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Australian Steel Detailers' Handbook 200UB25.4 X 929i Q/A I R: 200Ull2S.4 "92112 °'" a ,

Australian Steel Detailers' Handbook

200UB25.4 X929i Q/A

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12 - RAFTERS REQD MKD R1
48 - FLY BRACES REQD THUS MKD K1
12 - RAFTERS REQD MKD R1 48 - FLY BRACES REQD THUS MKD K1 12 COLUMNS

12 COLUMNS REQD MKD C1

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION A.C.N. 000 973 839

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

A.C.N. 000 973 839

AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK

Published by:

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Enquiries should be addressed to the publisher:

Business address - Level 13, 99 Mount Street, North Sydney, NSW, 2060, Australia. Postal address - P.O. Box 6366, North Sydney, NSW, 2059, Australia. E-mail address - enquiries@aisc.com.au Website - www.aisc.com.au

© Copyright 1999 Australian Institute of Steel Construction

All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the Australian Institute of Steel Construction.

First edition 1999

i

\

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry:

Australian steel detailer's handbook.

1st ed. Bibliography. ISBN 0 909945 79 9.

1. Building, Iron and steel - Handbooks, manuals, etc.

2. Building, Iron and steel - Details - Handbooks, manuals, etc.

3. Steel, structural - Handbooks, manuals, etc.

I. Australian Institute of Steel Construction.

624.1821

Production & Artwork by Redmark Pty Ltd 6 Kuru Street, North Narrabeen, NSW 2101, Australia

DISCLAIMER

--'·

'

\;: .

Every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to ensure the accuracy of the material contained in this Publication. However, to the extent permitted by law, the Authors, Editors and Publishers of this Publication:

(a) will not be held liable or responsible in any way; and

(b) expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility,

for any loss, damage, costs and expenses incurred in connection with this Publication by any person, whether that person is the purchaser of this Publication or not. Without limitation, this includes loss, damage, costs and expenses incurred if any person wholly or partially relies on any part of this Publication, and loss, dam~ge, costs and expenses incurred as result of the negligence of the Authors, Editors or Publishers.

WARNING

This Publication should be not used without the services of a competent professional person with expert knowledge in the relevant field, and under no circumstances should this Publication be relied upon to replace any or all of the knowledge and expertise of such a person.

ii

AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK

ASDH/01-1999

I

Australian Steel Detailers' Handbook

Contents

PAGE

Foreword

vii

Acknowledgements

vii

Preface

viii

Notation

ix

Abbreviations

ix

1. INTRODUCTION

1-1

1.1 Drafting as a means of communication

1-1

1.2 Detail drawings

1-1

1.3 Project organisation

1-2

1.4 Function of the steel detailer

1-4

1.5 Other fields of activity

1-4

2. STRUCTURAL STEEL

2-1

2.1 Plain material

:

2-1

2.2 Compound sections

2-5

2.3 Characteristics

2-5

2.4 Specifications

2-5

2.5 Physical properties

2-6

2.6 Steel production

2-7

2.7 Tolerances

2-7

3. DRAFTING EQUIPMENT AND DRAFTING PRACTICES

3-1

3.1 Manual drafting equipment

~-1 .

3.2 Computer ~ided drafting

:

-s-2-

3.3 Drafting practices

3-6

3.4 General procedure

3-22

3.5 Approval of completed drawings

3-29

4. ARRANGEMENT AND DETAIL DRAWINGS

4-1

4.1 Composition of a typical structure

4-1

4.2 Design loading

4-2

4.3 Information provided by the designers

4-2

4.4 Drawing sheets

4-5

4.5 Holding down bolt layouts

4-5

4.6 General arrangement drawings

4-5

4.7 Detail drawings

4-12

4.8 Components of steel-framed industrial buildings

4-14

5.

FUNDAMENTALS OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

5-1

5.1 Reactions

 

5-1

5.2 Shear

5-3

5.3 Bending moment

5-3

6. BOLTING

6-1

6.1

Introduction

' .-

6-1

6.2

Bolt types

6-1

6.3

Bolting categories

6-2

6.4

Design of bolts

6-3

6.5

Bolt length selection

6-3

6.6

Detailing

6-7

6. 7

Installation of bolts

6-9

6.8

Preparation of bolt lists

6-12

7. WELDING

 

7-1

7.1 Introduction

7-1

7.2 Joint and weld types

7-1

7.3 Edge preparation

7-4

7.4 Reinforcement and backing

7-5

7.5 Incomplete penetration butt welds

7-5

7.6 Welding positions

 

7-6

7.7 Practical guidelines

7-7

7.8 Welding symbols

7-7

7.9 Clearance for welding

7-13

7.10 Method of giving field instructions

7'.c16

8. STANDARDISED STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS

8-1

,

8.1 Introduction

8-1 .

8.2 Angle seat connection

8-2

8.3 Bearing pad connection

8-3

8.4 Flexible end plate

8-4

8.5 Angle cleat connection

8-6

8.6 Web side plate

8-6

8.7 Welded beam-to-column moment connection

8-9

8.8 Bolted beam-to-column moment end plate connection

8-10

8.9 Splices

8-11

8.10 Purlin and girt cleats

8-15

8.11 Column base plates

8-16

9.

BEAMS AND GIRDERS

9-1

.1

 

9.1

Introduction

9-1

9.2

Shop drawings

 

9-1

9.3

Beam detailing practice

9-1

9.4

Alternate systems of longitudinal dimensioning

 

9-5

9.5

Example of detailing a typical beam

 

9-6

9.6

Example of detailing similar beams

9-8

9. 7

Detailing

welded plate girders

9-8

9.8

Erection clearances

 

9-10

9.9

Fittings

9-11

10. COLUMNS

 

10-1

 

10.1

Introduction

10-1

10.2

Column bases

 

10-2

10.3

Splices

,

10-3

10.4

Column schedules

 

10-3

10.5

Column detailing practice

10-3

10.6

Example of detailing a multi-storey column

 

10-7

1O.7

Example of

detailing

a "portal frame

column

10-7

10.8

Ancillary details

10-11

11. TRUSSES

 

:

11-1

 

11.1

Introduction

 

11-1

11.2

Types of trusses

11-1

11.3

Chord and web sections

11-2

11.4

Layout and scales

11-2

11.5

Symmetry and rotation

11-2

11.6

Dimensioning

1j-2

.

 

11.7

Node poin.t~-

bolted construction

 

1-1-3-

11.8

Node points - welded construction

11-4

11.9

Example of detailing a welded truss

11-7

11.10

Cambers

11-8

12. BRACING

 

12-1

 

12.1 Introduction

 

12-1

12.2 Bracing connections

12-1

12.3 Setting out and detailing of bracing

12-1

12.4 Example of detailing of floor bracing

12-1

12.5 Additional considerations

12-4

13.

PURLINS, GIRTS AND EAVES STRUTS

13-1

 

13.1 Introduction

 

13-1

13.2 Purlins

13-1

13.3 Bridging systems

13-1

13.4 Detailing purlins and bridging

 

13-3

13.5 Girts

 

13-3

13.6 Eaves struts

13-3

14.

PORTAL FRAMES

14-1

14.1 Introduction

14-1

14.2 Design of portal frames

 

14-1

14.3 Design details

 

14-3

14.4 Eaves and apex set-out

 

14-3

14.5 Shop drawing

 

14-5

14.6 Pre-set of portal frames

 

14-7

(

15')

STAIRWAYS

 

15-1

15.1 Introduction

15-1

15.2 Design of stairways

 

15-1

15.3 Detailing

 

15-4

16.

DETAILING FOR ECONOMY

 

16-1

16.1

Introduction

16-1

16.2

Communication

16-1

16.3

Economy in the use of material

 

16-1

16.4

Rationalisation of member sizes and repetition of details

16-2

16.5

Standardised details

 

16-2

16.6

Accuracy in detailing

16-2

16.7

Fabrication

••

,

16-3

16.8

Bolting

16-4

16.9

Welding

16-6

16.1O

Transportation

16-6

16.11

Erection

16-7

17.

REFERENCES

 

17-1

17.1 Australian standards

 

17-1

17.2 Other

 

17-2

17.3 Further information

 

17-2

APPENDIX A Fabrication of structural steelwork APPENDIX B Sample project drawings

FOREWORD

The Australian Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) is a national non-profit organisation dedicated to increasing knowledge and understanding of the use of structural steel in our society.

Through planned research and development programmes, industry seminars and publishing technical work the Institute provides leading edge technology and best practice engineering solutions contributing to the growth of structural steel in Australia. Steel construction industry participants who are responsible for the design, fabrication and erection of steel structures are readily able to access the resources cif the Institute.

The fabrication and erection of a steel-framed structure requires the co-ordination of trained engineers, architects and technicians. In the structural steel detailer's office, the original concepts of a structure's framework (as shown on the architect's and engineer's design drawings) are interpreted and translated into detail drawings. These drawings, through sketches, lines, dimensions and notes give complete instructions for cutting, punching, drilling and then assembling the various structural members with bolts and/or welds.

Through the shop drawing, the steel detailer must convey in technical language all information required for the workshop to fabricate many different types of structural members. To prepare these drawings, a steel detailer must have knowledge of the latest engineering specifications and be familiar with the specialised techniques of workshop fabrication and field erection.

\ The purpose of this Ha11dbook is to provide sufficient information for a trainee structural steel detailer (who is involved in a specialist area of structural drafting) to learn the fundamentals of how to detail most members and ,, connections in a simple steel-framed building. The text includes a general section on computer aided drafting (CAD). The reader is assumed not to be an Engineer and some engineering fundamentals are included to help in understanding the procedure. As trainees gain experience, and are trained by studying this book and other AISC publications, they will acquire the knowledge necessary to become competent steel detailers.

The AISC publishes other literature on structural steel which includes standalone publications, journals and software. Reference should be made to these items if further information is required.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

AISC gratefully acknowledges the contribution and assistance from the following individuals and organisations:

I

··~.

• Mr Alan Hawkins (A J Hawkins Ply Ltd)

• Mr,Ross Mccaffrey (Steel Plan Australia Ply Ltd)

• Mr Ken Morgan (Bayside Drafting (Aust) Ply Ltd)

• Mr Terry Phelan (Alfasi Constructions Ply Ltd)

• Mr Virice"'Rehbein (BDS Steel Detailers Ply Ltd)

• AISC Staff

and those who gave constructive comment on the Handbook's contents.

The Handbook is substantially based on the Southern African Institute of Steel Construction (SAISC) publication "Southern African Structural Steelwork Detailing Manual" and some parts of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC(USA)) publication "Detailing for Steel Construction". AISC also acknowledges the SAISC and the AISC(USA) for the use of their respective material.

PREFACE

The Handbook covers the process of structural steelwork detailing, commencing with the fundamentals of drawing, continuing with drafting practice and conventions, the types and behaviour of bolts and welds, the conventional methods of detailing components, and concluding with tips on achieving economy of construction. The Handbook should serve both as a fundamental guide for trainee steel detailers and as a useful point of reference for more experienced personnel.

The types of structures covered are those representing the bulk of the typical fabricator's work tasks, i.e. commercial and industrial buildings, portal frames, platforms and towers. More specialised structures, such as bridges, tanks, bunkers, etc are not included.

The Handbook is directed mainly at the steel detailer employed by a typical steel detailing firm or steel fabricator to prepare the working drawings that are required by the workshop for fabrication of the steelwork. However, the topics dealt with in the Handbook will also be of interest to draftspersons and designers in associated areas of activity, especially those in architects' and consulting engineers' offices and it is hoped that its contents will be useful in widening the understanding of steelwork drafting requirements. One aim of the Handbook is to instill into steel detailers a sense of importance of their role in the total steel construction activity, and of the need to adopt a responsible attitude towards their work.

Due to fabrication shop and project preferences as well as drafting company practices, there may be several options for steel detailing and fabrication methodologies. These options may include welded versus bolted construction, "manual" versus computer numerically controlled {CNC) fabrication, full detailing in the drawing office as against shop set-out of certain details, piece-meal fabrication instead of large shop assembly, and whether manual or computer-aided drafting procedures are used. Consequently, in some instances the Handbook notes alternative procedures or suggested details to convey similar information. Obviously, drafting companies referring to this Handbook should advise their trainees and other interested staff which of the alternatives are preferred in-house.

The Handbook is based substantially on the "Southern African Structural Steelwork Detailing Manual" (by the Southern African Institute of Steel Construction, 1994) as it provided some very good material for trainee Australian steel detailers. Hence, the Handbook should be considered to be an evolving publication reliant on industry feedback which, in future editions, will bridge the gap from fundamental guide to industry "code-of-the-practice". Consequently, AISC welcomes comments on improving the Handbook to reach this outcome.

So as to make it more useful to trainee steel detailers and other interested parties, the current edition of the Handbook has the following features:

• It is published in a ring binder so as to permit the revision of specific sections when they are updated by AISC (this may be initiated by industry feedback)

Based on the fundamental material presented in the body of the Handbook, readers can scrutinise actual steel detail drawings from leading Australian detailing companies for -

- a sample project with drawings reduced to A4 size format (Appendix 8)

- a sample project with drawings presented in A3 format as an attachment within a sleeve to the Handbook

• The popular AISC publication "Economical Structural Steelwork" which is referenced by the Handbook and provides important information on the overall aspects of the steel construction industry.

It has been assumed that the structures to be detailed have been substantially designed in accordance with AS 4100 and consequently frequent reference is made to this Standard. Other related steel design Standards may include AS/NZS 4600, AS 2327.1 and AS 3990-see Chapter 17. Reference is also made to three AISC publications, namely Standardized Structural Connections (Ref. 1), Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel, Volume 1: Open Sections (Ref. 2) and Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel Hollow Sections (Ref. 3). It is essential that every steel detailer should be in possession of Ref.1 and it is highly desireable to have access (possibly through their drawing office library) to Refs. 2 and 3.

The emphasis in this Handbook is on detailing and not on the calculation or design of connections. This subject is dealt with in other AISC publications. A list of other steel detailing references is provided in Chapter 17. These references may be useful to those readers wanting more information on the topic.

AISC, 1999.

NOTATION

a Thread runout

b Length of thread

t 5

Plain shank length

l

Nominal bolt length

n

Nut height

w

Washer thickness

t

Thickness of ply

t 1

The thickness of the ply under the bolt head

tP

Thickness of thinner ply

'\

ABBREVIATIONS

The abbreviations listed below are generally used for structural steelwork applications. See also Figure 3.29 for a schedule of basic abbreviations for structural steel detailing and Figure 3.30 for a schedule of typical building construction abbreviations.

 

4.6/S

· Commercial grade bolts snug tightened

8.8/S

High strength structural bolts snug tightened

8.8/TB

High strength structural bolts fully tensioned bearing-type

8.8/TF

High strength structural bolts fully tensioned friction-type

AISC

Australian Institute of Steel Construction

BOS

Basic Oxygen Steelmaking

BT

Tee Section cut from Universal Beam

CAD

Computer Aided Drafting

CFW

Continuous Fillet Weld

CHS

Circular Hollow Section

CNC

Computer Numeric Controlled

"

.GPBW

Complete Penetration Butt Weld

CT

Tee Section cut from Universal Column

Dia

Diameter

do

ditto

DTI

Design Throat Thickness (of a weld)

E

East

EA

Equal Angle

EAF

Electric Arc Furnace (Steelmaking)

FL

Flat

GP

General Purpose (weld category)

HD

Holding down

IP

Intersection Point

IPBW

Incomplete Penetration Butt Weld

IZS

Inorganic Zinc Silicate

kN

kilonewtons

_,,

lg

long

N

North

No

Number

NTS

Notto Scale

OD

Outside Diameter

PCD

Pitch Circle Diameter

PFC

Parallel Flange Channel

PL

Plate

RFI

Request for information

RHS

Rectangular Hollow Section

RL

Reduced Level

s

South

SECT

Section

SFL

Standard Floor Level

SHS

Square Hollow Section

SOP

Set Out Point

SP

Structural Purpose (weld category)

TFB

Tapered Flange Beam

TFC

Tapered Flange Channel ·

UA

Unequal Angle

UB

Universal Beam

UC

Universal Column

UNO

Unless Noted Otherwise

w

West

WB

Welded Beam

WC

Welded Column

':~·~,.;-~

-,'.

_,

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 DRAFTING AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

\'--

''

Drafting is a method of conveying information in pictorial or graphic form. Usually it has to do with the planning or design of an object or structure, whether it be a single set-screw, a multi-storey building or any of an infinite range of items, components, machines or structures. A drawing will not only convey accurately the appearance of the article as built, but will also give the necessary information on how it is to be built.

Another means of communicating information is the spoken or written word. However, this process of information transmittal involves very lengthy descriptions and requires the continued presence of the conceiver of the project during the construction process to ensure that the instructions have been understood correctly. It is obvious that even a simple drawing will convey the required information more clearly and accurately and much more concisely than can be done by the spoken or written word and will also reduce the need for supervision.

The steel detailer's function, therefore, is to serve as an intermediary between the conceiver and the executor of the project. Steel detailing is a specialist area of structural drafting. As such, a detailer must be familiar with general structural drafting practice as well as areas specific to steel shop drawings. The detailer needs to have a clear understanding of the designer's intent and must commit this information to paper by graphical means. At the same time the detailer must have a knowledge of the processes involved in the construction or fabrication of the project. The drawing is then both an instruction to the artisan on how the structure is to be built and a permanent record of the designer's intent.

It will be evident from this simple illustration that a steel detailer's function is a very important one in the chain of

events from the original conception to the final completion of any item or project. It will also be clear that the main

requirements in the steel detailer's approach are clarity of presentation, accuracy, speed of work as well as patience and perserverance.

1.2 DETAIL DRAWINGS

Prior to the use of steel as a structural material, the usual practice was to depict, say, a building or a bridge by means of elevations, plans and cross-sections with, where necessary, enlarged details of special parts of the structure that required more detailed description. Thus the elevation of a bridge would be to a scale sufficient to show, by means of suitable annotation, the sizes and shapes of the members making up the girders. Likewise, a plan of the deck would indicate the layout and size of the floor beams. However, the support bearings and any special member end connections would be shown to an enlarged scale, in sufficient detail to enable the ironworker, the carpenter or the blacksmith to construct these components to a reasonable degree of accuracy.

However, with the advent of structural steel, prefabrication became essential, and this brought with it the need to supplement the arrangement drawings with detail drawings of all individual members and components. These-are known as shop detail drawings and are usually prepared by a specialist steel detailing company under sub-conff'act to a steel fabricator for.use in jts workshops. The shop detail drawings are based on the layout and arrangement drawings supplied by the owner, or the consulting engineer appointed to carry out the design, and are the means of recording the information required by the workshop personnel to fabricate each and every component of the

structure. It is in the preparation of these drawings that structural steel detailers find their role and are able to play

a vital part in the sequence of events that comprise the total activity of structural engineering.

Examination of any steelwork detail drawing will reveal a stylised presentation, involving the use of standardised abbreviated notation and special symbols. These all form part of the graphical means of information transmittal referred to earlier and enable a large amount of complex technical data to be recorded and conveyed in a simple, concise manner.

It is the purpose of this Handbook to introduce the trainee steel detailer to this technical "language" and to present the many techniques and conventions that are used in the structural steelwork industry to convey the necessary information clearly and without ambiguity.

1.3

PROJECT ORGANISATION

At this point it is helpful to consider the overall management and technical organisation that is involved in a construction project and to see where the steel detailer fits. Fig. 1.1 illustrates the stages in the progress of a typical project and indicates the specialised tasks associated with each stage. It also shows the lines of communication between the various parties. The chart is representative of a commercial-type building, where the owner appoints an architect and a consulting engineer and retains financial but not technical control over the planning process.

For the sake of simplicity, the chart covers only those activities connected with the medium of construction under consideration, ie structural steelwork. Many other aspects have to be taken into acc_ount in the broad planning of a project, such as cost limitations, location of the project, availability of materials, compliance with building

Conception of

project

project
Conception of project
Conception of project
Conception of project
compliance with building Conception of project Architect reports to owner on feasibility and total cost

Architect reports to owner on feasibility and total cost

r----<41--~~--il--~~O~W~N~E~R~~-t-~~~--'

'--~~

Owner appoints

architect and

engineer

ARC.HITECT

Owner instructs

architect and

engineer

to proceed

Preliminary planning and layout drawings

Detailed planning, final drawings and specifications

---13

1----to~1

}---------~---!

drawings and specifications ---13 1----to~1 }---------~---! ·------- Engineer reports to architect on structural cost
drawings and specifications ---13 1----to~1 }---------~---! ·------- Engineer reports to architect on structural cost
drawings and specifications ---13 1----to~1 }---------~---! ·------- Engineer reports to architect on structural cost

·-------

Engineer reports to architect on structural cost

'

'

'

'

'

t

Owner places

contract with

building

contractor

CONSULTING ENGINEER

places contract with building contractor CONSULTING ENGINEER Preliminary design and structural cost estimate Engages

Preliminary design and structural cost estimate

Engages fabricator
Engages
fabricator

}-------------- - - - - - - - - - - "1- - --

Detailed design and arrangement drawings of steelwork

- -- Detailed design and arrangement drawings of steelwork Engineer and Architect provides design information to

Engineer and Architect provides design information to fabricator

+

i

,

~

Architect provides design information to fabricator + i , ~ 18 ,·~---~t------ L@--- FABRICATOR --{71-----T-------'

18 ,·~---~t------

L@---

FABRICATOR

--{71-----T-------'

Engage shop detailer

t

STEEL DETAILER

Preparation of workshop drawings for steel fabrication

Fabrication of steelwork in shops

for steel fabrication Fabrication of steelwork in shops Erection of steelwork at site -.-----• indicates liaison

Erection of steelwork at site

-.-----• indicates liaison

COMPLETED

PROJECT

-t· I

\- '-,

Fig. 1.1: Project organisation -Architect involved

regulations, civil engineering and building work, and the provision of services (lighting, heating, air conditioning, fire protection, safety provisions, etc). All of these matters fall under the responsibility of the architect and/or the engineer, but only where they directly affect the supporting structure do they concern the steel detailer.

On many projects an architect would not be involved and the consulting engineer would act directly on behalf of the owner. Such projects include industrial buildings, power stations, steel mills, manufacturing plants, bridges, etc, where the design is governed by functional rather than aesthetic and civic considerations. Fig. 1.2 illustrates the organisation of such projects. It will be seen that the engineer undertakes the entire planning role on behalf of the owner and issues the necessary instructions to the fabricator.

In cases where the owner is a government or public body, or even a large, self-contained organisation, it may well have its own architectural and engineering staff and will consequently not need to appoint professional firms to undertake the planning and design. The fabricator will usually be a separate entity, however the overall organisational framework will be much the same.

One alternative to the project organisation shown in Figs 1.1 and 1.2 is the emerging trend where the steel detailer is engaged by the engineer. This speeds up production of the steel detail drawings and allows fabricators to tender on an accurately defined scope of work.

1,

.----<21----, =:0~W~N:' '.E:.'.:R~-t------' '---~ Conception of project Engineer reports to
.----<21----,
=:0~W~N:' '.E:.'.:R~-t------'
'---~
Conception of
project
Engineer reports to
owner on feasibility
and total cost
Owner appoints
engineer
Owner instructs
CONSULTING ENGINEER
engineer
Preliminary planning and
design, layout drawings
and structural cost
estimate
to proceed
Owner places
contract with
Detailed design,
final steelwork arrangement
·drawings and
steelwork specifications
contractor
i
~--------------·
'
-
'
·--'
CONTRACTOR
-
Engages
'
'
fabricator
'
'
'
~
FABRICATOR
4
'
Engage shop detailer
~
STEEL DETAILER
Fabrication of
steelwork in shops
.f7\--
Preparation of workshop
drawings for steel fabrication
Erection of steelwork at site

Engineer provid es design informati on to fabricator

,

indicate s liaison

COMPLETED

PROJECT

Fig. 1.2: Project organisation - Architect not involved

1.4

FUNCTION OF THE STEEL DETAILER

The role of the steel detailer will now be examined more closely. When a contract is placed with a steelwork fabricator, the sequence of events in this organisation is usually as follows:

1. The contract drawings and specifications are passed on by the management of the company to the drawing office, where the drawing office manager assesses the extent, complexity and time content of the job. On this basis the work is allocated to a section leader, a senior shop detailer who in turn must become familiar with all aspects of the steelwork content. The section leader hands out the drawing work to a suitable number of steel detailers, including trainees. These constitute the team that will actually do th.e detail drawing work.

2. One of the first requirements is the preparation of a list of the steel materials needed for the structure to enable the contractor to place orders with steel merchants or mills. The list is compiled from the layout drawings.

3. The steel detailers proceed with the preparation of the steelwork detail drawings. These will provide an accurate representation of every component of the steel structure, including columns, beams, girders, trusses, bracings, platforms, stairways, rails, brackets, purlins, girts and the large number of smaller items that comprise a typical building or structure. As the drawings are completed they are carefully scrutinised by a checker, who is an experienced senior steel detailer allocated to this task. The importance of thorough checking cannot be over- emphasised. The correction of errors at the drafting stage is infinitely cheaper than rectifying errors during fabrication in the shop or during erection.

The steel detailer's objective should be to produce drawings that will require as little correction as possible and should never rely on the checker to pick up mistakes. The steel detailer should be critical of their own work, acting subconsciously as a checker, to ensure the drawings are 'error-free'. The drawings are then submitted to the engineer for approval.

4. The detail drawings are sent to the fabrication shop for cutting to exact length, drilling or punching the necessary holes, assembling the various parts by means of bolting or welding to make up the components or sub-assemblies and application of the surface treatment ready for transport to site.

5. The drawing office personnel also prepare the erection drawings in conjunction with the shop details. These show the arrangement or layout of the steel framework, usually in skeletal form, and comprise the plans, · elevations and cross-sections that are required by the erector to assist with the assembly of the structure on site. For easy identification of each component's position in the structure, every component is given a distinguishing mark, called an erection mark, which is shown on the detail and erection drawings and is marked (hand-marked, painted or tagged) on the steel components themselves in the fabrication shop; and

6. All drawings are updated to incorporate any revisions that may have occurred during the progress of the job and a complete set of prints is retained for filing. These serve as a record of the work and are useful for future reference.

Steps 1 to 4 in the above sequence lie on what is called the 'critical path'. This means that they are operations which, if delayed or unduly extended, will set back the completion of the whole project. The steel detailer is the main player in steps 1 to 3, and plays a key role in keeping the project on track in the early stages of its progress. The detailer must have good visual perception-of the structural aspects of the project, be attentive to detail, accurate and neat· in graphic presentation, and also able to work within defined and often limited time constraints.

1.5 OTHER FIELDS OF ACTIVITY

_,, .

/,

The previous section outlines the role of the steel detailer in a steel fabricator's drawing office. They may, however, fill a niche in another environment. For example, certain consulting engineering practices undertake steelwork detailing, either in relation to projects they are designing or on a contract basis for another organisation. The mining houses and most public utility companies have their own drawing offices and do detailing work to a greater or lesser degree. Steel detailers therefore have a wide range of specialised engineering fields open to them, in addition to the more general run of work offered by typical fabrication companies. They can choose to work in building construction (from the lightest prefabricated building systems to power stations and multi-storey buildings), mining (both above and below ground), materials handling, lifting equipment, reticulation of services, marine and offshore structures, rail transportation, construction equipment and many other fields of activity.

In the course of this employment the steel detailer will acquire a vast fund of knowledge extending far beyond the skills required for the day-to-day job of preparing workshop drawings. This knowledge will relate to the specialised technology involved in the particular industry in which they are employed and will equip them for progress up the administrative and managerial ladder. In particular, any aptitude they may have for the calculation of structural details and connections will open the way for promotion into the field of engineering design, with all its variety and interest.

2.

STRUCTURAL STEEL

Due to the various processes involved, the shop where structural steel is fabricated does not produce the steel. The steel is produced at steelmaking plants and steel products are subsequently manufactured at rolling mills and downstream finishing plants. The steel products are then shipped, via distribution companies· ("distributors" or "steel service centres"), to the fabrication shops in a variety of grades, shapes and forms. At this stage the steel is referred to as "stock" or "plain" material.

2.1 PLAIN MATERIAL

The great bulk of plain material for steel structures can be classified into the following basic groups:-

1. Universal Columns

(UC)

2. Universal Beams

(UB)

3. Taper Flange Beams

(fFB)

4. Parallel Flange Channels

(PFC)

5. Taper Flange Channels

(fFC)

6. Structural Te_es

(BT) or (CT)

These are made by splitting UC, UB, TFB shapes usually along the mid depth of their webs (for BT, CT sections) or by welding two plates of appropriate thickness to form a 'Tee'. Fabricators frequently cut beam sections to form tees in their own shop or use the services of a distributor.

7.

Angles

(EA) or (UA)

Consist of two legs, of equal (EA) or unequal (UA) lengths. The legs are set at right angles to each other.

8.

Welded Beams

(WB)

Consist of three plates, of varying thickness, welded together to form an I-section, There are 'heavy duty' standard beam sections ranging from 700 mm to 1200 mm in depth.

9.

Welded Columns

(WC)

Consist of three plates, of varying thickness, welded together to form an I-section. There are 'heavy duty' standard column sections ranging from 350 mm to 500 mm in depth.

10. Plates

(PL)

Plates range in width from 1200 mm upwards, subject to manufacturer's thickness and length limitations.

11. Flats

(FL)

Are rectangular in cross-section and come in many widths and thicknesses. Flats (or Flat Bars) are limited to maximum widths of 300 mm, depending on thickness. Wider flat bars from 200 mm to 1200 mm in width may be substituted by splitting a larger size plate to suit though this alternative would not have the rolled edges of a flat bar.

12. Rounds & Squares

(ROD or RD) or (SQ)

These bars come in many diameters/widths - check with the manufacturer.

13. Hollow Sections

(CHS), (RHS) or (SHS)-

Are closed steel sections which are available in circular (CHS), rectangular (RHS) and square (SHS) profiles in a range of sizes, wall thicknesses and grades.

In Australia, the above forms of plain material comply with the following materials standards: AS 1163 (CHS, RHS, SHS); AS 1594 (PL); AS/NZS 3678 (PL); AS/NZS 3679.1 (UC, UB, TFB, PFC, TFC, EA, UA, FL, Rod/RD, SQ and generally BT and CT); AS/NZS 3679.2 (WB, WC)-see Chapter 17.

A clear understanding of the various forms and shapes in which structural steel is available is essential before the steel detailer can prepare detail drawings. Fig. 2.1 shows typical cross-sections of plain material.

I

UC

T

BT,CT

Plate (PL)

I

UB

6

EA

=

Flat {FL)

I

TFB

[L

UA

0

SHS

[

PFC

[

TFC

I
I

WB

RHS

WC

0

CHS

/

I

Fig. 2.1.:.Typical cross-sections of plain material

Note that TFB and TFC are characterised by tapered flanges and that UC, UB and PFC shapes have parallel inner and outer flange surfaces. For details of this nature refer to the manufacturer's catalogue which lists all shapes commonly used in construction, including sizes, kg/metre, dimensions and properties.

Table 2.1 has been prepared to show the customary methods of designating individual pieces of structural shapes and plates on shop drawings, the conventional way of drawing these shapes, and the correct names of their component parts.

This system is generally accepted and used in structural drafting offices, although some minor deviations may occur when the trade names of proprietary designations are substituted for some of the listed "Group Symbols", when designating material. Table 2.1 should be studied carefully.

Table 2.1 Usual method of designating and sketching structural steel shapes

Example of designating on shop drawings

 

Conventional way of showing on detail drawings and the identification of major parts

310UC158 x 2585

530UB82.0 x 2382

900WB282 x 7325

400WC270 x 4250

125TFB x 1525

Designation x Length

 

Length

Flange

lil

!

/

Toe

IJJI

Fillet or Weld LJ

Flange

 

Designation x Length

-

.

Length

Flange

i

Cl

~langl

Toe

\;]'

 

1558T20.2 x 3185

100CT26.1x1050

Designation x Length

 

Length

Flange

n

 

EA

100x100x8EA x 250

Designation x Length

 

Length

Heel

Leg

Toe

[------------------------------~!

~R/Legt

 
     

Thickness

_JL!met

-

_,

 

125xi5x8UA-x 425

 

Leg2

 

UA

Designation x Length

 

Length

Heel\,rl/Toe

Thickness -.j 1-

 

Note:

1. For details made to a scale of 1:10 or smaller, do not show rounded off toes of angles or flanges, or interior fillets between

flanges and webs. Exaggerate web and flange thickness to suit.

2. On CAD generated drawings the designation may be prefixed by the group symbol e.g. UB530x82.0. This enables a more logical filing of the sections in the data base and is being further considered for industry standardisation. However, section designations as noted in the relevant Australian material standards (Chapter 17) should be used where possible. These are noted above.

Table 2.1 (continued)

Group Symbols Example of designating on shop drawings Conventional way on showing on detail drawings
Group
Symbols
Example of designating on
shop drawings
Conventional way on showing on detail drawings
and the identification of major parts
RHS
150x75x5.0RHS x 2100
r-------------------------------1
Depth I
-------------------------------
.\
Length
\.
SHS
75x75x5.0SHS x 2500
~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::! DepthI
Thickness -1r
Designation x Length
SHS Shown similarly but depth and width are equal.
88.9 x 4.0CHS x 270
Length
CHS
Cl
Designation x Length
0
-
[:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!
t
Length
PL
1200x10PL x 2750
Thicknesslr
Designation x
Length
I
I
~I
FL
1200x10FL x 2750
Length
Thicknesslr .
·
1
Designation x
Length
Width t
-
-
ROD
20ROD x 1850
Length
5l
Designation x
Length
i
SQ
50SQ x 200
.c
Length
'
~l
Designation x Length
'
t

DWidth
K

a

Ce}-

Thickness

~

D

0

D

(:

2.2

COMPOUND SECTIONS

Other section types which are suited to specific applications can be fabricated from plain material. Such sections are termed "compound" sections or members and are made up by welding or bolting sections, plates and flats together in particular combinations. Generally, welding is the more common means of connecting the components. Some compound section types are shown in Fig. 2.2 though there are many possible variations in combination of plain materials. The most widely used compound section is the plate girder which is composed of three plates welded together. The ability to further customise the section can be achieved by incorporating flanges with different widths and thickness. Box girders (or box sections) are also popular forms of compound sections.

box sections) are also popular forms of compound sections. Plate Plated Girder Section Crane Box Beam
box sections) are also popular forms of compound sections. Plate Plated Girder Section Crane Box Beam

Plate

Plated

Girder

Section

Crane Box Beam Girder
Crane
Box
Beam
Girder

Fig. 2.2: Compound sections

][

Double

Channel

2.3 CHARACTERISTICS

Steel, specifically structural steel, is fundamental to building, bridge and engineering construction. It is produced in

a wide range of shapes and grades which permit maximum flexibility of design. It is relatively inexpensive to produce

and is the strongest, most versatile and economical material available to the construction industry. Steel is uniform

in quality and dimensionally stable. By the addition of small amounts of copper or other alloying elements, its resistance to atmospheric corrosion can be enhanced markedly.

Steel also has several unique qualities which make it especially adaptable to the demanding requirements of modern construction. It can be alloyed, or alloyed and heat-treated, to obtain toughness, ductility and great strength as the service demands, and yet be capable of ready fabrication with conventional shop equipment.

2.4 SPECIFICATIONS

Structural steel is composed almost entirely of the element iron. Small portions of other elements, particularly carbon and manganese must also be present to provide strength and ductility. Increasing the carbon content makes steel stronger and harder-' Decreasing the carbon content makes steel softer and more ductile, but at some sacrifice to strength. The standard grades of steel used for bridges and buildings contain approximately 0.22-0.25% carbon, yvith small amounts of several other elements as required or permitted by the particular steel specifications. """

All steels are manufactured to specifications which stipulate the chemical and mechanical requirements in detail.- Standard specifications for structural steels are established by Standards Australia committees, made up of representatives of producers, consumers and general interest groups. These committees develop and keep up-to- date material specifications to provide and maintain reliable, acceptable and practical standards. Reference to the latest Australian Standards is recommended for complete information on all structural steels.

The specifications for buildings, as well as most bridge specifications, recognise several grades of steel for structural purposes.

A summary of relevant Australian Standards is contained in Chapter 17.

Several proprietary steels, so-called because their composition and characteristics are defined by steel producers' specifications, are also available for structural purposes. Producers of these proprietary steels use rigid control of melting processes and careful selection of alloys to achieve guaranteed minimum yield stresses. The toughness, weldability and cost-to-strength ratios compare favourably with those obtainable from standard steels. ·

Steelmaking is in a constant state of progress. Metallurgical research in the industry is continually developing new steels for specific purposes and improving the versatility of older steels. As time passes and these new products prove themselves, writers of Australian Standard Specifications prepare modifications to present specifications or formulate new ones to recognise technological advances.

Ref. 12 should be consulted for a list and comparison of the various steel grades and products available for construction.

2.5

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

The term yield stress and tensile strength are used to describe some of the physical properties of steels and their action when subjected to externally applied forces.

Assume that a bar of structural steel 25mm square and any convenient length, is clamped in a testing machine

designed to pull the bar apart longitudinally. If this machine is adjusted to pull the bar, so that it is resisting a force,

the bar is said to be stressed in tension.

The bar, loaded as described above is being pulled and therefore elongated, or strained, initially in direct proportion to the stress being resisted. As the machine load increases, the bar will be stressed and strained proportionally. Within certain limits the external forces will deform the piece of steel slightly, but on removal of such forces, the steel will return to its original shape. This property of steel is termed elasticity. Eventually a point is reached beyond which the elongation will continue with no corresponding increase in stress. This elongation is characteristic of ductile steels and is termed plasticity.

Fig. 2.3 is a theoretical diagram of the stress-strain relationship of Grade 300 steel (e.g. AS/NZS 3679.1) which typically exhibits elastic and plastic strain of structural steel during uniaxial stressing.

·

fu

--Rupture

fy

a

b

=Elastic range = Plastic range = Strain - hardening =Necking at failure fu =Ultimate tensile strength fy = Yield stress

d

c

b

a

c

d

Strain

Fig. 2.3: Stress-strain relationship

The basic properties for design of structural members have traditionally been obtained by tensile testing of steel · products in the longitudinal or tr~~sverse direction to rolling.

This test involves applying increasing stresses to a prepared test piece until destruction. The quantities generally evaluated are the onset of plastic strain (yield stress or proof stress), the greatest stress applied prior to failure (tensile strength), the extension after fracture (percentage elongation) and occasionally the reduction of cross-section area achieved at fracture.

Structural design codes are based either on minimum yield stress or ultimate tensile strength with percentage elongation being used to indicate ductility, or the steel's ability to be formed.

This test is generally performed as an acceptance test on all steel products intended for structural applications.

2.6

STEEL PRODUCTION

2.6.1. Steelmaking

Steelmaking is a batch process partly due to a range of products being made from the one operation. Steelmaking includes the combining of carbon with iron as well as the removal of impurities and the addition of alloying elements to develop specific properties in the steel mix. There are two types of common steelmaking processes: Basic Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) and Electric Arc Furnace (EAF).

After the steel is made it is either cast into ingots and subsequently rolled into semi-finished shapes (termed slabs, blooms, billets) or is "continuously cast" into semi-finished shapes.

As this is a specialised area which is outside the scope of the Handbook, further information on steelmaking can be sourced from other references.

2.6.2. Working the Steel into a More Useful Product

From the semi-finished shape the steel is further rolled in stages to get to its final more useful shape. Basically, the rolling process consists of passing the steel between two rolls revolving at the same speed but in opposite directions. The gap between the rolls is smaller than the steel being rolled, so that the steel is reduced in thickness and at the same time, lengthened. Rolling mills are designed for processing either flat or shaped products. Rolling or working steel changes_the mechanical and physical properties to give the characteristics necessary in the final product. Steel can be either hot or cold-rolled in its final forming operations and this choice also has a significant effect on the steel's final characteristic. Fig. 2.4 shows the hot-rolling operation required in many passes to produce the final shape - an equal angle.

2.7 TOLERANCES

Mill (or rolling) tolerance is a term used to describe permissible deviations from the published dimensions of, say, cross-section profiles. This is due to various reasons including roll wear, speed, adjustment and differential cooling and may cause cross-section elements to be slighter thicker than desired or they may not be square to each other.· The variations are negligible in small shapes, but increase for members made up from larger shapes and must be taken into consideration in detailing and fabricating connections. Other mill tolerances permit variation in area and weight, ends out-of-square, camber and sweep (ie slightly curved in length).

Tolerance on the ex-mill dimensions of steel plates and section are listed in AS 1163, AS/NZS 3678, AS/NZS 3679.1, AS/NZS 3679.2 and mill catalogues. A study of AS/NZS 3679.1 shows that these dimensional tolerances can be

significant enough to warrant consideration in fabrication and erection -see Fig. 2.5. As an example, in.Fig. 2.5 (a), experienced fabricators are aware of the possibility of dimensional variations, and it is normal practice to ml'ltch

members at splices in such a way as to minimise the effect of these

variations.

_,-_

( It is most important that.the effect of mill tolerances be clearly understood by the steel detailer. The steel defailer must know when to take them into account, particularly in ordering material and detailing connections involving heavy rolled shapes. One way to address the issue of mill tolerances is to indicate on the shop drawings where matching to adjacent members is required. This highlights to the fabricator the need to carefully select the steelwork for the members to ensure a close dimensional match.

In addition to mill tolerances, tolerances must also be allowed for on the dimensions of fabricated and erected members. These are typically given in Standards such as AS 4100. In this instance allowances must be made for slight variations in member length, out-of-squareness, flatness, weld distortion, sweep, camber, beam levels, column plumbing, etc. Varying such tolerances are not recommended as they would be inconsistent with tolerances used by the steel/product manufacturer and also those tolerances assumed in design.

R o u g h i n g p a s s - 1 Roughing

Roughing pass - 1

R o u g h i n g p a s s - 1 Roughing pass

Roughing pass - 2

u g h i n g p a s s - 1 Roughing pass - 2

Roughing pass - 3

p a s s - 1 Roughing pass - 2 Roughing pass - 3 Intermediate pass

Intermediate pass - 1

1 Roughing pass - 2 Roughing pass - 3 Intermediate pass - 1 Intermediate pass -

Intermediate pass - 2

pass - 3 Intermediate pass - 1 Intermediate pass - 2 Intermediate pass - 3 Finishing

Intermediate pass - 3

pass - 1 Intermediate pass - 2 Intermediate pass - 3 Finishing pass Fig. 2.4 Progressive

Finishing pass

Fig. 2.4 Progressive stages in hot rolling of steel angles.

2.4 Progressive stages in hot rolling of steel angles. 1$1 t (a) Allow for variation in

1$1

t

(a) Allow for variation in beam depth in flange splice and for off-centre of webs in web splice.

in flange splice and for off-centre of webs in web splice. $1 t " -ic -

$1

t

" -ic

-

(b) Any connection to column web or column flange must make allowances for out-of-square, especially end plate connections - allow for shimming where necessary.

end plate connections - allow for shimming where necessary. 1$1 t (c) Web side plate connection

1$1

t

(c) Web side plate connection - allow for out-of-square of column flange and off-centre of beam web

Fig. 2.5 Connections where allowance for milltolerance is required

2-8

AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK

ASDH/01-1999

I

/

3. DRAFTING EQUIPMENT AND DRAFTING PRACTICES

Methods of detailing and the equipment required are continually changing. With the introduction of personal computers, traditional or manual drafting and its equipment is fast becoming superseded.

The first part of this chapter deals with the traditional method of drafting as it provides the basis for computerised drafting. The second part deals with how a computer drafting office should be set up, explaining the changing duties of CAD managers, operators and others.

Finally, consideration will be given to drafting practices which are similar to both manual or computerised drafting.

3.1 MANUAL DRAFTING EQUIPMENT

3.1.1 Equipment and Supplies

In the past the vast majority of drawings made for the fabrication of structural steel were done in ink on tracing paper or drafting film. Today the use of pencil detailing is common in some detailing offices. Equipment requirements and techniques described in this book are largely oriented towards ink. Some reference will be made to pencil selection for detailing.

i The equipment used by "steel detailers undertaking manual drafting is similar to that found in any manual drafting office. The types of equipment include for example: drawing boards, scale rules, triangles, templates, compass, protractors, dividers, ink, pens, pencils and erasers.

3.1.2 Drafting Paper and Film

Although the steel detailer may have little to say about the choice of tracing media they are expected to use, they should be familiar with the characteristics of the various types they may encounter. Most pencil and ink drawings are made on tracing paper or plastic film.

3.1.3 Prints and Reproductions

In previous years, after the original drawing was made it was generally reproduced in the form of a print by using:

1. coated paper - sensitive to light; and

r -

2. coated paper.,. sensitive to ammonia gas.

Today with the introductionof A3, A2, A1-and AO size photocopiers, copying of the drawing is as simple,, as

photocopying an A4 sheet of paper. This method of copying drawings has slowly overtaken all other methoilS of

copying due to its speed_and ease of handling.

·

3.1.4 Drawing Boards, T-Squares and Triangles

Most manual drafting rooms are furnished either with_ fully equipped drafting machines, drawing tables or with drawing boards and T-square. Drawing tables have wooden or metal tops, which may have a tilting adjustment. Sometimes, drawing tables are equipped with parallel ruling attachments which eliminate the need for a T-square, or a drafting machine with scales which supplant both the T-square and the triangles. Drafting machines have scales positioned at 90 degrees to each other and attached to a moveable protractor head which can be rotated and locked in position to permit measuring and drawing lines at any angle.

3.1.5 Drawing Scales

Due to the size of most structural members, it is necessary to depict them on shop drawings less than full size, using an appropriate scale for the desired reduction. One such scale commonly used, is 1:10. At this reduction the view of an object which is actually 300 mm long will have a length of 30 mm on the drawing. All other dimensions of the object will be shown reduced in the same proportion except as discussed later in this chapter. Other scales of reduction are also used in structural steel detail drafting. When and why each one is used will become evident in later chapters.

3.1.6

Drafting Pencils

The selection of pencils with the degree of hardness (grade) needed to produce satisfactory tracings and prints is determined by the type of paper or film used, the individual draftspersons "touch" and, to some extent, the humidity. For lettering on tracing paper, draftspersons commonly use F or H pencils; for border and object lines, HB or F; and for dimension lines, centre lines, etc, 2H or 3H. Pencil tracing cloth and drafting film will accept pencils about one grade harder, with comparable results. Both harder and softer grades are available for other types of pencils.

Manufacturers recommend plastic pencils for use on drafting film. Plastic leads have been used with success on pencil tracing cloth, but they are too hard for use on ordinary tracing paper.

It should be emphasised that linework and lettering must be uniformly black and distinct. Fuzzy and uncertain lines, barely readable on the tracing, may disappear on the print or be misinterpreted by the operator using the drawing.

3.1.7 Drafting Pens

Drafting pens come in various name brands and head sizes. The selection of the head size to produce satisfactory tracings and prints is determined by the type of paper used, the article to be detailed and to some extent the individual draftsperson's "touch". For lettering on tracing paper, draftspersons commonly use 0.3 or 0.4mm size head, for object lines 0.4 or 0.5 head size, for division lines use 0.2, and 0.6/0.8 for border lines together with member and sheet titles.

Desktop stands are necessary for pen sets when not in use. These stands are essential as they keep the pen heads clear, moist and ready for use. Care must be taken to keep pen heads clean and in good repair to ensure quality -

linework and lettering.

- -

·

Non print leads should be used for preliminary layouts of the structural form or component prior to using ink for the final detail.

3.2 COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING

Due to the ever changing methods of design and construction, together with the availability of more advanced technology, the conventional method of manual detail drafting is becoming superseded. Just as the calculator has replaced the slide rule, computers have now virtually replaced the drawing board.

Computer aided drafting will, as programmers continually write specialised detail drafting programs, open many doors for detailers. In many ways the detail draftsperson will, over a period of time, replace the design draftsperson and work more closely with the design consultants than ever before, resulting in numerous advantages as:

1. Reduced technical queries on design drawings.

2. Production of detail drawings directly from design drawings.

3. Reduced hours required on a project.

4. Increased accuracy.

In addition to the above, computer aided drafting (CAD) provides and maintains a uniform system of control and

production of CAD drawings. --- " -

In changing a manual drawing office into a CAD drawing office, a company's internal structure remains the same but some personnel now have special duties as noted below.

3.2.1 Drafting Personnel

·

3.2.1.1 Chief Draftsperson

The Chief Draftsperson controls the allocation of projects to the Project Managers or squad leaders and organises labour to meet deadlines. In addition to these duties, it is the Chief Draftsperson's role to firstly develop and then control the implementation of CAD standards, to decide when to introduce new software and hardware, to handle upgrades and most importantly to handle the security of the company's CAD system.

3.2.1.2 Project Manager

The Project Manager is responsible for the overall handling of the drafting contracts, including direct contact with the consultants and building contractors, controls the issue of drawing numbers and the general day to day running of the contract. Additionally, the Product Manager, along with the chief draftsperson, plans the allocation of labour.

3.2.1.3

CAD Manager

All CAD offices must allocate this position to someone fully conversant with computers and how they operate, they must be reliable, and their role is the key to a successfully run office. They must also:

1. be able to co-ordinate the output of all CAD stations within the office;

2. be able to handle maintenance of the computers, fix minor problems, such as replacement of video card controllers;

3. control the reporting of faults within the machines;

4. maintain software;

5. maintain archive records;

6. setup networks when required; and

7. setup a maintenance plan.

3.2.1.4 CAD Operator

Perhaps the best CAD Operators are ex-steel detailers trained to use the CAD system as they have the conventional training and experience gained in manual drafting and the general experience in handling projects. Together with having the added responsibilities of maintaining their own personal computer they must:

1. retain the integrity of the computer as set up by the CAD Manager;

2. maintain good file management, delete backup files and drawing files from their computer when required; · ·

3. run hard disk maintenance programs;

4. keep their computer surfaces clean and free from dust; and

5. report all irregularities to CAD Manager/Chief Draftsperson eg. viruses.

3.2.2 Security

Special procedures must be put in place for protection of the developed system and unless protected by locks, codes etc, it would be very easy for the system to be copied by someone for unauthorised use.

Suggested procedures include:

1. special hardware locks on sensitive software;

2. limited access to software and specialised systems;

3. procedures for authorised operators;

4. encryption of programs to prevent unauthorised changing;

5. training of all personnel in how and why procedures are used to maintain security;

6. supervision of all hardware and software entering and leaving the premises; and

7. signing of a contract by all CAD Operators stating that action will be taken if caught copying cir removing company's software.

I

3.2.3 DocumentControl

The requirements of document control for CAD drawing is far more crucial than for conventional methods of detailing as the information pertaining to the detail drawing is invisible within the computer system, until the drawing is plotted onto a drawing sheet. Whenever possible the procedures of handling the information (electronic drawing) should be handled by the computer system (the computer program) to eliminate human error. Hurdles and safety nets should be put in place to control and help operators whenever a critical stage is reached.

Document control is simply the handling of the document and in this case the document is a CAD detail drawing. Document control should follow a similar pattern as set out below:

1. allocate a job number to the contract;

2. create a job control file within the CAD system;

3. select drawing sheet size, select scale and drawing number;

4. produce detail drawing;

5. save information to a disk or save to network;

6. plot checkprint to issue to checking department;

7. back draft drawing, signed and save to disk or network; and

8. advise Chief Draftsperson and document control personnel to issue detail drawings.

At all times only one master original drawing should be kept, clearly identified as such. Paper plots cannot by definition be the original as they are plotted from an electronic copy. This electronic copy is the master original.

For safety reasons an identical back-up copy should be kept (if no network is in place) at all times in case of file corruption or disk failure.

If the system of handling drawings is by the use of floppy disk, it is as mentioned above, important to save to two separate disks:

(i)

master disk - clearly identified as master; and

(ii)

back up disk - clearly identified as backup.

These disks should be stored in separate locations within the office.

If the system in use is a network system, the master should reside in a particular area with the backup copies kept on a separate drive being either:

(a)

tape backup;

(b)

local hard drive; or

(c)

a different logical drive on the network - file server.

3.2.4 Hardware

Hardware is the "machinery" used in a computer system. The ideal requirement for operating on a general system should be:

1. high speed computer processor with adequate memory;

r

·-

2. 17" colour monitor (recommended minimum size);

3. digitiser or mouse;

4. keyboard; and

5. AO plotter with continuous paper feed.

The selection of the above items must be carefully made ensuring that the complete system will adequately meet your needs for at least 3 - 5 years.

Purchase prices for computer hardware are continually dropping, though they are still very high. In addition, technological advances are frequent which results in rapid redundancies in equipment.

3.2.5 Software

The typical software requirements for a CAD station should be:

1.

operating system;

2.

computer drafting software;

3

graphics drivers;

4.

file management program;_51n_q

5.

diagnostics programs.

The selection of the above programs should be carefully made to ensure that there are no software/hardware conflicts as these problems are difficult to find and expensive to fix.

3.2.6 Standard Setup

Sufficient thought is seldom placed on the standard setup of drawings. This will drive your drawings, therefore important decisions are to be made. These include:

1. drawing size -AO, A1, A2, A3, 81. The recommended size is the A series and the A1 size sheet is the industry's standard;

2. units - metric;

3. scale-full size, 1.5, 1.10, 1.15, 1.20, 1.25, 1.50, 1.100, 1.200, 1.500, 1.1000;

4.

title blocks:

client;

project;

drawing title;

revision No;

scale;

drawn by;

date;

checked by;

drawing No;

job No.

5. revision blocks:

revision No;

by;

description;

date issued;

checked by.

6. reference blocks:

ref drawing No;

title.

7. bolt blocks (if required):

grips;

length;

type;

quantity;

location.

8. material lists Qt required):

item No;

description;

remarks;

length;

quantity;

mass.

9. applicable notes:

standard welds;

surface preparation.

10. layers

,

Layers allow you to-gmup entities, assign them special colours and line types, and also to control their display, the concept of layers is similar to transparent overlays, you can define as many layers as you like.

Layers should be named in an organised manner, so that they are easily identified. Assignment of layers may be based on line types or the elements being drawn depending on the individual drafting office procedures.

3.2.7 Holds and Revisions

Hold clouds on drawings must be shown with an "inverted" cloud.

Revision clouds must be used to highlight all changes to drawings. However, one revision cloud with a description of the revisions to that drawing may be used where it is not practical to cloud changes. Revision number triangles must be placed within the cloud and placed near the border for easy visibility. All clouds should be drawn in a thick line eg. 0.7mm.

3.2.8 Plotting

Plotting of checkprints can usually be done to A2. size if the original drawing is drawn on an A 1 at about 1 :1 O scale. Complex drawings or those drawn to a large scale eg. 1:50 should be plotted on A1.

Final plots for the client should always be full size except for simple details where it is sometimes possible to plot for issue of A2. or A3 size (if original drawings are no bigger than A1 at 1:10 scale).

3.2.9

Identification

Checkplots should be clearly identified as such by a "checkprint" block or stamp on the drawing which should be on the electronic copy.

Final plots should contain signatures of authorisation - again these should be on the electronic copy.

3.2.10 Filing

Paper plots are not originals and should be treated with caution. The only true original is the electronic master copy. After use, plots should be disposed of or issued to the client as part of their copying requirements. This saves paper and filing space. (A laser printed A4 copy is very useful as a long term reference copy if required).

3.2.11 Storage

CAD drawings can be stored permanently in various ways :

1. floppy disk - 3%" or 51/,( disks labelled with the contract No, drawing No, title of drawings, disk box No;

2. hard disk - local drive or network file server;

3.

4. as technology develops other methods will become available.

If drawings are stored on floppy aisk, that floppy disk number should appear on the drawing somewhere to enable quick retrieval. If stored on disk or tape the drawing should be saved in a sub-directory that matches the Job No. or area code etc.

tape:

,

used mainly for archiving or daily backup due to slow access time; and

3.2.12 Revisions

Revisions to finalised CAD drawings must take place under a controlled procedure. This is to prevent drawings being accessed and altered "at will". Changes shou Id be authorised by the project manager responsible. All revisions must be clouded and the revision number raised on the drawing. Checking and issuing procedures should match that of the new drawing.

3.2.13 Automatic Steel Detailing Software Packages

The development of sophisticated software packages which automate the production of shop detail drawings is rapidly revolutionising the detail drafting industry. These software packages model the entire structural frame in three dimensions using solid·members generally rather than wire frames. The packages include libraries of available steel sections ancl typical connection details which can be readily applied to members forming the frame. Customising the libraries is also possible to allow for non-standard section types and connections.

These packages are extremely·powerful tools which are capable for detecting clashes between members and bolts · etc., and greatly reduce the manual checking time. The computer generated shop details can be output as drawings or downloaded as data files for computer numeric controlled (CNC) fabrication equipment.

3.3 DRAFTING PRACTICES

3.3.1 Linework and Lettering

The good appearance of any drawing is largely a matter of uniformity in making lines and letters. The utility of drawing depends on the strength and contrast of the various line symbols and legibility. It follows that the most desirable drawing is one that combines uniformity and utility. No matter how uniform in appearance, fine, delicate linework and tiny lettering must be avoided, since oil and grease on prints in the shop or field can render such a drawing useless or misleading.

To aid the trainee in selecting the proper weights, Fig. 3.1 shows recommended line conventions generally used in structural drafting. Reference should also be made to AS 1100. Fig. 3.2 illustrates the appearance of such lines as they relate to each other on a drawing.

Border lines, where not preprinted on the sheet, should be made heavy and black, to contrast strongly with all other lines.

When manually drafting, the dashes and spaces of hidden object lines should be proportioned by eye, uniform, and

Type of line Line thickness Pencil lead Outlines, underlining of titles, border lines (a) Heavy
Type of line
Line thickness
Pencil lead
Outlines, underlining of titles, border lines
(a)
Heavy
HBorF
l
_J
Elevation and section arrow lines
---------
Hidden outlines
'
(b)
Medium
H
- -
-
Break or cut-away lines
-
Dimension, projection, leader, bolt centre lines
~
Cross-hatching lines
(c)
Fine
2H
.
-
.
~
-
J
~-
,.
Centre lines
-----------------------
Adjacent items, items in front of cutting plane
The three main types of line used in drafting are:
a) Heavy: Used for visible outlines of objects, section or elevation arrow lines and underlining (if used).
b) Medium: Used for dotted lines indicating hidden outlines.
c) Fine: Used for centre lines, dimension lines, projection lines, gauge lines, cross-hatching and break lines.
For further information refer to AS 1100. A simple example of the use of the various types of line is shown in
Fig. 3.2.

Fig. 3.1: Line types and thicknesses

b _ !! c c c a = Heavy line b = Medium line c=
b _ !! c c c a = Heavy line b = Medium line c=

b

_

!!

c

c c
c c
c c

c

c c

c

b _ !! c c c a = Heavy line b = Medium line c= Fine

a = Heavy line

b = Medium line

c= Fine line

a

c

SECT A-A a

Fig. 3.2: Use of the various types of lines

···A B~CD £if: G JF1i· .

I,

.

I J Kl .JM/N O·P

RS TU· ~ ·1WX

3-8

vz

:J 234·56if 89Q·

OJ ibJ C ((ft (S· If QJ lh 1i j tk.

f/ 1m lfi1 op

't#WllJjZ

q. 1r s if u

Fig. 3.3: Lettering style AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK

ASDH/01-1999

1-

. ~-;

'

=-

.

-

slightly less pronounced in weight than visible object lines. The dashes should be firm, not feathered, and about twice the length of the intervening spaces (see Fig. 3.1). A dashed line should start with a solid line, not a space. Corners should be formed with intersecting dashes. A good average proportion is 4mm dashes and 2mm spaces.

The starting and stopping of all lines should be positive. Over-riding of object and dimension lines beyond their proper terminations must be avoided.

Most manually drawn circle and circles arcs are executed with a compass. Small circles are conveniently made with a circle template. Extremely large circles require a beam compass or railroad curves.

Additionally, with manual drafting, certain small circles and other symbols representing holes and bolts on shop and erection drawings may be conveniently drawn freehand. Freehand execution speeds up the work considerably, and when done carefully is entirely satisfactory.

All lettering, dimension figures and arrowheads on manually drafted shop drawings are made freehand using a style that is essentially legible, uniform and capable of rapid execution. Apart from dimensional accuracy there is no feature more important than lettering. Illegible figures can result in costly errors in the workshop or at site.

The ability to letter well can be acquired only by continued careful practice. Even with the introduction of CAD drafting it is still essential for a trainee to have a legible handstyle. The style of lettering shown in Fig. 3.3 has been widely adopted for its clearness and speed in use.

The size of the lettering should be easily read if microfilm reproduction is required. The same drawing may contain

lettering of more than one size, depending upon the nature and importance of the information it imparts.

the nature and importance of the information it imparts. (a) Perspective view View A A i

(a) Perspective view

View A

A

i

the information it imparts. (a) Perspective view View A A i ( b ) I s

(b) Isometric view

A A i ( b ) I s o m e t r i c v

ViewB

ViewC

(c) Orthographic projection

Fig. 3.4: Types of pictorial drawing

ASDH/01-1999

AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK

·

. ,

3-9

3.3.2

Orthographic Projection

Although pictorial drawings (see Fig. 3.4) have some application in developing and communicating ideas, they do not lend themselves readily to making structural shop drawings. A multiview system known as 'orthographic projection' is used for shop details throughout the industry. The basis of this method is to show the characteristics of an object by using as many dimensioned views as necessary to describe it fully. The views show the shape of the object, as observed from several directions, and are related to each other by location on the drawing and by their dimensioning.

Fig. 3.5 is an 'isometric' drawing ofa short universal column in which the four faces A, B, C and Dare labelled. The arrows indicate the directions in which the surfaces are viewed in orthographic projection.

3.3.2.1 Third angle projection

Detailing of steelwork within Australia is undertaken in third (3rd) angle projection.

Fig. 3.6 shows the views in Fig. 3.5 separated and arranged in 3rd angle orthographic projection. Note that this system required the selection of a principal view, in this case face B, from which the other views are projected. With respect to face B, faces A and C are left and right views respectively, projected laterally and in alignment with face B. In a similar manner, the top view is projected vertically from face B, and represents the column as seen from above.

Note that no bottom view is given in Fig. 3.6. In the illustration, the top view gives the shape description and the bottom view, being identical, would serve no purpose. Had a bottom view been required to show detail attachments, it would have been drawn as though observed from underneath, as would be the case in 3rd angle projection. Note also that face D is omitted. Structural members with a single web rarely require more than one web view, as detail attachments on the far side of web can be shown readily by hidden·{dashed) lines. Had a box-shaped member required a separate view from the rear (face D), it would have been located to the right of face C.

The usual procedure in preparing an orthographic projection is to draw the principal view to scale, then project the scaled dimensions to the other views. In Fig. ::i.6, with face B drawn to scale, the section depth and flange thickness can be projected to the top view and the length to the side views A and C. The only additional scaling required is that necessary to show flange width. Thicknesses should not be to scale. Proportion for clarity and location of web and holes. The advantage of projecting as many lines as possible will be more apparent when drawing complicated built-up sections, or members with attached detail material which must appear in more than one view.

Fig. 3.6 is intended primarily as an example of the relationship of views in 3rd angle orthographic projection. In preparing a working drawing, the number of views needed is determined by the amount and kind of fabrication required and the attached detail material. The spacing of the views must permit adequate dimensioning and the addition of any notes that may be required. More information covering the preparation of working drawings will be found in later chapters.

The application of orthograp!lic projection to structural drafting is governed by certain rules. However, modificatibns, special devices and shortcuts which have been developed by common usage through the years are generally accepted in all structural drafting offices. Although much of this information will be absorbed gradually by the trainees as they follow the methods and examples in later chapters of this book, some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here.

some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here. Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a
some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here. Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a
some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here. Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a
some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here. Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a
some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here. Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a
some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here. Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a
some of the more basic concepts will be discussed here. Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a

Fig. 3.5: Isometric drawing of a short universal column

3.3.3

Selection of Views

The principal view of a structural member should be the one which contains the most information concerning cuts, copes, hole punching and drilling, and attached fittings. In the case of beams, channels, columns and girders, which comprise the bulk of structural work, this usually means the web view. If at all possible, the principal view should show the majority of detail fittings on the side toward the observer so as to minimise the need for hidden lines. An exception to this general rule relates to single channels, which are generally shown with their backs toward the observer because shop layout can be performed more easily on the flat back surface. In showing the hidden lines, it is accepted practice to indicate hidden edges and surfaces only partially, to the extent necessary to clarify the sketch. Long runs of hidden lines should be avoided.

Projected views should be shown only if they contribute to clarity and understanding. If top, bottom or end views are not required to show fabricators the location of fittings, or an unusual cross-sectional configuration, they should be omitted. Since the shape descriptions of standard rolled sections such as universal sections, channels and angles are understood by all concerned from the designation, the end views which merely illustrate the appearance of such a shape are unnecessary. However, some workshop "in-house" standards require that the rolled section shapes are fully shown.

3.3.3.1 Orientation of views on the drawing

The principal view may be placed on a drawing either in the same orientation the member will assume in the final ( structure or horizontally. A general rule is to detail the member reading the erection plan from the bottom of the drawing or from the right·end of the drawing. For example, beams and girders are placed horizontally on the sheet.

~

Flangewidth\

TOP VIEW

(D) -· :;,fe

~

+

~ ·-·@?·--~-.~---- -- . t --------

Weblhickness

l:'I

~

1

-1'1f -·- lr

~------~

l!I

l!I

Iii Ip

@

l:'I ~ 1 -1'1 f -·- lr ~------~ l!I l!I Iii Ip @ ' -·- :o-

'

-·- :o- . ' ·-· @ -·- -·- -·- - -
-·-
:o-
.
'
·-·
@
-·-
-·-
-·-
-
-

w

-·- :o- . ' ·-· @ -·- -·- -·- - - w Face: A Faces: B

Face: A

Faces: B (&D)

Face:C

-·- -·- -·- - - w Face: A Faces: B (&D) Face:C Fig. 3.6: Detailing in

Fig. 3.6: Detailing in third angle projection

Top of beam~i~-.----

1---#!i

tffli

SECT C-C

'

]!

SECT B-B

Displaced section

~~---jf--~~~----+101
~~---jf--~~~----+101

Fig. 3.7: Positioning cuts for sectional views

Depending on drawing office practice, columns are shown either vertically or horizontally on the sheet with the lower ends at tfie bottom or to the left. Diagonal trusses and bracing members, when not shown in place, are located horizontally with their left ends at the left sideof the sheet.

3.3.3.2 Sectional views

It is conceivable for a top or end view to be drawn to include all the fabrication and detail fittings appearing throughout

the length or depth of a member. However, ttie view, with its innumerable visible and hidden lines, would become so complicated that it would be difficult to interpret. This problem is readily solved by use of separate sectional views.

When it is necessary to show or dimension an interior detail which is not visible in the usual top or end views, it is customary to use a sectional view located conveniently near the detail. The position of the section is established by

a line representing the imaginary cutting plane. Directional arrows are added to indicate which way the cut surface is being viewed (see Fig. 3.7). The corresponding sectional view, constructed by projection and scaling, permits picturing the detail for whatever treatment is required.

Sectional views are usually projected from the principal view in the same manner as end or top views. The accepted practice is to observe sections looking downward or to the left. If, due to lack of space on the drawing, the sectional view must be displaced from its normal projected position, it should retain its proper orientation and in no case be turned 90° (see Fig. 3.7). So.metimes it may be advisable to use an offset cutting plane, so that one sectional \liew serves in place of two (see Fig. 3.8). As noted elsewhere, linework should be used sparingly in drawing sectional views, For example, it is usually unnecessary to show the cut section of the main member when the only interest is

in the detail of the fitting. Sufficient references to centre lines or other points projected from the member to locate

such a detail may then be required (see Fig. 3. 7). However, part cut sections may be shown for clarity.

The labelling of section cutting planes and sectional views for identification is sometimes abbreviated to a single letter or number. See Section 3.3.4.7. for further details.

The cross-hatching of the cut surfaces of sectional views is generally omitted in structural work as a time

A1 ~- i l UB---.,. I •• - - i - - - .~ .~
A1
~-
i
l
UB---.,.
I
••
-
-
i
-
-
-
.~
.~
;_
-
:·-tt-
: -II--
·-
l: J-
I
i

A ~Offsetcutting plane

SECT A -A

Fig. 3.8: Offset cutting planes

consuming embellishment. However, it may be used to a limited extent when the adjacent parts in a complicated assembly must be identified, or when the section involves machine parts. When used, cross-hatching lines should be spaced evenly at an angle of 45' and should be sloped in opposite directions on adjacent pieces to indicate separate plies of materials.

Distinctive "shading" is used instead of cross-hatching for certain construction materials. The shading conventions for timber, concrete, brickwork and grout are shown in details (c) to (f) of Fig. 3.9. When structural steel members are shown in cross section they are usually not shaded, unless there is some special reason for shading -see details (g) and (h) of the figure.

Longitudinal sections through bolts, nuts, rivets, pins, shafts and similar parts are not shaded.

(

11 ~ I

(a)

General

and similar parts are not shaded. ( 11 ~ I (a) General (b) Ad~cent 0 ject

(b)

Ad~cent

0 ject

(c)

Timber

(Cross section)

r

(f)

Grout

(g)

Steel sections

(c) Timber (Cross section) r (f) Grout (g) Steel sections (d) (e) Concrete I Brickwork r
(c) Timber (Cross section) r (f) Grout (g) Steel sections (d) (e) Concrete I Brickwork r

(d) (e)

Concrete

I

Brickwork

r

(h)

Steel sections

Fig. 3.9: Shading of cross-sections

3.3.3.3 Auxiliary views

When it is necessary to represent and dimension a surface which slopes with respect to the usual front, top and end views, an auxiliary view must be constructed. An auxiliary view is projected perpendicularly from the sloping surface in such a way as to present a true, undistorted appearance. The skewed detail, shown in Fig. 3.1 O demonstrates

the use of auxiliary views.

·

~ • • • • • • • • • • • • . •
~
.
'

UB

Fig. 3.10: Auxiliary views

3.3.4

Break Lines and Symbols

3.3.4.1 Breaklines

When only a part of an object is to be shown it is necessary to use break lines. These denote an imaginary cut through the object and imply that anything beyond the cut line is not of importance in that particular view. Examples are shown in Fig. 3.11, where details (a) and (b) indicate short breaks, (c) a lorig break and detail (d) is used for circular sections.

Break lines should not be used to indicate foreshortening the length of a beam or column, nor should they be used to show reduction of the width or depth of any structural member. However; since machine drawing practice sanctions break symbols to show reduction in length of such parts as pipe and shafting, this custom may be retained where machinery is involved on structural details. It should be emphasised that dimensions control all aspects of structural work. Break lines are not required to alert the reader to "not to scale" drawings.

DD

to alert the reader to "not to scale" drawings. DD (a) (b) (c) Fig. 3.11: Break

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3.11: Break lines

m

i

(d)

3.3.4.2 Match lines

On long members, particularly bridge girders, where the detail requires more than one sheet, it is customary to draw as much of the drawing as convenient on the first sheet of a series, and to continue the drawing on succeeding sheets until the member is complete. The several sections of such a member are related to one another by 'match lines'. Match lines are usually established at a readily identifiable point, such as a stiffener gauge line, or, for welded work, the face of a stiffener. Match lines are tied by dimensions to the closest dimensional feature of all the views they cross. The ends of each pair of match lines carry identical numbers or letters, as 1-1, 2-2 or X-X, Y-Y as shown

in Fig. 3.12.

MATCH LINE

~1

 

l

l

l

,

Balance of

 

detail

E

F

 

G

FIRST SHEET

  detail E F   G FIRST SHEET 1 r MATCH LINE Balance of detail E

1r

MATCH LINE

Balance of

detail

E

F

G

SECOND SHEET

LINE Balance of detail E F G SECOND SHEET Fig. 3.12: Use of match lines 3-14

Fig. 3.12: Use of match lines

3-14

AISC: AUSTRALIAN STEEL DETAILERS' HANDBOOK

ASDH/01-1999

3.3.4.3

Pointer arrows

Leader lines and arrows are used to relate a note to the object to which it refers. Examples of leader lines are shown in Fig. 3.13. The arrow head should normally point to the outline of the object as in detail (a) and not to the surface as in (b) of Fig. 3.13. However, where the note applies specifically to the surface, the leader line terminates on the surface and has a dot at its end, as shown in Fig 3.13 (c).

In the case of flat plates and groups of holes, the arrow should preferably point to the view showing the surface of the plate and the main view of the holes as in detail (d) of Fig. 3.13 and not to the plate edge as in (e).

(a)

75x75x6EA

75x75x6EA

Cleat

Cleat

(b)

as in (e). (a) 75x75x6EA 75x75x6EA Cleat Cleat (b) (c) Fig. 3.13: Pointer arrows 10PL 22dia

(c)

Fig. 3.13: Pointer arrows

10PL

Cleat Cleat (b) (c) Fig. 3.13: Pointer arrows 10PL 22dia holes (d) (e) 10PL 22dia holes

22dia

holes

(d)

(e)

10PL

22dia

holes

3.3.4.4 Indication of bolts and bolt holes

Bolts and bolt holes are shown in accordance with the symbols indicated in Fig. 3.14. The diameters should be drawn to scale. It will be seen that a distinction is made between shop bolts, which are installed during assembly in the shop, and site bolts, which are used to connect the components together during erection. Note also that the bolts themselves are not shown, only the holes, even when two items are shown as being attached to each other.

'

i '

Description

Shop bolts

Site bolts

.Plain holes

.Plain holes
.Plain holes

Countersunk

Countersunk
Countersunk

near side

Countersunk

far side

(a) Bolt symbols

-·~·-·-·-·-·}·-·-·~·

(b) Drawing of bolt

Fig. 3.14: Bolts and bolt symbols

c'

In large-scale details, where it is desired to show the bolts for some reason, they may be depicted as in detail Fig. 3.14(b). Note the method of showing the thread and that the width of the head and nut are slightly enlarged to make drawing easier.

3.3.4.5 Indication of welding

Welding is indicated by the standard symbols given in AS 1101.3. The most commonly used ones are considered in Chapter 7 where an explanation of the symbols is also given. It is very important that steel detailers familiarise themselves thoroughly with these symbols.

The actual welds are usually not shown on the drawing, as the symbols are self-explanatory. However, when there is a special reason for depicting a weld the convention shown in Fig. 3.15 is used.

depicting a weld the convention shown in Fig. 3.15 is used. Fillet welds 8 Butt welds
depicting a weld the convention shown in Fig. 3.15 is used. Fillet welds 8 Butt welds

Fillet welds

8

the convention shown in Fig. 3.15 is used. Fillet welds 8 Butt welds Fig. 3.15: Graphical

Butt welds

Fig. 3.15: Graphical representation of welds

3.3.4.6 Machining symbols

If machining of a steel surface is required it is shown by means of the symbols given in Fig. 3.16. Detail (a) in Fig. 3.16 shows the basic symbol, consisting of an equilateral triangle with one side extended and its apex on the line representing the surface to be machined. If it is wished to specify the surface texture the symbol shown in Fig. 3.16 (b) is used, where the figure above the triangle is the roughness value expressed in micrometres. Additional information on the process used (Fig. 3.16(c)) can also be shown.

on the process used (Fig. 3.16(c)) can also be shown. (a) (b) Milled (c) Fig. 3.16:

(a)

on the process used (Fig. 3.16(c)) can also be shown. (a) (b) Milled (c) Fig. 3.16:

(b)

Milled

used (Fig. 3.16(c)) can also be shown. (a) (b) Milled (c) Fig. 3.16: Machining symbols 3.3.4.7

(c)

Fig. 3.16: Machining symbols

3.3.4.7 Elevation and section arrows

Pairs of arrows are used to show:

1. In which direction the elevations are viewed; and

2. The cutting-lines and the viewing directions of the sections.

These arrows may be drawn in various ways with a few styles shown in Fig. 3.17 though usually each company or drawing office will have its own standard presentation. The style shown in the last example of Fig. 3.17 is used when the elevation or section represented by the arrows appears on a different drawing. The number in the lower half of the circle is the number of the drawing on which the view appears. On that drawing the title of the view in question would refer back to the first drawing. This is done by inserting the number of the first drawing below the line of the section or elevation mark. For further information and explanation of cross referencing system refer to ''A Guide to

the Requirements for Engineering Drawings of Structural Steelwork'' (Ref. 6).

 

A

A

   

.,

r

r

T

 

g

OS

   

c

0

i

L

l

L

iii

A

A

( On Drawing No. 23 )

c

c.2

Elevation A-A

Elevation A-A

Elevation

@

01ij

Elevation

@-@

&>

( On Same Drawing )

   

FOi

( On Same Drawing )

( On Drawing No. 22 )

Fig. 3.17 Elevation arrows (Section arrows are similar)

3.3.5 Dimension Lines

In structural detailing, dimensions should be given to the centre lines of universal sections and to the backs of channels and angles. For beams, vertical dimensions should be given to the top or the bottom flange, whichever is the critical level, but not to both because of variations in section depth. Basic rules for dimensioning are shown in Fig. 3.18.

An example of dimensioning as applied to a universal beam is given in Fig. 3.19, where the above rules are illustrated. Note that for small dimensions the arrow heads are placed beyond the dimension space, pointing inwards. For two equal small dimensions, two inward pointing arrows are used, with a dot on the centre projection line. This practice is used only where there is insufficient space to fit in the usually outward pointing arrows. Another common method is to use a slash (/) in lieu of an arrow head.

When bolts are arranged at regular spacing in a circular pattern, the circle on which their centres are located is called the pitch circle and the diameter of this circle is called the pitch circle diameter (PCD). The ways of dimensioning such bolts are shown in Fig. 3.20 where detail (a) shows the method used for larger PCDs and detail (b) the method for smaller PCDs.

The methods of dimensioning diameters and radii are illustrated in Fig. 3.21. Details (a) and (d) show the usual methods, whilst (b) and (c) are used for small diameters. Details (f) and (g) show corners with small radii. Note that the centres are not shown. In {h) the radius is-large and the centre is also not shown. When the position ofthe c~tre­ is to be identified, the method shown in 0) is used.

   

:E'-----1----·-:·-··---·-·-·---·-·

i----+-----+·-·-·-·-·-~------·-·-

40

200

65

Projection line

120

45

140

 

305

Dimension line/

-·-·-·-·

Small gap

140   305 Dimension line/ -·-·-·-· Small gap Dimension lines well spaced at equal intervals \Short

Dimension

lines well

spaced at

equal intervals

\Short extension

Fig. 3.18: Projection and dimension lines

1180 60 70 380 100 100 470 0 . - -·-- ~------------------~ -----· ------- 1-----·-
1180
60
70
380
100
100
470
0
.
-
-·--
~------------------~
-----·
-------
1-----·-
M-J-
-
1-:11-:~
-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·--M~~!!~'!H:
0
I
I'-
~
~J.
' '
'
'
'
0
I I
I
I
I
f~
0
I'-
0
I'-
35
I+-
---
35

-1

·

I

H4Hl-·

-·--~~,_H,-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-IH

ld

Fig. 3.19: Dimensioning of beam

ld Fig. 3.19: Dimensioning of beam (a) (b) 150 PCD ~--- Fig. 3.20: Dimensioning of holes

(a)

ld Fig. 3.19: Dimensioning of beam (a) (b) 150 PCD ~--- Fig. 3.20: Dimensioning of holes

(b)

150 PCD

~---

Fig. 3.20: Dimensioning of holes in circular pattern

(

\

i

!&"'"

·--~~-

"

i

-

(a)

--·- -··

~~~·-·-·----~·-·-·---~-

{e)

I

-~ i

i

i

i

i i ~

i

i

i

I

i

i

i

i

I

i

I

i

i

i

i

(h)

0

{e) I -~ i i i i i i ~ i i i I i i

I

(b)

-~ i i i i i i ~ i i i I i i i i

(c)

-

150 dia

50diai ~ i i i I i i i i I i I i i i

i i
i
i

---·~·-·-·

I

i

(d)

(h) 0 I (b) (c) - 150 dia 50dia i i ---·~·-·-· I i (d) (!)

(!)

0 I (b) (c) - 150 dia 50dia i i ---·~·-·-· I i (d) (!) (g)

(g)

(b) (c) - 150 dia 50dia i i ---·~·-·-· I i (d) (!) (g) (i) .
(b) (c) - 150 dia 50dia i i ---·~·-·-· I i (d) (!) (g) (i) .

(i)

. --

Fig. 3.21: Dimensioning of diameters and radii

3.3.6

Scaling Details

Structural details should be drawn to scale. Although this is generally true, there are some permissible, even inescapable, deviations from the rule.

It is obvious that the length of most members makes strict adherence to longitudinal scaling impractical. As a consequence, it is acceptable to foreshorten lengths and sometimes widths or depths, to permit long or oversize members to fit on a drawing or in the space allotted. This foreshortening may be accomplished as follows:

1.

Reducing the scale of all dimensions;

2.

Using a smaller longitudinal than transverse scale;

3.

Reducing dimensions arbitrarily, to no particular scale, as the complexity of the detail will permit; or

4.

Using breaklines.

Frequently, in detailing assembled trusses, the work line diagram is made to a smaller scale than the member detail scale. By this means the proper angular relationship between members is preserved, an adequate detail scale is possible, and the entire sketch can be contained conveniently on the sheet.

The separation between object lines which are close together is generally estimated, rather than scaled. The space is made wide enough so that the lines will not blur together on printing. This applies to the edge views of relatively thin plates, beam webs, beam flanges or angle legs.

3.3.7 Opposite Hand Components

Components of a structure are often required in pairs. In some instances the two members of the pair are not identical but one is a mirror image of the other. An example of such a situation are the pair of hands on the human body, where the left hand is the mirror image of the r.ight hand -the left is said to be 'opposite hand' to the right. An example of opposite hand components is shown in Fig. 3.22. In engineering detailing practice it