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CONTENTS

NO

TITLE

PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

OBJECTIVES

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND


LITERATURE REVIEW

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CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 3: PROCEDURE, EXPERIMENT 1,


EXPERIMENT 2.

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CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION

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REFERENCES

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to take this opportunity to express our gratitude to our
Chemistry teacher Mr. Tan Hwa Kah who has always been sincere and helpful , gave
us the opportunity to carry out this project and giving us endless of help while doing
this project of determining the permeability of soil with its suitability for the
agricultural industry.
Furthermore, we would like to express our thanks to the principle of SMJK
SEG HWA, Mr Tai Chen Kiun for his exteding support. Finally, we would also like to
thank the lab assistants and friends who helped us in finishing this project.

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the time taken when no more water drains out from the cups
which contain different types of soil
2. To measure the amount of water drained out from each sample of soil
3. To calculate the drainage of each soil sample
4. To relate the permeability of soil with different types of plantation soil

INTRODUCTION

Permeability is the rate at which water and air move through the soil.
Permeability is influenced by texture, structure, bulk density, and also size and shape
of pores. Granular structure readily permits downward water movement whereas a
play structure requires water to flow over a much longer and slower path.
Permeability is used in agriculture, drainage design, irrigation scheduling, and many
conservation practice.
There are several factors affecting permeability of the soil. The permeability
of soil affects agriculture by determining the type of plant that can be planted on
which type of soil. There are numerous factors that affect the permeability of a soil
mass. Porosity of the soil mass under consideration, soil compaction also impacts
permeability of soil. Permeability is affected by particle size of soil grain, particle
shape, and degree of packing of soil mass constituents and many others. In
agricultural terms, permeability helps in determining the amount of water soaked in
by the soil-whether rainfall soaks into the ground or runs off to nearest stream. If the
soil is not permeable and allows water to stay on its surface, it will affect plant
growth.
Water management techniques should be applied to avoid water-logging of
agricultural soils. Controlled traffic and zero tillage are the beast ways to reduce
surface accumulation of water. Improving water entryways and water storage
techniques near the field are also good practices to reduce the effect of water-logging
on crops. Cover crops have helped farmers and agriculturists to improve permeability
of soil and reduce soil surface strength as well. The characteristics of soil play a big
part in the plants ability to extract water and nutrients. Soil composition and structure
affects plant growth. Knowing what soils are composed of will help us understand
how soil affects plant growth.

LITERATURE REVIEW
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According to an article written by Ruth Barton on behalf of William Morfoot


who is a soil and land drainage expert with over fifty years experience in creating and
maintaining healthy soils. There are six main soil groups: clay, sandy, silty, peaty,
chalky and loamy. They each have different properties. The size and type of soil
structure is important because it affects permeability of soil.
Clay soil feels lumpy and is sticky when wet and rock hard when dry. Clay
soil is poor at draining and has few air spaces. The soil will warm up slowly in spring
and it is heavy to cultivate. Is the drainage for the soil is enhanced, then plants will
develop and grow well as clay soil can be rich in nutrients. Clay soil is great for
perennials and shrubs such as Helens Flower, Aster, Bergamot, Flowering quince.
Early vegetable crops and soft berry crops can be difficult to grow in clay soil because
of its cool, compact nature. Summer crop vegetables, however, can be high yielding
vigorous plants. Fruit trees, ornamental trees and shrubs thrive on clay soils.
Sandy soil feels gritty. It drains easily, dries out fast and is easy to cultivate.
Sandy soil warms up fast in spring and tends to hold fewer nutrients as these are often
washed away during wetter spells. Sandy soil requires organic amendments such as
glacial rock dust, greensand, kelp meal, or other organic fertilizerblends. It also
bebenifits from mulching to help retain moisture. Vegetable root crops like carrots,
parsnips and potatoes favour sandy soils. Lettuce, strawberries, peppers, corn and
tomatoes are grown commercially in sandy soils.
Silty soil feels soft and soapy, it holds moisture, is usually very rich in
nutrients. The soil is easily cultivated and can be compactrd with little effort. This is a
great soil for your garden if drainage is provided and managed. Mixing in composted
organic matter is usually needed to improve drainage and structure while adding
nutrients. It is great for shrubs, climbers, grasses and perennials such as Mahonia,
New Zealand flax. Moisture-loving treessuch as Willow, Birch, Dogwood and Crpress
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do well in silty soils. Most vegetable and fruit crops thrive in silty soils which have
adequate drainage.
Chalky soil is larger grained and generally stonier compared to other soil. Itis
free draining and usually overlays chalk or limestone bedrock. The soil is alkaline in
nature which sometimes leads to stunted growth and yellowish leaves this can be
resolved by using appropriate fertilizer and balancing the pH. Adding humus is
recommended to improve water retention and workability. Chalky soil is great for
trees, bulbs and shrubs such as Lilac, Weigela, Madonna lilies, Pinks, Mock Oranges.
Vegetable sych as spinach, beets, sweet corn and cabbage do well in chalky soils.

METHODOLOGY
Experiment 1 is done by making holes at the bottom of the plastic cup using a
nail to allow water flow out of the plastic cup into the beaker. A mark of 5cm is made
on the inner side of the plastic cup using a marker. A filter paper is placed in the inner
bottom of plastic cup. The plastic cup is then filled with soil until the mark. 100ml of
water is measured and poured into the plastic cup containing the soil. Stopwatch is
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started immediately after water is poured into the plastic cup. Stopwatch is stopped
when no more water drains out of the plastic cup. The time taken for water to drain
out of the can is recorded in a table. The amount of water in the beaker is then
measured using a measuring cylinder and recorded in the table.
Experiment 2 is done by removing the bottom of the plastic cup using a blade.
A mark of 5cm is made on the inner side of the plastic cup using a marker. The plastic
cup is then placed on the ground. A block of wood is placed on top of the plastic cup
and a hammer is used to knock the plastic cup into the soil until it reaches the mark.
Then 100ml of water is measured and poured into the plastic cup. Stopwatch is started
immediately after water is poured into the plastic cup. Stopwatch is stopped when no
more water is visible on the soil surface. If the water does not seep into the soil after 5
minutes the soil is considered not permeable. The time taken for water to seep into the
soil is recorded in a table.

PROCEDURE
Apparatus:
3 beakers
3 measuring cylinders
ruler
blade
hammer and nail
a block of wood
marker pen stopwatch
Material:
3 soil samples ( paddy plantation soil, rubber plantation soil, oil palm plantation soil )

3 empty tins

3 filter papers

EXPERIMENT 1
1. Nine small holes in the bottom of each tin are made using a nail and hammer. The
tinsare labelled according types of soil used. Circles are cut out from the filter paper
to fit into the bottom of each tin.
2. A mark of 5 cm upwards from the inner base of each tin. Sample soil is filled in the
tin until the marked line.
3. The filled tin is set resting on top of the beaker. The beaker is arranged so that it
does not block the bottom of the tin.
4. 100 ml of water is measured. The stopwatch is started as soon as water is poured
into the tin. Stopwatch is stopped when no more water drains out from the tin. The
time is recorded in a table.
5. The water from the beaker is poured into a measuring cylinder. This amount is
recorded in the data table.
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Type of soil

Amount of water
drained from the
beaker (ml) (x)

Time taken for water


to drain out of soil
(s) (y)

Rate of soil
permeability (x/y)

Oil palm plantation


soil

57

65

57/65=0.88

Rubber plantation
soil

23

38

57/38=0.61

Paddy plantation soil

10

80

10/80=0.13

EXPERIMENT 2

The bottom of the plastic cup is removed using a blade . A mark of 5 cm is


marked on the plastic cup using a marker pen.

The plastic cup was set on the ground of sample soil by placing a piece of wood on the
top of plastic cup and gently hit with a hammer until the plastic cup sinks into the soil
and it reaches the mark which was 5cm.

3. 100 ml of water is measured using a beaker and poured into the plastic cup. The
time taken for water to seep into the soil is recorded immediately after pouring.

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Type of soil

Time taken for water to


absorb (s)

Rate of absorption

Oil palm plantation soil

17

100ml/17s=5.88

Rubber plantation soil

23

100ml/23s=4.35

Paddy plantation soil

270

100ml/270s=0.37

4.The data is recorded in the table as shown above.

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RESULTS

EXPERIMENT 1
Types of soil

Oil palm plantation

Amount of water
drained from the
beaker (ml) (x)
57

Time taken for


water to drain out
of soil (s) (y)
65

Rate of soil
permeability (x/y)
57/65=0.88

Rubber plantation
soil

23

38

57/38=0.61

Paddy plantation
soil

10

80

10/80=0.31

EXPERIMENT 2
Type of soil

Time taken for water to


absorb (s)

Rate of absorption

Paddy plantation soil

17

100ml/17s=5.88

Rubber plantation soil

23

100ml/23s=4.35

Oil palm plantation soil

270

100ml/270s=0.37

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Discussions

Based on experiment 1, oil palm plantation soil has the highest drainage rate
with 57 ml of water drained from the beaker in 65 seconds. Rubber plantation soil has
the second highest drainage rate with 23 ml of water drained from the beaker in 38
seconds while paddy plantation soil has the lowest drainage rate with 10 ml of water
drained from the beaker in 80 seconds. The rate of permeability of oil palm plantation
soil is 0.88 which is the fastest compared to rubber plantation soil and paddy
plantation soil. The rate of permeability of rubber plantaton soil is 0.61 while the rate
of permeability of paddy plantation soil is 0.31. On the other hand, based on
experiment 2, the time taken for water to absorb into oil palm plantation is 17 seconds
whereas the time taken for water to absord into rubber plantation is 23 seconnds. The
time taken for water to absorb into paddy plantation soil is the longest which is 270
seconds. Therefore the rate of absorption of paddy plantation soil is 4.35 and the rate
of absorption of oil palm plantation is 5.88. This is because the soil permeability is
due to size of soil particles. The biger the soil particles, the higher the rate of
permeabilty. Oil palm plantation soil has the biggest particle size followed by rubber
plantation soil and lastly paddy plantation soil with the smallest particle size. The soil
permeability is also affected by the highest drainage rate. From both experiments, it is
shown that oil palm plantation soil which has the highest drainage rate is most
permeable compared to rubber plantation soil and paddy plantation soil. Paddy
plantation soil is shown to be least permeable compared to oil plam plantation soil and
rubber plantation soil because it has the lowest drainage rate.

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CONCLUSION
We would like to conclude that each soil has its own permeability,oil palm
plantation soil has the highest permeability of 0.88 while paddy plantation soil has the
lowest permeability of 0.13. This shows that each plant has different need of source of
water because paddy plantation soil is least permeable and it is suitable for paddy
plant.

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REFERENCES

1.http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/testing-porosity-off-soils/
2.http://www.planetseed.com/relatedarticle/results-15

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