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## (20 Oct 2014)

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Ex 3.1

Ex 1.1

## Solve a Pair of Linear & Non-linear Eqns .............................. 5

Form Relation ................................................................................... 5
Ex 1.2

## Sum & Product of Roots................................................................ 5

Form a Quadratic Equation from its Roots ........................... 5
Useful Formulae............................................................................... 5
Prove Identities involving Roots............................................... 5
Ex 1.3

Discriminant ........................................................................ 5

## Complete the Square ...................................................................... 5

Discriminant & Nature of Roots/Number of xintercepts/Number of Intersections ....................................... 6
Conditions for ax 2 + bx + c to be always positive or
negative ............................................................................................... 6

## Definition of Polynomials ............................................................ 8

Multiply Polynomials .................................................................... 8
Find Unknown(s) in an Identity ............................................... 8
Ex 3.2

## Long Division .................................................................................... 8

Division Algorithm ......................................................................... 9
Ex 3.3

Remainder Theorem.........................................................9

Ex 3.4

## Factor Theorem ............................................................................... 9

Sum/Difference of Cubes ............................................................. 9
Ex 3.5

## Factorize Cubic Expressions ...................................................... 9

Form Cubic Polynomial ................................................................ 9
Ex 3.6

## Form Quadratic Inequality from Solution............................. 6

Juggling ............................................................................................. 10

Ex 1.4

Ex 2.1

Surds ...................................................................................... 6

Ex 4.1

## Modulus Functions and their Graphs ...................... 10

Simplify Surds................................................................................... 7

## Sketch y = f(|x|) ............................................................................ 10

Ex 2.2

Indices ................................................................................... 7

## Law of Indices ................................................................................... 7

Ex 2.3

Index equations.................................................................. 7

Ex 4.2

Ex 5.1

## Equality of Indices .......................................................................... 7

Factorial ............................................................................................ 11

## Different Types of Manipulation ............................................... 8

Combination ................................................................................... 11

Exponential Functions..................................................... 8

Ex 2.4

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Ex 5.2

Ex 8.2

## Expand (a + b)n ............................................................................ 12

Linearization................................................................................... 17

Ex 6.1

## Mid-point of a Line Segment .......................................12

Scale.................................................................................................... 17

## Distance Formula ......................................................................... 12

Intersection ..................................................................................... 18

## Find line ........................................................................................... 12

Use point on line/curve ............................................................. 13
Ratio of Diagonal Segments ..................................................... 13

Ex 9.1

## Graphs of Parabolas of the Form = ............. 18

Sketch y 2 = kx ............................................................................... 18
Ex 9.2

## Ex 10.1 Triangle Theorems ............................................................ 20

Ex 6.2

Parallel Lines.....................................................................14

## Angle Properties of Line(s) ...................................................... 20

Parallel Lines.................................................................................. 14

## Angle Properties of Triangles .................................................. 20

Collinearity ..................................................................................... 15

Ex 6.3

Ex 10.2

Ex 6.4

## Shoelace Formula ......................................................................... 15

Ex 7.1

Ex 10.3

Circles Theorems........................................................ 22

## Special Log Values........................................................................ 15

Convert between Log & Index Form .................................... 16
Ex 7.2

Ex 11.1

## Trigo Ratios of Acute Angles .................................. 22

Special Angles................................................................................. 22

## Laws of Logarithm ....................................................................... 16

Complementary s....................................................................... 23

Ex 7.3

## Logarithmic Equations ..................................................16

Supplementary s ........................................................................ 23

Equality of Logarithms............................................................... 16

Ex 7.4

## Find General Angle ................................................................... 23

Use .................................................................................................. 23

Solve a = b .................................................................................... 16
Solve Index Equations ................................................................ 16
Ex 7.5

Ex 11.2

Ex 8.1

## Reciprocal Identities ................................................................... 24

Linearize .......................................................................................... 17

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Ex 11.3

Ex 15.2

## Increasing/Decreasing function ............................................. 31

Ex 15.3

Rates of Change........................................................... 31

## Sketch Trigonometric Functions ........................................... 25

Use Symmetrical/Cyclical Nature of Trigo Graphs ........ 26
Inverse Trigo Function .............................................................. 27
Ex 12.1

Ex 15.4

Ex 16.1

## 2nd Derivative Test...................................................................... 32

Pythagorean Identities............................................................... 28
Square Root of Trigo Function f(x) ....................................... 28
Ex 12.2

## Simplify to Tangent Eqn ............................................................ 28

Factorize Trigo Eqn ..................................................................... 28
Solve Trigo Eqn f(ax + b) = k................................................. 28
Ex 13.1

Ex 13.2

## The Double Angle Formulae ...................................29

Double Formulae...................................................................... 29
Half Formulae ............................................................................ 29
Ex 13.3

Ex 16.2

## Maxima and Minima.................................................. 32

Maxima/Minima ............................................................................ 32
Ex 17.1

Ex 17.2

Ex 17.3

## Derivatives of Log functions..................................................... 33

Use Logarithmic Differentiation ............................................. 33
Ex 18.1

## Find Integral from Derivative .................................................. 34

R-Formulae ..................................................................................... 29

Ex 14.1

## Integrals of Power Functions ................................................... 34

Ex 18.2

Definite Integrals........................................................ 35

Ex 14.2

Ex 14.3

Ex 18.3

Ex 18.4

Ex 14.4

Ex 15.1

## Find Tangent .................................................................................. 31

Find Normal.................................................................................... 31

Ex 19.1

Ex 19.2

## Strategies to find area bounded by curves ......................... 36

Ex 20.1

Kinematics .................................................................... 36

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Distance ............................................................................................ 37
Appendix 1

## Geometric Formulae .............................................38

2D Shapes ........................................................................................ 38
3D Shapes ........................................................................................ 38
Appendix 2

Appendix 3

## Calculus Formulae .................................................40

Differentiation ............................................................................... 40
Integration ...................................................................................... 40

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Useful Formulae

## Ex 1.1 Simultaneous Equations

2 + 2 = ( + )2 2
Solve a Pair of Linear & Non-linear Eqns

= ( )2

( )2 = ( + )2 4

## Step 2: Substitute it into non-linear eqn

4 + 4 = (2 + 2 )2 2()2
Form Relation
Prove Identities involving Roots

## Step 2: Form relation between variables

Ex 1.2 Sum and Product of Roots
Sum & Product of Roots
Step 1: Simplify to ax 2 + bx + c = 0

## Step 3: Find SOR/POR

Product of roots = =

b
a

(iii)

## Apply power of n to (1)

(ii) (1)2 :

4 = ( 3)2
4 = 2 6 + 9
4 = 2 6(2 + 3) + 9
[use (1) to make the subject]
4 = 2 62 18 + 9
4 = 52 + 9
4 + 5 9 = 0 (shown)

+
2

## Find roots and unknowns

e.g. the equation x 2 4x + c = 0 has roots which
differ by 2. Find the value of each root and c.

## To prove existence of positive & negative root, use

< 0
Convert to quadratic equation in y by substitution

(1)

3 = 2 3 (2)
sub (1) into (2):
3 = ( 3) 3
3 = 2 3
3 + 2 + 3 = 0 (shown)

2
3

Multiply n to (1)

(1) :

Given context
e.g. the heights of two men satisfy
40x 2 138x + 119 = 0. Without solving the
equation, find the average height of these two
men. Average height =

(ii)

Solution
(i) is root, 2 = 3

Applications
Evaluate expressions involving its roots
2
2
e.g. find +

is a root of ax 2 + bx + c = 0,
a2 + b + c = 0
(1)

Question
Given that is a root of the equation x 2 = x 3, show that
(i)
3 + 2 + 3 = 0
(ii)
4 + 52 + 9 = 0

## Step 2: State roots

Sum of roots = + =

(i)

Ex 1.3 Discriminant

1
3

sub y = x 3 :
1

## y 2 2y + 3 = 0 has roots 3 & 3

k 2

k 2

x 2 + kx = (x + ) ( )

## Form a Quadratic Equation from its Roots

Step 1: State roots
Step 2: Find SOR/POR
Step 3: Form equation
x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

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Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:

## Express as y = a(x h)2 + k

Obtain turning point (h, k)
Determine or shape from a
Sub x = 0 to find y-intercept
Sub y = 0 to find x-intercept

Step 1: Simplify to ax 2 + bx + c vs 0, a > 0
Step 2: Factorize
Step 3: Draw sign diagram
(Arrange roots & alternate signs with + at left)
+ +
1 2

e.g.

= 2 + +

1
2
(5, 3)
To find x1 ,

2+x1
2

f(x) < g(x) and
= 5 x1 = 8

## Step 1: Split into 2 inequalities using and

Step 2: Solve each inequality

## Step 3: Take intersection of both solutions

Step 1: Simplify to ax 2 + bx + c = 0
(by substituting line into curve)

## Step 2: Use relation between b2 4ac

& nature of roots/x-intercepts/intersections
Discriminant
2

b 4ac > 0
b2 4ac = 0
b2 4ac 0
b2 4ac < 0

Nature of
roots
2 distinct
2 equal
2
0

## g(x) < h(x)

No. of x-intercepts/
intersections
2
1 (tangent)
1 or 2 (meet)
0

## Conditions for ax 2 + bx + c to be always positive or

negative
ax 2 + bx + c > 0 for all x a > 0,

b2 4ac < 0

b2 4ac < 0

## Step 1: Simplify inequality to ax 2 + bx + c vs 0

Step 2: Use 2 conditions (i) a > 0 or a < 0
(ii) b2 4ac < 0

x1 < x < x2

## x < x1 or x > x2 k(x x1 )(x x2 ) > 0

Ex 2.1 Surds
Surds Properties
For a > 0 and b > 0,

a b = ab

a
b

a a = a

Notation
n
For x,
n
index
x

n
surd (if x is irrational)
n

## Note: For x and x < 0,

Even n results in non-real number
Odd n results in real number
3
e.g. 4 does not exist but 8 exists

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Simplify Surds

Ex 2.2 Indices

## Factor out largest square number

Law of Indices

e.g. 45 = 9 5 = 35
Prime factorize (for more challenging numbers)
e.g. 540 = 22 33 5
= 2 31.5 5
= 2 33 5
= 615
Rationalize Denominator
1

a0 = 1

an =

a n = ( a) = am

(am )n = amn

am an = am+n

a a
=
a
a a
1
1
1

= 2
ah + bk ah bk a h b 2 k

= amn

an

am

1
an

Same Base

an bn = (ab)n
a n

an

=( )

bn

Same Power

base/power

a = b a = b2

e.g.

## Equate rational & irrational terms

a + bk = c + dk a = c, b = d

e.g. ( a3 + b 2 + b) ( a3 + b 2 b)

33 30 93
2

(common base is 3)

273
3

## Note: Check the answer mentally by substituting it into

the original equation.
e.g. 6 5x
= x
6 5x
= x2
2
x + 5x 6 = 0
(x + 6)(x 1) = 0
x = 6 or x = 1 (rej)
When x = 1,
LHS = 6 5 = 1
RHS = 1
LHS RHS

(common power is )
3

## When you add/subtract terms, identify highest common

factor
e.g. 8x+2
34(23x )
3
x+2
= (2 )
2 17(23x )
= 23x+6
17(23x+1 )
(HCF is 23x+1 )
= 23x+1 (25 17)
= 23x+1 (15)
Note: Equations involving even power functions may
have multiple solutions
e.g. x 4 = 16 x = 2 or x = 2

## If you cannot simplify to a = b or a + bk = c + dk,

consider solving surds equation by substitution
e.g. 2x + 3x + 1 = 0
sub u = x:
2u2 + 3u + 1 = 0

## Ex 2.3 Index equations

Equality of Indices
ax = an , for a > 0, a 1
x =n

Method of Difference
Step 1: Break each term into partial sums
Step 2: Arrange partial sums vertically
Step 3: Cancel diagonally

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Different Types of Manipulation
Manipulate
Simplify
Express
Evaluate
Show
Solve
Given

## Find Unknown(s) in an Identity

Key Words
Complex to simple
In terms of
Find numerical value
Work towards distinct characteristic
Equation
Consider rearranging given equation.

## Ex 2.4 Exponential Functions

Sketch Exponential Functions
y = ax , a > 1
(slopes up)
x

y=a , 0<a<1
(slopes down)

## Note: y = ax 0 for 0 < a < 1

Ex 3.1 Polynomials and Identities
Definition of Polynomials

Substitute
Compare coefficients

## Tip: Sub values of x that makes a factor zero

e.g. a(x 2) + b = 5 3x
sub x = 2:
a(0) + b = 5 3(2)
b
= 1
compare x:

a = 3

## Ex 3.2 Division of Polynomials

Long Division
Step 1: Surface out hidden terms and express polynomial
in powers of decreasing integers
Repeat step 2-5 until Deg(R) < Deg(divisor)
Step 2: Divide
Step 3: Multiply
Step 4: Subtract
Step 5: Bring down
e.g. (3x 2 2x + 5) (x + 2)

## Polynomials must have

non-negative power
integer power
Multiply Polynomials
Expand using strategic alignment
e.g. (x + 1)(x 2 + x + 1)
= x3

+x 2
+x 2

+x
+x

+1

## Find coefficient using selective multiplication

e.g. Find coefficient of x 2 in
(x 2 + x + 1)(x 2 + 2x + 3)

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Division Algorithm

## Ex 3.5 Cubic Polynomials and Equations

Quotient Q(x)
Divisor g(x) Dividend f(x)

Remainder R(x)

## Factorize Cubic Expressions

Step 1: Guess factor (factor thm)
(x )

Dividend

Deg(Dividend)

## Deg(Remainder) < Deg(Divisor)

Divisor

= Quotient +

Step 2: Compare x 3

Remainder

(x )(px 2 + + )

Divisor

= Deg(Divisor) + Deg(Quotient)

Step 3: Compare x 0
(x )(px 2 + + r)

f(x) (px 2 + qx + r)
R(x)= ax + b
f(x) = (px 2 + qx + r)Q(x) + ax + b

Step 4: Compare x 2
(x )(px 2 + qx + r)
Step 5: Compare x (optional)
(x )(px 2 + qx + r)

## Ex 3.3 Remainder Theorem

Remainder Theorem

a

Tip:

## Note: If polynomial is not given, use division algorithm

Ex 3.4 Factor Theorem
Factor Theorem
b

a

Tip:

## Insert value of x that makes the factor zero

Sum/Difference of Cubes
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 ab + b2 )

f(x) = k(x x1 )3

## Given 2 distinct roots x1 and x2 ,

f(x) = k(x x1 )2 (x x2 ) or k(x x1 )(x x2 )2

## Given 3 distinct roots x1 , x2 and x3 ,

f(x) = k(x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 )

## Ex 3.6 Partial Fractions

Break into Partial Fractions
Step 1: Convert to proper fraction
Step 2: Factorize denominator
Step 3: Break into partial fraction forms
Denominator Form
ax + b
(ax + b)2
x2 + c2

A
ax+b
A
ax+b
Ax+B

+ (ax+b)2

x2 +c2

## Step 4: Solve for unknowns

Cover-up rule
Substitution
Compare coefficients

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Proper & Improper fraction

Cover-up Rule

Proper Fraction:
Deg(Numerator) < Deg(Denominator)

## To solve for unknown with linear factors,

Step 1: Insert root
Step 2: Cover up linear factor (that becomes zero)
Step 3: Equate unknown (highest power)
e.g.

f(x)
(xx1 )(xx2 )2

## = (xx ) + (xx ) + (xx

1

Improper Fraction:
Deg(Numerator) Deg(Denominator)

2)

## insert x1 , cover up (x x1 ) and equate A

x = x1 :

f(x)
|
( )(xx2 )2 x=x

Modulus Definition

=A
1

|x| = {

x = x2 :

f(x)
|
(xx1 )( )2 x=x
2

## e.g. Given a > 2, simplify |3 2a|

a
>2
2a < 4
3 2a < 1
<0
|3
2a| = (3 2a) = 2a 3

## Step 1: Clear fractions by multiplying denominator

Step 2: Simplify to polynomial of descending power
Step 3: Compare coefficients
x2 +2x+15

Bx+C

x2 +3
2

= +

x(x2 +3)
2

x0
x<0

## Tip: Use given condition to determine

if |f(x)| = f(x) or f(x)

=C

Compare Coefficients

e.g.

x
x

x + 2x + 15 = 5(x + 3)
+(Bx + C)x
2
= 5x + 15
+Bx 2 + Cx
= (5 + B)x 2 + Cx + 15

|a| = |a|

Compare coefficients:
x 2 : 1 = 5 + B B = 4
x:
C=2

|ab| = |a||b|

| |

|an | = |a|n

|a|2 = |a2 | = a2

x2 +2x+15
x(x2 +3)

4x+2

x2 +3

= +

Modulus Properties

= |b|

## Tip: differ is the trigger word to use modulus

Juggling
Step 1: Copy denominator to numerator
Step 2: Multiply to match term with highest power
e.g.
4x 2 + 3
x2 2
(x 2 2)
2
x 2
4(x 2 2)
2
x 2
4(x 2 2) + 11
=
x2 2
11
=4+ 2
x 2

|a|

## e.g. A differs from B by 10

|A B| = 10
Solve Modulus Equations
|f(x)| = g(x)
f(x) = g(x) or f(x) = g(x)

## Note: Check the answer by mentally substituting it into

the original equation.

power

Tip:

## add 11 to numerator to balance

Divide each term in numerator by
denominator

## Consider squaring both sides to remove mod

|f(x)| = k
[f(x)]2 = k 2

Sketch y = |f(x)|
Step 1: Sketch y = f(x)
Step 2: Reflect negative part of f(x) in x-axis

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Use Pascals Triangle

## Ex 4.2 Power Graphs

To create table,
n Binomial coefficients
0
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
Step 1: Insert 1 at the sides

## Sketch Power Graphs

For y = ax n , a > 0
Integer
Integer
Negative
Positive
Even
Odd
Even
Odd
( 1)
1
1
y= 2
y=
y = x2 y = x3
x
x

## Step 2: Form numbers inside triangle by adding the

2 numbers above it
Step 3: Use formula
(1 + b)n = (1st coeff)b0
+(2nd coeff)b1
+ + (last coeff)bn

Rational
Rational
0<n<1

n<0

Expand (1 + b)n
n
n
n
n
(1 + b)n = ( ) b0 + ( ) b1 + + ( ) br + + ( ) bn
0
1
r
n
n r
=1
+nb
+ + ( ) b + + bn
r

n>1

## ( at rate) ( at rate) ( at rate)

Ex 5.1 Binomial Expansion of (1 + b)n
Factorial

n! = n (n 1) 2 1
= n (n 1)!

0! = 1

## To divide between factorials,

Step 1: Expand bigger factorial till smaller factorial
Step 2: Strike out smaller factorials
e.g.

7!
5!

765!

(n+1)!
(n2)!

5!

= 7 6 = 42

(n+1)n(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!

= (n + 1)n(n 1)

Combination
n
n!
( ) = (nr)!r!
r
n
( )=1
0
n
( )=n
1
n
n(n1)
( )=
2
2
n
n(n1)(n2)
( )=
3!
3
n
n(n1)(n2)(n3)
( )=
4!
4

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Binomial Theorem Cross-applications
App 1:
App 2:
App 3:

## Ex 5.2 Binomial Expansion of (a + b)n

Multiply selectively
Substitute value/terms
Compare coefficients

Expand (a + b)n
n
n
n
(a + b)n = ( ) an0 b0 + ( ) an1 b1 + + ( ) ann bn
0
1
n

Question

=1

+nan1 b

+ + bn

## (i) Expand (2 x) (1 + x) in ascending powers of x, as

2

Use Tr+1
n
Tr+1 = ( ) anr br
r
To find particular term,
Step 1: Simplify to (a + b)n

## far as the term in x 3 .

(ii) Hence estimate the value of 1.9 (1.05)8
Solution
Multiply selectively
(i)

(2 x) (1 + x)

Pull out x

## = (2 x)(1 +4x + 7x 2 + 7x 3 + ) [by Binomial Thm]

= 2 +8x +14x 2 +14x 3
x
4x 2 7x 3 +
= 2 +7x +10x 2 +7x 3 +

constant

power = 0

## Step 4: Insert r into Tr+1

Substitute values
(ii) 1.9 (1.05)8
= (2 0.1) (1 + 0.5)8
= [2 (0.1)] [1 + (0.1)]

Step 3: Find r
Equate power
n
middle term r =

8

Distance Formula

## = 2 +7(0.1) +10(0.1)2 +7(0.1)3 +

[sub x = 0.1 into (i)]

(x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2

2.807

y1 y2
m=
x1 x2

Question
The first three terms in the expansion, in ascending
powers of x of (1 + 2x)n are 1 + 16x + ax 2 .
Find n and a.
Solution
Compare coefficients
(1 + 2x)n
= 1 + 2nx + 2n(n 1)x 2 +
1 + 16x + ax 2
Compare x:
Compare x 2

## (by Binomial Thm)

(given)

2n = 16 n = 8
2n(n 1) = a
Sub n = 8:
2(8)(8 1) = a
a = 112

Find line
If y-intercept is not given,
Step 1: Find point
Step 3: Find line
y y1 = m(x x1 )
If y-intercept is given,
Step 1: State y-intercept
Step 3: Find line
y = mx + c
Note: For m = 0, horizontal line y = c
For m , vertical line
x=a

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Use point on line/curve

Use Vectors

## (x1 , y1 ) lies on y = f(x)

y1 = f(x1 ) (form eqn)
(x1 , f(x1 )) (express coordinates in only 1 variable)
e.g. (2,1) lies on y = kx 2
1 = k(2) 2
2k = 3
3
k
=
2

## e.g. A(a1 , a2 ) lies on y = 2x

A(a1 , 2a1 )
Ratio of Diagonal Segments
By similar triangles,
B F
A: B (diagonal) A
E
= C: D (horizontal)
C
D
= E: F (vertical)

AB

+ OB

= AO
OA

= OB

Question

(0,9)

## Given A is (0,9) & C is (6,3) and

AB: BC = 2: 1, find the coordinates
of B.

(6,3)
1

Solution
= OA

OB

= OA

+AB
+

2
2+1
2

AC

= OA

OA
)
+ (OC

= OA

2
2 OA

+ OC

3
3

1
+ 2 OC

= OA
3
1

2 6
0
= ( ) + ( )
3 9
3 3
4
=( )
5
B(4,5)

Question

(8,8)
A is (0,6), B is (2, 2) and D is
(0,6)
(2, 2).
AB is parallel to DC and

AB: DC = 1: 2.
(2, 2)
Find the coordinates of C

Solution

OC =
OD
=
OD

+DC

+2AB

=
OD

OA
)
+2(OB
8
0

= OD
+2 [( ) ( )]
8
6
8

= OD
+2 ( )
2
2
16
= ( ) +( )
2
4
18
=( )
2
C is (18,2)

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Question
A is (2,4) and B is (6,10).
ACB and MDB are 90.
AC: MD = 3: 1.
Find the coordinates of M

(6,9)

M=(

(3,3)
Solution
ACB ~ MDB.
AB
MB

=
=

AC
MD
3

(corr. sides or ~ s)

=3
AB = 3MB
AM: MB = 2: 1
= OA

OM

= OA

= OA

+AM
2
+
AB
3
2

)
+ (OB OA
3

+ 2 OB

= OA
3
1

2 6
3
= ( ) + ( )
3 3
3 9
5
=( )
7
(5,7)
M is

Find Intersection
Solve a pair of equations

Mid-point Formula

x1 + x2 y1 + y2
)
,
2
2

To find endpoint,
Step 1: Denote endpoint
Step 2: M = (

x1 +x2 y1 +y2
2

## Step 3: Equate coordinates

To find curve traced by mid-point,
Step 1: Find midpoint M
Step 2: Let M = (x, y)
Step 3: Equate coordinates
Step 4: Connect x & y
Shapes
Parallelogram ABCD
A
B
M
D
C
iso. ABC with AB = AC
A
B
C
Circle with diameter AB
A
B

Implications
MAC = MBD

MBC = Foot of
from A to BC
MAB = Centre

Question
A is (2,4) and B is (6,10). AC: MD = 2: 1.
Given the diagram below, find the coordinates of M.

(6,10)

2
(2,4)

Solution
M = MAB = (

2+6 4+10
2

) = (4,7)

## Ex 6.2 Parallel Lines

Angle of Inclination
m = tan (wrt positive x axis)
Parallel Lines
l1 l2 m1 = m2

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Collinearity

## If A, B & C are collinear,

mAB = mAC (any two line segments)

Shoelace Formula
Area of triangle
1 x1 x2 x3 x1
= |y y y y |
2 1
2
3
1
1
= (x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1
2
x2 y1 x3 y2 x1 y3 )

## Find Parallel Line

Step 1: Find point/y-intercept
Step 2: Find gradient (m1 = m2 )
Step 3: Find line
y y1 = m(x x1 )
y = mx + c

1 x1 x2 x3 x4 x1
|
|
2 y1 y2 y3 y4 y1
1
= (x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y1
2
x2 y1 x3 y2 x4 y3 x1 y4 )

## Ex 6.3 Perpendicular Lines

Perpendicular Lines
l1 l2 m1 . m2 = 1
1
m1
=

Area of polygon
1 x1 x2 xn x1
|
= |y y y
2 1
2
n y1
1
= [(sum of products )
2
(sum of product )]

m2

Shapes
Rhombus ABCD
A
B

Implications
mAC mBD

D
C
P is equidistant from A
and B
A
P
B

AB intersects P

## Find Perpendicular Line

Step 1: Find point/y-intercept
Step 2: Find gradient (m1 =

1
m2

## Coordinates should be in anti-clockwise order to have

positive output. On the contrary, if coordinates are in
clockwise order, the output is negative.
Use modulus if unsure anti-clockwise or clockwise
Zero area implies points are collinear
1

App 1:

App 2:

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y = mx + c

## Ex 7.1 Introduction to Logarithms

Logarithm Definition

(i) base > 0
(ii) base 1
(iii) arg > 0

1
mAB

1
(x x1 )
y y1 =

mAB

## Tip: To find the line equidistant to points A & B, find the

perpendicular bisector of AB

## log a a = 1 Same base & argument results in output of 1

log a 1 = 0 argument of 1 results in output of 0

## If the 2 points have the same x or y-coordinate,

bisector = average of the other coordinates

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Solve Log Equations

## Convert between Log & Index Form

x = log a y y = ax

Laws of log

## Step 2: Connect base to opp. side of eqn

Step 3: Switch form keeping base
e.g.
Base is a.
log a y = x
Connect base a to x
y
= ax Switch from log to index form.
Keep the base a, therefore power is x.
Index Log
Base is a.
Connect base a to y
= log a y Switch from index to log form.
Keep the base a, therefore argument is x.

ax = y
x

Action

Power law

Product law/
Quotient law

## Step 2: Remove log

Equality of log
Change to index form
Step 3: Check log conditions
Note: Use substitution u = log a x
if you cannot simplify to log =
Ex 7.4 Log and Eqns of the form ax = b

## Ex 7.2 Laws of Logarithms

Solve ax = b
To solve ax = b, log both sides

Laws of Logarithm
Product Law

## log a xy = log a x + log a y

x

Quotient Law

log a

Power Law

log a x r = r log a x

Change-of-Base
Law

log a b =

= log a x log a y

logc b
logc a

## Ex 7.3 Logarithmic Equations

Equality of Logarithms
log a x = log a n

x=n

1
logb a

## Solve Index Equations

Method 1:
Method 2:
Method 3:
Method 4:

ax = an x = n
ax = b (log both sides)
Convert to log form
Substitution

## Step 1: Use laws of indices to simplify to ax = an or b

When multiply/divide terms, identify
common base/power
common factor
Step 2: Remove base
Equality of indices (ax = an x = n)
(ax = b)
Log both sides
Convert to log form
If you cannot simplify to ax = an or b,
use substitution u = ax
e.g.

9(3x )2 + 1 = 10(3x )

e.g.

x 2 8x 2 = 7

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Equate Coordinates

y respectively!

y = log a x,
a>1
(slopes up)

Question

y = log a x,
0<a<1
(slopes down) 1

## If C(9, 8) lies on the graph of yx against x, find the value

of y corresponding to c.

Solution
Equate 1st coordinate:
Equate 2nd coordinate:

## Note: For base > 1, there is an inverse relation between

base & rate of increase

x =9
yx = 8
y9 = 8
8
y
=
3

= log
= log

= log
1

## Ex 8.2 Linear Law

Linearization
Step 1: Simplify to Y = mX + c
Step 2: Complete table

## Step 1: State 2 points:

(i) On y-axis
(ii) Halfway-down

Linearize
Contains
x&y
X&Y

m&c

Contains
constants

## Step 2: Equate gradient & Y-intercept

Scale
a

e.g. if ax 2 + by 3 = 1, then y 3 = x 2 +
a

i.e. Y = y 3 , X = x 2 , m = , c =
b+x
a

e.g. if y = e

, then ln y = x +
1

i.e. Y = ln y , X = x, m = , c =

## Step 1: Estimate Y-intercept

Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
Step 2: State domain & range
Step 3: Find X & Y interval
X
X
X-Interval = last 1st
10
Ylast Y1st

Y-Interval =
12
(Round down to 1, 2, 25 or 5)

To find unknowns,
Step 1: Linearize to axes variables
Step 2: Equate gradient & Y-intercept
or use points on line
(whichever is given)

## Step 1: Find point/gradient/ Y-intercept

Step 1: Simplify to (X or Y)
Step 2: Identify point
Step 3: Equate (Y or X) & solve for desired variable

## Step 2: Form linear equation

Y = mX + c
(If Y-intercept is given)
Y Y1 = m(X X1 ) (If Y-intercept is not given)

## Note: Graphical reading is reliable only within the data

range (interpolation) & not reliable outside the data range
(extrapolation)

axes variables

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Intersection

## Step 1: Work towards 2 curves on each side

Step 2: Plot 2nd curve & use intersection

Circle Equation

## Ex 9.1 Graphs of Parabolas of the Form y = kx

General form

x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

Sketch y 2 = kx

Centre

(a, b) = (g, f)

r = g 2 + f 2 c

y = kx,
k>0

## Note: It appears to be a counter-intuitive convention that

g comes before f in the formula

Note:
y = 0 is the line of symmetry

Trigger/Setup

Action

Question
Given the graph y 2 = 2x, draw a suitable line to solve
x 2 8x + 9 = 0.

2 points

centre lies on

Solution
x 2 8x + 9
x 2 6x + 9
(x 3)2
y=x3

Diameter

## Use midpoint formula

=0
= 2x
= 2x
or y = (x 3)

Touches
Sketch graph. Deduce
line
point on circle. (see example)
Right angle
triangle drawn

## Use Pythagoras Theorem

0,1 or 2
intersections

Use discriminant.

Touches another
circle

## Connect centres with a line.

Line is tangent to
circle

Find normal.

## If the centre cannot be found from the approaches above

(or only 1 coordinate can be deduced),
use given information about centre (if any)
e.g. centre C(h, k) lies on line y = f(x)
C is (h, f(h))
e.g. centre C(h, k) is 6 units away from point A(1,2)
(h 1)2 + (k 2)2 = 6

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## insert parameters into (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r 2 and

solve for unknowns by elimination.

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Examples of sketching graph to deduce information
Touch axis
Given:
centre (3, 2),
touches x-axis
Deduce:
Cut axis
Given:
Deduce:

2
(3, 2)

## Cuts y-axis at 2 and 5

y coordinate of centre
1+(5)
=
= 3
2

Touch line(s)
Given:
Touches x = 2 & x = 8
Deduce:

82
2

1
(1 , 3)
5

3
(5, 2 )
=2 =8

Pythagoras Theorem
Find length of PT, given radius is 13.
C(2, 1)

Find line
Find tangent/normal at point of contact
e.g. Find AB

P(3, 10)
210

## Idea: Find PC by distance formula

PT = PC 2 CT 2 (Pythagoras thm)

## Use Distance Formula

To check if point A lies within circle, compare distance
between A and centre with the radius
Use Midpoint Formula
Given that A(2,3) and B(4,5) are points on the circle,
the find the centre.
Given A is (2,3), the centre C is (4,5) and AB is the
diameter of the circle, find the point B

P(9,2)

## Find Intersection Point

Find point on circle
Find point of contact between tangent & normal
Find centre where line through centre meets
perpendicular bisector of chord

=3

x coordinate of centre
2+8
=
=5

Use Discriminant
Find number of intersections between line & circle
(you can also compare the perpendicular distance
with the radius to determine the number of points of
intersection)
Find unknown c in line eqn given line is tangent to
circle

AB

Find AC

C(1, 4)

Find bisector
Whenever two points on circle are given, consider
finding the perpendicular bisector. The perpendicular
bisector of the chord passes through the centre of the
circle

6B r = 5
A
C
2

## Use Properties of Circle (refer to Ex 10.3)

Solve System of Equations
To find circle equation given 3 points on the circle,
insert the points into general form of circle

A
B
bisector
of chord

## Complete the Square

Convert general form to standard form

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Similarity Tests

A

SSS
3 sides

AB + BC = AC
AC AB = BC

## Question (prove product of sides)

Given ABC ~ DEF, prove that AB DF = AC DE

Question
Given AB = CD, prove AC = BD
A B

Solution
Whenever you encounter
product of multiple line
Given ABC ~ DEF,
segments, consider using the
prove that
property of similar triangles:
AB DF = AC DE
ratios of corresponding sides are
equal.

C D

Solution
AB
= CD
AB + (BC) = CD + (BC)
AC
= BD
Angle Properties of Line(s)
a b

SAS
AA
2 sides,
2 eq.
1 included

b
a

AB
AC

## Identify which line segments in

the above product correspond to
the triangle ABC. AB and AC.
AB
Take ratio at the left. Note the
AC
sequence. AB is 12 and AC is 13.
12 over 13.

## Use same sequence on the other

triangle DEF at the right. 12 is
DE
DE and 13 is DF. Take ratio at
DF
the right.

ab

## Prove straight lines by s in line = 180

Prove parallel lines by int., corr. & alt.

AB
AC

DE
DF

b
a c
s in
= 180

bc

ext.
= sum of
int. opp. s

ab

ab

c
ab

AB DF = AC DE
[proven]

iso. eq.

Congruency Tests

## Question (Prove relation/ratio of line segments)

Given ABC ~ DEF & DE: EF = 1: 2, prove that
1
AB = BC (or AB: BC = 1: 2)
2

Solution
AB
BC

=
=

SSS
3 eq.
sides

SAS
AAS
RHS
2 eq. sides, 2 eq. s,
1 rt ,
1 included 1 corr. 1 eq. hyp,
sides
1 eq. side
Note: Order of Points matter
e.g. ABC XYZ is not the same as
ACB XYZ

Cross multiply.

DE
EF
1
2
1

AB = BC
2

AB: BC = 1: 2

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Question (Use ratio of area of similar triangles)
Given ABC ~ EDC,
B 1
E
BC: CD = 1: 2 &
C
area of ABC = x,
A
2 D
find the area of DEC
Solution
2 2

Area of DEC = ( ) x = 4x
1

[use

Mid-point Theorem
D = MAB , E = MAC
1
DE BC, DE = BC
2

A2

= ( 1) ]
l2

## Definition & Properties of Quadrilaterals

Kite
s between unequal sides are equal
(angle)
One diagonal bisects the other
(diagonal)
Longer diagonal bisects s
(diagonal)
Diagonals are
(diagonal)
Note: Concave kite have interior s > 180

A
D
B

A1

E
C

Trapezium
Quad. with exactly one pair of parallel sides
supplementary interior s
Parallelogram
Quad. with two pairs of parallel sides
Opp. sides are equal
Opp. s are equal
interior s are supplementary
Diagonals bisect each other

(side)
(angle)
(angle)
(diagonal)

Rectangle
Opp. sides are parallel
Opp. sides are equal
Diagonals bisect each other
Diagonals are equal

(side)
(side)
(diagonal)
(diagonal)

Rhombus
Opp. sides are parallel
Supplementary interior s
Diagonals bisect s
Diagonals are bisector of each other

(side)
(angle)
(diagonal)
(diagonal)

Square
Quad. with four equal sides & four right angles
Diagonals bisect angles
(diagonal)
Diagonals are equal
(diagonal)
Diagonals are bisector of each other (diagonal)

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Tangent Properties of Circle

Parallelogram
2 pairs of sides
2 pairs of equal & opp. sides
1 pair of equal & sides
2 pairs of equal opp. s
Diagonals bisect each other

(definition)
(side)
(side)
(angle)
(diagonal)

Rectangle
4 right s
Parallelogram + 1 right

(definition)
(angle)

Q
b

R
tangents
from
ext. point

thm

## Ex 11.1 Trigo Ratios of Acute Angles

Special Angles

Rhombus
4 equal sides
(definition)
Parallelogram + eq. adj. sides (side)
Parallelogram + bisecting diagonals
(diagonal)
Parallelogram + diagonals (diagonal)

Table

Square
4 equal sides & 4 right s
Rhombus + 1 right

tan 0

0 30 45 60 90
0
sin 0
cos 1

(definition)
(side)
(angle)

6
1

2
2

3
2
1

2
3
2
1
3

2
2

1 3

Triangle

Trapezium
Parallel opposite sides

(definition)

Kite
2 pairs of equal adjacent sides (definition)

45
1
Unit circle

30

60

60

## Ex 10.3 Circles Theorems

Angle Properties of Circle
a

a b

a
in
semicircle

b
a

at centre
s in same s in opp.
= 2 at
segment
segment
circumference

## Chord Properties of Circle

O
B

bisector of chord
passes through centre

A
C

O
Y D

equidistant from
centre

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Find Basic Angle

## To convert from radians to degrees, multiply

180
180

Tip:
Track the unit conversion to avoid the mistake of
multiplying the wrong fraction
e.g.
60 = 60

180

=
3

60 = 60

[deg] = [deg]

180

[deg]

=
=

10800

[deg]2

## Step 1: Add or subtract 360 until 0 360

Step 2: Use table

2
180
3
180
4
360
Find General Angle
1
2
3
4

180
180 +
360

Use
Step 1: Draw
Step 2: Find all 3 sides (by Pythagoras Thm)

Complementary s

sin(90 ) = cos

cos(90 ) = sin

tan(90 ) =

1
tan

Supplementary s

y

sin =

cos =

tan =

r = x 2 + y 2

r
x
r
y

y
x

sin(180 ) = sin

cos(180 ) = cos

tan(180 ) = tan

## Angles measured anti-clockwise from the positive x-axis

are positive.
On the contrary, angles measured clockwise from the
positive x-axis are negative.

Step 1: Add or subtract 360 until 0 360
Step 2: Use table
Angle
0 < < 90
90 < < 180
180 < < 270
270 < < 360

1
2
3
4

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Step 3: Find coordinates

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Question

Reciprocal Identities

5
12

## opposite signs, find the value of each of the following.

(i) sin(A)
(ii) cos(A)

(iii) tan ( A)

sec =

csc =

cot =

1
cos
1
sin
1
tan

Negative Angles

Solution
Thought Process
Step 1:
Identify quadrants Observe that ratio for tan is negative.
5
tan A = < 0
Tan is only positive in 1st or 3rd quad.
12
Therefore, it is in 2nd or 4th quad.
tan A & cos A have In 3rd quad., only tan is positive
opp. signs
In 4th quad., only cos is positive
3rd or 4th quad. Therefore, it is in 3rd or 4th quad.
Take overlap of above deductions.
Therefore it is in 4th quadrant.

Step 2:
Draw in

cos() = cos()

sin() = sin()

tan() = tan()
ASTC Rule

## sin is + S A all are +

tan is +T C cos is +
All trigo functions can be converted to trigo function of
basic angle with positive or negative sign depending on
ASTC rule.
e.g. sin(210) = sin(30)
Solve Trigo Eqn f(x) = k
Step 1: Find = f 1 (|k|) & identify quadrants
Step 2: State interval
Step 3: Find x using quadrants

12
r

Step 3:
Find coordinates
5
y
tan A = =
12

180 2 1
180 + 3 4 360

tan A = by definition.
x

2 1
+ 3 4 2

y = 5,

Equate numerator, = 5.
y-coordinate is negative in 4th quad.
Equate denominator, = 12.
x-coordinate is positive in 4th quad.

x = 12,

Theorem
= 13
y

r
x

13
12

13

sin A = =
cos A = =

## Find other trigo ratios to serve as

useful inputs. The rest of the
question makes use of the 3 basic
trigo ratios: sin A , cos A & tan A.

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Sketch Trigonometric Functions

## Step 1: Simplify to y = af(bx) + c

Solve Trigo Eqn f(x) = k by Graph

## Step 2: Find amplitude & period

Sin/Cos
Tan
|a|
Amplitude
Nil

Graphical method
When = 0 or 90,
i.e.

Period

sin f(x) = 0, 1

tan f(x) = 0
Step 1: State interval
Step 2: Find x using graph
y = cos x y = tan x

180
90

360

180

270

90

270

180

y = sin x

360

Domain
x1 x x2
Axis with
y = c |a|
Amplitude
Shape
sin/cos/tan
x2 x1
Cycle
T

cos f(x) = 0, 1

y = sin x

270

90

sin x = 1
at x = 270
sin x = 1
at x = 90

Max

0, 180, 360
90, 270
0, 180, 360
sin x = 1
cos x = 1
Min
Nil
at x = 270
at x = 180
sin x = 1
cos x = 1
Max
Nil
at x = 90
at x = 0, 360

y = cos x

Min

1 sin x 1
1 cos x 1
y = sin x

y = tan x

y = cos x

360

cos x = 1
at x = 180
cos x = 1
at x = 0, 360

## Find Unknowns of Trigo Function af(bx) + c

Sine/Cosine

Tangent

max
A = |a|

A = |a|
min
T=

360

T=

Amplitude A = |a| =

maxmin

360

Period

T=

Axis

c=
2
= min + A
= max A

180
b

Period T =

180
b

b
max+min

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Question

## Sketch y = 3(1 2 cos 4x) for 0 x 270

Symmetrical
Question
Given & are roots of 3 cos x + 2 = 2 where
3 < k < 4. Find in terms of , given that <

Solution
Step 1: Simplify to = () +
y = 3(1 2 cos 4x)
= 3 6 cos 4x
= 6 cos 4x + 3

Solution
y

A = |6| = 6
T=

360
4

= 3 cos + 2

= 90

## Step 3: Complete table and sketch graph

Domain
0 x 270
Axis with
y=36
sequence from
Amplitude
top down to
Shape
cos
sketch the graph.
2700
=3
Cycle
90

-1
x = is line of symmetry,
+
=
2

= 2
Cyclical

270

Mark the
endpoint of
domain, 270.

9
3

270

## Mark the axis 3.

6 to get max 9
and min 3.

Question
Given that is the smallest positive root of the equation
2 cos 4x = 3.1 tan 2x, where 0 x 360, state the
other roots in terms of .
Solution

1 = 3.1 tan 2
2

Draw 1 cycle of
negative cosine.

270

90

= 45

2 = 2 cos 4

180

= 135

Period = 90,
x = , + 90, + 180, + 270

9
3

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270

## There are 3 cycles

in total.
Draw 2 more.

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Note: If basic angles cannot be found, use in quadrant

Principal values

sin1 x

0 cos 1 x

< tan

x<

## Find the exact value of sin [cos 1 ( )]

5

Solution

Let A = cos 1 ( )
5

Step 2: Find basic angle
Step 3: Find general angle

Since 0 cos 1 x , it is
in the 1st or 2nd quad.
Because of the negative sign
1
of , it is in 2nd quad.
5

Question
1

2

5
1

Solution

cos 1 ( )
2

= ( )
3

2
3

## Step 3: Find coordinates

cos A = =

Thought process
0 cos 1 x
Strike out 3rd and 4th quadrants

Input is negative.
2
corresponds to positive ratios.

## Step 2: Find basic angle

Mentally use table of special
angles and ignore the negative
1

sign of ,
0
cos 1

3
2

2
2

3
1

basic angle =

## cos A = by trigo definition

r

x = 1,

Equate numerator: x = 1.
x-coordinate is negative in

r=5

Equate denominator: r = 5.
r is always positive.

y = 52 (1)2
= 24
= 4 6 = 26

sin [cos 1 ( )]
y

5
26

= sin A = =

Prove identities

Ratio Identities

## Step 3: Find general angle

General angle is the angle wrt
the positive x-axis.
ACW is positive. CW is negative.

General angle =
3

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tan =

cot =

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sin
cos
cos
sin

27

## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Pythagorean Identities

## Factorize Trigo Eqn

sin2 + cos 2 = 1

tan2 + 1

= sec 2

cot 2 + 1

= csc 2

Question
Given that sin x + sin y = a and cos x + cos y = a, where
a 0, express sin x + cos x in terms of a.

## Take out common factor

2 sin x cos x sin x = 0
sin x (2 cos x sin x) = 0

## Express in factor form

cos 2 x cos x 2
=0
(cos x 2)(cos x + 1)= 0

Factorize by grouping
3 sin x tan x 12 sin x 2 tan x + 8
3 sin x (tan x 4)
2(tan x 4)
(tan x 4)(3 sin x 2)

Solution
sin x + sin y = a sin y = a sin x
cos x + cos y = a cos y = a cos x

(1)
(2)

(1)2 + (2)2 :
sin2 y + cos 2 y= (a sin x)2 + (a cos x)2
2

= (a sin x) + (a cos x)

tan x =

sin x + cos x

(2)(2)2 4(1)(2)

= 1 3

2(1)

## If unable to factorize, use quadratic formula

tan2 x 2 tan x 2 = 0

## = (a2 2a sin x + sin2 x)

+(a2 2a cos x + cos 2 x)

Step 1: Find & identify quadrants

## Step 3: Find ax + b & x using quadrants

= a (sin x + cos x)

180 2 1
180 + 3 4 360

=a

## The output of square root is positive by definition

e.g. sin2 x = sin x

## sin2 x = sin x for 180 < x < 270

Graphical Method
When = 0 or 90
i.e. sin f(x) = 0, 1
cos f(x) = 0, 1
tan f(x) = 0
Step 2: Find ax + b & x using graphs
y = sin x

## Ex 12.2 Further Trigo Eqns

y = cos x y = tan x

180
90

=0
=0
=0

360

270

180

90

360

270

180

90

360

270

## Step 1: Separate sin & cos to opp. sides of eqn

Step 2: Divide by cos x

a sin
= b cos

tan

## Daniel & Samuel

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b
a

## cos(A B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

tan(A B) =

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tan Atan B
1tan A tan B

28

## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Ex 13.2 The Double Angle Formulae

Double Formulae

R-Formulae

## sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A

1
sin A cos A = sin 2A

= 2 cos 2 A 1
= 1 2 sin2 A
cos 2 A =

1+cos 2A

sin2 A =

1cos 2A

tan 2A =

Tip:

R = a2 + b 2

= tan1 ( )

min = R, max = R

b
a

2 tan A

1tan2 A

## As cos 2A has 3 possible outputs,

the output that eliminates 1 is often chosen

## Note: Most of the time,

Question

dy
dx

dy

dx x=x1

is a function of x.

## Show 1 + cos 2A = 2 cos 2 A

Question
Calculate the gradient(s) of the curve at the point(s)
where y is given. y = 2x 2 + 3x, y = 2.

Solution
LHS
= 1 + cos 2A
Do not use:
2
2
[(i) cos 2A = cos A sin A]
2
(ii) cos 2A = 1 2 sin A

= 1 + (2 cos 2 A 1)

Solution
y = 2x 2 + 3x
dy
dx

= 2 cos 2 A
= RHS

= 4x + 3

At y = 2,
2x 2 + 3x
=2
2
2x + 3x 2 = 0
(2x 1)(x + 2) = 0

Half Formulae
1

1

1cos A

sin A =
1

2

1
2 cos 2 ( A)
2

1+cos A

cos A =

1
2
1
1tan2 ( A)
2
bb2 4ac

2a

2

tan A =

## Daniel & Samuel

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x=
dy

1
2

or x = 2

dx x=1

=5

dy

dx x=2

= 5

2 tan( A)

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29

Power Rule

## Differentiation from First Principles

d n
(x ) = nx n1
dx

f (x) = lim

Useful shortcuts

Question

(x) =
dx
2x
d

dx x

x2

( )=

d
dx
d

Solution

dx
d
dx

[x(x + 1)] =
(
(

f(x) = x
f(x + x) = x + x

2x2 +4x
x
x2 +2x
x1

)=

)=

dx

dx
d

dx

(x 2 + x) = 2x + 1

f (x)

(2x + 4) = 2

(x + 3 +

= lim

e.g.

(x) =

dx
d 1

( )

dx x

d
dx
d
dx

1
2

) (long division)

x1

(x 1 )

2x+1

]=

dx x(x+1)

( +

dx x

## Constant Multiple Rule

d
dx

[kf(x)] = k

d
dx

[f(x)]

Sum/Difference Rule
d
dx

x+xx
x

x+x+x
x+x+x

x+xx

x0 x(x+x+x)

2x
1

= lim

x0 x(x+x+x)

x2

)=

x+1

= lim

= lim

e.g.

= lim

x0

(x )

f(x+x)f(x)

x0

d

## Consider simplifying before differentiating

Multiply or divide
e.g.

f(x+x)f(x)

x0

x0 (x+x+x)

1
x2

(x+1)2

=
=

x+x
1
2x

as x 0,
)
x + x x

Chain Rule
d
dx

[fg(x)] = fg(x)

g(x)

## = Diff Outer Diff Inner

Ex 14.3 The Product Rule
Product Rule
d
dx

Keep Diff

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Diff Keep

30

## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Tangent Properties

## Ex 14.4 The Quotient Rule

Quotient Rule
Diff
Bottom Top
d

f(x)

dx g(x)

]=

g(x)

Diff
Top Bottom

f (x) f(x)
[g(x)]2

Normal Properties

g (x)

Square
Bottom

k
f(x)

d
dx

[(2x3)2 ] =

d
dx

[(2x 3)2 ]

= (2x3)3
=

d
dx

(2x 3)

4
(2x3)3

## Consider converting to proper fraction first if it is an

improper fraction
d
dx

mnorm =

= 2(2x 3)3

e.g.

3x2 +x+3

x2 +1

dx

)=
=
=
=

1
f (x1 )

## Ex 15.2 Increasing and Decreasing Functions

of quotient rule.
e.g.

mtan = f (x1 )

(3 +

(x2 +1)

## For decreasing function,

dy
dx
dy
dx

>0
<0

Applications
Determine whether a function is increasing or
decreasing
Find the range of values of x for which a function is
increasing or decreasing
Ex 15.3 Rates of Change

d
d
(x) x (x2 +1)
dx
dx
(x2 +1)2

(x2 +1)1

Rate of Change

x2x

dy

(x2 +1)2

dt

2x2

## Consider adding/subtracting between related rates

(x2 +1)2
1x2

= (x2

x2 +1

(x2 +1)

Increasing/Decreasing function

Question

+1)2

## Water is entering a container at a constant rate of 5 cm3 /s

Water is leaking from the container at a constant rate of
1 cm3 /s. Find the net rate of water flow into the container.

## Ex 15.1 Tangents and Normals

Find Tangent

Solution
Net rate = 5 1 = 4cm3 /s

## Step 1: Find point

Step 3: Find tangent
y y1 = f (x1 )(x x1 )

## Quantity & Constant Rate

Quantity = (constant rate) time

Find Normal
Step 1: Find point
Step 3: Find normal
1
(x x1 )
y y1 =
f (x1 )

## Note: The tangent and normal are perpendicular to each

other at the point of contact

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Ex 15.4 Connected Rates of Change

Maxima/Minima

## Step 1: Assign variables, state given & unknown rate

Form relation between variables
(
)
of given rate & unknown rate

Step 2: y = f(x)

## Step 1: Assign variables

Express variable to be max/min
(
)
as a function of a single variable

Step 2: y = f(x)

(see appendix 1)
dy

Step 3:

dx
dy

Step 4:

dt

= f(x)
=

dy
dx

dx
dt

(see appendix 1)
dy

(Find derivative)

Step 3: Find

Step 4: Solve

Step 5: Find

dy
dx

d2 A
dx2

dy
=0
dx

a
sign

x
dy
dx

sign

dx

a+

max

min

x
dy

sign

a+

inflexion

d2 y

d2 y

d2 y

dx2
dx2
dx2

(Verify max/min)

dx

## Ex 17.1 Derivatives of Trigo Functions

Stationary Point/Value

dy

(Find derivative)

dx

< 0 max

d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx

(sin x) = cos x
(cos x) = sin x
(tan x) = sec 2 x
[sin(ax + b)] = a cos(ax + b)
[cos(ax + b)] = a sin(ax + b)
[tan(ax + b)] = a sec 2 (ax + b)

## Consider simplifying using trigonometric identities before

differentiating
d
d
(2 sin x cos x) = (sin 2x) = 2 cos x
e.g.
dx

dx

> 0 min

= 0 inflexion

## Derivatives of Exponential Functions

d
dx
d
dx

(ex ) = ex
(eax+b ) = aeax+b

## Consider simplifying using indices properties before

differentiating
d
d
(e2x e13x ) = (e1x ) = e1x
e.g.
dx

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dx

32

## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Use Logarithmic Differentiation

## Step 1: Take natural log both sides

Step 2: Simplify using laws of log
Step 3: Differentiate

d
dx
d
dx

(ln x) =

1
x

[ln(ax + b)]=

a
ax+b

## Consider simplifying by using laws of logarithm before

differentiating

dx

=
=

d
dx
d
dx
1

(ln x + ln ex )
(ln x + 1)

Quotient law
d
dx

[ln (

Question
Differentiate y = 2x with respect to x

Product law
d
(ln xex )
e.g.

e.g.

## It is useful when differentiating

functions of the form y = [f(x)]g(x) , f(x) e
complicated products or quotients

)] =

x2 +1

dx
1

## [ln x + ln(x 2 + 1)]

2x

= +

y
= 2x
ln y = ln 2x
ln y = x ln 2
Diff wrt x:
1 dy
= ln 2
y dx
dy

x2 +1

Solution

dx
d

dx

dx

[2 ln(4x 3)]

= 2(

=
=
=

Question

4x3

dx

= (ln 2)y
= (ln 2)2x Replace y with 2x

Power law
d
[ln(4x 3)2 ] =
e.g.

Change-of-base law
d
(log a x) =
e.g.

## Take ln both sides

Simplify using power law
Differentiate both sides wrt x

Find

dy
dx

if y = (2 + x 2 )(1 x 3 )4

4x3

ln x

dx ln a
1
d

ln a dx
1 1

( )

ln a x
1
xln a

(ln x)

Solution
y = (2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4
(1)
ln y = ln[(2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4 ]
= ln(2 + x 2 )3
+ ln(1 x 3 )4
= 3 ln(2 + x 2 )
+4 ln(1 x 3 )
Diff wrt x:
1 dy
y

dx

=3
=3
=

dy
dx

1
2+x2
1
2+x2

d
dx

(2 + x 2 )

2x

+4

6x

2+x2
6x

=(

2+x2

= 6x (
= 6x [

12x2

1x3
1
2x

2+x2
1x3
3
(1x )2x(2+x2 )
(2+x2 )(1x3 )
1x3 4x2x3
14x3x3
(2+x2 )(1x3 )

1
1x3
1

1x3
12x2

d
dx

(1 x 3 )

(3x 2 )

1x3

= 6x [ (2+x2 )(1x3 ) ]
= 6x [

+4

y
]y
y
y

(2)

## sub (1) into (2):

dy
dx

14x3x3

= 6x [(2+x2 )(1x3 )] (2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4
= 6x(1 4x 3x 3 )(2 + x 2 )2 (1 x 3 )3

## Daniel & Samuel

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Find Curve from Derivative

## To form equations and solve unknowns,

use given equations (unknowns are already present)
dy
e.g.
= x 2 (x k)

af(x) dx = a f(x) dx

Integral Rules

dx

dx

dy
e.g.
= 2x + 1
dx
y = x2 + x + c

## use point on curve

e.g. (1, 2) lies on y = f(x)
2 = f(1)

dy
e.g. at turning point, = 0

Question
Given
find

d
dx

6x + 5 =
1

6x+5

6x+5

dx.

Solution
1

use proportionality
e.g. Gradient is proportional to f(x)
dy
= kf(x)

6x+5 dx = 3 6x+5 dx

dx

= 6x + 5 + c
3

## Consider rearranging equation involving derivative.

Question

xn+1

x n dx =

ax n dx =

(ax + b)n dx =

Given (x ln x) = 1 + ln x,
dx
find ln x dx.

(x ln x) = 1 + ln x

ln x

+c

n+1

(ax+b)n+1
a(n+1)

+c

Note: The rules for above hold for all real values of n
except for n = 1

Solution
dx

+c

n+1
axn+1

d
dx

e.g. x 1 dx

(x ln x) 1

x0
0
1

+c

but x 1 dx = dx = ln|x| + c
x

ln x dx = [dx (x lnx) 1] dx
= x ln x x + c

## Consider simplifying before integrating

Multiply or divide
e.g. [x(x + 1)] dx = (x 2 + x) dx =

Question
Given

d
dx

Find x sin x dx

Solution
d
dx

## (x cos x) = cos x x sin x

x sin x

= cos x

d
dx

x2 +2x
x1

) dx = (x + 3 +

x2
2

+c

) dx (long division)

x1

e.g. x dx = x dx =
1

x2 dx = x 2 dx =

) dx = (2x + 4) dx = x 2 + 4x + c

1
2

= sin x x cos x + c

x cos x

2x2 +4x

x3

x2

= xx
3

3
2
x1

+c= +c
x

x

e.g. (x1)2 dx =
+ (x1)2 dx
x1
= ln|x 1|

## Daniel & Samuel

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1
x1

+c

34

## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Ex 18.2 Definite Integrals

## Ex 18.3 Integrals of Trigo Functions

Definite Integrals

## a f(x) dx = F(b) F(a)

Definite Integrals Rules

b
a f(x) dx

a
b f(x) dx

b
a f(x) dx

c
a f(x)

a f(x) dx = 0

dx +

b
c f(x) dx

cos x dx = sin x + c

sec 2 x dx = tan x + c

sin(ax + b) dx

## Definite integrals can be equal

because they have equal area

= 2

under curve
0

e.g. 0 x 2 dx = 1 x 2 dx

1
Equal areas

## Integrals of Modulus Functions

f(x) dx
|f(x)| dx = {
f(x) dx

sin x dx = cos x + c

= cos(ax + b) + c
a

cos(ax + b) dx

= sin(ax + b) + c
a

sec 2 (ax + b) dx

= tan(ax + b) + c
a

## Consider simplifying using trigonometric identities before

integrating
e.g. tan2 x dx = sec 2 x 1 dx
= tan x x + c

function

3

= sin sin

if f(x) 0
if f(x) < 0

=1

2
3

## Ex 18.4 Integrals of Exponential Fns & 1/x

Integrals of Exponential Functions

ex dx = ex + c

eax+b dx = a eax+b + c

## Consider simplifying using indices properties before

integrating
e.g. e2x e13x dx = e1x dx
=

e1x
1
1x

= e
1

ax+b

Integrals of &

+c
+c

x dx = ln|x| + c

ax+b dx = a ln|ax + b| + c

## Consider breaking into partial fractions before integrating

2x1
5
3
) dx
e.g.
dx = (

(x+1)(x+2)

x+2

x+1

= 5 ln|x + 2| 3 ln|x + 1| + c

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Ex 19.1 Area by Integration

## Ex 19.2 Area bounded by Curves

Area by integration

Top

= ()
x2

## Area = (Top Bottom) dx

1

x1

y1

1
Left
2

= 2
(1,1)

Right
Solution
Method 1
(integrate wrt y-axis)

## There should be a pair of lines parallel to x or y-axis

enclosing the region. If parallel to y-axis, integrate wrt x
and vice versa.

=2

Area of region F
1

= y 2 (Right Left) dy

1
0 [(2

=2

y) y] dy

Triangle area

= (base)(height)
2

## Given the the diagram at the right.

Find area of
(i)
Region A
(ii)
Region B

Area of region G
+Area of region H

(3,6)

= (base)(height)

= 0 x 2 dx

+ 1 (2 x) dx

G H
1
2

=2

= 2

(1,2)

Solution
Area of Region A ()

= 2

Method 2 (break)

Question

(i)

## Break into smaller shapes

Question
Find the area bounded by
y = x 2 , y = 2 x and the x
axis.

= ()
y2

Break

Bottom

## Complement Subtract area

Axis

= 2

Method 3 (complement)
3

1

= (2)(2)
2

1
0 (2

2
I

x) dx

= (1)(2)
2

=2

= 1 unit 2
(ii)

## Area of Region B (trapezium)

Ex 20.1 Kinematics
Kinematics Relation

= (sum of bases)(height)
2
1

v=

= (2 + 6)(3 1)
2

= 8 unit 2

## Daniel & Samuel

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ds
dt

s = v dt

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a=
v

dv
dt

v = a dt

36

## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Implications of Kinematics Statements

Rest

v=0

## Time to turn around

v=0

Max/min quantity

1st derivative = 0

v=0

Max/Min v

a=0

Average Speed =

total distance
total time

Distance
t2

t1

## (Total distance travelled in between t1 and t 2 )

Method 1 (using s-t graph)
Step 1: Let v = 0 to find t
Step 2: Find s for each t found
Step 3: Find s for start & end
Step 4: Draw s-t graph
Method 2 (using v-t graph)
Step 1: Draw v-t graph
Step 2: Use distance = |v| dt
Step 3: Split at v = 0
Step 4: Remove modulus
|v| = { v for v 0
v for v < 0

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3D Shapes

Prism
2D Shapes
Triangle ( )

= (base)(height)

Triangle area

2
1

= ab sin C
2

## Isosceles triangle area =

sin a

Sine rule:

sin b
B

Cosine rule:

Pythagoras theorem :

Trigonometric identities:

cos =
tan =

h
o

Cube volume = x 3

## Cube surface area = 6x 2

Cylinder volume = r 2 h

## Cylinder surface area = 2r 2 + 2rh

= 2r(r + h)

sin c

Pyramid

a2 + b2 = c 2
a

h
a

a = b + c 2bc cos A

Similar triangles:

sin =

s2 3

b
B

c
C

o = h sin

## Pyramid volume = (base area)(height)

3

Cone Volume = r 2 h

## Cone area (exclude base) = rl

where l = r 2 + h2

Sphere

a = h cos

Sphere volume = r 3

Sphere area = 4r 2

Square area = x 2

1
2

1
2

## Kite area = (product of diagonals)

2

Circle ( )

Circle area = r 2

Circumference = 2r

Arc length = r = s

Area of sector = r 2

1
2
1

= rs
2

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## Additional Math Notes (20 Oct 2014)

Appendix 2 Trigonometric Identities
Special Angles
0 30 45 60 90

6
1

sin 0
cos 1
tan 0

2
2

3
2
1

2
3
2
1

2
2

1 3

Complementary Angles
sin(90 ) = cos

cos(90 ) = sin
tan(90 ) =

Pythagorean Identities
sin2 + cos 2 = 1

tan2 + 1

= sec 2

cot 2 + 1

= csc 2

sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B

tan(A B) =

## Double Angle Formulae

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A
1
sin A cos A = sin 2A
2

1
tan

sin =
cos =
tan =

r=

y
r
x

r
y

y
x

x 2

tan Atan B
1tan A tan B

y2

= 2 cos 2 A 1
= 1 2 sin2 A
cos 2 A =

1+cos 2A

sin2 A =

1cos 2A

tan 2A =

2
2

2 tan A
1tan2 A

## Half Angle Formulae

Reciprocal Identities

sec =

csc =

cot =

1
cos

1cos A

sin A =

1
sin
1

tan

sin() = sin()

tan() = tan()

1+cos A

cos A =

Negative Angles
cos() = cos()

1
2
1
1tan2 ( A)
2
bb2 4ac

2a

## To find tan A, use tan A =

2

tan A =

2 tan( A)

Principal Values

sin1 x

R-Formulae
a sin b cos = R sin( )

0 cos

Ratio Identities

tan =

cot =

sin

R = a2 + b 2

= tan1 ( )

min = R, max = R

b
a

cos
cos
sin

## Daniel & Samuel

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39

Integration

## Appendix 3 Calculus Formulae

Differentiation
Rules/Functions f(x)

f(x)

Constant
Multiple Rule

kf(x)

kf(x)

f (x) + g(x)

Chain Rule

fg(x)

f g(x) g(x)

Product Rule

f(x)g(x)

f(x)

## g(x)f (x) f(x)g (x)

[g(x)]2

Power
Functions

Trigonometric
Functions

g(x)

nx

n1

sin x

cos x

cos x

sin x

tan x

sec 2 x

Exponential
Functions

ex

ex

e(ax+b )

aeax+b

ln x
Log Functions
ln(ax + b)

a f(x) dx

af(x)

Power
Functions
(power 1)

f(x) dx g(x) dx
xn+1

x n dx

n+1

(ax + b)n dx

+ b)

Exponential
Functions
Power
Functions
(power = 1)

+c

(ax+b)n+1
a(n+1)

+c

sin x

cos x + c

cos x

sin x + c

sec 2 x

tan x + c

sin(ax + b)

cos(ax + b) + c

1
a

cos(ax + b)

cos(ax + b) a sin(ax + b)
tan(ax + b) a sec

Constant
Multiple Rule

Trigonometric
Functions

sin(ax + b) a cos(ax + b)
2 (ax

f(x) dx

Sum/Difference
f(x) g(x)
Rule

Sum/Difference
f(x) g(x)
Rule

Quotient Rule

Rules/Functions f(x)

sin(ax + b) + c

sec 2 (ax + b)

ex

ex + c

eax+b

1 ax+b
e
a

tan(ax + b) + c

+c

ln|x| + c

x
1

ln|ax + b| + c

ax+b

1
x
a
ax+b

Definite Integrals
b
a f(x) dx = F(b) F(a)
Definite Integrals Rules

## Daniel & Samuel

Math Tuition 9133 9982

a f(x) dx = b f(x) dx

## a f(x) dx = a f(x) dx + c f(x) dx

a f(x) dx = 0

sleightofmath.com

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