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Biorthogonal Nonuniform Multiwavelet Packets associated with nonuniform multiresolution analysis with multiplicity D

1 Nadya A. S. Atlouba, 2 Ajit Paul, 3 Naser R. Naser

1 , 2 , 3 Department of

Mathematics and Statistics,

SHIATS, (Deemed to be University), Allahabad, India-211 007

ABSTRACT:- A biorthogonal wavelet packets associated with nonuniform multiresoltion analysis (NUMRA) was introduced by
ABSTRACT:- A biorthogonal wavelet packets associated with nonuniform multiresoltion analysis
(NUMRA) was introduced by Firdous shah, In this paper we generalize and define the biorthogonal
nonuniform multiwavelet packets associated by nonuniform multiresolution analysis with multiplicity D
(NUMRA-D). Further from the meaning of Fourier transform we study their characteristics.
KEYWORDS:- NUMRA with multiplicity D, nonuniform Multiwavelet, biorthogonal wavelet packets,
Riesz basis, Fourier transform.

I.

INTRODUCTION

In [9,10] Gabardo and Nashed considered a generalization of Mallat’s[16] theory of MRA based on spectral pairs where the translation set is of the form {0, / } + 2 , where 1 is an integer, 1 ≤ ≤ 2 1, is an odd integer and , are relatively prime, which is called NUMRA. In [14] we provided the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of NUMRAMW multiplicity D. G.Gripenberg and X. Wang gave the characterization theorem for dyadic orthonormal wavelet in 2 () Wavelet packets constructed by coifman [15] it was gave rise to a large class of orthonormal bases of 2 () into direct sum of its closed subspaces Wavelet packets. Behera[2,3] has constructed nonuniform wavelet packets associated with NUMRA. In [1] we constructed multiwavelet packets associated with nonuniform multiresolution analysis with multiplicity D (NUMRA-D). Firdous [8] introduce the notion of biorthogonal wavelet packets associated with nonuniform multiresolution analysis. Our result extends the biorthogonal wavelet packets of Firdous shah into NUMRA-D in has constructed nonuniform wavelet packets associated with NUMRA.

II. BASIC DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION

We will state some important preliminaries and notation in this section that we are need it in the recent paper. First we recall the definition of as defined in [14], some of its properties and the associate multiwavelet packets [1-3, 8, 14] as follows:

Definition 2.1. A nonuniform multiresolution analysis with multiplicity for dilation 2 and translation Λ, is a collection { } of closed subspaces of 2 ( ) satisfying the following axioms:

( 1) +1 , ∈ ℤ, ·

( 3) = {0},

2

∈ℤ

·

+1 ,

∈ ℤ,

( 4) 2 ( ), and

∈ℤ

(P5) There exist functions 1 , 2 ,

,

0 , called

the scaling functions, such that the collection {

)

Λ, 1

} is a complete orthonormal basis for 0 .

In the axiom ( 5),

multiplicity . When 1, the dilation factor of ensures that Λ 2 ℤ ⊂ Λ. In the theory of multresolution analysis, another sequence { } of closed subspaces of 2 ( ) is defined by

, } is called multiscaling function of

the set of scaling functions Φ { 1 , 2 ,

= +1 , ∈ ℤ and denotes the orthogonal complement of in +1 , for an { } with dilation factor . These subspaces hold the scaling property of { } , and we have :

2 () = = 0 ( 0 )

(1)

Biorthogonal Nonuniform Multiwavelet Packet associated with by nonuniform multiresolution analysis with…

in 2 ( ) is said to be a nonuniform multiwavelet

associated with the { }

orthonormal basis for 0 . We call Ψ to be an multiwavelet. In view of properties of , the collection

A set of functions

Λ} forms an

{

1

(

1) } = Ψ

if the collection { )

1

(1) ,

{ /2 (

·

)

∈ ℤ, 1

( 1) ,

Λ}

forms an orthonormal basis for 2 () if Ψ is a nonuniform multiwavelet. Below we mention a result obtained in [14] that will be used in sequel.

Theorem 2.2. Suppose { } is an with dilation and translation Λ. If there exist functions , 1 ≤ ≤ , in 1 such that the family of functions

1 =

·

,

·

: 1

;

1

;

Λ

forms an orthonormal system for the generating subspace 1 , then; = (1) is a necessary and sufficient condition such that the above system is complete in 1 .

Proposition 2.3. Suppose { } is an with dilation and translation Λ. Then the space 1 consists precisely of the functions 2 ( ) whose Fourier transform can be written as

=

,

( ),

. .

∈ ℝ ,

(2)

=1

for locally 2 functions , for 1 ≤ ≤ together with

2

,

,

= 1

+

,

2 , , are locally 2 , 1/2-periodic functions.

,

=1

Λ

,

2

(3)

where 1 , and 2 , , = 1, 2,

In the above proposition the space 1 consist functions 2 ( ). Since (1/ ) ( / ) 0 , there exists a

sequence { = ( ,1 , ,2 ,

1

, , )} Λ satisfying

) ,

< such that

= , (

(4)

=1 Λ

or, equivalently, by taking the Fourier transform of both sides of the previous equation, we obtained the result

(2.1) and (2.2), with

,

1

, ( )

=

=

Λ

∈ℤ

, 2

,

,

2

4

,

2

, ( )

=

∈ℤ

, 2 +

4

.

(5)

(6)

We denote by Φ and Ψ column vectors in

respectively. In particular, since ( ) 0 1 , from Proposition 2.3 there are locally 2 functions 0 , , for 1 , , such that, for a.e.

},

and

in

as

Φ =

{ 1 ,

,

}

and

Ψ = { 1 ,

,

=

,

0

=

,

01

+

2

,

02

.

(7)

,

Taking 01

=1

01 , and

, 02

=1

02 , , in the matrix notation, this can be written as follows:

Φ

=

0

Φ

,

. .

∈ ℝ ,

with 0 ( ) = 01 ( ) + 2 / 02

,

called low-pass filters (or scaling matrix filters)

associated with the scaling family Φ. Similarly, in case of ( ) 0 1 , where 0 = : 1 ≤ ≤ ; Λ , there are locally 2

functions 1 , , for 1 ≤ ≤ and 1 ≤ ≤ such that, for a.e. ∈ ℝ ,

( )

where the matrices 01 and 02 defined by

01

=

, 01

1 ,

and 02 =

,

1 , are usually

02

=

1 ,

( )

=

,

11

( )

+

2 /

, ( )

12

( ),

(8)

=1

=1

Biorthogonal Nonuniform Multiwavelet Packet associated with by nonuniform multiresolution analysis with…

whose matrix notation is given as follows by considering 11

,

,

12

,

12

Ψ

= 1

Φ ( ),

. .

,

11

and

∈ ℝ ,

with 1

= 11 ( ) + 2 / 12 ( ), where the matrices 11 and 12 defined by

 

11

=

, 11

1

,1

and

 

12

=

, 12

1

,1

are usually called high-pass filters associated with the scaling family (Ψ, Φ).

Definition

=

will be called the basic nonuniform multiwavelet packets corresponding to the { ∶ ∈ ℤ} of

2 () associated with

Note that (4.2) defines for every non-negative integer l and every such that 1 ≤ ≤ .

Now 0 = , = 1,

{0}, we define

: 1 ≤ ≤ , recursively as follows. Suppose that { : 1 ≤ ≤ , ∈ ℕ 0 } are defined already. Then

2.4.

=1

The

function

: 1 ≤ ≤ ,

1 ≤ ≤

as

defined

as

follows

( / ) , . .

∈ ℝ .

(9)

multiplicity while

, 1 ≤ ≤ −

1,

= 1,· · ·

, ,

the dilation .

, is a multiscaling function of

, , are the basic multiwavelets associated with . Now for any ∈ ℕ 0 =

define +

, 0 ≤ ≤ − 1, by

+

=

=1

Λ

, ,

(

) .

Note that (4.2) defines for 0. Taking Fourier transform we get

( +

)( ) =

=1

, , ( / )

( / ) ,

0 ≤ ≤ −

1,

1

 

(10)

.

(11)

Theorem 2.5.[1] Let

the { }. Then

: 0,

1 ≤ ≤

(i)

·

: ( )

≤ ≤ ( ) +1

be the basic nonuniform multiwavelet packets associated with

1,

Λ,

1 ≤ ≤

is an orthonormal basis of , 0.

(ii)

(iii)

)

)

0 ≤ ≤ ( ) 1,

0,

Λ , 1 ≤ ≤

is an orthonormal basis of , 0.

Λ,

1 ≤ ≤

is an orthonormal basis of 2 ().

Now as in (4), (7), (8), (9), (10) and (11) we can define:

=

=

=1 =1

,

0

1 ,

( )

=

+

)( ) =

( +

=1

, ,

( / ) , . .

∈ ℝ

=

=1

=1

Λ

, , ( )

, , ( / )

( / ) , 0 ≤ ≤ −

And

 

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

1, 1

(16)

, , =

,

0

: 0;

,

0

: = 0, 1

= +

1

1

,

;

; 1 , ; 1 ≤ ≤ ( 1); = 1,2

III. BIORTHOGONAL MULTIWAVELET PACKETS

Definition 3.1. A pair of function , ( ) 2 () are biorthogonal, if their translates satisfy

.

, (. )

= 0, ,

Λ.

Where 0, is kronecker symbol.

If , ( ) 2 () are a pair of biorthogonal scaling functions, then

Moreover we say

nonuniform multiwavelet associated with

.

, (. )

that

.

,

= 0, , .

Λ, 1 ≤ ≤ .

2

(17)

of

biorthogonal

biorthogonal scaling functions . , (. ) if the family

, 1 ≤ ≤ − 1,1 ≤ ≤

are

pair

a pair of

.

: Λ, = 1, , 1, 1 ≤ ≤

is a riesz of 0 , and

Biorthogonal Nonuniform Multiwavelet Packet associated with by nonuniform multiresolution analysis with…

.

.

.

, (. ) , (. ) , (. )

= 0 ,

=

0 ,

= ,

Λ, 1 ≤ ≤ − 1, 1 ≤ ≤ ∈ Λ, 1 ≤ ≤ − 1, 1 ≤ ≤

, ,

Λ, 1 , ≤ − 1, 1 ≤ ≤

(18)

(19)

(20)

Proposition 3.2. If , ( )

2

, 1 ≤ ≤ − 1 are

a

pair

of

biorthogonal

nonuniform

,

,

2

=

∈ ℤ = 0 Where

0

1 = ∈ℤ =1

=

.

: Λ, ∈ ℤ, 1 ≤ ≤ − 1, = 1, ,

(21)

Lemma 3.3. Let , ( ) be a pair of scaling functions. Then , ( ) are biorthogonal scaling if

and only if

, multiwavelet associated with a pair of biorthogonal scaling functions 0 ( ) and 0 ( ). Then,

Lemma 3.4. Asume that

1 ≤ ≤ − 1, 1 ≤ ≤ are a pair of biorthogonal nonuniform

=1

,

() = 1 a. e

2

Λ

ξ ∈ ℝ .

1

=0

=1

, ,

+ 2

, ,

+ 2

= , ,

0 , ≤ − 1, 1 ≤ ≤

Proof. By (11), (14), (17), (21) and Lemma 3.3, we have

(22)

,

=

Λ

+ 2

=

, ,

1

+ 2

Λ =1

×

( 1

0

1

+ 2

)

, ,

+ 2

0

1

1

+ 2

+ 2

=

, ,

1

+ 2

=0 =1

1

× + 2 ) + 2

0

1

0

, ,

1

+ 2

1

+ 2

+ 2

=

=0 =1

, ,

1

+ 2

, ,

1

+ 2

.

nonuniform

multiwavelet Packets of multipilicity D with respect to a pair of biorthogonal scaling functions 0 ( ) and

0 ( ), respectively. Then, for 0, we have

.

Proof. The proof it will be by induction, for = 0,1, , 1, (15) is true from (11), (14). Assume that it holds when < ; > 0. For = . Order = + , where 0, 0 ≤ ≤ − 1 & < . We have

Theorem

.

3.5.

Suppose

: 0, 1 ≤ ≤

Λ, 1 ≤ ≤

and

: 0, 1 ≤ ≤

are

,

= 0, ,

(23)

And

.

,

(. )

=

= 0,

=1

=1

( 0,2

=1

Λ

.

,

=

()

(. )

+

( / )

+ 2

=

.

+

( )

,

+ 2 )

, ,

= 1

, ∈ ℝ .

(. )

2

, , ( / )

, ,

+ )

=

+ 2

[0,2 ]

(

=1

=1

, , ( / )

×

+ 2

=1

, , ( / ) 2

( / )

2

( / )

=

Λ

, , ( / )

, ,

=

0,2

Λ =1

, , ( / )

1

= , ,

[0,2 ]

=0

=1

+

2

, , (

+

2 ) 2

2

2

Biorthogonal Nonuniform Multiwavelet Packet associated with by nonuniform multiresolution analysis with…

= 2

= 0, .

[0,2 ]

Theorem 3.6. Suppose : 0, 1 ≤ ≤

multiwavelet Packets of multipilicity D with respect to a pair of biorthogonal scaling functions 0 ( ) and 0 ( ), respectively. Then, for 0, we have

Nonuniform

and

: 0,1 ≤ ≤

are

1+

.

, 2+

.

= 0, 1 , 2 , Λ, 0 1 , 2 ≤ − 1,1 ≤ ≤

(24)

Proof. Similar steps in above proof.

Theorem

multiwavelet packets with respect to a pair of biorthogonal multiscaling functions

respectively. Then, for , 0, we have

3.7.

If

: 0, = 1, ,

and

: 0,

= 1, ,

are

basic 0 ( )

.

,

(. )

= , 0,

(25)

nonuniform

( ),

and 0

Proof. For = , the result (25) follows by Theorem 3.5. When , and 0 , ≤ − 1 0 ≤ ℓ, the result

(25) can be get from Theorem 3.6. Assuming that , and at least one of , does not lies in 0,1, ,

1, then we can rewrite , as = 1 + 1 , = 2 + 2 , where 1, 2 0, 0

Case 1. If 1 = 2 , then 1 2 . Therefore, Eq. (25) follows by (11),(15), Lemma and (22), i.e.,

1 , 2

1.

.

,

(. )

=

1 + 1

.

, 2+ 2

(. )

=

1 + 1

.

, 2+ 2

(. )

=

, 1 ,

1

=

1

1 + 1

1

2

.

2+ 2

.

1

, 2 ,

2

1

2

=

= , 1 ,

Λ

( 0,2

+ )

1

1

1

2

1

, 2 ,

1

2

[0,2 ]

Λ

=

1

[0,2 ]

1

1

=0

( + )

, 1 ,

2

1 ( + )

, 1 ,

1

, 2 ,

1

1 ( + 2 )

, 2 ,

1 ( + 2 )

2

2

=

[0,2 ]

1 , 2

2

=

0, = 0

1. If

3 = 4 , then 3 4 . Similar to Case 1, (25) can be established. When 3 4 , we order 3 = 5 + 5 , 4 = 6 + 6 , where 5 , 6 0 and 0 5 , 6 1. Thus, after taking finite steps (denoted by ), we obtain 0 , 2 1 and 0 , 2 1. If = 2 , then 2 .Similar to the Case 1, (25) follows. If , then

Case 2. If 1 2 , order 1 = 3 +

3 , 2 = 4 +

4 , where 3 , 4 0 and 0 3 , 4

.

, 2

.

= 0,

Λ

( ) 2

( )

= 0

Λ

Furthermore, we obtain

.

=

(. )

,

1 + 1

.

=

, 2 + 2

.

(. )

,

(. )

Biorthogonal Nonuniform Multiwavelet Packet associated with by nonuniform multiresolution analysis with…

=

1 + 1

.

2 + 2

(. )

2

=

2)3242,2, 1,4,12

, 1 ,

1

, 3 ,

2 ( +

=

=

, ,

2

=

, +1 ,

2

=

( ,

= 0

+ )

, ,

=

( 2 )

= , ,

, +1 ,

[ , ]

=

=

+ ) 2 ( + ) 2

, +1 ,

=

( (

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