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Dairy
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Forotheruses,seeDairy(disambiguation).
Seealso:Dairyfarming
Adairyisabusinessenterprise
establishedfortheharvestingor
processing(orboth)ofanimalmilk
mostlyfromcowsorgoats,but
alsofrombuffaloes,sheep,horses
orcamelsforhumanconsumption.
Adairyistypicallylocatedona
dedicateddairyfarmorinasection
ofamultipurposefarm(mixed
farm)thatisconcernedwiththe
harvestingofmilk.
Terminologydiffersbetween
countries.Forexample,inthe
UnitedStates,theentiredairyfarm
iscommonlycalleda"dairy."The
buildingorfarmareawheremilkis
OldmountainpasturedairyinSchrcken,Vorarlberg,AustriaintheBregenz
harvestedfromthecowisoften
Forest
calleda"milkingparlor"or"parlor."
Thefarmareawheremilkisstored
inbulktanksisknownasthefarm's"milkhouse."Milkisthenhauled(usuallybytruck)toa"dairyplant,"also
referredtoasa"dairy",whererawmilkisfurtherprocessedandpreparedforcommercialsaleofdairyproducts.In
NewZealand,farmareasformilkharvestingarealsocalled"milkingparlours",andarehistoricallyknownas
"milkingsheds."AsintheUnitedStates,sometimesmilkingshedsarereferredtobytheirtype,suchas"herring
boneshed"or"pitparlour".Insomecountries,especiallythosewithsmallnumbersofanimalsbeingmilked,the
farmmayperformthefunctionsofadairyplant,processingtheirownmilkintosalabledairyproducts,suchas
butter,cheese,oryogurt.Thisonsiteprocessingisatraditionalmethodofproducingspecialistmilkproducts,
commoninEurope.IntheUnitedStatesadairycanalsobeaplacethatprocesses,distributesandsellsdairy
products,oraroom,buildingorestablishmentwheremilkisstoredandprocessedintomilkproducts,suchas
butterorcheese.InNewZealandEnglishthesingularuseoftheworddairyalmostexclusivelyreferstoacorner
shop,orsuperette.Thisusageishistoricalassuchshopswereacommonplaceforthepublictobuymilkproducts.
Asanattributive,theworddairyreferstomilkbasedproducts,derivativesandprocesses,andtheanimalsand
workersinvolvedintheirproduction:forexampledairycattle,dairygoat.Adairyfarmproducesmilkandadairy
factoryprocessesitintoavarietyofdairyproducts.Theseestablishmentsconstitutetheglobaldairyindustry,a
componentofthefoodindustry.

Contents
1History
2Structureoftheindustry

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2Structureoftheindustry
3Operationofthedairyfarm
4Industrialprocessing
4.1Creamandbutter
4.2Skimmedmilk
4.3Casein
4.4Cheese
4.5Whey
4.6Yogurt
4.7Milkpowders
4.8Othermilkproducts
5Milking
5.1Milkingmachines
5.2Milkingshedlayouts
5.2.1Bailstylesheds
5.2.2Herringbonemilkingparlours
5.2.3SwingovermilkingParlours
5.2.4Rotarymilkingsheds
5.2.5Automaticmilkingsheds
5.2.6Supplementaryaccessoriesinsheds
5.3Temporarymilkstorage
6Wastedisposal
7Associateddiseases
8Animalwelfare
9Seealso
10Notes
11References
12Externallinks

History
Milkproducinganimalshavebeendomesticatedforthousandsofyears.Initially,theywerepartofthesubsistence
farmingthatnomadsengagedin.Asthecommunitymovedaboutthecountry,theiranimalsaccompaniedthem.
Protectingandfeedingtheanimalswereabigpartofthesymbioticrelationshipbetweentheanimalsandthe
herders.
Inthemorerecentpast,peopleinagriculturalsocietiesowneddairyanimalsthattheymilkedfordomesticandlocal
(village)consumption,atypicalexampleofacottageindustry.Theanimalsmightservemultiplepurposes(for
example,asadraughtanimalforpullingaploughasayoungster,andattheendofitsusefullifeasmeat).Inthis
casetheanimalswerenormallymilkedbyhandandtheherdsizewasquitesmall,sothatalloftheanimalscouldbe
milkedinlessthananhourabout10permilker.Thesetaskswereperformedbyadairymaid(dairywoman)or
dairyman.TheworddairyharkensbacktoMiddleEnglishdayerie,deyerie,fromdeye(femaleservantor
dairymaid)andfurtherbacktoOldEnglishdge(kneaderofbread).

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Withindustrialisationandurbanisation,thesupplyofmilkbecameacommercialindustry,withspecialisedbreedsof
cattlebeingdevelopedfordairy,asdistinctfrombeefordraughtanimals.Initially,morepeoplewereemployedas
milkers,butitsoonturnedtomechanisationwithmachinesdesignedtodothemilking.
Historically,themilkingandtheprocessingtookplaceclosetogetherin
spaceandtime:onadairyfarm.Peoplemilkedtheanimalsbyhandon
farmswhereonlysmallnumbersarekept,handmilkingmaystillbe
practiced.Handmilkingisaccomplishedbygraspingtheteats(often
pronouncedtitortits)inthehandandexpressingmilkeitherby
squeezingthefingersprogressively,fromtheudderendtothetip,orby
squeezingtheteatbetweenthumbandindexfinger,thenmovingthehand
downwardfromuddertowardstheendoftheteat.Theactionofthe
handorfingersisdesignedtocloseoffthemilkductattheudder(upper)
endand,bythemovementofthefingers,closetheductprogressivelyto
thetiptoexpressthetrappedmilk.Eachhalforquarteroftheudderis
emptiedonemilkductcapacityatatime.

Farmermilkingacowbyhand

Thestrippingactionisrepeated,usingbothhandsforspeed.Both
methodsresultinthemilkthatwastrappedinthemilkductbeingsquirted
outtheendintoabucketthatissupportedbetweentheknees(orrests
ontheground)ofthemilker,whousuallysitsonalowstool.

Traditionallythecow,orcows,wouldstandinthefieldorpaddockwhile
beingmilked.Youngstock,heifers,wouldhavetobetrainedtoremainstilltobemilked.Inmanycountries,the
cowsweretetheredtoapostandmilked.Theproblemwiththismethodisthatitreliesonquiet,tractablebeasts,
becausethehindendofthecowisnotrestrained.
In1937,itwasfoundthatbovinesomatotropin(BSTorbovinegrowthhormone)wouldincreasetheyieldofmilk.
MonsantoCompanydevelopedasynthetic(recombinant)versionofthishormone(rBST).InFebruary1994,rBST
wasapprovedbytheFoodandDrugAdministration(FDA)foruseintheU.S.IthwascommonintheU.S.,but
haslostpopularityduetoconsumerdemandsforrBSTfreecows.Onlyabout25%ofdairycowsreceiverBST
anymore.
However,thereareclaimsthatthispracticecanhavenegativeconsequencesfortheanimalsthemselves.A
EuropeanUnionscientificcommissionwasaskedtoreportontheincidenceofmastitisandotherdisordersindairy
cows,andonotheraspectsofthewelfareofdairycows.[1]Thecommission'sstatement,subsequentlyadoptedby
theEuropeanUnion,statedthattheuseofrBSTsubstantiallyincreasedhealthproblemswithcows,includingfoot
problems,mastitisandinjectionsitereactions,impingedonthewelfareoftheanimalsandcausedreproductive
disorders.Thereportconcludedthatonthebasisofthehealthandwelfareoftheanimals,rBSTshouldnotbe
used.HealthCanadaprohibitedthesaleofrBSTin1999therecommendationsofexternalcommitteeswerethat,
despitenotfindingasignificanthealthrisktohumans,thedrugpresentedathreattoanimalhealthand,forthis
reason,couldnotbesoldinCanada.[2]

Structureoftheindustry
Whilemostcountriesproducetheirownmilkproducts,thestructureofthedairyindustryvariesindifferentpartsof
theworld.Inmajormilkproducingcountriesmostmilkisdistributedthroughwholesalemarkets.InIrelandand
Australia,forexample,farmers'cooperativesownmanyofthelargescaleprocessors,whileintheUnitedStates
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manyfarmersandprocessorsdobusinessthroughindividualcontracts.IntheUnitedStates,thecountry's196
farmers'cooperativessold86%ofmilkintheU.S.in2002,withfivecooperativesaccountingforhalfthat.This
wasdownfrom2,300cooperativesinthe1940s.[3]Indeveloping
countries,thepastpracticeoffarmersmarketingmilkintheirown
neighborhoodsischangingrapidly.Notabledevelopmentsinclude
considerableforeigninvestmentinthedairyindustryandagrowingrole
fordairycooperatives.Outputofmilkisgrowingrapidlyinsuchcountries
andpresentsamajorsourceofincomegrowthformanyfarmers.[4]
Asinmanyotherbranchesofthefoodindustry,dairyprocessinginthe
majordairyproducingcountrieshasbecomeincreasinglyconcentrated,
withfewerbutlargerandmoreefficientplantsoperatedbyfewer
workers.ThisisnotablythecaseintheUnitedStates,Europe,Australia
andNewZealand.In2009,chargesofantitrustviolationshavebeen
madeagainstmajordairyindustryplayersintheUnitedStates.[5]

WawaDairyFarmsinPennsylvania

Governmentinterventioninmilkmarketswascommoninthe20thcentury.Alimitedantitrustexemptionwas
createdforU.S.dairycooperativesbytheCapperVolsteadActof1922.Inthe1930s,someU.S.statesadopted
pricecontrols,andFederalMilkMarketingOrdersstartedundertheAgriculturalMarketingAgreementActof
1937andcontinueinthe2000s.TheFederalMilkPriceSupportProgrambeganin1949.[3]TheNortheastDairy
CompactregulatedwholesalemilkpricesinNewEnglandfrom1997to2001.[6]
Plantsproducingliquidmilkandproductswithshortshelflife,suchasyogurts,creamsandsoftcheeses,tendtobe
locatedontheoutskirtsofurbancentresclosetoconsumermarkets.Plantsmanufacturingitemswithlongershelf
life,suchasbutter,milkpowders,cheeseandwheypowders,tendtobesituatedinruralareasclosertothemilk
supply.Mostlargeprocessingplantstendtospecialiseinalimitedrangeofproducts.Exceptionally,however,large
plantsproducingawiderangeofproductsarestillcommoninEasternEurope,aholdoverfromtheformer
centralized,supplydrivenconceptofthemarketunderCommunistgovernments.[7]
Asprocessingplantsgrowfewerandlarger,theytendtoacquirebigger,moreautomatedandmoreefficient
equipment.Whilethistechnologicaltendencykeepsmanufacturingcostslower,theneedforlongdistance
transportationoftenincreasestheenvironmentalimpact.[8]
Milkproductionisirregular,dependingoncowbiology.Producersmustadjustthemixofmilkwhichissoldin
liquidformvs.processedfoods(suchasbutterandcheese)dependingonchangingsupplyanddemand.[3]

Operationofthedairyfarm
Seealso:dairyfarminganddairycattle
Whenitbecamenecessarytomilklargercows,thecowswouldbebroughttoashedorbarnthatwassetupwith
bails(milkingstalls)wherethecowscouldbeconfinedwhiletheyweremilked.Onepersoncouldmilkmorecows
thisway,asmanyas20foraskilledworker.Buthavingcowsstandingaboutintheyardandshedwaitingtobe
milkedisnotgoodforthecow,assheneedsasmuchtimeinthepaddockgrazingasispossible.Itisusualto
restrictthetwicedailymilkingtoamaximumofanhourandahalfeachtime.Itmakesnodifferencewhetherone
milks10or1000cows,themilkingtimeshouldnotexceedatotalofaboutthreehourseachdayforanycow.
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Asherdsizesincreasedtherewasmoreneedtohaveefficientmilkingmachines,sheds,milkstoragefacilities(vats),
bulkmilktransportandshedcleaningcapabilitiesandthemeansofgettingcowsfrompaddocktoshedandback.
Asherdnumbersincreasedsodidtheproblemsofanimalhealth.InNewZealandtwoapproachestothisproblem
havebeenused.Thefirstwasimprovedveterinarymedicines(andthegovernmentregulationofthemedicines)that
thefarmercoulduse.Theotherwasthecreationofveterinaryclubswheregroupsoffarmerswouldemploya
veterinarian(vet)fulltimeandsharethoseservicesthroughouttheyear.It
wasinthevet'sinteresttokeeptheanimalshealthyandreducethe
numberofcallsfromfarmers,ratherthantoensurethatthefarmer
neededtocallforserviceandpayregularly.
Thisdailymilkingroutinegoesonforabout300to320daysperyear
thatthecowstaysinmilk.Somesmallherdsaremilkedonceadayfor
aboutthelast20daysoftheproductioncyclebutthisisnotusualfor
largeherds.Ifacowisleftunmilkedjustoncesheislikelytoreduce
milkproductionalmostimmediatelyandtherestoftheseasonmaysee
herdriedoff(givingnomilk)andstillconsumingfeed.However,oncea
daymilkingisnowbeingpractisedmorewidelyinNewZealandfor
profitandlifestylereasons.Thisiseffectivebecausethefallinmilkyieldis
atleastpartiallyoffsetbylabourandcostsavingsfrommilkingonceper
day.ThiscomparestosomeintensivefarmsystemsintheUnitedStates
thatmilkthreeormoretimesperdayduetohighermilkyieldspercow
andlowermarginallaborcosts.

Arotarydairyshed

Farmerswhoarecontractedtosupplyliquidmilkforhumanconsumption
(asopposedtomilkforprocessingintobutter,cheese,andsoonsee
milk)oftenhavetomanagetheirherdsothatthecontractednumberof
cowsareinmilktheyearround,ortherequiredminimummilkoutputis
maintained.Thisisdonebymatingcowsoutsidetheirnaturalmatingtime
sothattheperiodwheneachcowintheherdisgivingmaximum
productionisinrotationthroughouttheyear.
AcowbeingmilkedinIsrael

Northernhemispherefarmerswhokeepcowsinbarnsalmostalltheyear
usuallymanagetheirherdstogivecontinuousproductionofmilksothat
theygetpaidallyearround.Inthesouthernhemispherethecooperativedairyingsystemsallowfortwomonthson
noproductivitybecausetheirsystemsaredesignedtotakeadvantageofmaximumgrassandmilkproductioninthe
springandbecausethemilkprocessingplantspaybonusesinthedry(winter)seasontocarrythefarmersthrough
themidwinterbreakfrommilking.Italsomeansthatcowshavearestfrommilkproductionwhentheyaremost
heavilypregnant.Someyearroundmilkfarmsarepenalisedfinanciallyforoverproductionatanytimeintheyear
bybeingunabletoselltheiroverproductionatcurrentprices.
Artificialinsemination(AI)iscommoninallhighproductionherds.

Industrialprocessing
Mainarticle:Dairyproducts

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Dairyplantsprocesstherawmilktheyreceivefromfarmerssoastoextenditsmarketablelife.Twomaintypesof
processesareemployed:heattreatmenttoensurethesafetyofmilkfor
humanconsumptionandtolengthenitsshelflife,anddehydratingdairy
productssuchasbutter,hardcheeseandmilkpowderssothattheycan
bestored.

Creamandbutter
Today,milkisseparatedbyhugemachinesinbulkintocreamandskim
milk.Thecreamisprocessedtoproducevariousconsumerproducts,
dependingonitsthickness,itssuitabilityforculinaryusesandconsumer
demand,whichdiffersfromplacetoplaceandcountrytocountry.
Somecreamisdriedandpowdered,someiscondensed(by
evaporation)mixedwithvaryingamountsofsugarandcanned.Most
creamfromNewZealandandAustralianfactoriesismadeintobutter.
Thisisdonebychurningthecreamuntilthefatglobulescoagulateand
formamonolithicmass.Thisbuttermassiswashedand,sometimes,
saltedtoimprovekeepingqualities.Theresidualbuttermilkgoesonto
furtherprocessing.Thebutterispackaged(25to50kgboxes)and
chilledforstorageandsale.Atalaterstagethesepackagesarebroken
downintohomeconsumptionsizedpacks.

Skimmedmilk

AFonterracooperativedairyfactory
inAustralia

InteriorofacheesefactoryinSeine
etMarne,France

Theproductleftafterthecreamisremovediscalledskim,orskimmed,
milk.Tomakeaconsumableliquidaportionofcreamisreturnedtothe
skimmilktomakelowfatmilk(semiskimmed)forhumanconsumption.Byvaryingtheamountofcreamreturned,
producerscanmakeavarietyoflowfatmilkstosuittheirlocalmarket.Otherproducts,suchascalcium,vitamin
D,andflavouring,arealsoaddedtoappealtoconsumers.

Casein
Caseinisthepredominantphosphoproteinfoundinfreshmilk.Ithasaverywiderangeofusesfrombeingafiller
forhumanfoods,suchasinicecream,tothemanufactureofproductssuchasfabric,adhesives,andplastics.

Cheese
Mainarticle:Cheese
Cheeseisanotherproductmadefrommilk.Wholemilkisreactedtoformcurdsthatcanbecompressed,
processedandstoredtoformcheese.Incountrieswheremilkislegallyallowedtobeprocessedwithout
pasteurization,awiderangeofcheesescanbemadeusingthebacterianaturallyinthemilk.Inmostothercountries,
therangeofcheesesissmallerandtheuseofartificialcheesecuringisgreater.Wheyisalsothebyproductofthis
process.Somepeoplewithlactoseintolerancearesurprisinglyabletoeatcertaintypesofcheese.Thisisbecause
sometraditionallymadehardcheeses,andsoftripenedcheesesmaycreatelessreactionthantheequivalentamount
ofmilkbecauseoftheprocessesinvolved.Fermentationandhigherfatcontentcontributetolesseramountsof
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lactose.TraditionallymadeEmmentalorCheddarmightcontain10%ofthelactosefoundinwholemilk.In
addition,theagingmethodsoftraditionalcheeses(sometimesovertwoyears)reducetheirlactosecontentto
practicallynothing.[9]Commercialcheeses,however,areoftenmanufacturedbyprocessesthatdonothavethe
samelactosereducingproperties.Ageingofsomecheesesisgovernedbyregulations[10]inothercasesthereisno
quantitativeindicationofdegreeofageingandconcomitantlactosereduction,andlactosecontentisnotusually
indicatedonlabels.

Whey
Inearliertimes,wheyormilkserumwasconsideredtobeawasteproductanditwas,mostly,fedtopigsasa
convenientmeansofdisposal.Beginningabout1950,andmostlysinceabout1980,lactoseandmanyother
products,mainlyfoodadditives,aremadefrombothcaseinandcheesewhey.

Yogurt
Yogurt(oryoghurt)makingisaprocesssimilartocheesemaking,onlytheprocessisarrestedbeforethecurd
becomesveryhard.

Milkpowders
Milkisalsoprocessedbyvariousdryingprocessesintopowders.Wholemilk,skimmilk,buttermilk,andwhey
productsaredriedintoapowderformandusedforhumanandanimalconsumption.Themaindifferencebetween
productionofpowdersforhumanorforanimalconsumptionisintheprotectionoftheprocessandtheproduct
fromcontamination.Somepeopledrinkmilkreconstitutedfrompowderedmilk,becausemilkisabout88%water
anditismuchcheapertotransportthedriedproduct.

Othermilkproducts
KumisisproducedcommerciallyinCentralAsia.Althoughitistraditionallymadefrommare'smilk,modern
industrialvariantsmayusecow'smilkinstead.

Milking
Originally,milkingandprocessingtookplaceonthedairyfarmitself.Later,creamwasseparatedfromthemilkby
machineonthefarm,andtransportedtoafactorytobemadeintobutter.Theskimmilkwasfedtopigs.This
allowedforthehighcostoftransport(takingthesmallestvolumehighvalueproduct),primitivetrucksandthepoor
qualityofroads.Onlyfarmsclosetofactoriescouldaffordtotakewholemilk,whichwasessentialfor
cheesemakinginindustrialquantities,tothem.
Originallymilkwasoriginallydistributedin'pails',aliddedbucketwithahandle.Theseprovedimpracticalfor
transportbyroadorrail,andsothemilkchurnwasintroduced,basedonthetallconicalshapeofthebutterchurn.
Laterlargerailwaycontainers,suchastheBritishRailwayMilkTankWagonwereintroduced,enablingthe
transportoflargerquantitiesofmilk,andoverlongerdistances.

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Thedevelopmentofrefrigerationandbetterroadtransport,inthelate
1950s,hasmeantthatmostfarmersmilktheircowsandonlytemporarily
storethemilkinlargerefrigeratedbulktanks,fromwhereitislater
transportedbytrucktocentralprocessingfacilities.
InmanyEuropeancountries,particularlytheUnitedKingdom,milkis
thendelivereddirecttocustomers'homesbyamilkfloat.

Milkingmachines
Seealso:Breastpump
Milkingmachinesareusedtoharvestmilkfromcowswhenmanual
milkingbecomesinefficientorlabourintensive.Oneearlymodelwas
patentedin1907.[11]Themilkingunitistheportionofamilkingmachine
forremovingmilkfromanudder.Itismadeupofaclaw,fourteatcups,
(Shellsandrubberliners)longmilktube,longpulsationtube,anda
pulsator.Theclawisanassemblythatconnectstheshortpulsetubesand
shortmilktubesfromtheteatcupstothelongpulsetubeandlongmilk
tube.(Clusterassembly)Clawsarecommonlymadeofstainlesssteelor
plasticorboth.Teatcupsarecomposedofarigidoutershell(stainless
steelorplastic)thatholdsasoftinnerlinerorinflation.Transparent
sectionsintheshellmayallowviewingoflinercollapseandmilkflow.
Theannularspacebetweentheshellandlineriscalledthepulsechamber.

PreservedExpressDairiesthreeaxle
MilkTankWagonattheDidcot
RailwayCentre,basedonanSR
chassis

Milkchurnsonarailwayplatform

Milkingmachinesworkinawaythatisdifferentfromhandmilkingorcalf
suckling.Continuousvacuumisappliedinsidethesoftlinertomassage
milkfromtheteatbycreatingapressuredifferenceacrosstheteatcanal
(oropeningattheendoftheteat).Vacuumalsohelpskeepthemachine
attachedtothecow.Thevacuumappliedtotheteatcausescongestionof
teattissues(accumulationofbloodandotherfluids).Atmosphericairis
admittedintothepulsationchamberaboutoncepersecond(thepulsation
rate)toallowthelinertocollapsearoundtheendofteatandrelieve
congestionintheteattissue.Theratioofthetimethatthelinerisopen
(milkingphase)andclosed(restphase)iscalledthepulsationratio.
Thefourstreamsofmilkfromtheteatcupsareusuallycombinedinthe
Themilkingmachineextractsmilk
clawandtransportedtothemilkline,orthecollectionbucket(usually
fromallteats.
sizedtotheoutputofonecow)inasinglemilkhose.Milkisthen
transported(manuallyinbuckets)orwithacombinationofairflowand
mechanicalpumptoacentralstoragevatorbulktank.Milkisrefrigeratedonthefarminmostcountrieseitherby
passingthroughaheatexchangerorinthebulktank,orboth.
Thephotototherightshowsabucketmilkingsystemwiththestainlesssteelbucketvisibleonthefarsideofthe
cow.Thetworigidstainlesssteelteatcupshellsappliedtothefronttwoquartersoftheudderarevisible.Thetopof
theflexiblelinerisvisibleatthetopoftheshellsasaretheshortmilktubesandshortpulsationtubesextendingfrom
thebottomoftheshellstotheclaw.Thebottomoftheclawistransparenttoallowobservationofmilkflow.When
milkingiscompletedthevacuumtothemilkingunitisshutoffandtheteatcupsareremoved.
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Milkingmachineskeepthemilkenclosedandsafefromexternalcontamination.Theinterior'milkcontact'surfaces
ofthemachinearekeptcleanbyamanualorautomatedwashingproceduresimplementedaftermilkingis
completed.Milkcontactsurfacesmustcomplywithregulationsrequiringfoodgradematerials(typicallystainless
steelandspecialplasticsandrubbercompounds)andareeasilycleaned.
Mostmilkingmachinesarepoweredbyelectricitybut,incaseofelectricalfailure,therecanbeanalternativemeans
ofmotivepower,oftenaninternalcombustionengine,forthevacuumandmilkpumps.

Milkingshedlayouts
Bailstylesheds
Thistypeofmilkingfacilitywasthefirstdevelopment,afteropen
paddockmilking,formanyfarmers.Thebuildingwasalong,narrow,
leantoshedthatwasopenalongonelongside.Thecowswereheldina
yardattheopensideandwhentheywereabouttobemilkedtheywere
positionedinoneofthebails(stalls).Usuallythecowswererestrainedin
thebailwithabreechchainandaropetorestraintheouterbackleg.The
cowcouldnotmoveaboutexcessivelyandthemilkercouldexpectnot
tobekickedortrampledwhilesittingona(threelegged)stooland
MilkingparlouratPardesHanna
milkingintoabucket.Wheneachcowwasfinishedshebackedoutinto
AgriculturalHighSchool,Israel
theyardagain.TheUKbail,initiallydevelopedbyWiltshiredairyfarmer
ArthurHosier,wasasixstandingmobileshedwithstepsthatthecow
mounted,sotheherdsmandidn'thavetobendsolow.Themilkingequipmentwasmuchastoday,avacuumfroma
pump,pulsators,aclawpiecewithpipesleadingtothefourshellsandlinersthatstimulateandsuckthemilkfrom
theteat.Themilkwentintochurns,viaacooler.
Asherdsizesincreasedadoorwassetintothefrontofeachbailsothatwhenthemilkingwasdoneforanycow
themilkercould,afterundoingthelegropeandwitharemotelink,openthedoorandallowhertoexittothe
pasture.Thedoorwasclosed,thenextcowwalkedintothebailandwassecured.Whenmilkingmachineswere
introducedbailsweresetinpairssothatacowwasbeingmilkedinonepairedbailwhiletheothercouldbe
preparedformilking.Whenonewasfinishedthemachine'scupsareswappedtotheothercow.Thisisthesameas
forSwingoverMilkingParloursasdescribedbelowexceptthatthecupsareloadedontheudderfromtheside.
Asherdnumbersincreaseditwaseasiertodoubleupthecupsetsandmilkbothcowssimultaneouslythanto
increasethenumberofbails.About50cowsanhourcanbemilkedinashedwith8bailsbyoneperson.Usingthe
sameteatcupsforsuccessivecowshasthedangeroftransmittinginfection,mastitis,fromonecowtoanother.
Somefarmershavedevisedtheirownwaystodisinfecttheclustersbetweencows.
Herringbonemilkingparlours
Inherringbonemilkingsheds,orparlours,cowsenter,insinglefile,andlineupalmostperpendiculartothecentral
aisleofthemilkingparlouronbothsidesofacentralpitinwhichthemilkerworks(youcanvisualiseafishbonewith
theribsrepresentingthecowsandthespinebeingthemilker'sworkingareathecowsfaceoutward).After
washingtheudderandteatsthecupsofthemilkingmachineareappliedtothecows,fromtherearoftheirhind
legs,onbothsidesoftheworkingarea.Largeherringboneshedscanmilkupto600cowsefficientlywithtwo
people.
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SwingovermilkingParlours
Swingoverparloursarethesameasherringboneparloursexcepttheyhaveonlyonesetofmilkingcupstobe
sharedbetweenthetworowsofcows,asonesideisbeingmilkedthecowsontheothersidearemovedoutand
replacedwithunmilkedones.Theadvantageofthissystemisthatitislesscostlytoequip,howeveritoperatesat
slightlybetterthanhalfspeedandonewouldnotnormallytrytomilkmorethanabout100cowswithoneperson.
Rotarymilkingsheds
Rotarymilkingsheds(alsoknownasRotarymilkingparlor)consistofa
turntablewithabout12to100individualstallsforcowsaroundtheouter
edge.A"good"rotarywillbeoperatedwith2432(~4850+)stallsby
one(two)milkers.Theturntableisturnedbyanelectricmotordriveata
ratethatoneturnisthetimeforacowtobemilkedcompletely.Asan
emptystallpassestheentranceacowstepson,facingthecentre,and
rotateswiththeturntable.Thenextcowmovesintothenextvacantstall
andsoon.Theoperator,ormilker,cleanstheteats,attachesthecups
anddoesanyotherfeedingorwhateverhusbandingoperationsthatare
necessary.Cowsaremilkedastheplatformrotates.Themilker,oran
automaticdevice,removesthemilkingmachinecupsandthecowbacks
outandleavesatanexitjustbeforetheentrance.Therotarysystemis
capableofmilkingverylargeherdsoverathousandcows.

80standrotarydairythatisfully
computerisedandrecordsmilk
production

Automaticmilkingsheds
Automaticmilkingor'roboticmilking'shedscanbeseeninAustralia,NewZealand,theU.S.,Canada,andmany
Europeancountries.Currentautomaticmilkingshedsusethevoluntarymilking(VM)method.Theseallowthecows
tovoluntarilypresentthemselvesformilkingatanytimeofthedayornight,althoughrepeatvisitsmaybelimitedby
thefarmerthroughcomputersoftware.Arobotarmisusedtocleanteatsandapplymilkingequipment,while
automatedgatesdirectcowtraffic,eliminatingtheneedforthefarmertobepresentduringtheprocess.Theentire
processiscomputercontrolled.[12]
Supplementaryaccessoriesinsheds
Farmerssoonrealisedthatamilkingshedwasagoodplacetofeedcowssupplementaryfoodsthatovercamelocal
dietarydeficienciesoraddedtothecows'wellbeingandproduction.Eachbailmighthaveaboxintowhichsuch
feedisdeliveredasthecowarrivessothatsheiseatingwhilebeingmilked.Acomputercanreadtheeartagofeach
animaltorationthecorrectindividualsupplement.Aclosealternativeistouse'outofparlourfeeders',stallsthat
respondtoatransponderaroundthecow'sneckthatisprogrammedtoprovideeachcowwithasupplementary
feed,thequantitydependentonherproduction,stageinlactation,andthebenefitsofthemainration
Theholdingyardattheentranceoftheshedisimportantasameansofkeepingcowsmovingintotheshed.Most
yardshaveapoweredgatethatensuresthatthecowsarekeptclosetotheshed.
Waterisavitalcommodityonadairyfarm:cowsdrinkabout20gallons(80litres)aday,shedsneedwatertocool
andcleanthem.Pumpsandreservoirsarecommonatmilkingfacilities.Watercanbewarmedbyheattransferwith
milk.
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Temporarymilkstorage
Milkcomingfromthecowistransportedtoanearbystoragevesselbytheairflowleakingaroundthecupsonthe
coworbyaspecial"airinlet"(510l/minfreeair)intheclaw.Fromthereitispumpedbyamechanicalpumpand
cooledbyaheatexchanger.Themilkisthenstoredinalargevat,orbulktank,whichisusuallyrefrigerateduntil
collectionforprocessing.

Wastedisposal
Incountrieswherecowsaregrazedoutsideyearround,thereislittle
wastedisposaltodealwith.Themostconcentratedwasteisatthe
milkingshed,wheretheanimalwastemaybeliquefied(duringthewater
washingprocess)orleftinamoresolidform,eithertobereturnedtobe
usedonfarmgroundasorganicfertilizer.[13]
Intheassociatedmilkprocessingfactories,mostofthewasteiswashing
waterthatistreated,usuallybycomposting,andspreadonfarmfieldsin
eitherliquidorsolidform.Thisismuchdifferentfromhalfacenturyago,
whenthemainproductswerebutter,cheeseandcasein,andtherestof
themilkhadtobedisposedofaswaste(sometimesasanimalfeed).

Manurespreadergoingtothefield
fromadairyfarm,Elba,NewYork.

Indairyintensiveareas,variousmethodshavebeenproposedfordisposingoflargequantitiesofmilk.Large
applicationratesofmilkontoland,ordisposinginahole,isproblematicastheresiduefromthedecomposingmilk
willblockthesoilporesandtherebyreducethewaterinfiltrationratethroughthesoilprofile.Asrecoveryofthis
effectcantaketime,anylandbasedapplicationneedstobewellmanagedandconsidered.[14]Otherwastemilk
disposalmethodscommonlyemployedincludesolidificationanddisposalatasolidwastelandfill,disposalata
wastewatertreatmentplant,ordischargeintoasanitarysewer.[15]

Associateddiseases
Dairyproductsmanufacturedunderunsanitaryorunsuitableconditionshaveanincreasedchanceofcontaining
bacteria.Propersanitationpracticeshelptoreducetherateofbacterialcontamination,andpasteurizationgreatly
decreasestheamountofcontaminatedmilkthatreachestheconsumer.Manycountrieshaverequiredgovernment
oversightandregulationsregardingdairyproduction,includingrequirementsforpasteurization.
Cowpoxisavirusthattodayisrarelyfoundineithercowsorhumans.Itisahistoricallyimportantdisease,as
itledtothefirstvaccinationagainstthenoweradicatedsmallpox.
Tuberculosisisabletobetransmittedfromcattlemainlyviamilkproductsthatareunpasteurised.The
diseasehasbeeneradicatedfrommanycountriesbytestingforthediseaseandcullingsuspectedanimals.
Besidesbacteriaanddirtyconditions,thereareotherdiseasesthatresearchhaveassociatedtocow'smilk.
OsteoporosisThedrinkingofdairyhasbeenaverycommonpracticeforquitealongtimeduetoitspromise
ofcalciumtopreventosteoporosis(weakbones),especiallyincountriessuchastheU.S,Canada,Finland
andotherwesteuropeannations[16]Statisticshaveproventhesenationsalsohavethehighestratesof
osteoporosismeaningtheeffectofdairycalciumhasntreallyprotectedtheirbones.[17]
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LactoseIntoleranceisanothercommonhealthissuelinkedtotheallergyoflactosefoundinCowsMilk
becausethebodylackstheenzyme,lactase,tobreakitdown.Approximately70percentofAfrican
Americans,90percentofAsianAmericans,53percentofMexicanAmericans,and74percentofNative
Americansarelactoseintolerant.[18]
Cancer,especiallyovarianandbreastinwomen,canbecausedduetothecloggingupofgalactose,asugar
producedbydairy.Womenwhoregularlyeatmilkproductsaresubjectedtothisespeciallyiftheyhavelow
levelsoftheenzymestobreakthegalactosedown.[19]
Dairy'seffectonChildrenItissuggestedthatinfantswhoarebelowonedonotconsumecowsmilkbecause
thatmightleadtoirondeficiencyandotherchronicdiseasessuchasdiabetes,obesityandheartdisease.It
canalsoleadtolongtermconstipation.Theunnecessaryamountofcholesterol,unsaturatedfatsand
hormonesfoundindairyarefactorsoffutureheartissuesforthefragilityofachild.[20]

Animalwelfare
Aportionofthepopulation,[21]includingmanyvegansandJains,objecttodairyproductionasunethical,cruelto
animals,andenvironmentallydeleterious.Theydonotconsumedairyproducts.Theystatethatcattlesufferunder
conditionsemployedbythedairyindustry.[22][23]

Seealso
Dairyproduct
Dairycattle
Animalwelfare
HolsteinFriesiancattle
Milkcar

Notes
1. "ReportonAnimalWelfareAspectsoftheUseofBovineSomatotrophin"(PDF).TheScientificCommitteeon
AnimalHealthandAnimalWelfare,EuropeanUnion.19990310.Retrieved20080116.
2. "HealthCanadarejectsbovinegrowthhormoneinCanada".HealthCanada.19990114.Archivedfromtheoriginal
on20080110.Retrieved20080116.
3. "CooperativesintheDairyIndustry".CooperativeInformation,Report1,Section16(PDF).UnitedStates
DepartmentofAgriculture,RuralDevelopment.September2005.
4. FAO,MilkforHealthandWealth(ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0521e/i0521e00.pdf),FAO,Rome,2009
5. [IndependentFarmersFeelSqueezedByMilkCartel]byJohnBurnett.AllThingsConsidered,NationalPublic
Radio.20August2009.
6. "MonthlyCompact,FederalOrder#1,andOverOrderPricesforClassIMilkSincetheCompactRegulationTook
EffectinJulyof1997".NortheastDairyCompactCommission.
7. Field,ThomasTaylor,Robert(2008).Scientificfarmanimalproduction:anintroductiontoanimalscience.
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:PearsonPrenticeHall.ISBN9788120343986.

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8. CleanerProductionAssessmentinDairyProcessing(http://www.agrifoodforum.net/publications/guide),byCOWI
ConsultingEngineersandPlanners,UnitedNationsEnvironmentProgrammeDivisionofTechnology,Industry,and
Economics,DenmarkMiljstyrelsen.PublishedbyUNEP/Earthprint,2000(ISBN9789280718423).Textat
AgrifoodForumPublicationsDownloadsSectorGuidesIndex.
9. "DairyGood.org|Home".Ilovecheese.com.Retrieved20140717.
10. "Exampleofcheeseregulations:"WestCountryFarmhouseCheddar"mustbeagedfor9months".
Farmhousecheesemakers.com.Retrieved20140717.
11. PopularMechanicsGoogleBooks.Books.google.com.Retrieved20140717.
12. "RoboticdairyatWinnindoo,Victoria,Australia".
13. .UniversityofMinnesotaDairyExtensionhttp://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/dairy/manure/surface
irrigationsystemsforwastewater/.Retrieved20140607.Missingorempty|title= (help)
14. "WasteManagement".EnvironmentalBestPracticeGuidelines(PDF).DairyCatch.
15. "FactSheet:ProperDisposalofMilkWaste"(PDF).IndianaDepartmentofEnvironmentalManagement.Retrieved
20140607.
16. "CurrentWorldwideMilkConsumptionperCapita."Chartsbin.com::.N.p.,n.d.Web.05Sept.2015.
<http://chartsbin.com/view/1491>.
17. "OsteoporosisFactsandStatistics."InternationalOsteoporosisFoundation.N.p.,n.d.Web.05Sept.2015
18. UnderstandingtheProblemswithDairyProducts."NutritionMD.ThePhysiciansCommitteeforResponsible
Medicine,n.d.Web.
19. CramerDW,HarlowBL,WilletWC.Galactoseconsumptionandmetabolisminrelationtotheriskofovarian
cancer.Lancet19892:6671.
20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9770556
21. Iacobbo,K.,&Iacobbo,M.(2006).VegetariansandvegansinAmericatoday.GreenwoodPublishingGroup.
22. DavidJ.Wolfson(1996).Beyondthelaw:Agribusinessandthesystemicabuseofanimalsraisedforfoodorfood
production.AnimalL.,2,123.http://nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/bibarticles/wolfson_beyond.pd
23. EliseDesaulniers(2013)Vachelait:Dixmythesdel'industrielaitireEditionsStank,Qubec
http://livres.edesaulniers.com/?product=vachealaitdixmythesdelindustrielaitiere

References
Jay,J.M.(1992).ModernFoodMicrobiology4thedition.NewYork:Chapman&Hall.pp.2379.
Potter,N.N.&J.H.Hotchkiss.(1995).FoodScience5thEdition.NewYork:Chapman&Hall.
pp.279315.
Swasigood,H.E.(1985)."CharacteristicsofEdibleFluidsofAnimalOrigin:Milk."InFoodChemistry
2ndedition.RevisedandExpanded.O.R.Fennema,Ed.NewYork:MarcelDekker,Inc.pp.791827.
Wolfson,D.J.(1996)."Beyondthelaw:Agribusinessandthesystemicabuseofanimalsraisedforfoodor
foodproduction".AnimalL2:123.

Externallinks
NationalDairyCouncil(http://www.nationaldairycouncil.org/)
WikimediaCommonshas
UniversityofGuelphDairyScienceandTechnologyEducation
mediarelatedtoDairying.
Series(http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/home.html)
Onlinetechnicalinformationaboutdairyproducts.
Lookupdairyin
DairyScienceandFoodTechnology:Starters,Probiotics,Cheese
Wiktionary,thefree
andAntimicrobialSystems
dictionary.
(http://www.dairyscience.info/index.asp)
DairyandtheUSCongresscollection,CenterforDigitalInitiatives,UniversityofVermontLibrary
(http://cdi.uvm.edu/collections/getCollection.xql?title=Dairy%20and%20the%20US%20Congress)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dairy

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VirtualMuseumExhibitonPastDomesticProductionofMilk,CreamandButter
(http://www.carnamah.com.au/milkcreambutter.html)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dairy&oldid=684272155"
Categories: Dairyfarming
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon5October2015,at17:09.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.
Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisaregisteredtrademark
oftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

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