 24
= 4 6 = 26

Find y by Pythagoras Thm

sin [cos 1 ( )]
y

5
26

= sin A = =

sin A = by trigo definition

Ex 12.1 Simple Identities

Questions involving Identities

Simplify using identities

Evaluate using identities

Prove identities

Ratio Identities

Step 3: Find general angle


General angle is the angle wrt
the positive x-axis.
ACW is positive. CW is negative.

General angle =
3

Daniel & Samuel


Math Tuition 9133 9982

tan =

cot =

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sin
cos
cos
sin

27

Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Pythagorean Identities

Factorize Trigo Eqn

sin2 + cos 2 = 1

tan2 + 1

= sec 2

cot 2 + 1

= csc 2

Question
Given that sin x + sin y = a and cos x + cos y = a, where
a 0, express sin x + cos x in terms of a.

Take out common factor


2 sin x cos x sin x = 0
sin x (2 cos x sin x) = 0

Express in factor form


cos 2 x cos x 2
=0
(cos x 2)(cos x + 1)= 0

Factorize by grouping
3 sin x tan x 12 sin x 2 tan x + 8
3 sin x (tan x 4)
2(tan x 4)
(tan x 4)(3 sin x 2)

Solution
sin x + sin y = a sin y = a sin x
cos x + cos y = a cos y = a cos x

(1)
(2)

(1)2 + (2)2 :
sin2 y + cos 2 y= (a sin x)2 + (a cos x)2
2

= (a sin x) + (a cos x)

tan x =

sin x + cos x

(2)(2)2 4(1)(2)

= 1 3

2(1)

Solve Trigo Eqn f(ax + b) = k

= 2a2 2a(sin x + cos x) + sin2 x + cos 2 x

If unable to factorize, use quadratic formula


tan2 x 2 tan x 2 = 0

= (a2 2a sin x + sin2 x)


+(a2 2a cos x + cos 2 x)

Quadrants Method
Step 1: Find & identify quadrants

= 2a2 2a(sin x + cos x) + 1

Step 2: Adjust interval

= 2a2 2a(sin x + cos x)

Step 3: Find ax + b & x using quadrants

= a (sin x + cos x)

180 2 1
180 + 3 4 360

=a

Square Root of Trigo Function f(x)

f(x) 0: [f(x)]2 = f(x)

f(x) < 0: [f(x)]2 = f(x)

The output of square root is positive by definition


e.g. sin2 x = sin x

for 0 < x < 90

sin2 x = sin x for 180 < x < 270

Graphical Method
When = 0 or 90
i.e. sin f(x) = 0, 1
cos f(x) = 0, 1
tan f(x) = 0
Step 1: Adjust interval
Step 2: Find ax + b & x using graphs
y = sin x

Ex 12.2 Further Trigo Eqns

y = cos x y = tan x

180
90

Simplify to Tangent Eqn

=0
=0
=0

360

270

180

90

360

270

180

90

360

270

Step 1: Separate sin & cos to opp. sides of eqn


Step 2: Divide by cos x

Ex 13.1 The Addition Formulae

e.g. a sin + b cos = 0


a sin
= b cos

Addition Formulae

tan

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b
a

sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B

cos(A B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

tan(A B) =

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tan Atan B
1tan A tan B

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Ex 13.2 The Double Angle Formulae

Ex 13.3 The R-Formulae

Double Formulae

R-Formulae

a sin b cos = R sin( )

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A


1
sin A cos A = sin 2A

a cos b sin = R cos( )

cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A


= 2 cos 2 A 1
= 1 2 sin2 A
cos 2 A =

1+cos 2A

sin2 A =

1cos 2A

tan 2A =

Tip:

R = a2 + b 2

= tan1 ( )

min = R, max = R

b
a

Ex 14.1 The Derivative and its Basic Rules

2 tan A

Derivative as Gradient

1tan2 A

The gradient of the curve y = f(x) at (x1 , y1 ) is

As cos 2A has 3 possible outputs,


the output that eliminates 1 is often chosen

Note: Most of the time,

Question

dy
dx

dy

dx x=x1

is a function of x.

To find the gradient we need the x-input.

Show 1 + cos 2A = 2 cos 2 A

Question
Calculate the gradient(s) of the curve at the point(s)
where y is given. y = 2x 2 + 3x, y = 2.

Solution
LHS
= 1 + cos 2A
Do not use:
2
2
[(i) cos 2A = cos A sin A]
2
(ii) cos 2A = 1 2 sin A

= 1 + (2 cos 2 A 1)

Solution
y = 2x 2 + 3x
dy
dx

= 2 cos 2 A
= RHS

= 4x + 3

At y = 2,
2x 2 + 3x
=2
2
2x + 3x 2 = 0
(2x 1)(x + 2) = 0

Half Formulae
1

To find sin A, use cos A = 1 2 sin2 ( A)


1

1cos A

sin A =
1

To find cos A, use cos A =


2

1
2 cos 2 ( A)
2

1+cos A

cos A =

1
2
1
1tan2 ( A)
2
bb2 4ac

2a

To find tan A, use tan A =


2

tan A =

Daniel & Samuel


Math Tuition 9133 9982

x=
dy

1
2

or x = 2

dx x=1

=5

dy

dx x=2

= 5

2 tan( A)

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Power Rule

Differentiation from First Principles

d n
(x ) = nx n1
dx

f (x) = lim

Useful shortcuts

Question

(x) =
dx
2x
d

dx x

x2

( )=

d
dx
d

Solution

dx
d
dx

[x(x + 1)] =
(
(

f(x) = x
f(x + x) = x + x

2x2 +4x
x
x2 +2x
x1

)=

)=

dx

dx
d

dx

(x 2 + x) = 2x + 1

f (x)

(2x + 4) = 2

(x + 3 +

= lim

e.g.

(x) =

dx
d 1

( )

dx x

d
dx
d
dx

1
2

) (long division)

x1

(x 1 )

2x+1

]=

dx x(x+1)

( +

dx x

Constant Multiple Rule


d
dx

[kf(x)] = k

d
dx

[f(x)]

Sum/Difference Rule
d
dx

[f(x) g(x)] = f (x) g(x)

x+xx
x

x+x+x
x+x+x

x+xx

x0 x(x+x+x)

2x
1

= lim

x0 x(x+x+x)

x2

)=

x+1

= lim

= lim

Breaking into partial fractions


e.g.

= lim

x0

(x )

f(x+x)f(x)

x0

Use law of indices


d

Find the derivative of f(x) = x from first principles

Consider simplifying before differentiating


Multiply or divide
e.g.

f(x+x)f(x)

x0

x0 (x+x+x)

1
x2

(x+1)2

=
=

x+x
1
2x

as x 0,
)
x + x x

Ex 14.2 The Chain Rule


Chain Rule
d
dx

[fg(x)] = fg(x)

g(x)

= Diff Outer Diff Inner


Ex 14.3 The Product Rule
Product Rule
d
dx

[f(x)g(x)] = f(x) g (x) +f (x) g(x)


Keep Diff

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Diff Keep

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Tangent Properties

Ex 14.4 The Quotient Rule

Quotient Rule
Diff
Bottom Top
d

f(x)

dx g(x)

]=

g(x)

Diff
Top Bottom

f (x) f(x)
[g(x)]2

Normal Properties

g (x)

Square
Bottom

For the case of

k
f(x)

d
dx

[(2x3)2 ] =

d
dx

[(2x 3)2 ]

= (2x3)3
=

d
dx

(2x 3)

4
(2x3)3

Consider converting to proper fraction first if it is an


improper fraction
d
dx

Normal intersects curve

mnorm =

, it is preferable to use chain rule instead

= 2(2x 3)3

e.g.

3x2 +x+3

x2 +1

dx

)=
=
=
=

1
f (x1 )

Ex 15.2 Increasing and Decreasing Functions

of quotient rule.
e.g.

Tangent intersects curve


mtan = f (x1 )

(3 +

(x2 +1)

For increasing function,

For decreasing function,

dy
dx
dy
dx

>0
<0

Applications
Determine whether a function is increasing or
decreasing
Find the range of values of x for which a function is
increasing or decreasing
Ex 15.3 Rates of Change

d
d
(x) x (x2 +1)
dx
dx
(x2 +1)2

(x2 +1)1

Rate of Change

x2x

dy

(x2 +1)2

dt

rate of change of y wrt t

2x2

Consider adding/subtracting between related rates

(x2 +1)2
1x2

= (x2

x2 +1

(x2 +1)

Increasing/Decreasing function

Question

+1)2

Water is entering a container at a constant rate of 5 cm3 /s


Water is leaking from the container at a constant rate of
1 cm3 /s. Find the net rate of water flow into the container.

Ex 15.1 Tangents and Normals


Find Tangent

Solution
Net rate = 5 1 = 4cm3 /s

Step 1: Find point


Step 2: Find gradient
Step 3: Find tangent
y y1 = f (x1 )(x x1 )

Quantity & Constant Rate


Quantity = (constant rate) time

Find Normal
Step 1: Find point
Step 2: Find gradient
Step 3: Find normal
1
(x x1 )
y y1 =
f (x1 )

Note: The tangent and normal are perpendicular to each


other at the point of contact

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Ex 15.4 Connected Rates of Change

Ex 16.2 Maxima and Minima

Connected Rates of Change

Maxima/Minima

Step 1: Assign variables, state given & unknown rate


Form relation between variables
(
)
of given rate & unknown rate

Step 2: y = f(x)

Step 1: Assign variables


Express variable to be max/min
(
)
as a function of a single variable

Step 2: y = f(x)

(see appendix 1)
dy

Step 3:

dx
dy

Step 4:

dt

= f(x)
=

dy
dx

dx
dt

(see appendix 1)
dy

(Find derivative)

Step 3: Find

(Use chain rule)

Step 4: Solve

Step 5: Find rate at instant

Step 5: Find

dy
dx

d2 A
dx2

Ex 16.1 Nature of Stationary Points

dy
=0
dx

a
sign

x
dy
dx

sign

dx

a+

max

min

x
dy

sign

a+

inflexion

2nd Derivative Test

d2 y

d2 y

d2 y

dx2
dx2
dx2

and compare against 0


(Verify max/min)

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

1st Derivative Test

dx

= 0 (Find stationary value)

Ex 17.1 Derivatives of Trigo Functions

Stationary Point/Value

dy

(Find derivative)

dx

< 0 max

d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx

(sin x) = cos x
(cos x) = sin x
(tan x) = sec 2 x
[sin(ax + b)] = a cos(ax + b)
[cos(ax + b)] = a sin(ax + b)
[tan(ax + b)] = a sec 2 (ax + b)

Consider simplifying using trigonometric identities before


differentiating
d
d
(2 sin x cos x) = (sin 2x) = 2 cos x
e.g.
dx

dx

> 0 min

Ex 17.2 Derivatives of Exponential Functions

= 0 inflexion

Derivatives of Exponential Functions

d
dx
d
dx

(ex ) = ex
(eax+b ) = aeax+b

Consider simplifying using indices properties before


differentiating
d
d
(e2x e13x ) = (e1x ) = e1x
e.g.
dx

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dx

32

Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Use Logarithmic Differentiation

Ex 17.3 Derivatives of Log Functions

Step 1: Take natural log both sides


Step 2: Simplify using laws of log
Step 3: Differentiate

Derivatives of Log functions

d
dx
d
dx

(ln x) =

1
x

[ln(ax + b)]=

a
ax+b

Consider simplifying by using laws of logarithm before


differentiating

dx

=
=

d
dx
d
dx
1

(ln x + ln ex )
(ln x + 1)

Quotient law
d
dx

[ln (

Question
Differentiate y = 2x with respect to x

Product law
d
(ln xex )
e.g.

e.g.

It is useful when differentiating


functions of the form y = [f(x)]g(x) , f(x) e
complicated products or quotients

)] =

x2 +1

dx
1

[ln x + ln(x 2 + 1)]


2x

= +

y
= 2x
ln y = ln 2x
ln y = x ln 2
Diff wrt x:
1 dy
= ln 2
y dx
dy

x2 +1

Solution

dx
d

dx

dx

[2 ln(4x 3)]

= 2(

=
=
=

Question

4x3

dx

= (ln 2)y
= (ln 2)2x Replace y with 2x

Power law
d
[ln(4x 3)2 ] =
e.g.

Change-of-base law
d
(log a x) =
e.g.

Take ln both sides


Simplify using power law
Differentiate both sides wrt x

Find

dy
dx

if y = (2 + x 2 )(1 x 3 )4

4x3

ln x

dx ln a
1
d

ln a dx
1 1

( )

ln a x
1
xln a

(ln x)

Solution
y = (2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4
(1)
ln y = ln[(2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4 ]
= ln(2 + x 2 )3
+ ln(1 x 3 )4
= 3 ln(2 + x 2 )
+4 ln(1 x 3 )
Diff wrt x:
1 dy
y

dx

=3
=3
=

dy
dx

1
2+x2
1
2+x2

d
dx

(2 + x 2 )

2x

+4

6x

2+x2
6x

=(

2+x2

= 6x (
= 6x [

12x2

1x3
1
2x

2+x2
1x3
3
(1x )2x(2+x2 )
(2+x2 )(1x3 )
1x3 4x2x3
14x3x3
(2+x2 )(1x3 )

1
1x3
1

1x3
12x2

d
dx

(1 x 3 )

(3x 2 )

1x3

= 6x [ (2+x2 )(1x3 ) ]
= 6x [

+4

y
]y
y
y

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


dy
dx

14x3x3

= 6x [(2+x2 )(1x3 )] (2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4
= 6x(1 4x 3x 3 )(2 + x 2 )2 (1 x 3 )3

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Find Curve from Derivative

Ex 18.1 Indefinite Integrals

f(x) g(x) dx = f(x) dx g(x) dx

To form equations and solve unknowns,


use given equations (unknowns are already present)
dy
e.g.
= x 2 (x k)

af(x) dx = a f(x) dx

Integral Rules

dx

Find Integral from Derivative

dx

Integration is the reverse of differentiation

introduce arbitrary constants from integration


dy
e.g.
= 2x + 1
dx
y = x2 + x + c

use point on curve


e.g. (1, 2) lies on y = f(x)
2 = f(1)

use gradient
dy
e.g. at turning point, = 0

Question
Given
find

d
dx

6x + 5 =
1

6x+5

6x+5

dx.

Solution
1

use proportionality
e.g. Gradient is proportional to f(x)
dy
= kf(x)

6x+5 dx = 3 6x+5 dx

dx

= 6x + 5 + c
3

Integrals of Power Functions

Consider rearranging equation involving derivative.


Question

xn+1

x n dx =

ax n dx =

(ax + b)n dx =

Given (x ln x) = 1 + ln x,
dx
find ln x dx.

(x ln x) = 1 + ln x

ln x

+c

n+1

(ax+b)n+1
a(n+1)

+c

Note: The rules for above hold for all real values of n
except for n = 1

Solution
dx

+c

n+1
axn+1

d
dx

e.g. x 1 dx

(x ln x) 1

x0
0
1

+c

but x 1 dx = dx = ln|x| + c
x

ln x dx = [dx (x lnx) 1] dx
= x ln x x + c

Consider simplifying before integrating


Multiply or divide
e.g. [x(x + 1)] dx = (x 2 + x) dx =

Question
Given

d
dx

(x cos x) = cos x x sin x,

Find x sin x dx

Solution
d
dx

(x cos x) = cos x x sin x

x sin x

= cos x

d
dx

x2 +2x
x1

) dx = (x + 3 +

x2
2

+c

) dx (long division)

x1

e.g. x dx = x dx =
1

x2 dx = x 2 dx =

) dx = (2x + 4) dx = x 2 + 4x + c

1
2

= sin x x cos x + c

Use law of indices

x cos x

x sin x dx = (cos x dx x cos x) dx

2x2 +4x

x3

x2

= xx
3

3
2
x1

+c= +c
x

Breaking into partial fractions


x

e.g. (x1)2 dx =
+ (x1)2 dx
x1
= ln|x 1|

Daniel & Samuel


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x1

+c

34

Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Ex 18.2 Definite Integrals

Ex 18.3 Integrals of Trigo Functions

Definite Integrals

Integrals of Trigonometric Functions

a f(x) dx = F(b) F(a)


Definite Integrals Rules

b
a f(x) dx

a
b f(x) dx

b
a f(x) dx

c
a f(x)

a f(x) dx = 0

dx +

b
c f(x) dx

cos x dx = sin x + c

sec 2 x dx = tan x + c

sin(ax + b) dx

Definite integrals can be equal


because they have equal area

= 2

under curve
0

e.g. 0 x 2 dx = 1 x 2 dx

1
Equal areas

Integrals of Modulus Functions


f(x) dx
|f(x)| dx = {
f(x) dx

sin x dx = cos x + c

= cos(ax + b) + c
a

cos(ax + b) dx

= sin(ax + b) + c
a

sec 2 (ax + b) dx

= tan(ax + b) + c
a

Consider simplifying using trigonometric identities before


integrating
e.g. tan2 x dx = sec 2 x 1 dx
= tan x x + c

Use special angles for definite integrals of trigonometric


function

e.g. cos x dx = [sin x]2


3

= sin sin

if f(x) 0
if f(x) < 0

=1

2
3

Ex 18.4 Integrals of Exponential Fns & 1/x


Integrals of Exponential Functions

ex dx = ex + c

eax+b dx = a eax+b + c

Consider simplifying using indices properties before


integrating
e.g. e2x e13x dx = e1x dx
=

e1x
1
1x

= e
1

ax+b

Integrals of &

+c
+c

x dx = ln|x| + c

ax+b dx = a ln|ax + b| + c

Consider breaking into partial fractions before integrating


2x1
5
3
) dx
e.g.
dx = (

(x+1)(x+2)

x+2

x+1

= 5 ln|x + 2| 3 ln|x + 1| + c

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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Ex 19.1 Area by Integration

Ex 19.2 Area bounded by Curves

Area by integration

Strategies to find area bounded by curves

Top

= ()
x2

Area = (Top Bottom) dx


1

x1

y1

1
Left
2

= 2
(1,1)

Right
Solution
Method 1
(integrate wrt y-axis)

There should be a pair of lines parallel to x or y-axis


enclosing the region. If parallel to y-axis, integrate wrt x
and vice versa.

=2

Area of region F
1

= y 2 (Right Left) dy

Consider finding geometric area without integration

1
0 [(2

=2

y) y] dy

Triangle area

Trapezium area = (sum of bases)(height)

= (base)(height)
2

Given the the diagram at the right.


Find area of
(i)
Region A
(ii)
Region B

Area of region G
+Area of region H

(3,6)

= (base)(height)

= 0 x 2 dx

+ 1 (2 x) dx

G H
1
2

=2

= 2

(1,2)

Solution
Area of Region A ()

= 2

Method 2 (break)

Question

(i)

Break into smaller shapes

Question
Find the area bounded by
y = x 2 , y = 2 x and the x
axis.

= ()
y2

Break

Bottom

Area = (Right Left) dy

Integrate wrt x or y-axis

Complement Subtract area

Axis

= 2

Method 3 (complement)
3

Area of Area of region I


1

= (2)(2)
2

1
0 (2

2
I

x) dx

= (1)(2)
2

=2

= 1 unit 2
(ii)

Area of Region B (trapezium)

Ex 20.1 Kinematics
Kinematics Relation

= (sum of bases)(height)
2
1

v=

= (2 + 6)(3 1)
2

= 8 unit 2

Daniel & Samuel


Math Tuition 9133 9982

ds
dt

s = v dt

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a=
v

dv
dt

v = a dt

36

Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Implications of Kinematics Statements

t is time after passing O s|t=0 = 0

Rest

v=0

Time to turn around

v=0

Max/min quantity

1st derivative = 0

Max/min dist. from O

v=0

Max/Min v

a=0

Total Distance = |v| dt

Average Speed =

total distance
total time

Distance
t2

Total Distance = |v| dt


t1

(Total distance travelled in between t1 and t 2 )


Method 1 (using s-t graph)
Step 1: Let v = 0 to find t
Step 2: Find s for each t found
Step 3: Find s for start & end
Step 4: Draw s-t graph
Method 2 (using v-t graph)
Step 1: Draw v-t graph
Step 2: Use distance = |v| dt
Step 3: Split at v = 0
Step 4: Remove modulus
|v| = { v for v 0
v for v < 0

Daniel & Samuel


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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


3D Shapes

Appendix 1 Geometric Formulae

Prism
2D Shapes
Triangle ( )

= (base)(height)

Triangle area

2
1

= ab sin C
2

Isosceles triangle area =


sin a

Sine rule:

sin b
B

Cosine rule:

Pythagoras theorem :

Trigonometric identities:

cos =
tan =

h
o

Cube volume = x 3

Cube surface area = 6x 2

Cylinder volume = r 2 h

Cylinder surface area = 2r 2 + 2rh


= 2r(r + h)

sin c

Pyramid

a2 + b2 = c 2
a

h
a

a = b + c 2bc cos A

Similar triangles:

Prism volume = (base area)(height)

sin =

s2 3

b
B

c
C

o = h sin

Pyramid volume = (base area)(height)


3

Cone Volume = r 2 h

Cone area (exclude base) = rl


where l = r 2 + h2

Sphere

a = h cos

Sphere volume = r 3

Sphere area = 4r 2

Quadrilateral ( )

Square area = x 2

Rectangle area = (base)(height)

Parallelogram area = (base)(height)

Rhombus area = (product of diagonals)

Trapezium area = (sum of bases)(height)

1
2

1
2

Kite area = (product of diagonals)


2

Circle ( )

Circle area = r 2

Circumference = 2r

Arc length = r = s

Area of sector = r 2

1
2
1

= rs
2

Area of segment = r 2 r 2 sin

Circle properties (refer to Ex 10.3)

Daniel & Samuel


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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Appendix 2 Trigonometric Identities
Special Angles
0 30 45 60 90

6
1

sin 0
cos 1
tan 0

2
2

3
2
1

2
3
2
1

2
2

1 3

Complementary Angles
sin(90 ) = cos

cos(90 ) = sin
tan(90 ) =

Pythagorean Identities
sin2 + cos 2 = 1

tan2 + 1

= sec 2

cot 2 + 1

= csc 2

Addition Formulae
sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B

cos(A B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

tan(A B) =

Double Angle Formulae


sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A
1
sin A cos A = sin 2A
2

1
tan

Trigonometric Function Definition

sin =
cos =
tan =

r=

y
r
x

r
y

y
x

x 2

tan Atan B
1tan A tan B

y2

cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A


= 2 cos 2 A 1
= 1 2 sin2 A
cos 2 A =

1+cos 2A

sin2 A =

1cos 2A

tan 2A =

2
2

2 tan A
1tan2 A

Half Angle Formulae


Reciprocal Identities

sec =

csc =

cot =

To find sin A, use cos A = 1 2 sin2 ( A)

1
cos

1cos A

sin A =

1
sin
1

To find cos A, use cos A = 2 cos 2 ( A) 1

tan

sin() = sin()

tan() = tan()

1+cos A

cos A =

Negative Angles
cos() = cos()

1
2
1
1tan2 ( A)
2
bb2 4ac

2a

To find tan A, use tan A =


2

tan A =

2 tan( A)

Principal Values

sin1 x

R-Formulae
a sin b cos = R sin( )

0 cos

a cos b sin = R cos( )

< tan1 x <

Ratio Identities

tan =

cot =

sin

R = a2 + b 2

= tan1 ( )

min = R, max = R

b
a

cos
cos
sin

Daniel & Samuel


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Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)


Integration

Appendix 3 Calculus Formulae


Differentiation
Rules/Functions f(x)

f(x)

Constant
Multiple Rule

kf(x)

kf(x)

f (x) + g(x)

Chain Rule

fg(x)

f g(x) g(x)

Product Rule

f(x)g(x)

f(x)g (x) + f (x)g(x)

f(x)

g(x)f (x) f(x)g (x)


[g(x)]2

Power
Functions

Trigonometric
Functions

g(x)

nx

n1

sin x

cos x

cos x

sin x

tan x

sec 2 x

Exponential
Functions

ex

ex

e(ax+b )

aeax+b

ln x
Log Functions
ln(ax + b)

a f(x) dx

af(x)

Power
Functions
(power 1)

f(x) dx g(x) dx
xn+1

x n dx

n+1

(ax + b)n dx

+ b)

Exponential
Functions
Power
Functions
(power = 1)

+c

(ax+b)n+1
a(n+1)

+c

sin x

cos x + c

cos x

sin x + c

sec 2 x

tan x + c

sin(ax + b)

cos(ax + b) + c

1
a

cos(ax + b)

cos(ax + b) a sin(ax + b)
tan(ax + b) a sec

Constant
Multiple Rule

Trigonometric
Functions

sin(ax + b) a cos(ax + b)
2 (ax

f(x) dx

Sum/Difference
f(x) g(x)
Rule

Sum/Difference
f(x) g(x)
Rule

Quotient Rule

Rules/Functions f(x)

sin(ax + b) + c

sec 2 (ax + b)

ex

ex + c

eax+b

1 ax+b
e
a

tan(ax + b) + c

+c

ln|x| + c

x
1

ln|ax + b| + c

ax+b

1
x
a
ax+b

Definite Integrals
b
a f(x) dx = F(b) F(a)
Definite Integrals Rules

Daniel & Samuel


Math Tuition 9133 9982

a f(x) dx = b f(x) dx

a f(x) dx = a f(x) dx + c f(x) dx

a f(x) dx = 0

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