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Amborellaceae vessel-less shrubs unisexual flowers male: P 5-8, A ∞
Amborella undifferentiated, spiral female: P 5-8, G 5-6
perianth superior
numerous, laminar
apocarpous, apically
open gynoecium
1-ovuled carpel
Nymphaeaceae aquatic herbs floating leaves K 4-6 [-14] C 8-∞ [0] A
Water-Lily solitary, floating to ∞ G (3-∞), superior or
emergent flowers inferior
mostly spiral floral parts
petals grading into
usually laminar stamens
Illiaceae evergreen trees or aromatic oil cells P ∞ [7-33] A ∞ [4-50]
Star-Anise shrubs pellucid-punctate, G ∞ [5-21] superior
exstipulate leaves
flowers with numerous,
spiral tepals
one-seeded, apocarpous
pistils in a single whorl
follicetum fruit
Lauraceae perennial trees or shrubs aromatic oil glands P 3+3 [6, 2+2, or
Laura evergreen leaves 3+3+3] A 3-12+ G 1 [-
undifferentiated (3)], superior, rarely
perianth inferior, hypanthium
valvular anther present
single, superior ovary
apical placentation
Magnoliaceae trees and shrubs stipulate leaves P ∞ A ∞ G ∞ [2-∞]
Magnolia solitary flowers superior
petaloid perianth
numerous tepals
numerous, spiral
apocarpous gynoecium
numerous, spiral pistils
borne on an elongate
receptacular axis
aggregate fruit
seeds with sarcotesta
Aristolochiaceae climbing plants enlarged, petaloid calyx K (3) C 0 [3] A 6-∞,
Birthwort absent to reduced corola usu. adnate to style G
gynostemium (4-6), inferior (half-
inferior to half-inferior, inferior)
4-6 carpeled and
loculed ovary
Piperaceae atactostelic stem P 0 A 3+3 [1-10] G 1
Pepper spadix or (3,4) superior
\numerous, very small,
unisexual or bisexual
flowers lacking a
1-seeded berry or drupe
Saururaceae perennial herbs bracteate spike or P 0 A 3,3+3, or 4+4 G
Lizard’s-Tail raceme (3-5) superior
lacking a perianth
capsule fruit
Ceratophyllaceae monoecious, aquatic whorled, dichotomously P (8-12) A 5-27 G 1
Hornwort herbs branched, serrulate superior
solitary, unisexual
Acoraceae marsh plants spadix and spathe P 3+3 A 3+3 G (2-3)
Sweet Flag distichuous, ensiform, superior
unifacial leaves
perispermous and
endospermous seeds
ethereal oil cells
lacking raphide crystals
Araceae bifacial leaves with P 2+2, 3+3, (2+2),
Arum parallel or netted (3+3) or 0 [4+4,(4+4)]
venation A 4,6,8 or (4,6,8) [1-
spadix with a subending 12] G (3) [1-(∞)]
spathe superior
endospermous seeds
raphide crystals
Alismataceae aquatic or marsh herbs basal leaves K 3 C 3 A 6,9-∞ [3] G
Water-Plantain whorled flowers or 3,6-∞ superior
flower axes
dichlamydeous flowers
apocarpous gynoecium
basal pacentation
Agavaceae perennial subshrubs to xeromorphic, fibrous P 3+3 A 6 G (3),
Agave branched trees leaves superior or inferior,
hypogynous to hypanthium present in
epigynous flowers some
Alliaceae bulbous herbs narrow leaves P 3+3 A 3+3 [3,2] G
Onion umbellate inflorescence (3), superior [rarely
superior ovary half-inferior]
Asphodelaceae herbs or pachycalous succulent leaves P 3+3 or (3+3) A 3+3 G
Asphodel or Aloe trees arillate seeds (3), superior
Iridaceae perennial herbs ensiform, unifacial P 3+3 or (3+3) A 3 or
Iris leaves (3) G (3), inferior
spike or panicle of (superior in Isophysis)
solitary flowers or
monochasial cyme
three stamens opposite
outer tepals
Orchidaceae mycorrhizal, mostly resupinate flowers with P (3+3) A 1-3, when 1 a
Orchid perennial, terrestrial, or showy labellum pollinarium G (3),
epiphytic herbs androecium and inferior, with
gynoecium adnate gynostemium
pollinia (fused pollen)
pollinarium (stalk)
Liliaceae perennial, usually lacking an onion-like P 3+3 A 3 G (3),
Lily bulbous herbs odor superior
raceme, umbel, or
solitary inflorescence
superior ovary
Arecaceae (Palmae) rhizomatous, lianous, or P 3+3 [0,2+2,∞] A 3+3
Palm usually arborescent OR (3+3) [3,∞; 0 in
stem female fls.] G 3 or (3)
large, sheathing, plicate [1,2,4-∞; 0 in mae fls.],
leaves superior
fleshy, usually
drupaceous fruit
Musaceae spiral leaf arrangement P (3+3) A 5-6 G (3),
Banana monoecious inferior
Strelitziaceae rhizomatous and P (3+3) A 5 G (3),
Bird-of-Paradise decumbent or erect, inferior
arborescent stems
distichous leaves
5-6 stamens
Zingerberaceae distichous, usually P (3+3) A 1 fertile +2
Ginger ligulate leaves +(2) petaloid
single, dithecal stamen staminodes G (3),
petaloid labellum inferior
derived from two
Cannaceae distichous leaves P 3+3 A 1, petaloid &
Canna-Lily one petaloid, monothecal + 1-4
monothecal stamen petaloid staminodes G
petaloid staminodes (3), inferior
Bromeliaceae perennial, terrestrial, or absorptive, peltate P 3+3 or (3)+(3) A 3+3
Bromeliad epiphytis herbs or trichomes G (3), superior or
shrubs colorful bracts inferior
basal scales or
stigmas typically
Juncaceae perennial herbs spiral, sheathing flowers P 3+3 [2+2 or 3] A 3+3
Rush loculicidal capsule [3+0 or 2+2] G (3),
Cyperaceae herbs 3-sided, solid-pithed P 6 or 0 [1-∞] A 3 [1-
Sedge stems 6+] G (2-3) [(4)],
closed-sheathed, often superior
tristichous leaves
ssedge spikelet
distichous or spiral
perianth absent or
reduced to bristles or
Poaceae (Graminae) herbs (trees in hollow-pithed stems P 2-3 [-6+] lodicules A
Grass bamboos) open-sheathed, 2-3 [1] G (2-3), superior
distichous leaves with a
grass spikelet
glumes (2 basal bracts)
flower with perianth
reduced to 2-3 lodicules
plumose stigmas
caryopsis (grain)