Sei sulla pagina 1di 65

Please SET your

mobile phone to
SILENT mode
during class
session
Thank you for
your cooperation

Chapter

As a rule, the person who can do


all things equally well is a very
mediocre individual.
- E. Hubbard

Foundations
of
Individual
Behavior

OBJECTIVES
LEARNING

After studying this chapter, you


should be able to:
1. Define the key biographical characteristics.
2. Identify two types of ability.
3. Shape the behavior of others.
4. Distinguish between the four schedules of
reinforcement.
5. Clarify the role of punishment in learning.
6. Practice self-management.

Biographical Characteristics
Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristicssuch as age, gender,
marital status, race and tenure (length of
service with an organization) that are
objective and easily obtained from personnel
records.

Biographical Characteristics
1. Age
Three reasons that the relation of age and job performance
likely to be an issue of increasing importance:
1. There is a widespread belief that job performance declines
with age. Not always true
2. Aging workforce (workers 55 and older are currently the
fastest-growing sector of the labor force).
3. U.S. legislation outlaws mandatory retirement (today the
workers no longer have to retire at the age of 70).

Biographical Characteristics
Number of qualities that older workers bring to their jobs:
Positive:
Specifically
Experience
Judgment
Strong work ethic
Commitment to quality
Less likely to quit the job
Negative:
Perceived as lacking flexibility
Resistant to new technology
Fewer alternative job opportunities

Biographical Characteristics
2. Gender
No consistent gender differences in problem-solving ability,
analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability or
learning ability.
No significant gender differences in job productivity and
affect job satisfaction.
Women are more willing to conform to authority
Women have higher rates of absenteeism
Men are more aggressive and more likely to have
expectations of success.

Biographical Characteristics
3.

Marital Status
Married employees have fewer absence.
Undergo less turnover.
More satisfied with their jobs.
Marriage imposes increased responsibilities that may
make a steady job more valuable and important.

4. Tenure
The longer a person is in a job, the less likely he or she is
to quit.
Tenure on an employees previous job is a powerful
predictor of that employees future turnover.
Tenure and job satisfaction are positively related.
Tenure and absence is quite straightforward.

Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence


Ability
An individuals capacity to perform
the various tasks in a job.
Intellectual Ability
The capacity to do mental activities.

ex: Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test, SAT (Scholastic Aptitude


Test), ACT test, GMAT (Graduate Admission Tests in
business), LSAT test for laws & MCAT test for medicine.

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

Number
Numberaptitude
aptitude
Verbal
Verbalcomprehension
comprehension
Perceptual
Perceptualspeed
speed
Inductive
Inductivereasoning
reasoning
Deductive
Deductivereasoning
reasoning
Spatial
Spatialvisualization
visualization
Memory
Memory
E X H I B I T 21
E X H I B I T 21

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

a. Number of Aptitude
Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic.
ex: Accountant: computing the sales tax on a set of items.
b. Verbal Comprehension
Ability to understand what is read or heard and the
relationship of words to each other.
ex: Plant Manager: following corporate policies.

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability


c. Perceptual Speed
Ability to identify visual similarities and differences
quickly and accurately.
ex: Fire Investigator: identifying clues to support a
charge of arson.
d. Inductive Reasoning
Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and
then solve the problem.
ex: Market Researcher: forecasting demand for a
product in the next time period.

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability


e. Deductive Reasoning
Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an
argument.
ex: Supervisor: choosing between two different
suggestions offered by employees.
f. Spatial Visualization
Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position
in space were changed.
ex: Interior Decorator: redecorating an office
g. Memory
Ability to retain and recall past experiences.
ex: Salesperson: remembering the names of customers.

Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence


Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence contains four subparts:
cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
Four subparts of Intelligence:
- Cognitive Intelligence
Encompasses the aptitudes that have long been tapped
by traditional intelligence tests.
- Social Intelligence
Persons ability to relate effectively to others.
- Emotional Intelligence
The ability to identify, understand, and manage emotions.
- Cultural Intelligence
Awareness of cross-cultural differences and the ability to
function successfully in cross-cultural situations.

Physical Abilities
Physical Abilities
The capacity to do tasks
demanding stamina, dexterity,
strength, and similar
characteristics.

Nine Physical Abilities


Strength
StrengthFactors
Factors
1.1.Dynamic
Dynamicstrength
strength
2.2.Trunk
Trunkstrength
strength
3.3.Static
Staticstrength
strength
4.4.Explosive
Explosivestrength
strength

Other
OtherFactors
Factors
7.7.Body
Bodycoordination
coordination
8.8.Balance
Balance
9.9.Stamina
Stamina

Flexibility
FlexibilityFactors
Factors
5.5.Extent
Extentflexibility
flexibility
6.6.Dynamic
Dynamicflexibility
flexibility

Source: Adapted from


HRMagazine published
by the Society for Human
Resource Management,
Alexandria, VA.

E X H I B I T 22
E X H I B I T 22

The Ability-Job Fit

Employees
Abilities

Ability-Job
Fit

Jobs Ability
Requirements

The Ability-Job Fit


The Ability-Job Fit
Jobs make differing demands on people and that people differ
in the abilities they possess. Therefore, employee
performance is enhanced when there is a high ability-job fit.
Intellectual or Physical Abilities required for adequate job
performance depend on the ability requirements of the job.
ex: - Airlines pilots need strong spatial-visualization.
- Beach lifeguards need both strong spatial-visualization
abilities and body coordination.
- Senior executives need verbal abilities.
- High-rise construction workers need balance.
- Journalists with weak reasoning abilities would likely
have difficulty meeting minimum job-performance
standards.

Learning
Learning
Any relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs as a result of experience.

Learning
Learning
Involves
Involveschange
change
Is
Isrelatively
relativelypermanent
permanent
Is
Isacquired
acquiredthrough
throughexperience
experience

Learning
Several components that clarify learning:
1. Learning involves change (good or bad)
2. The change must be relatively permanent.
3. Learning concern with change in behavior.
4. Some form of experience is necessary for learning.
Three Theories of Learning:
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning
3. Social Learning

Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual
responds to some stimulus that would not
ordinarily produce such a response.
Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Unconditioned
Unconditionedstimulus
stimulus
Unconditioned
Unconditionedresponse
response
Conditioned
Conditionedstimulus
stimulus
Conditioned
Conditionedresponse
response

Theories of Learning (contd)


1. Classical Conditioning
ex: Ivan Pavlov, Russian physiologist conducted
experiments to teach a dog to salivate in response to
the ringing of a bell. When he presented the dog with a
piece of meat, the dog exhibited a noticeable increase
in salivation. When he withheld the presentation of
meat and merely rang a bell, the dog did not salivate.
Pavlov proceed to link the meat and the ringing of the
bell. After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting
the food, the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell
rang. After a while, the dog would salivate merely at the
sound of the bell, even no food was offered.

Theories of Learning (contd)


Meat unconditioned stimulus (cause the dog to react
in a specific way).
Unconditioned Response:
The reaction that took place whenever the unconditioned
stimulus occurred.
ex: The noticeable increase in salivation.
Bell conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response the behavior of the dog when
salivated in reaction to the bell.

Theories of Learning (contd)


ex:
Christmas carols often bring back pleasant memories of
childhood; the songs are associated with the festive
Christmas spirit and evoke fond memories and feeling of
joy.
In manufacturing plant, every time the top executives from
the head office make a scheduled to visit, the plant
management would clean up the administrative offices and
wash the windows. This went on for years. Eventually
employees would turn on their best behavior and look prim
and proper whenever the windows were cleaned even in
those occasional instances when the cleaning was not
paired with the visit from the top management.

Theories of Learning (contd)


Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Reflexive
Reflexive(unlearned)
(unlearned)behavior
behavior
Conditioned
Conditioned(learned)
(learned)behavior
behavior
Reinforcement
Reinforcement

Theories of Learning (contd)


2. Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner, Harvard psychologist, research extensively
expanded the knowledge of Operant Conditioning.
Behavior is learned and argued that creating pleasing
consequences to follow specific forms of behavior would
increase the frequency of the behavior.
People will most likely engage in desired behaviors if they
are positively reinforced for doing so. Rewards are most
effective if they immediately follow the desired response.
Behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely
to be repeated.

Theories of Learning (contd)

ex:
Instructor says that if you want a high grade in the course,
you must supply correct answers on the test.
A commissioned salesperson wanting to earn a sizable
income finds that doing so is depend on generating high
sales in his territory.

Theories of Learning (contd)


ex: Operant Conditioning
Assume that your boss tells you that if you will work
overtime during the next three-week busy season, you
will be compensated for it at the next performance
appraisal.
However, when performance appraisal time comes, you
find that you are given no positive reinforcement for
your overtime work.
The next time your boss asks you to work overtime,
what will you do? Youll probably Decline!
Your behavior can be explained by operant conditioning:
If a behavior fails to be positively reinforced, the
probability that the behavior will be repeated declines.

Source: The Far Side


by Gary Larson 1993
Far Works, Inc. All rights
reserved. Used with
permission.

E X H I B I T 23
E X H I B I T 23

Theories of Learning (contd)


Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation
and direct experience.
Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Attentional
Attentionalprocesses
processes
Retention
Retentionprocesses
processes
Motor
Motorreproduction
reproductionprocesses
processes
Reinforcement
Reinforcementprocesses
processes

Theories of Learning (contd)


3. Social Learning
ex: Much of what we have learned comes from watching
models parents, teachers, peers, motion picture and TV
performers, bosses, etc.

Theories of Learning (contd)


The success and significant improve of employee-training
programs due to:
1. Attentional Processes.
People learn from a model only when they recognize and
pay attention to its critical features.
We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive,
repeatedly available, important to us, or similar to us in
our estimation.
2. Retention Processes.
A models influence will depend on how well the individual
remembers the models action after the model is no longer
readily available.

Theories of Learning (contd)


3. Motor Reproduction Processes.
After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the
model, the watching must be converted to doing. This
process then demonstrates that the individual can perform
the modeled activities.
4. Reinforcement Processes.
Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior
if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Behaviors
that are positively reinforced will be given more attention,
learned better, and performed more often.

Theories of Learning (contd)


Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that
moves an individual closer to the desired response.
Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Reinforcement
Reinforcementis
isrequired
requiredto
tochange
changebehavior.
behavior.
Some
Somerewards
rewardsare
aremore
moreeffective
effectivethan
thanothers.
others.
The
Thetiming
timingof
ofreinforcement
reinforcementaffects
affectslearning
learning
speed
speedand
andpermanence.
permanence.

Shaping : A Managerial Tool


Shaping Behavior
ex: If a student who has chronically been a half-hour late
for class comes in 20 minute late, we can reinforce
that improvement.
Reinforcement would increase as responses more
closely approximated the desired bahavior.

Methods of Shaping Behavior


Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired
behavior occurs.
Punishment
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an
undesirable behavior.
Extinction
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its
cessation.

Types of Reinforcement
Four Methods of Shaping Behavior
1. Positive Reinforcement
Following a response with something pleasant.
ex: The boss who praises an employee for a job well
done.
2. Negative Reinforcement
Following a response by the termination or withdrawal
of something unpleasant.
ex: If your college instructor ask a question and you
dont know the answer, looking through your
lecture notes is likely to preclude your being called
on.

Types of Reinforcement
3. Punishment
Causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to
eliminate an undesirable behavior.
ex: Giving an employee a two-day suspension from
work without pay for showing up drunk is an
example of punishment.
4. Extinction
Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a
behavior (when the behavior is not reinforced, it tends
to be gradually extinguished.
ex: College instructors who wish to discourage
students from asking questions in class can
eliminate this behavior in their students by
ignoring those who raise their hands to ask
questions.

Types of Reinforcement
A review of research findings on the impact of reinforcement
upon behavior in organizations concluded that:
1. Some type of reinforcement is necessary to produce a
change in behavior.
2. Some types of rewards are more effective than others for
use in organizations.
3. The speed with which learning takes place and the
permanence of its effect will be determined by the timing
of reinforcement.
Two major types of reinforcement schedules:
1. Continuous Reinforcement
2. Intermittent Reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced
each time it is demonstrated.

Intermittent Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced
often enough to make the
behavior worth repeating but not
every time it is demonstrated.

Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)


Two major types of Reinforcement Schedules:
1. Continuous Reinforcement
Appropriate for newly emitted, unstable, or lowfrequency response.
ex: The case of someone who has historically had
trouble arriving at work on time. Every time he is
not tardy, his manager might compliment him on his
desirable behavior.

Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)


2. Intermittent Reinforcement
Dont follow every response and appropriate for stable
of high-frequencys responses.
ex: Compared the working of a slot machine, which
people will continue to play even when they know that
it is adjusted to give a considerable return to the
gambling house. The intermittent payoffs occur just
often enough to reinforce the behavior of slipping in
coins and pulling the handle.

Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)


Types of Intermittent Reinforcement:
a. Ratio Schedules
Depend on how many responses the subject makes.
The individual is reinforced after giving a certain
number of specific type of behavior.
b. Interval Schedules
Depend on how much time has passed since the
previous reinforcement.
The individual is reinforced on the first appropriate
behavior after a particular time has elapsed.
Classification of Reinforcement Schedules:
1. Fixed-Interval Schedule.
2. Variable-Interval Schedule.
3. Fixed-Ratio Schedule.
4. Variable-Ratio Schedule.

Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)


Fixed-Interval Schedule
Rewards are spaced at
uniform time intervals.

Variable-Interval Schedule
Rewards are initiated after a
fixed or constant number of
responses.

Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

Fixed-ratio

E X H I B I T 24
E X H I B I T 24

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement

E X H I B I T 25
E X H I B I T 25

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement


(contd)

E X H I B I T 25 (contd)
E X H I B I T 25 (contd)

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement


(contd)
Classification of Reinforcement Schedules:
1. Fixed-Interval Schedule.
- Reward given at fixed time intervals.
* Average and irregular performance with rapid extinction.
ex: Weekly paycheck, semimonthly, monthly or other
predetermined time basis.
2. Variable-Interval Schedule.
- Reward given at variable times.
* Moderately high and stable performance with slow
extinction.
ex: - Instructor gives a pop quizzes.
- Unannounced visits to a company office by the
corporate audit staff.

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement


(contd)
3. Fixed-Ratio Schedule.
- Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of
responses.
* High and stable performance attained quickly but also
with rapid extinction.
ex: A piece-rate incentive plan which the employee
receives a reward based on the number of work
pieces generated.
4. Variable-Ratio Schedule.
- Reward given at variable amounts of output.
* Very high performance with slow extinction
ex: Salespeople on commission.

Reinforcement Schedules and Behavior


Continuous reinforcement schedules can lead
to early satiation, and under this schedule
behavior tends to weaken rapidly when
reinforcers are withheld.

Behavior Modification
OB Mod
The application of reinforcement concepts
to individuals in the work setting.
Five
FiveStep
StepProblem-Solving
Problem-SolvingModel
Model
1.
1. Identify
Identifycritical
criticalbehaviors
behaviors
2.
2. Develop
Developbaseline
baselinedata
data
3.
3. Identify
Identifybehavioral
behavioralconsequences
consequences
4.
4. Develop
Developand
andapply
applyintervention
intervention
5.
5. Evaluate
Evaluateperformance
performanceimprovement
improvement

Behavior Modification
1. Identify Critical Behaviors
The behaviors that make a significant impact on
the employees job performance. These are
those 5 to 10 percent of behaviors that may
account for up to 70 or 80 percent of each
employees performance

2. Develop Baseline Data


This is obtained by determining the number of
times the identified behavior is occurring
under present conditions

Behavior Modification cont


3. Identify Behavioral Consequences of
Performance
Managers do this by performing a functional
analysis. This tells the manager the
antecedent cues that emit the behavior and the
consequences that are currently maintaining it

Behavior Modification
4. Develop and Apply Intervention
Once the functional analysis is complete, the
manager is ready to develop and implement
an intervention strategy to strengthen
desirable performance behaviors and weaken
undesirable behaviors. Such strategy is
performance-reward linkage

5. Evaluate Performance Improvement


If learning took place then the employees
underwent a relatively permanent change in
behavior

Behavior Modification
OB Mod has been used by a number of
organizations:
1. To improve productivity.
2. To improve friendliness toward customers.
3. To reduce errors.
4. To reduce absenteeism.
5. To reduce tardiness.
6. To reduce accident rates.

OB MOD Organizational Applications


Well Pay versus Sick Pay
Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not
absence.
Employee Discipline
The use of punishment can be counter-productive.
Developing Training Programs
OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.
Self-management
Reduces the need for external management control.

Behavior Modification
Some Specific Organizational Applications
1. Substituting well pay for sick pay
2. Disciplining problem employees
produces an immediate change in the employees behavior.
3. Developing effective employee training programs
Offer a model to grab the trainees attention, provide
motivational properties, help the trainee to file away what he
learned for later use, provide opportunities to practice new
behaviors, offer positive rewards for accomplishment, allow the
trainee some opportunity to transfer what he has learned to the
job.
4. Applying learning theory to self-management
Learning techniques that allow individuals to manage their
own behavior so that less external management control is
necessary.

Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement


Theory
When professors give random pop quizzes or take
random attendance, students often complain that
they are adults, old enough to make their own
decisions, and should therefore not be required to
come to class. How do you reconcile this argument
with what we know about reinforcement theory?
Discuss with a classmate.
What kind of reinforcement schedule are these
professors using? Would a different schedule be
preferable? If so, which one?

Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement


Theory
Recall and write down the three criteria that
indicate learning has occurred. Do you think
that learning, according to these criteria, really
occurs as a result of a one semester college
class? Discuss with a neighbor.
What kinds of things would you recommend to a
college professor to increase the likelihood of
students learning all class material? Use theories
from the text to frame your answer.

All Human Behavior is Learned


Point:
B.F. Skinner said, Give me a child at birth
and I can make him into anything you
want.
Social mechanisms that belief in the power of
learned behavior all exist and flourish
because organizations and society believe
that people can learn and change their
behavior.

Social mechanisms that belief in the


power of learned behavior
Role of Parenting
Place a great deal of importance on the role of mothers
and fathers in the raising of children

Importance of Education
Most advanced societies invest heavily in the education
of their young

Job Training
For individuals who dont go on to college, most will
pursue job-training programs to develop specific workrelated skills

Manipulating of Rewards
Complex compensation programs are designed by
organizations to reward employees fairly for their work
performance

All Human Behavior is Learned


Counter Point:
While people can learn and can be influenced by their
environment, far too little attention has been paid to the role
that evolution has played in shaping human behavior.
All living creatures are designed by specific combinations of
genes. As a result of natural selection, genes that produce
faulty design features are eliminated. Characteristics that
help a species survive tend to endure and get passed on to
future generations.
Evolutionary psychology challenges the notion that people are
free to change their behavior if trained or motivated. We find
that people in organizational settings often behave in ways
that, dont appear to be beneficial to themselves or their
employers.

Some examples of Evolutionary


Psychology
Emotions
Stone Age people, at the mercy of wild
predators and natural disasters, learned to trust
their instincts. Those with the best instincts
survived

Risk Avoidance
Ancient hunter-gatherers who survived werent
big risk takers. They were cautious. When
were comfortable with the status quo, we
typically see any change as risky and, thus,
tend to resist it

Some examples of Evolutionary


Psychology
Stereotyping
To prosper in a clan society, Early Man had to become
expert at making judicious alliances. He had to quickly
size-up who he could trust and who he couldnt.
Those who could do this quickly were more likely to
survive

Male Competitiveness
Males in early human societies frequently had to
engage in games or battles in which there were clear
winners and losers. Winners attained high status, were
viewed as more attractive mates, and were more likely
to reproduce