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Diplomado

Administracin Gerencial
Mdulo IV: Administracin de la Cadena
de Suministro

Jos Luis Gmez

jlgomez@itesm.mx
http://www.linkedin.com/pub/jose-luis-gomez-mba-pmp/21/608/972

Ingeniero Industrial por el Tec de Monterrey Guadalajara


MBA en Moore School of Business de la Universidad de Carolina del Sur
Lean Six Sigma Green Belt
Programa Management Professional Certification

Foto del
Instructor

Jos Luis Gmez

jlgomez@itesm.mx
http://www.linkedin.com/pub/jose-luis-gomez-mba-pmp/21/608/972

Business Planning Manager en HP Americas en HP (5 aos)


Production Control Senior Manager en Flextronics (2 aos)
Materials Manager en Flextronics (4 aos)
MPS (2 aos)
Planner-Buyer (2 aos)

Foto del
Instructor

Jos Luis Gmez

jlgomez@itesm.mx
http://www.linkedin.com/pub/jose-luis-gomez-mba-pmp/21/608/972

2 aos Profesor en el Tec Milenio


4 aos Profesor en el Certificado de Logstica Internacional y
Administracin de Proyectos
Conferencista en Congresos Nacionales de Ingeniera Industrial y
Comercio Internacional
Cafetero, Taurino y Viajes

Foto del
Instructor

Presentacin Participantes

Nombre
Empresa / Organizacin
Puesto / Rol / Funcin
Estudios/Experiencia
Expectativas del Mdulo

Polticas de Evaluacin del Mdulo


80% Asistencia
10% Participacin
10% Trabajo en equipo en clases

Mdulo 4
Administracin de Cadena de Suministro
Sesin 1:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Introduccin y Contexto global y negocio


Retos y Estrategias
Organizacin
Caso Ford

Mdulo 4

Tema 1:
Estrategia de cadena de suministro
(Introduccin)

Modelo de Negocio Obsoleto

Sumando
al
Productor determinaba

Modelo de Negocio Actual

Determina el Mercado

Reduciendo
Productor determina sus

La Cadena de
Abastecimiento
representa del

50% al 80%
de todo el dinero que
gasta una organizacin

Cadena de Abastecimiento de HP

Foxconn
Flextronics
Jabil

Canon

Venture
Technocom

Jabil
Flextronics

Factories

Repair Centers

Distribution Center

Service Center

K&N HUB

Sea / Air port

Que es Administracin de
la Cadena de
Abastecimiento?

Que es Administracin de la Cadena de


Abastecimiento?
Es el arte y ciencia de la integracin de flujos de productos, informacin
y finanzas a travs de la cadena productiva desde el proveedor
del proveedor hasta el cliente final del cliente.

Productor A
Costo de Produccin
$8.50

$1.5

Productor B
Costo de Produccin
$7

Productor A
Costo de Produccin
$8.50
$.90

$1.15

$1.5

$1.35

Embarques de Materias
Primas desde Proveedores
(Inbound)

$2.05 total

Embarques de Materias

Primas desde Proveedores


(Inbound)

$3.50

Embarques de Producto al
cliente (Outbound)

Productor B
Costo de Produccin
$7

$2.8

Embarques de Producto al
cliente
(Outbound)

$4.85 Total

Costo Logstico como % del PIB en LAR Vs EEU

Canal Logstico Simple

Canal Logstico Multi Escala

Canal Logstico Complejo

Crecimiento del Comercio Internacional

International Trade Growth 1953-2013.


Source: World Trade Organization

Pases: Mayores Exportadores


Country

Exports (US$ billions)

Percentage

China
United States
Germany
Japan
Netherlands
France
Korea, Republic of

2,048,814
1,547,283
1,407,098
798,567
655,841
569,065
547,870

11.2%
8.4%
7.7%
4.4%
3.6%
3.1%
3.0%

Russian Federation
Italy
Hong Kong, China
United Kingdom
Canada
Belgium
Singapore
Mexico
India
Rest of the World
World

529,255
500,239
493,366
468,370
454,840
446,302
408,393
370,915
293,214
6,783,568
18,323,000

2.9%
2.7%
2.7%
2.6%
2.5%
2.4%
2.2%
2.0%
1.6%
37.0%
100.0%

Pases: Mayores Importadores


Country
United States
China
Germany
Japan
United Kingdom
France
Netherlands
Hong Kong, China
Korea, Republic of
India
Italy
Canada
Belgium
Mexico
Singapore
Russian Federation
ROW
World

Imports (in US$ billions)

Percentage

2,335,375
1,818,069
1,167,423
885,845
680,409
673,709
590,689
554,222
519,584
489,364
485,890
474,900
434,847
380,477
379,723
335,446
6,361,028
18,567,000

12.6%
9.8%
6.3%
4.8%
3.7%
3.6%
3.2%
3.0%
2.8%
2.6%
2.6%
2.6%
2.3%
2.0%
2.0%
1.8%
34.3%
100.0%

Evolucin de SCM
Fragmentation 1960

Evolving Integration 1980

Total Integration 1990

2000

Demand Forecasting
Purchasing
Requirements Planning
Production Planning
Manufacturing Inventory

Materials
Management

Warehousing
Materials Handling

Logistics

Industrial Packaging
Finished Goods Inventory
Distribution Planning
Order Processing
Transportation
Customer Service
Strategic Planning
Information Technology
Marketing
Sales

Source: Alfred Battaglia

Physical
Distribution

Supply Chain Mgmt.

Cadena de Suministros

Domestic
Customers

Domestic
Suppliers
Logistics
Company

International Logistics
Foreign
Suppliers

Foreign
Customers

Supply Chain Management

Como sera
tu red?

Logstica de Reserva

Source: Lora Skarman

Administracin de la Cadena de Abastecimiento

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nS_OD8jmUug

Actividad Colaborativa

Lectura Individual de los artculos (10min) :


1)Creating Value
2) Supply Chain Managers Take on a New
Role: Value Creators

Discusin y preparar presentacin en Equipo


(20min ):
-Definir el concepto actual de SCM
-Puntos clave para para poder crear valor para
las compaas

-Construir diagrama con las entidades que


forman su cadena de abastecimiento

Mdulo 4

Tema 2:
Retos y Estrategias de Cadena de
Suministros

An Organization Must Approach


Strategic Planning on Three Levels

Corporate: Decisions and plans that answer the questions of what business
are we in? and, how will we allocate resources among these businesses?

Unit: Decisions mold the plans of a particular business unit, as necessary to


contribute to corporate strategy.

Function: Plans concern the how of each functional areas contribution to


the business strategy and involve the allocation of internal resources.

Key Strategy Questions for Supply

1.

How can supply and the supply chain contribute effectively to organizational
objectives and strategy?

AND

2.

How can the organizational objectives and strategy properly reflect the
contribution and opportunities offered in the supply chain?

Supply Strategy Interpreted in


Organizational Strategy

Supply
Objectives

Organizational
Objectives

Supply
Strategy

Organizational
Strategy

Normal Organizational and


Supply Objectives

Organizational Objectives

Supply Objectives

1.

Survival

1.

Quality

2.

Growth

2.

Quantity

3.

Financial

3.

Delivery

4.

Environmental

4.

Price

5.

Service

Six Major Supply Strategy Areas

1. Assurance of supply
2. Cost reduction
3. Supply chain support
4. Environmental change
Economic situations
5. Competitive edge
Market opportunities & org strengths
6. Risk Management

Corporate Supply Challenges

Increased outsourcing places great reliance on suppliers to respond to endcustomer needs

Greater dependence on suppliers for design and build strong and long term
relationships

Trend to single sourcing with fewer key suppliers and strategic supplier
relationships

Increased global competition

Development of new product technologies

Evolving information systems

Corporate Supply Challenges

Identify opportunities to reduce unit costs for products and services

Identify opportunities to increase revenue

Implement supply initiatives to improve customer satisfaction

Reduce Total Costs of Ownership

Improve efficiency and effectiveness of the supply process

Maximize value from suppliers

Work with key supplier to provide product and service innovations

Advantages of TCO - Strategy


Highlight cost reduction opportunities
Aid supplier evaluation and selection

Provide data for negotiations


Focus suppliers on cost reduction opportunities
Highlight the advantage of expensive, high-quality items

Clarify and define supplier performance expectations


Create a long-term supply perspective
Forecast future performance

The Special Case of Procurement Price

Major Categories for the Components of Total Cost of


Ownership
Total Cost of Ownership
Pretransaction Components
Identifying need
Investigating sources
Qualifying sources
Adding supplier to
internal systems
Educating:
Supplier ins firms
operations
Firm in suppliers
operations

Transaction Components
Price
Order
placement/preparation
Delivery/transportation
Tariffs/duties
Billing/payment
Inspection
Return of parts
Follow-up and correction

Posttransaction Components
Line fallout
Defective finished goods
rejected before sale
Field failures
Repair/replacement in field
Customer
goodwill/reputation of firm
Cost of repair parts
Cost of maintenance and
repairs

Source: Lisa Ellram, Total Cost of Ownership: Elements and Implementation, International Journal of Purchasing
and Materials Management, Winter 1993.

Characteristics of an Integrated Strategic


Procurement and Sourcing Function
Supply Base Strategy
Quality driven
Design standardization
Concurrent engineering
Supply base optimization

Supplier Management
Focused on supplier development
Joint performance improvement efforts
Value focused
Total cost improvement
Supplier benchmarking

Measurement
Customer orientation
Total value/cost focused
Benchmarking with best in class

Systems
Global databases
Historical performance data
Strategic
EDI, Internet, EFT, CAD, CAM

Differences between Manufacturing and Services


Organizations

Manufacturing

The largest portion of needs is


generated by customer needs.

The largest portion of spend


with suppliers will be on direct
requirements which comprise
products sold to customers.

Differences between Manufacturing and Services


Organizations

Services
The largest portion of needs is
generated by capital, services and
other requirements enabling
employees to provide the service.
In retailing the largest spend is
focused on re-sale requirements.
Total cost improvement

The Opportunities for Contribution of


the Supply Function
Profit-leverage effect

Return-on-assets effect
Information source
Effect on efficiency

Effect on competitive position and customer satisfaction


Effect on organizational risk
Effect on image
Training ground

Management strategy and social policy

Differentiations for Supply

Vs

Differentiations for Supply in


Private Organizations

Identificar a su empresa en la siguiente clasificacin

Mdulo 4

Tema 3:
Organizacin de la Cadena de
Abastecimiento

Traditional View of
Supply Objectives

Obtain the right materials (meeting quality requirements),

in the right quantity, for delivery at the right time and right place, from
the right source (a supplier who is reliable and will meet its commitments in
a timely fashion),

with the right service (both before and after the sale), and at the right price
in the short and long term.

Nine Goals of Supply

1.

Improve the organizations competitive position

2.

Provide an uninterrupted flow of materials, supplies and services


required to operate the organization

3.

Keep inventory investment and loss at a minimum

4.

Maintain and improve quality

5.

Find or develop best-in-class suppliers

Nine Goals of Supply

6. Standardize, where possible, the items and services bought and the
processes used to procure them

7. Purchase required items and services at lowest total cost of


ownership
8. Achieve harmonious, productive internal relationships

9. Accomplish supply objectives at the lowest possible operating costs

Typical Supply Organization Structure - Medium


Sized Company
Director of
Purchasing

Commodity Manager

Commodity Manager

Manager
Administration and
Processes

Buyer

Buyer

Manager
e-Purchasing

Buyer

Buyer

Manager
p-cards
Manager
Purchasing
Research

Materials
Manager

Stores/
Warehouse
Manager
Receiving
Inspection
Manager
Manager
Transportation

Structure Options for Large Organizations


Centralized: Authority and responsibility for most supply-related functions are
assigned to a central organization.

Structure Options for Large Organizations


Hybrid: Authority and responsibility are shared between a central supply
organization and business units, divisions, or operating plants.
Hybrid structures may lean more heavily toward centralized or decentralized depending
division of decision-making authority.
One type of hybrid supply structure is a center-led organization in which strategic direction
is centralized and execution is decentralized.

PCs & Printers


GPS
Servers
Customer Support
Organization

Structure Options for Large Organizations

Decentralized: Authority and responsibility for supply-related functions are


dispersed throughout the organization.

PCs & Printers


Sales Operations
Customers

Supplier

Potential Advantages and Disadvantages


of Centralization
Advantages

greater buying specialization

ability to pay for talent

consolidation of requirements - clout

coordination of policies and procedures

effective planning and research

common suppliers

proximity to major organizational decision


makers

critical mass

firm brand recognition and stature

reporting line - power

strategic focus

cost of purchasing low

Disadvantages

narrow specification and job boredom


lack of job flexibility
corporate staff appears excessive
tendency to minimize legitimate differences in
requirements
lack of recognition of unique needs
focus on corporate requirements, not on
business unit strategic requirements
even common suppliers behave differently in
geographic and market segments
distance from users
tendency to create organizational silos
customer segments require adaptability to
unique situations
top management not able to spend time on
suppliers
lack of business unit focus
high visibility of purchasing costs

Potential Advantages and Disadvantages


of Decentralization
Advantages

easier coordination/communication with


operating department

speed of response

effective use of local sources

business unit autonomy

reporting line simplicity

undivided authority and responsibility

suits purchasing personnel preference

broad job definition

geographical, cultural, political,


environmental, social, language,
currency appropriateness

hide cost of supply

Disadvantages

more difficult to communicate among business


units
encourages users not to plan ahead
operational versus strategic focus
too much focus on local sources - ignores
better supply opportunities
no critical mass in organization for visibility/
effectiveness - whole person syndrome
lacks clout
suboptimization
business unit preferences not congruent with
corporate preferences
small differences magnified
reporting at low level in organization
limits functional advancement opportunities
ignores larger organizational considerations
limited expertise for requirements
lack of standardization
cost of supply relatively high

Advantages and Disadvantages of Hybrid,


Centralized and Decentralized Structures

Centralized

Disadvantages

Decentralized

Advantages

Advantages

Hybrid
structure

Disadvantages

Key Success Factors for


Successful Teams

Supportive organizational culture, structure, and systems.


A common purpose, measurable goals, and feedback for individual and
team.
Organized for customer satisfaction rather than individual functional
success.
All functional areas involved in up-front planning, shared leadership roles,
and role flexibility.

Key Success Factors for


Successful Teams
The right people (right qualifications), in the right place (on a team that
needed their skills), at the right time (when those skills were needed).
A common, agreed-upon work approach and investment in a high level of
communication.

Dedication to performance and implementation with decisions delegated


to the appropriate level.
Integration of all relevant functional areas and various teams throughout
the project life cycle.

Caso: Ford Motors Company

Actividad en Equipo

Caso: Ford Motors Company

1. Si fueras Tony Brown, Cmo procederas con la


implementacin de la alineacin del modelo de negocio ABF?
2. Cmo construiras confianza con tus proveedores y
manejaras sus preocupaciones acerca de la nueva relacin
Ford y sus proveedores?

Caso: Ford Motors Company

1.
2.
3.
4.

Por que quiere cambiar FORD?


Si tu fueras el supplier como reaccionaras
Como se obtendr el ahorro de $7billones de dlls.
En cuanto tiempo crees que Ford empezar a dar los
Primeros ahorros

Preguntas y
Respuestas