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ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Laboratory Module

EXPERIMENT 3A
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT METHOD
1.0 OBJECTIVES
1.1 To learn fundamental temperature measuring techniques using
i. Mercury-glass thermometer
ii. Thermocouple (type K)
iii. Thermistor
iv. Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
v.Bi-metal thermometer
2.1 To compare the accuracy of the various temperature measurement devices.

2.0

EQUIPMENTS / APPARATUS

Figure 7: Temperature Measurement Bench


Equipment apparatus :
Vacuum flask.
Water heater jug
Digital resistance /mV indicator
Direct reading digital
temperature indicator for use
with thermocouple
Thermistor
Vapor pressure thermometer
Wet and dry bulb thermometer

qty
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Equipment apparatus :
qty
Thermocouples Type K & lead
1
wires
1
Mercury in glass thermomerters:5 to 105 Deg C
1
Mercury in glass thermomerters:-5 to 360 Deg C
1
Platinum resistance thermometer
1
Bimetallic temperature indicator :
0-400 Deg C.

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Laboratory Module

Equipment Note
This Temperature Measurement Bench (Model: HE 151) has been designed to
demonstrate the fundamental temperature measuring techniques using thermocouples,
mercury in glass thermometer, resistance temperature detector (RTD), thermistor,
bimetallic temperature indicator and etc. Temperature measurement is used to measure air
temperature, boiling water temperature, ice-point temperature and wet or dry bulb
temperature. Temperature can be measured via a various ranges of sensors. All of these
sensors infer temperature by sensing changes in physical characteristics. Thermocouples
consist essentially of two wires made of different metals that joined at one end. Resistance
temperature detector devices capitalize on the fact that the electrical resistance of a metal
changes as a result of temperature change. Thermistors are based on resistance change
in ceramic semiconductor where the resistance drops nonlinearly with temperature rise.
Bimetallic devices take advantage of the difference in rate of thermal expansion between
different metals.

3.0 INTRODUCTION AND THEORY


Temperature, measure of the relative warmness or coolness of an object.
Temperature is measured by means of a thermometer or other instrument having a scale
calibrated in units called degrees. The size of a degree depends on the particular
temperature scale being used. A temperature scale is determined by choosing two
reference temperatures and dividing the temperature difference between these two points
into a certain number of degrees. The two reference temperatures used for most common
scales are the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water. On the Celsius
temperature scale, or centigrade scale, the melting point is taken as 0C and the boiling
point as 100C, and the difference between them is divided into 100 degrees. On the
Fahrenheit temperature scale, the melting point is taken as 32F and the boiling point as
212F, with the difference between them equal to 180 degrees.
The temperature of a substance does not measure its heat content but rather the
average kinetic energy of its molecules resulting from their motions. A one-pound block of
iron and a two-pound block of iron at the same temperature do not have the same heat
content. Because they are at the same temperature the average kinetic energy of the
molecules is the same; however, the two-pound block has more molecules than the onepound block and thus has greater heat energy.
The scale we use to measure temperature is "degrees" (). There are three
temperature scales that are used today.
i. The Kelvin (K) scale is used by scientists and for astronomical temperatures.
ii.The Celsius scale (C) is used in most of the world to measure air temperatures.
iii. The Fahrenheit scale(F) is used to measure temperatures at or near the surface.
All three temperature scales are related to each other through the "triple point of
water". The triple point of water is the temperature at which water vapor, liquid water, and
ice can coexist simultaneously. The triple point occurs at 0.01 C (273.16 K or 32.02 F).
To convert from one temperature scale to another, we need to use the equations as below:
1) Convert Celsius to Kelvin: K = C + 273
2) Convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: F = 1.8(C) + 32

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

3.1

Laboratory Module

Mercury in Glass Thermometer


The mercury in glass thermometer (figure 1) is a thermometer consisting of
mercury in a glass tube. Calibrated marks on the tube allow the temperature to be
read by the height of the mercury column in the capillary tube which varies
according to the temperature. Glass thermometer
is
accurate,
economical
instrument that measures
temperature of liquids or gases. All of the glass
thermometers conform to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90).
ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) thermometers vary from 5.5
mm to 8 mm in diameter; most other thermometers have a 6 mm to 7 mm diameter.
Glass thermometer temperature ranges are around -199.8C until 499.5C.
3.1.1

Types of Glass Thermometer


a) Partial Immersion
Partial immersion thermometer is immersed in the fluid to a specified
immersion depth. The remaining (emergent) portion of the stem is exposed
to the air.
b) Total Immersion
Total immersion thermometer need to be immersed up to the liquid
temperature mark on the thermometer. Since the thermometer column is
fully immersed, this thermometer is the most accurate.

Figure 1 : Glass Thermometer

3.2

Thermocouples
Thermocouple (figure 2) is a temperature measurement sensor that consists of two
dissimilar metals that joined together at one end (a junction) that produces a small
thermoelectric voltage when the junction is heated. Thermocouple thermometers
interpret the change in thermoelectric voltage as a change in temperature.
Thermocouple is available in various types with different combinations of dissimilar
metals. The most common types are: Type J, K, T and E. For example, Type K
Thermocouple is ranged between -249.75C to 1373.625C and Type J
Thermocouple is ranged between -189.81 C to 999C.
Exposed junction thermocouple is fast responding but the thermocouple itself is
unprotected and subject to corrosion from the environment. Also, the smaller the
probe sheath diameter, the faster the response. Often the thermocouple is located
inside a metal or ceramic shield that protects it from a variety of environments.
Metal-sheathed thermocouple is also available with many types of outer coating,
such as polytetrafluoro ethylene for trouble-free use in corrosive mediums.

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Laboratory Module

Figure 2 : Thermocouple with probe

3.3

Thermistor
Thermistor (figure 3) is a thermally sensitive resistor and has, according to type, a
negative (NIC) or positive (PTC) resistance/temperature coefficient. Thermistor
thermometry is based on the principle that metal oxides change resistance with a
change in temperature. Resistance decreases as the temperature decreases. The
meter where it is converted and displayed as a temperature reading detects this
resistance change. Thermistor has excellent accuracy over biological or ambient
temperature ranges when compared to RTDs or Thermocouples. Response time is
generally faster than RTDs.

Figure 3 : Thermistor with probe


Thermistor is generally composed of semiconductor materials. Most thermistors
have negative temperature coefficient (TC) which means resistance decreases with
increasing temperature. The negative TC can be as large as several percents per
degree Celsius (%/C), allowing the thermistor circuit to detect minute changes in
temperature, which could not be observed with an RTD, or thermocouple circuit.
Thermistor has a semiconductor material which changes its electrical resistance as
a function of temperature. Extension wires used with thermistor can be plain copper
wire. Thermistor offers accuracy similar to RTD within narrow temperature ranges
near to ambient temperature. It is generally responses faster comparatively. Since
thermistor standards vary, care must be taken to match the instrumentation to the
sensor. The resistance-temperature relationship of a thermistor is negative and
highly nonlinear. Thermistor is usually designated in accordance with it's resistance
at 25C.

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

3.4

Laboratory Module

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)


A typical RTD (figure 4) consists of a fine platinum wire wrapped around a mandrel
and covered with a protective coating. Usually, the mandrel and coating is glass or
ceramic. Depositing can also make the platinum as a film on a substitute and then
encapsulating it. RTD is wire wound and thin film device that work on the physical
principle of the temperature coefficient or electrical resistance of metals.

Figure 4 : RTD with probe


The electrical resistance of the RTD changes as a function of temperature. Circuitry
similar to a Wheatstone bridge is built into control designed for use with RTD.
Constant current into the bridge produces an output voltage that varies with
temperature. Lead wire resistance can significantly affect the RTD measurement.
This is typically corrected using a third (compensating) lead wire.
RTD is nearly linear over a wide range of temperatures and can be made small
enough to have response times of a fraction of a second. The classical resistance
temperature detector (RTD) construction using platinum was proposed by
C.H.Meyers in 1932. This requires an electrical current to produce a voltage drop
across the sensor that can be then measured by a calibrated read-out device.

3.5

The Bimetallic Thermometer


The bimetallic thermometer (figure 5) uses a bimetal, which is composed of two
types of metals with different thermal coefficients of expansion and they are wound
into a helical form, change according to temperature is transmitted to the indicator.
This thermometer is simple in construction and reasonably priced.

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Laboratory Module

Figure 5 : Bimetallic Thermometer

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Laboratory Module

4.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


No.
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Procedure
PART 1 : Ambient air temperature measurement
Take out the mercury-glass thermometer, close inspection will reveal a column of
mercury protrude from the bulb. Temperature measurement is achieved by relating
the length of this column to an engraved scale on the glass.
Read the
temperature indicated by the column at ambient air temperature.
Take out the bi-metal thermometer, close inspection will reveal a metal rod at the
end of the indicator. Temperature measurement is achieved by transferring heat to
the metal rod.
Take out a Type K thermocouple. Connect the blue and yellow plugs to the
corresponding sockets of the Type K thermocouple temperature indicator. Place
the thermocouple on the baseboard and allow the readings to stabilize at the
ambient air temperature. Read the temperature indicated on the temperature
indicator.
Take out a resistance temperature detector (RTD). Connect the RTD plugs to the
corresponding sockets of the RTD indicator. Place the RTD on the baseboard and
allow the readings to stabilize at the ambient air temperature. Read the
temperature indicated on the RTD temperature indicator.
Take out a thermistor. Connect the thermistor plugs to the corresponding sockets
of the thermistor indicator. Place the thermistor on the baseboard and allow the
readings to stabilize at the ambient air temperature. Read the temperature
indicated on the thermistor indicator.
Take out the vapor pressure thermometer. Place the vapor pressure thermometer
on the baseboard and allow the readings to stabilize at the ambient air
temperature. Read the temperature indicated on the indicator
PART 2 : Ice-point temperature measurement
Half fill the vacuum flask with a mixture of crushed ice and pure water
Insert the bulb of the thermometer into the water-ice mixture; stir gently to ensure
intimate contact with the mixture. Observe the reading on the thermometer.
Insert the metal rod of the bi-metal thermometer into the water-ice mixture; stir
gently to ensure intimate contact with the mixture. Observe the reading on the
bimetallic temperature indicator.
Insert the thermocouple probe into the water-ice mixture; stir gently to ensure
intimate contact with the mixture. Observe the reading on the thermocouple
temperature indicator
Insert the RTD probe into the water-ice mixture; stir gently to ensure intimate
contact with the mixture. Observe the reading on the RTD temperature indicator.
Insert the thermistor probe into the water-ice mixture; stir gently to ensure intimate
contact with the mixture. Observe the reading on the thermistor temperature
indicator.
Insert the metal rod of the vapor pressure indicator into the water- ice mixture; stir
gently to ensure intimate contact with the mixture. Observe the reading on the
indicator.
PART 3 : Boiling-point temperature measurement
Half fill the water heater jug with clean water and connect the power cord.
Swicth ON the water heater jug. wait until water is boil .
Be careful to the hot water.
Insert the bulb of the thermometer into boiling water. Observe the reading on the
thermometer.
Insert the metal rod of the bimetalic indicator into boiling water. Observe the
reading on the bimetallic indicator.

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

5.
6.
7.
8.

Name :

Laboratory Module

Insert the thermocouple probe into boiling water. Observe the reading on the
temperature indicator.
Insert the RTD probe into boiling water. Observe the reading on the resistance
indicator.
Insert the thermistor probe into boiling water. Observe the reading on the
thermistor indicator.
Insert the metal rod of the vapor pressure indicator into boiling water. Observe the
reading on the thermometer.

______________________________

Date : ______________

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Matrix No :

Laboratory Module

______________________________

5.0 DATA & RESULT


PART 1 : Ambient air temperature measurement
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Temperature device
Mercury-glass thermometer
Bi-metal thermometer
Thermocouple Probe (type K)
RTD probe
Thermistor probe
Vapor pressure indicator rod

PART 2 : Ice-point temperature measurement


No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Temperature device
Mercury-glass thermometer
Bi-metal thermometer
Thermocouple probe (type K)
RTD probe
Thermistor probe
Vapor pressure indicator rod

PART 3 : Boiling-point temperature measurement


No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Temperature device
Mercury-glass thermometer
Bi-metal thermometer
Thermocouple probe (type K)
RTD probe
Thermistor probe
Vapor pressure indicator rod

Name :
Matrix No :

______________________________
______________________________

Date : ______________

ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Laboratory Module

7.0

DISCUSSION / EVALUATION & QUESTION

7.1.

Briefly summarize the key results of experiment (5%)


- Discuss about the trends and the nature of your results

7.2.

Explain the significance of your findings (5%)


- First tell about the experiment objective
- Explain the significance about your results and why is it of interest to you

7.3.

Explain any unusual difficulties or problems which may have led to poor results
(5%)
- Gives 3 problems in your experiment

7.4.

Offer suggestions for how the experimental procedure or design could be improved.
(5%)
- Give 3 suggestion how to improves your results

7.5.

Compare your experimental results with theoretical results.

7.6 Why there are differences in temperature readings among measurement devices?.

7.7 Convert the below data (show you calculations)


i)

89 C

to

Kelvin

ii)

321 Kelvin to Fahrenheit

iii)

Water standard boiling temperature in C , K

and F

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ENT 211 ThermoFluid

iii)

Laboratory Module

Water standard ice temperature in

Name :______________________________

C , K and F

Date : ______________

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ENT 211 ThermoFluid

Laboratory Module

Matrix No :______________________________

8.0

CONCLUSION
- Make an intelligent conclusion of your experiment base on data and discussion
- Give examples in industrial application
- Is this result a kind of contribution to knowledge?

8.0

REFERENCE (2%)
- Gives at least 2 reference

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