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MARSTRUCT 2011, HAMBURG, GERMANY, 2830 MARCH 2011

Editors

C. Guedes Soares

Instituto Superior Tcnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

W. Fricke

Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany

MARSTRUCT.indb iii

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CRC Press/Balkema is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK

Typeset by Vikatan Publishing Solutions (P) Ltd., Chennai, India

Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe (a CPI Group Company), Chippenham, Wiltshire

All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by

photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written prior permission from the publisher.

Although all care is taken to ensure integrity and the quality of this publication and the information

herein, no responsibility is assumed by the publishers nor the author for any damage to the property or

persons as a result of operation or use of this publication and/or the information contained herein.

Published by: CRC Press/Balkema

P.O. Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden, The Netherlands

e-mail: Pub.NL@taylorandfrancis.com

www.crcpress.com www.taylorandfrancis.co.uk www.balkema.nl

ISBN: 978-0-415-67771-4 (Hbk + CD-ROM)

ISBN: 978-0-203-80811-5 (eBook)

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Table of contents

Preface

xi

Organisation

xiii

Influence of raised invar edges on sloshing impact pressuresnumerical investigations

S. Brizzolara, D. Villa, T. Gazzola, N. Tryaskin, N. Moirod, J. De Lauzon & L. Diebold

C. Cabos, B. Dilba, M. Krmer & A. Schwenkenberg

Sensors location and data processing algorithms of an optical fibers hull strength

monitoring system

A. Grasso, A. Vergine, D. Dimou, M. Samuelides, N. Tsouvalis & A. Ferrari

19

of bulk carriers

L. Kaydhan, B. Uurlu & A. Ergin

33

Numerical prediction of slamming loads on a rigid wedge subjected to water entry using

an explicit finite element method

H. Luo, S. Wang & C. Guedes Soares

41

W. Mao & I. Rychlik

49

Utilization of a whole ship finite element analysis from wave loads to structural strength

at real sea state

Y. Ogawa & M. Oka

59

of containerships

J. Parunov, M. orak & I. Senjanovi

67

M. Wilken, A. Menk, H. Voss & C. Cabos

75

Ultimate strength

Buckling analysis of composite delaminated ship plates under shearing

E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica

85

E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica

93

Robust ultimate strength formulation for stiffened plates subjected to combined loads

S.-R. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J.-B. Koo, H.-M. Doh & Y.-K. Chon

99

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M.D. Collette

109

A revisit on design and analysis of stiffened shell structures for offshore applications

P.K. Das, K.K. Subin & P.C. Pretheesh

119

M. Gaiotti, C.M. Rizzo, K. Branner & P. Berring

133

Shakedown of welding-induced residual stress and effect on stiffened plate strength and behaviour

L.G. Gannon, N.G. Pegg, M.J. Smith & Y. Liu

141

M.R. Islam & Y. Sumi

151

in Mexicos Bay of Campeche

J. Ochoa Z., J.E. Iturriaga F. & S. Melndez P.

161

panel ultimate strength

J.K. Paik, S.J. Kim, D.H. Kim, D.C. Kim, P.A. Frieze, M. Abbattista, M. Vallascas & O.F. Hughes

169

J.K. Paik, D.K. Kim, D.H. Park, H.B. Kim, A.E. Mansour & J.B. Caldwell

187

of curved plates

J.-S. Park, M.-S. Chun & Y.-S. Suh

203

corrosion wastage

J.E. Silva, Y. Garbatov & C. Guedes Soares

213

Comparison of numerical results with experiments on ultimate strength of short stiffened panels

M. Xu & C. Guedes Soares

Numerical study of the effect of geometry and boundary conditions on the collapse

behaviour of short stiffened panels

M. Xu & C. Guedes Soares

Hydro-elastoplasticity approach to ships hull girder collapse behavior in waves

W. Xu, K. Iijima & M. Fujikubo

A study on the dynamic buckling strength of containerships bow structures subjected

to bow flare impact force

S.H. Yang, H.L. Chien, C.M. Chou, K.C. Tseng & Y.J. Lee

Ultimate strength of aluminum Y-stiffened panels

M.R. Zareei

221

229

239

249

257

Fatigue strength

Fatigue of high-speed aluminium ships: A master curve formulation

J.H. den Besten & R.H.M. Huijsmans

267

Stress and strain-based approaches for fatigue life evaluation of complex structural details

M. Biot & L. Moro

277

Different finite element refinement strategies for the computation of the strain energy density

in a welded joint

C. Fischer, A. Dster & W. Fricke

289

fillet-welded joints

W. Fricke, M. Codda, O. Feltz, Y. Garbatov, H. Remes, G. Risso, C. Rizzo & J. Romanoff

295

S. Giuglea, A. Chirica, I. Chirica & E.F. Beznea

303

vi

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multiscale approach

H.-L. Jang, M.-G. Kim & S. Cho

311

A study of design loads for fatigue strength utilizing direct calculation under real

operational conditions

M. Oka, T. Takami, Y. Ogawa & K. Takagi

317

The estimation of stress range distribution due to wide banded random loading obtained

by rain-flow counting method

J.B. Park, K.S. Kim & J. Choung

325

at welded joints in ship structure

S. Tanaka, H. Okada & S. Okazawa

335

Ship hull composite plates analysis under blast loads

I. Chirica, D. Boazu, E.F. Beznea & A. Chirica

343

S. Ehlers, D. Poli, A. Klanac & M. Schrder

351

Research on anti-collision capability for double-hull design for the column of semi-submersible

by numerical simulation

Z. Hu, G. Chen & J. Yang

357

Y.T. Huang, K.P. Wu, H.L. Chien, C.M. Chou, K.C. Tseng, C.F. Hung & C.L. Chang

365

T.-H. Nguyen, J. Amdahl, L. Garr & B.J. Leira

373

M. Schttelndreyer, I. Tautz, J.M. Kubiczek, W. Fricke & E. Lehmann

381

K. Tabri & J. Broekhuijsen

391

R. Villavicencio & C. Guedes Soares

399

tanker double bottom structure

R. Villavicencio, C. Guedes Soares, Z. Liu & J. Amdahl

Numerical simulation of laterally impacted clamped circular steel plates

R. Villavicencio, L. Sutherland & C. Guedes Soares

Study on the residual ultimate longitudinal strength of hull girder of a bulk carrier

against a sagging moment after ship collision

Y. Yamada & Y. Ogawa

411

419

429

M.R. Zareei

437

B. Zipfel & E. Lehmann

447

Dynamic analysis

Methods for hull structure strength analysis and ships service life evaluation, under

extreme hydroelastic wave loads, for a large oil-tanker

L. Domnisoru & A. Chirica

Dynamic analysis in the marine environment considering FSIShip-like structure case

A. Martnez Cimadevilla

459

473

vii

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An experimental study on fatigue crack propagation life of T-joint fillet specimen considering

residual stress under storm loading

S.H. Kim, K.S. Kim, J.H. Lee, C.H. Yu & W.H. You

487

S. Peng, H. Sun, J. Yue & W. Wu

495

S. Saad-Eldeen, Y. Garbatov & C. Guedes Soares

503

H. von Selle, O. Doerk, J.K. Kang & J.H. Kim

511

W. Wu, S. Xu, W. Liu, X. Li & J. Yue

521

of IMO type B CCS materials at room and cryogenic temperatures

C.H. Yoo, K.S. Kim, J. Choung, C.S. Shim, J.K. Kang, D.H. Kim, Y.S. Suh, Y.L. Shim,

H.S. Urm, M.S. Kim & G.B. An

527

A study on laser assisted friction stir welding of C-Mn steel plates

P. Biswas & N.R. Mandal

539

T.J. Grafton & J.R. Weitzenbck

549

S. Zacke & W. Fricke

559

Scantling optimization of ship structures considering fatigue at the early design stage

A. Amrane & P. Rigo

569

M. Andr, T. Gaggero & E. Rizzuto

581

Normative framework for noise emissions from ships: Present situation and future trends

A. Badino, D. Borelli, T. Gaggero, E. Rizzuto & C. Schenone

593

M. Biot & L. Moro

603

exact interfaces

H.-S. Kim, M.-G. Kim & S. Cho

611

D. Poli, D. Frank, A. Klanac & S. Ehlers

619

H. Remes, J. Romanoff, P. Varsta, J. Jelovica, A. Klanac, A. Niemel, S. Bralic & H. Naar

625

A. Thiry, F. Bair, L. Buldgen, G. Raboni & P. Rigo

633

M. Yoon, B.-Y. Koo & S. Cho

643

viii

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Combination of primary loading effects under various wave scatter diagrams

N.-Z. Chen, G. Wang, C. Guedes Soares & A.P. Teixeira

651

Y. Garbatov, M. Tekgoz & C. Guedes Soares

659

Safety analyses for bulk carriers using metamodels of still water loads

P. Georgiev

669

A.W. Hussein & C. Guedes Soares

679

Structural optimization of the hold frame of a bulk carrier considering lifecycle risk

Y. Kawamura & M. Miyazaki

691

T. Matsukura, Y. Kawamura & E. Khoo

699

criteria and limits

L. Sanchez, J.W. Ringsberg & E. Johnson

707

V. Wolf, I. Darie & H. Rathje

715

Reliability analysis of marine structural components using statistical data of steel strength

B. Yu & D.G. Karr

723

Author index

731

ix

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Preface

This book collects the papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Marine Structures,

MARSTRUCT 2011, which was held in Hamburg, Germany 28 to 30 March. This Conference follows

up from the initial ones that were held in Glasgow, Scotland and in Lisbon, Portugal, respectively in 2007

and 2009. These conferences aim at bringing together researchers and industrial participants specially

concerned with structural analysis and design of marine structures. Despite the availability of several conferences about ships and offshore structures, it was felt that there was still no conference series specially

dedicated to marine structures, which would be the niche for these conferences.

The initial impetus and support has been given by the Network of Excellence on Marine Structures

(MARSTRUCT), which was funded by the European Union from 2005 to 2010, bringing together

33 European research groups from Universities, research institutions, classification societies and industrial companies that are dedicated to research in the area of marine structures. With the end of this

EU project, a new organisation was created to maintain the cooperation ties among the groups that work

in this general area. The MARSTRUCT Virtual Institute was created in 2010, with the aim of being an

association of research groups interested in cooperating in the field of marine structures. It started with

the same members as the participants in the Network of Excellence but in the near future it is open to

accept the membership of other European groups that have the same aims.

The Virtual Institute is organised in the following Technical Committees:

Methods and tools for strength assessment

Experimental analysis of structures

Materials and fabrication of structures

Methods and tools for structural design and optimisation

Structural reliability, safety and environmental protection

which in turn are divided in subcommittees. The aim is to promote the exchange of information and the

cooperation in these subject areas. This can take the form of promoting comparative or benchmark studies in various subjects, promoting joint research activities and joint research projects, organising short

specialised courses, workshops and conferences.

In particular the Virtual Institute will take the responsibility of organising the MARSTRUCT Conference biannually in different countries, starting from the present one that is already organised in a cooperation between the MARSTRUCT Virtual Institute and the Hamburg University of Technology in a

scheme that is planned to be continued in the future: the Virtual Institute will be responsible for the preparation of the technical programme and processing of the papers and the host country organization will be

responsible for the conference organization and management.

Despite being organised in Europe, this Conference is not meant to be restricted to European attendees

and a serious effort has been made to involve in the planning of the Conference participants from other

continents that could ensure a wider participation, which is slowly happening.

The conference reflects the advances that have been made in the last years within its domain including

the full range of methods and modelling procedures for the structural assessment of marine structures.

Various assessment methods are incorporated in the methods used to analyze and design efficient ship

structures, as well as in the methods of structural reliability to be used to ensure the safety and environmental behaviour of the ships. This book deals also with some aspects of fabrication of ship structures.

This book includes almost 80 papers, which are organised into the themes that correspond to the Virtual

Institute Technical Committees, as listed above. The papers were accepted after a review process, based on

the full text of the papers. Thanks are due to the Technical Programme Committee and to the Advisory

xi

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Committee who had most of the responsibility for reviewing the papers and to the additional anonymous

reviewers who helped the authors deliver better papers by providing them with constructive comments.

We hope that this process contributed to a consistently good level of the papers included in the book.

Carlos Guedes Soares,

Wolfgang Fricke

xii

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Organisation

Conference Chairmen

Prof. Wolfgang Fricke, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany

Prof. Carlos Guedes Soares, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Technical Programme Committee

Prof. N. Barltrop, University of Strathclyde, UK

Prof. I. Chirica, University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Romania

Dr. M. Codda, CETENA, Italy

Prof. P. Das, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

Prof. R. Dow, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, EnglandUK

Prof. Y. Garbatov, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Prof. J. M. Gordo, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Dr. B. Hayman, Det Norske Veritas, Norway

Prof. A. Incecik, University of Strathclyde, UK

Prof. T. Jastrzebski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Poland

Prof. B.J. Leira, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

Dr. S. Malenica, Bureau Veritas, France

Prof. T. Moan, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

Prof. U. Nielsen, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

Prof. J. Ringsberg, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

Prof. P. Rigo, University of Lige, Belgium

Prof. E. Rizzuto, University of Genova, Italy

Prof. J. Romanoff, Aalto University, Finland

Prof. M. Samuelidis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Prof. R.A. Shenoi, University of Southampton, EnglandUK

Prof. M. Taczala, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Poland

Prof. P. Temarel, University of Southampton, UK

Prof. P. Varsta, Aalto University, Finland

Dr. A. Vredeveldt, TNO, The Netherlands

Advisory Committee

Prof. F. Brennan, Cranfield University, UK

Prof. A. Campanile, University of Naples, Italy

Prof. G. Chen, Shanghai Jiaotong University, P.R. China

Dr. F. Cheng, Lloyds Register, UK

Prof. S.-R. Cho, University of Ulsan, Korea

Prof. Y.S. Choo, Nat. Univ. Singapore, Singapore

Prof. W.C. Cui, CSSRC, P.R. China

Prof. C. Daley, Memorial University, Canada

Dr. M. Dogliani, Registro Italiano Navale, Italy

Prof. A. Ergin, ITU, Turkey

Prof. S. Estefen, COPPE/UFRJ, Brazil

Prof. M. Fujikubo, Osaka University, Japan

Prof. T. Fukasawa, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan

Prof. C.-F. Hung, National Taiwan University, Taiwan ROC

xiii

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Prof. H.W. Leheta, Alexandria University, Egypt

Prof. J.K. Paik, Pusan National University, Korea

Dr. N.G. Pegg, DND, Canada

Prof. M. Salas, University Austral of Chile, Chile

Dr. I. Senjanovi, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Dr. R. Skjong, Det Norske Veritas, Norway

Prof. Y. Sumi, Yokohama National University, Japan

Dr. O. Valle Molina, Mexican Inst of Petroleum, Mexico

Dr. P. Videiro, Petrobras, Brazil

Dr. G. Wang, American Bureau of Shipping, USA

Dr. X. Wang, American Bureau of Shipping, USA

Prof. W. Wu, Wuhan University of Technology, P.R. China

Local Organizing Committee

Olav Feltz, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany

Sonja Zacke, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany

Technical Programme Secretariat

Maria de Ftima Pina, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

xiv

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

numerical investigations

Stefano Brizzolara & Diego Villa

Marine CFD GroupFaculty of Engineering, University of Genova, Italy

Thomas Gazzola, Nikita Tryaskin, Nicolas Moirod, Jrme De Lauzon & Louis Diebold

Bureau Veritas, Marine Division, Research Department, Neuilly-Sur-Seine CdxFrance

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a numerical investigation of the influence of raised invar edges on

wet drop tests pressures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capabilities of the CFD software OpenFOAM ([6]) to deal with fluid structure impact problems in the context of sloshing inside membrane

tanks. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate OpenFOAM capabilities for water drop tests simulations

for a smooth wedge on one hand and a wedge equipped with invar edges (like these which equip the Cargo

Containment System NO96 produced by GTT) on the other hand, both falling into calm water without

inclination. The obtained numerical results are then compared to Wagners solution for the smooth wedge

and to experimental measurements for the wedge with edges presented in ([2]). Numerical simulations are

in very good agreement with Wagners solution and experimental results ([2]) showing the OpenFOAM

capability to deal with fluid structure impact problems in the context of sloshing inside membrane tanks.

The agreement between numerical and experimental results confirms also that raised invar edges tend to

enhance the magnitude of sloshing pressures. This confirmation emphasizes the importance of considering the physics of invar edge effects in defining the design pressure to be used in assessing the integrity of

membrane LNG tanks.

1

INTRODUCTION

these raised elements on sloshing pressures, different studies have been carried out. Due to complexity of sloshing model tests using raised edges, most

of these studies consisted in performing wedge

drop tests widely used in the industry as a means

to investigate fluid impact problems. The main

conclusion of these studies was that corrugations

significantly reduced the magnitude of impact

pressures by factors at least 2 when compared to

pressures measured on smooth wedge. The main

explanation for such reduction was the trapped air

cushioning effect.

However, a recent study (0) based on drop tests

and 2D sloshing tests showed that raised elements

effect on sloshing pressures is complex and may

not lead necessarily to lower pressures when compared to the smooth cases.

The purpose of the present paper is first to

check/confirm the findings presented in (0) and

then to evaluate OpenFOAM capability to deal

with complex fluid structure impact problems by

comparing our numerical results to the experimental results (0) for the wet drop tests with &

without invar edges. The calculations presented

in this paper concern only drop tests for wedges

with invar edges like these which equip NO96 CCS

In order to manage the risk of failure due to sloshing, adequate assessment of sloshing loads and

structural capacities are required. Even if the state

of the art of sloshing model tests has improved a

lot these last few yearsby including more physics

such as reproduction of realistic irregular 6 degrees

of freedom motion for the tank, introduction of a

special ullage gas mixture in order to respect the

LNG gas/fluid ratio density in the model tank

some physical phenomena are still not reproduced

in actual sloshing model tests.

Indeed, sloshing model tests are carried out using

tanks with smooth walls. However at prototype

scale, the two widely-used Cargo Containment

Systems (CCS) both have raised elements, corrugations in the case of MarkIII and raised invar

edges in the case of NO96. The MarkIII primary

membrane includes a square pattern of corrugation cells formed by the crossing rows of larger

and smaller corrugations, both with spacings of

roughly 340 mm. In the case of NO96 system,

parallel rows of raised invar edges are present with

spacings of roughly 500 mm and contain the weld

used to join the sheets of invar that make up the

primary membrane.

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Basically a new virtual flux is added to the equation to take in account the moving of the mesh.

That solver use a PISO loop at each time step

to ensure the pressure-velocity coupling. In particular, but an addition correction to the standard

PISO algorithm has been sued to better predict all

the no-linear terms of N-S equations. The time

marching is performed with a Eulerian implicit

approach, that increases the stability of the solution. The linearized system has been solved with

a GAMG (Generalized geometric-algebraic multigrid) for the Poisson equation and with a Smooth

solver (GaussSeidel as smoother) for the N-S equation. This solver use a VoF method to track the

interface between the two fluids, so it solves the

classical VoF equation, where alpha represents

the fraction of fluid present in each cell, and all

the physical quantities representing of the fluids

characteristics are weighted by this fraction.

MarkIII CCS.

Present work is complementary to the long validation study performed on different CFD methods

(unsteady free surface commercial RANSE solvers and proprietary SPH method) with regards to

impact load of different ship like section shapes,

performed within MARSTRUCT activities and

already published in different occasions (0).

2

2.1

in calm water is assumed uncoupled. The body is

rigid, and its position and velocity is prescribed

and imposed.

This impact problem can be solved in several

equivalent ways. It is possible to impose a flow at

a specific velocity that comes upward and hits a

static structure, or to let the structure go down in a

calm flow. The second method was chosen, because

it will offer more possibilities for structure motions

in future studies.

The solver used for this study is interDyMFoam

from OpenFOAM (0). The interDyMFoam is a

solver for two incompressible, isothermal immiscible fluids using a VOF (volume of fluid) phasefraction based interface capturing approach, in a

moving mesh domain. This solver solve the well

know Navier-Stokes equations, recombined for a

moving mesh. Following are presented the equation in the punctual versions and write for a moving control volume:

U = 0

U + U

t

Figure 1.

2.2

ones described in (0). For sake of simplicity, only

the scale 1:6 is here presented in this section. For

the 2 other scales, one should refer to (0).

The set-up of the numerical simulations is the

following:

length of the wedge = 1000 mm

height of the wedge = 100 mm

(2)

(3)

fully convective equation, the interDyFoam use

the MULES method (multidimensional universal

limited explicit solver), that is a new generic solver

for simply convective equations with a bounded

range of free variable values.

(1)

= p + U + f

= UG dV

+ U U dV

= ( +

+

) dV + (

+ = 0

t

= 1 + ( ) 2

= +

) 2

1 (

) dV

Figure 2.

MARSTRUCT.indb 4

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simulations were carried out)

dead rise angle = 10 (to ensure validity of

Wagners solution)

drop height = 0.6 m

On the contrary to experiments presented in

(0) where one side of the wedge is smooth and the

other side equipped with raised edges, two configurations of the wedge were simulated. The first

one without invar edge (smooth case) and the second one with invar edges scaled at 1:6. For both

configurations, a symmetry plan was considered as

shown in Fig. 3 hereafter. In the case of the wedge

with invar edges, the first invar edge is located at

230 mm away from apex of the wedge and the

distance between the two invar edges is 83 mm

like in (0). The locations of the pressure sensors

are chosen accordingly to (0) and are reminded

below. The dimensions are given with respect to

the apex of the wedge.

Three prescribed constant velocities of the

wedge equal to 2.80, 3.43 & 3.96 m.s1 were simulated corresponding to the theoretical free fall

velocities obtained for the 3 drop heights of h = 0.4,

0.6 & 0.8 m. Thus variation of the wedge velocity

during impact is not taken into account.

For the two other scales (1:20 & 1:35), the 3 drop

heights were scaled from the scale 1:6.

Thus in our numerical simulations, the flow is

going from the pressure sensor n1 to the pressure

sensor n18.

3

3.1

Results for the smooth wedge (without invar

edge)

here presented. Our numerical procedure displaces

the mesh at V = 2.80, 3.43 & 3.96 m.s1. The mesh

used for this simulation is figured out below. The

total number of cells used to define this mesh is

equal to 290,000 cells.

For the case of the wedge without invar edge at

scale 1:6 and drop height h = 0.8 m, the pressure

time histories calculated at pressure sensor location (1018) are presented in Figure 4.

In order to validate this CFD numerical solution

obtained with OpenFOAM, this one is compared

with the reference Wagners analytical solution

for the smooth wedge without inclination which

is valid for the studied configuration (0, 0 & 0).

Comparison with experiments presented in (0) is

not possible since no results for the smooth case

are provided in (0). Comparisons of the maximum

peak impact pressures for all the pressure sensors

from #10 to #18 are figured out below for scale 1:6

and the 3 dropping heights. There is an excellent

agreement between the Wagners analytical solution and the CFD solution for the maximum peak

impact pressures. The difference for the maximum

peak impact pressure between the CFD solution

(OpenFOAM) and the Wagners analytical solution does not exceed 3% for the pressure sensors

of interest #10#18. OpenFOAM and Wagner

pressure time histories for the pressure sensor #18

which presents the maximum error (of 3%) in comparison with Wagners solution is figured hereafter

on Fig. 5.

The difference between the CFD solution (blue)

and the Wagners analytical solution (red) arises

when the separation point reaches the end of the

wedge as figured below.

700000

p10

p11

600000

p12

p13

500000

p14

Table 1.

NSensor

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

pressure (Pa)

(290,000 cells), simulation scale 1:6.

Pressure sensors location.

Before 1st edge (mm) Between edges (mm)

151.611

234.611

160.833

243.833

170.056

253.056

179.278

262.278

188.500

271.500

197.722

280.722

206.944

289.944

216.167

299.167

225.389

308.389

NSensor

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

p15

400000

p16

p17

300000

p18

200000

100000

0

100000

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

time (s)

Figure 4. Pressure time histories calculated by OpenFOAM for the smooth wedge, pressure sensors 1018 for

scale 1:6 and h = 0.8 m.

MARSTRUCT.indb 5

2/18/2011 5:39:11 PM

3.2

Wagner s18

OpenFOAM s18

600000

are here presented. Our numerical procedure displaces the mesh at V = 2.80, 3.43 & 3.96 m.s1. The

mesh used for this simulation is figured out below.

The total number of cells used to define this mesh

is equal to 290,000 cells.

For the case of the wedge without invar edge at

scale 1:6 and drop height h = 0.8 m, the pressure

time histories calculated at pressure sensor location (118) are represented in Figures 8.

One can notice that the time pressure histories

signals are noisy. This is the reason why it was

decided to apply a low-pass filter (2.5 kHz, 8th

order Butterworth low pass filter) to these signals.

However, to ensure that this low-pass filter does

not affect the impact peak pressure of interest, this

low-pass filter is applied on the time pressure histories obtained for the smooth wedge which was

validated in the previous section. For instance,

500000

400000

300000

200000

100000

0

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

time histories for pressure sensor 18 for scale 1:6 and

h = 0.8 m.

pressures obtained by OpenFOAM calculations with the

Wagners solution.

1:6, h = 0.4 m

OpenFOAM

Wagner

(OF/Wagner)

Sensor 10

Sensor 11

Sensor 12

Sensor 13

Sensor 14

Sensor 15

Sensor 16

Sensor 17

Sensor 18

310608

311117

314067

315277

319110

319133

317646

318834

319689

311000

311000

311000

311000

311000

311000

311000

311000

311000

0.999

1.000

1.010

1.014

1.026

1.026

1.021

1.025

1.028

1:6, h = 0.6 m

OpenFOAM

Wagner

(OF/Wagner)

Sensor 10

Sensor 11

Sensor 12

Sensor 13

Sensor 14

Sensor 15

Sensor 16

Sensor 17

Sensor 18

466241

465773

470233

472968

480360

481153

478298

479665

480882

467000

467000

467000

467000

467000

467000

467000

467000

467000

0.998

0.997

1.007

1.013

1.029

1.030

1.024

1.027

1.030

1:6, h = 0.8 m

OpenFOAM

Wagner

(OF/Wagner)

Sensor 10

Sensor 11

Sensor 12

Sensor 13

Sensor 14

Sensor 15

Sensor 16

Sensor 17

Sensor 18

623481

623824

628800

632826

642751

643088

638552

640465

642697

622000

622000

622000

622000

622000

622000

622000

622000

622000

1.002

1.003

1.011

1.017

1.033

1.034

1.027

1.030

1.033

more valid when the separation point reaches the end of

the wedge.

pressure history for the pressure sensor #3 for scale

1:6 and h = 0.6 m is figured out below.

The low-pass filter has a limited influence

(experiments post-processing procedure is not

available) on the impact pressure time history for

the case of the smooth wedge (without invar edge).

Therefore, this low-pass filter was also applied to

time pressure histories for all the pressure sensors

for the drop test simulation of the wedge with

invar edges. These filtered time pressure histories

are figured out below.

The Figure 11 depicts the time pressure histories obtained in (0) for one case which is not specified (so the y-axis legend is not given). However, it

is possible to compare both results (Figure 10 &

Figure 11) qualitatively. Doing so, one can notice

that:

The first pressure sensors (before the first edge),

pressures are similar to these ones obtained for the

smooth wedge. This can be explained by the fact

MARSTRUCT.indb 6

2/18/2011 5:39:13 PM

Figure 9. Comparison between raw and filtered (lowpass filter 2.5 kHz) time pressure histories calculated

by OpenFOAM for pressure sensor #3 for the smooth

wedge.

1.2e+006

pressure (Pa)

1e+006

800000

600000

p1

p10

p2

p11

p3

p12

p4

p13

p5

p14

p6

p15

p7

p16

p8

p17

p9

p18

400000

200000

wedge with invar edges (290,000 cells).

0.005

1.4e+006

pressure (Pa)

1.2e+006

1e+006

800000

p1

p10

p2

p11

p3

p12

p4

p13

p5

p14

p6

p15

p7

p16

p8

p17

p9

p18

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.01

time (s)

by OpenFOAM for all pressure sensors. Drop test simulation of the wedge with invar edges for scale 1:6 and

h = 0.8 m.

1.8e+006

1.6e+006

0.006

600000

400000

200000

0

200000

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

time (s)

1.6e+006

1.4e+006

pressure (Pa)

1.2e+006

1e+006

800000

p1

p10

p2

p11

p3

p12

p4

p13

p5

p14

p6

p15

p7

p16

p8

p17

p9

p18

Figure 11.

upstream pressure sensors.

OpenFOAM well predicts the over peak impact

pressure (in comparison with smooth wedge) before

the first edge (see sensor #8 & #9).

OpenFOAM well predicts the under peak impact

pressure (in comparison with smooth wedge) just

after the first edge (see sensor #10 & #11).

OpenFOAM well predicts the over peak impact

pressure (in comparison with smooth wedge)

before the second edge (see sensor #17 & #18).

600000

400000

200000

0

-200000

0.004

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.01

0.011

time (s)

calculated by OpenFOAM. Drop test simulation of the

wedge with invar edges (zoom for the right figure).

MARSTRUCT.indb 7

2/18/2011 5:39:15 PM

wedge equipped with invar edges was performed

and the obtained time pressure histories were

analysed. As these time pressure histories signals

are noisy, it was decided to filter these signals with

a low-pass filter (2.5 kHz, 8th order Butterworth).

In order to quantify the influence of this low-pass

filtering on peak impact pressures of interest, this

filter was applied on the time pressure histories

obtained for the smooth wedge. It was then shown

that this low-pass filtering has a limited influence

on peak impact pressures of interest.

Then, the time pressure histories were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the

experimental ones obtained in (0). The agreement

is very good considering the complexity of such

simulation.

As a conclusion, it can be said that OpenFOAM

can be used to simulate drop tests simulations not

only for smooth wedge but also for wedge equipped

with invar edges which represent a much more

complicated case. The next step is to perform drop

tests simulations for wedges equipped with corrugations (like these which equip the Cargo Containment System MarkIII produced by GTT).

Ratio (invar/smooth)

2.5

1:6, 0.4m

1:6, 0.6m

1:6, 0.8m

1:20, 0.12m

1.5

1:20, 0.18m

1:20, 0.24m

1

1:35, 0.069m

1:35, 0.086m

1:35, 0.103m

0.5

Experimental

0

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

experimental (0) (black line) maximum impact pressures ratios between wedge with invar edges and the

smooth one.

3.3

All these qualitative observations can be quantified by comparing the ratio between the filtered

maximum pressures for the wedge with invar edges

and the Wagners solution as it is done in (0).

The agreement between OpenFOAM and Exxon

experiments (0) curves is satisfactory. Furthermore,

precise information on the experimental procedure

and its post-processing lack to perform clearer

quantitative conclusions. Hence, we can conclude

that OpenFOAM well predicts qualitatively and

quantitatively the peak impact pressures for the

drop test simulation of a wedge equipped with

invar edges.

4

REFERENCES

Gazzola, T. Contribution au problme dimpact non

linaire: le problme de Wagner coupl, Ecole Centrale Paris 2007 (written in English).

He, H., Kuo, J.F., Rinehart, A. & Yung, T.W. Influence of Raised Invar Edges on Sloshing Impact

Pressures, 1st Sloshing Dynamics Symposium,

ISOPE 2009, Vol. 3, www.isope.org

Molin, B. Hydrodynamique des Structures Offshore,

Editions Technip.

OpenFOAM, v.1.7.1, www.openfoam.com

Viviani, M., Brizzolara, S. & Savio, L. Evaluation

of slamming loads using smoothed particle hydrodynamics and Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes

methods. Journal of engineering for the maritime

environment, 2009, 223:1731, ISSN: 1475-0902, doi:

10.1243/14750902 JEME131.

Wagner, H. ber Stoss und Gleitvorgnge an der Oberflche von Flssigkeite , ZAMM, Vol. 12, 193215.

CONCLUSIONS

findings presented in (0) from one hand and to

evaluate the capabilities of the CFD software

OpenFOAM to deal with fluid structure impact

problems in the context of sloshing inside membrane tanks from the other hand.

More precisely, the objective was to evaluate

OpenFOAM capabilities for drop tests simulations

for a smooth wedge on one hand and a wedge

equipped with invar edges (like these which equip

the Cargo Containment System NO96 produced

by GTT) on the other hand, both falling into calm

water without inclination.

In section 3-1, the drop test simulation of the

smooth wedge was performed and the obtained

time pressure histories were then compared to the

Wagners analytical solution (valid for this studied

configuration). The agreement between the two

solutions is excellent and thus OpenFOAM drop

test simulation for smooth wedge is validated.

MARSTRUCT.indb 8

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

to a ship in waves

Christian Cabos, Boris Dilba, Matthias Krmer & Anne Schwenkenberg

Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg, Germany

ABSTRACT: We present a modal approach to the coupled computation of the fluid flow and the

motion and elastic deformation of a floating body. For the fluid part, i.e. the transient viscous free surface flow around the structure, the open souce code OpenFOAM is adopted. For the structure part, i.e.

the fully non-linear six degree of freedom rigid body motion and the linear elastic deformations due to

the forces exerted by the fluid on the structure, an in-house code has been developed and linked to the

OpenFOAM solver. An algorithm maps fluid forces to the finite element model nodes of the structure

and maps the structure motion/deformations to the vertices of the fluid grid. In our modal approach,

the structure deformation is represented by a linear combination of a small number of precomputed

modes (in the current study, the eigenmodes of the structure), resulting in an ODE for the modal coefficients. This approach proves to be computationally efficient: on the one hand, the size of the equation

system is much smaller than the full finite element equations, on the other hand, the restriction to lowfrequency eigenmodes suppresses high-frequency oscillations encountered in direct FE computations,

allowing for larger time step sizes and in general a more stable coupling. Also, suitable selection of the

modes allows for focussing on critical structure deformations e.g. for fatigue assessment. To this end,

deformations corresponding to the most relevant load cases according to classification rules can be used

as modes, too.

1

INTRODUCTION

such a model can however lead to high numerical

effort on the one hand because of the large size of

the structural system of equations but on the other

hand since high mesh density can lead to unnecessarily small time steps in the time integration. For

the latter reasons, the elastic deformation of the

vessel is here approximated through a few deformation modes of the global finite element model

only. The structural equations are described in

chapter 2 of this paper.

For analysing slamming events for a ship in

waves, non-linearities in the computation of the

fluid flow should be considered. In particular

computation in the time domain has advantages in

this case. For this reason, in this paper the Finite

Volume method is applied to solve the Reynolds

Averaged Navier Stokes Equations, see chapter 3.

For the solution of the coupled equation systems, the partitioned approach is used, i.e. separate

solvers for the fluid and the structure are called in

an iterative fashion, (see (Matthies, Niekamp, and

Steindorf 2006) and the references therein for an

introduction).

Mesh densities of the water near the ship and

of the wet part of the shell need not agree. This

is due to the differing typical wave lengths in both

elasticity of a ship when computing behaviour in

waves, are important in particular when analysing

slamming events. Here, dynamic amplification of

the lowest global elastic eigenmodes of the vessel

(whipping) can occur. Since in this case fluid flow

and elastic deformation of the ship significantly

influence each other, the governing equations need

to be solved in a coupled fashion.

Because the global whipping deformations are

small compared to the ship length, linear elasticity suffices to describe the deformation of the vessel. On the other hand, translations and rotations

of the rigid ship can be significant; the rigid body

motion of the ship is therefore handled non-linearly

in this paper.

The elastic deformation of a ship and its resulting stresses can be represented through a finite

element model of the vessel. Different approaches

are possible concerning the mesh density. On the

coarsest scale, the ship can be represented by a few

beam elements, see (Oberhagemann, el Moctar, and

Schellin 2008). In order to also assess the torsional

deformations and e.g. local stress concentrations,

a global finite element as commonly used for

MARSTRUCT.indb 9

2/18/2011 5:39:22 PM

motions but only small elastic deformations, a

body fixed reference frame for solving the structural equations of motion will be chosen such that

the modal coefficients r1, , r6 for the rigid body

modes are zero in the body fixed system. Due to

the movement of the body fixed coordinate system, additional inertial forces will result. In the

following sections, the terms inertial, global

resp. body fixed, local, moving will be used

synonymously.

To derive the equation of motion in this moving coordinate system we first consider the inertia forces acting on a structure as a consequence

of the moving reference frame. For this, is the

translatory acceleration of the local coordinate

represent

system in local coordinates and and

the angular velocity and acceleration of the coordinate system about its origin in local coordinates.

According to (Argyris and Mlejnek 1988) the inertial forces are then given by

structure will not be compatible at their interface

in general. As a result a procedure is introduced to

transfer pressures to the hull and displacements to

the water between differing meshes. The coupling

procedure and the employed mapping algorithm

are described in section 4.

2

STRUCTURAL PART

Assuming linear elasticity the 3D FEM discretization of the vessel leads to the well known equation

of motion

M + Cu + Ku = F(t)

(1)

represent the mass, damping and stiffness matrix,

F is the external load vector and u is the vector of

displacements. Its first and second derivative represent the velocity and acceleration, respectively.

In this paper, the structural displacements of the

hull will be approximated by a linear combination

of vectors i (called modes in the following)

R ( H + Z )r + Gr + M

Mr

(6)

G, and M denote

u( x t )

( x )i ri (t ) = ( x )r(t ).

(2)

i =1

x ) + ( x ) dV ,

U + (

to represent the rigid body motion of the ship. The

time dependent modal coefficients ri, i = 1, , n are

assembled in the vector

r = [ri, , rn]T

(3)

(

)dV ,

(8)

(9)

(4)

Gr = 2 T ( )dV r,

A good choice for representing the global deformation of the ship typically are the lowest eigenmodes which result from the modal decomposition

of the homogeneous, undamped and unsupported

system

M + Ku = 0.

Zr = T [ ( )]dV r,

= [1, , n].

(7)

(10)

M

(5)

dV .

(11)

All terms of the equation of motion in the moving coordinate system have been given above for

completeness. In ship applications, however, the

forces resulting from the terms containing G, H,

and Z are typically negligibly small whereas R

results in a significant contribution.

Now adding the stiffness

shapes i, i =1n and the corresponding circular

eigenfrequencies i, i = 1n. Note that since the

ship is assumed to be unsupported i = 0, i = 16

corresponding to six rigid body modes. While conceptually similar to generalized or principal

coodinates in classical mechanics, we prefer the

term modal coefficients in order to stress the

approximation by a small number of modes.

dV

(12)

10

MARSTRUCT.indb 10

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forces into modes leads to the equation of motion

in modal coordinates in the moving coordinate

system

generalized eigenproblem

) Z ( )]r

Mr + [C G ()]

)]r [ K + H (

= T FdA

d

R( , , U ).

by requiring

(K 2M)

(13)

det (K 2M) = 0,

If the modes used for the projection are normalized and orthogonal with respect to the mass

matrix, M becomes the unit matrix. In case moreover global vibration eigenmodes are chosen, K is

the diagonal matrix of the squared circular eigenfrequencies i2. Damping is then typically chosen

as applied for a global ship vibration analysis, i.e.

as a percentage of critical damping applied to the

respective mode (see e.g. (Asmussen, Menzel, and

Mumm 2001)).

Introducing the abbreviations

C* () = C + G(),

*

( , )

( )

Z ( ) ,

, U )

F (t )dA

d

R(,

22

, U ).

Mr + C ( )r + K ( , ))r = R (t, ,

*

2k

= (1, 2 ) =

(1/ 2 )( 1, 1)T .

1 1 1

2 m 1 1

(15)

matrix, i.e.

(16)

iT M j = iijj ,

where ij denotes the Kronecker delta. Substituting u = r and multiplying by T, the equation of

motion (1) becomes the modal equation of motion

(17)

Note that the projected matrices can be computed efficiently before the time integration, i.e. no

matrix vector products with the full system matrices are required during time integration.

Solution of equation (17) requires a nonlinear

solver, because of the constraints ri = 0, i = 1, , 6

are unknown for

and the fact that , , and

the specific timestep. The solution procedure is

described in more detail in section 2.4.

T Mr + T Kr

= T F ,

with the modal mass matrix

M = TM = diag (1,1)

and the modal stiffness matrix

K = T K = diag (

2

1,

2

2 ).

acceleration , i.e. x = u + (1,1)TU, where u denotes

the nodal degrees of freedom of the finite element

model and U denotes the rigid body translation,

the nodal force vector becomes

of mass m, connected by a spring of stiffness k,

resulting in a two degree-of-freedom (each nodes

translation in the direction of the spring) system

represented by the mass matrix

F F M( , )T U.

m 0

=

0 m

of motion in the body fixed reference frame are:

k

K=

k

The modes

*

(14)

K +H

, , U )

R* (t,

12

2m r1

k

.

k

r2 +

2k

r2 =

m

2mU

2 mU,

1

( F2

2m

F1 ).

(18)

(19)

11

MARSTRUCT.indb 11

2/18/2011 5:39:25 PM

modal coefficient r1 referring to the rigid body

motion is zero at all times, according to eq. (18),

the rigid body acceleration is

A

t

elas

R

rb

bm

elas rbm 7..n

t

=

+

r t

Relas

Mela

l s

F F2

U = 1

,

2m

7..n

Aelas rbm

= Rrbm Celas rbm r 7t ..nt

m rt

second order accuracy by canonical choice of

parameters) is applied to (17). Introducing the

abbreviations

(

)

t

0M

a1C (

t) K (

),

t

= a1rt

+ a4 rt

t + a5 rt t ,

(21)

rt

= a0rt

+ a2 rt

t + a3 rt t

(22)

)r = R (

t

t t

+ M

rt

U )

t

t

t + C ( t )r t

t ,

(23)

depend on the time step size t.

As a result taking the rigid body modes

into account equation (23) can be subdivided

according to rigid body motion and elastic

deformations

A

Aelas rbm

rbm

r

AT

Aelas t

elas rbm

R

M

Meelas rbm

rb

bm

rrbm

=

+ T

R

M

Meelas r t t

elas

elas rbm

C

Ceelas rbm

rbm

+ T

.

Celas r t t

Celas rbm

(26)

7..n

rt 7..nt + Celas

e asrt t .

(27)

In order to solve these equations the kinetic vari and U have to be known. Furthermore

ables ,

the time-variant rotation matrix S transforming

local to global coordinates is required due to the

fact that the hydrodynamic forces are determined

in the global reference frame; hence there is the

need to transform into the body fixed coordinate

system. Determining the kinetic variables is a nonlinear problem which can be solved by exploiting equation (26). Here we take into account that

the rigid body motion is affected by the elastic

deformation represented by the coupling terms

denoted by subscript elasrbm in equation (26).

According to this, the solution procedure will be

nested.

of motion

A(

(25)

and

(20)

rt

eelas

l rbm

b 7..n

.

Ceelas r t t

describe the influence of the elastic deformation

on the rigid body motion. Taking into account that

the mass matrix term Melasrbm is equal to zero and

Melas is the identity matrix due to the normalized

eigenmode vectors and time independence, integrating (13) with Newmarks method is equivalent

to solve

nodal forces. On the other hand, according to

eq. (19), the modal coefficient r2 referring to elastic

deformation is subject to a forced oscillation driven

by the difference of the nodal forces.

2.2

A popular method to determine the rotation matrix

in body dynamics is the successive execution of

three elementary rotations where the rotation

matrix is described by three parameters. The most

popular parametrizations are the Euler-Angles

and the Cardan-Angles. Here, a three parameter

approach is applied with elementary rotations

about z, y' and x" axes corresponding to yaw, pitch

and roll motion. The primes denote the axes of the

one time rotated system and the two time rotated

system, respectively. Summarizing the three rotation angles in the vector of generalized coordinates

[ , , ]T the rotation matrix S reads

(24)

in the local reference frame the modal coefficients

r1..6 corresponding to the rigid body modes have to

be 0. Dropping the first six columns of the matrices

reduces equation (24) to

S() = Sz(1)Sy'(2)Sx"(3).

(28)

12

MARSTRUCT.indb 12

2/18/2011 5:39:31 PM

, are related by

velocity and acceleration

= JR ( ) ,

(29)

= J ( ) + K ( , ) ,

R

R

(30)

4. start newton iteration until convergence, i.e.

solve (33) for ,

5. integrate in order to determine U and U

,

in order to determine a d

6. integrate

build new rotation matrix S

) denote the Jacobian

matrix of rotation and the derivate of

are the first and second time

( R ) and ,

derivates of the generalized coordinate vector .

are stated in global coordinates

Note that and

in time with the trapat this point. Integrating

ezoidal rule leads to the velocity of the generalized

coordinate vector

t = t t +

t

(

t

2

t ).

t +

The open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver OpenFOAM, which is based

on the Finite Volume Method, is adopted for the

fluid part. OpenFOAM (www.openfoam.com) features the computation of the free surface between

two media (here, air and water) according to the

Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method. This method is

based on the solution of a transport equation for

the volume fraction of one medium, where the convective term is discretized in a manner that on the

one hand maintains a sharp interface between volume fraction one and zero and on the other hand

guarantees that the volume fraction is bounded

between one and zero. The remaining transport

equations (mass conservation, momentum conservation, etc.) are solved for an effective fluid whose

properties (density, viscosity) result from an volume fraction weighted average of the properties of

the individual media.

These transport equations are solved in a

sequentiell manner, i.e. each transport equation

is solved for the variable which is governed by the

particular equation while the other variables are

kept unchanged. These sequence is repeated in

each time step as outer iterations (in contrast to

the inner iterations denoting the iterative solution

of sparse linear equation systems that result from

spatial discretization of the transport equation)

until convergence is achieved.

Coupling between fluid flow and structure

motion/deformation can be explicit (once per

time step) or implicit (once per outer iteration).

Implicit coupling is achieved by simply solving for

the modal co-efficients and adjusting the boundary vertices of the CFD grid in each outer iteration

until convergence is achieved even considering the

boundary movement.

In order to generate waves, velocities at the corresponding inlet boundaries and the elevation of the

free surface is given according to Stokes wave theory of 2nd order. Whereas a hydrostatic pressure is

assumed at the outlet boundaries. Wave reflections

at the boundaries are avoided by introducing damping zones near to the corresponding boundaries. The

hydrodynamic forces acting at the interface between

fluid and structure are obtained by integrating pressure and shear stress over the common surface.

(31)

the generalized coordinate vector

t = t t +

2.4

t

( t

2

t + t ).

(32)

Solution procedure

frame leads to the time stepping scheme given by

are substituted by

(26) and (27). When and

according to (29) and (30) and moreover (31) and

(32) are used in (26) and (27), the result of (26) is

a nonlinear system for the 6 unknown kinetic vari

ables and

F (U t

t) =

Rrbm (U t t ) + Celas

7..n

Aela

l s rbm ( t )rt

= 0.

rbm (

FLUID PART

7..n

t )r t t

(33)

Newtons method is applied in a classical way where

the Jacobian matrix is built up in every iteration

step. Damping (halve the correction) is applied if

the minimizing functional doesnt decrease. Due to

the use of the iterative solver the coupling terms can

be considered easily by embracing them when varying the variables to establish the Jacobian matrix.

This means that (27) can be treated as a common

linear system once the kinetic variables and

are known. Taking the last solution as initial guess,

quadratic convergence can be obtained. The nested

solution procedure can be summarized as follows:

1. set start values: Ut0 Utnt,

t0 =

tnt

2. solve (27) for rt0,7..n

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strong coupling with underrelaxation is applied

due to the permanent failure in the kinematic

consistency made when using weak coupling. In

order to exchange information at the interface the

circumstances of non-matching grids have to be

considered. Strategies to map variables between the

domains are described in the following subsection,

see (Eisen and Cabos 2007) for more detail.

class library, that is used to compose (in a very

high-level way) a main program that is tailored for

a specific flow situation and has to be compiled

and linked against the library in order to build the

solver executable. This software architecture allows

for easy embedding of the structure solver that has

been implemented as an in-house library.

Prior to the current implementation with OpenFOAM, the now discontinued commercial CFD

system COMET (www.cd-adapco.com), which is

in methology and features similar to OpenFOAM,

has been used for a prototype implementation of

the presented methodology. The numerical example in section 5 was computed with the COMET

implementation.

4

and structural displacements

The CFD solver yields a pressure and velocity

field at the interface on the cell faces. Integrating

pressures and stresses over these faces results in a

force field where the forces are composed according to

COUPLING OF FLUID

AND STRUCTURE SOLVER

fi = piai + fi,shear.

scaled by its area and pi is the corresponding

pressure. pi as well as i are located at the face

center xi. The task is to determine FE nodes and

distribute the pressure forces onto those nodes

such that the sum of output forces equals the FE

input forces while conserving the pressure induced

moment acting on the FE model.

On the other hand fluid cells at the interface have

to be adapted according to the structure deformation. Due to the fact that the hydrodynamic forces

are mapped according to the face center, a direct

inversion of this mapping isnt applicable to determine the face defining node displacements at the

interface. Furthermore a fluid mesh smoothing

strategy is needed to maintain grid quality and

prevent cell deterioration.

information exchange between the FVM and

FEM at the interface. To maintain kinematic and

dynamic consistency at the interface the Dirichlet

(

(t, )))

u( )

0 ,t [ 0

(34)

and Neumann

f (t )n S (t y )n y t [ 0 T ]

(36)

(35)

boundary conditions have to be fulfilled. Generally the Dirichlet boundary condition (34) will be

gained by determining the structural displacements

which will be derived and adopted in the CFD simulation. Whereas integrating the left hand side of

the Neumann boundary conditions (35) over the

fluid interface results in the hydrodynamic forces

acting on the structure. The organization of the

information exchange at the boundary influences

the accuracy of the results and affects the stability of the coupled simulation as well. Keeping in

mind the non-matching grids at the interface and

the need to interpolate variables from one domain

into the other these conditions cant be fulfilled

exactly.

In the partioned fluid structure interaction

approach two major coupling strategies are

applied namely the weak and strong coupling.

They differ in the information exchange frequency

per time step which influences the fulfillment of

kinematic and dynamic consistency at the interface (34) and (35). Weak (explict) coupling has

only one boundary condition exchange per time

step whereas strong (implicit) coupling has several

exchanges a time step depending on the number of

iteration steps per time step performed for solving

Since typically the fluid mesh is finer than the FE

mesh, only single finite elements will receive forces

related to a particular force result point. The condition to conserve hydrodynamic force fi at location

xi when mapping on nodes xi,n of an FE element

reads as follows

fi

fi ,n

(37)

fi ,n

xi ,n xi ) = 0.

(38)

fi,n = wi,n fi

(39)

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weights are determined by the FE element shape

functions. All nodes of an FE element will receive

forces with the same direction parallel to fi.

4.1.2 Mapping of structural displacements

In order to adapt the interface according to the

structural deformation, displacements of FE

nodes have to be mapped onto corresponding fluid

cell nodes at the interface. For this the mapping

between hydrodynamic forces and structure loads

can be exploited. First determine the displacements of the force result points located at the face

center by using the weights wi,n

upres

wi ,nui ,n .

(40)

Figure 1.

Iterative loop.

subject for the mapping of the force result point.

Every fluid node at the interface will be adjusted

according to the weighted adjoining pressure result

node displacements

ufluid = wj u j pres ,

to a large container vessel (L = 294 m) at Froude

number / gL = 0.17 in both head (180) and

oblique (140) second order stokes waves of 335 m

length and 8.3 m amplitude. The following figures

show some results. In Fig. 2, the fluid-structure

boundary regions of the CFD grid and the finite

element model at the bow area of the ship are displayed. Obivously, the grids do not match, e.g. at the

bow, quadrilateral cell faces in the CFD grid correspond to a somewhat coarser triangulation in the

FE model. For this reason, the mapping routines

described in section 4 have been applied in order to

transfer forces and deformations between the CFD

and FE representations of the vessel. In Fig. 3, the

elastic modes that are used to describe the linear

elastic deformation of the vessel are displayed.

These are the lowest elastic eigenmodes that correspond to torsion (mode 7), horizontal bending

(8), vertical bending (9), and a higher hull girder

vibration mode (10). The displayed graphs indicate

that for wave lengths not smaller than the vessels

length, these modes suffice to capture the global deformation in oblique seas, reducing the

number of degrees for the computation of the

elastic deformation from several thousands for

the full finite element equations to only four for

the modal approach. To verify this, a convergence

analysis comparing these results with an approximation using a higher number of eigenmodes,

could be performed. In Fig. 4, the vessels rigid

body motion due to head waves is displayed both

with and without the effect of structural elasticity. It is demonstrated, that (for head waves) the

influence of elasticity on rigid body motion is very

small. In Fig. 5, temporal variation of the elastic

modal coefficients and, for reference, the pitch

angle is displayed for head waves. It can be seen

(41)

the distance to the fluid node.

4.2

been moved according to the structure motion/

deformation, the interior fluid grid has to be

smoothed in order to prevent cell deterioration

and to maintain grid quality. While this has been

a major task (both conceptually and computationally) in the past involving e.g. Finite Element computation of an auxiliary spring system representing

the fluid grid, OpenFOAM now provides a robust

and efficient grid smoothing algorithm.

4.3

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

presented method which leads to the loop in

Figure(1) when integrating the structure solver

in the iterative solution procedure of the Navier

Stokes equation. This loop is cycled as many times

as outer iterations per time step are performed

for the fluid solution. If the maximum number of

outer iterations is reached it is advanced to the next

time step by setting new boundary conditions for

wave generation. To stabilize the whole solution

process in case of implicit (strong) coupling under

relaxation is applied.

15

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and finite element model (right) at the bow area of the

vessel. As resolution differs between grids, sophisticated

mapping for forces and displacements has to be applied.

Figure 5. Pitch angle (scaled) b and elastic modal coefficients r7, , r10 in head waves. Vertical bending (mode 9)

is clearly dominant.

lowest elastic eigenmodes refer to torsion, horizontal

bending, vertical bending, and finally a higher hull girder

vibration mode.

Figure 6. Elastic modal coefficients r7, , r10, velocities,

and accelerations in oblique waves. Besides vertical bending (mode 9), torsion (mode 7) and horizontal bending

(mode 8) are significantly excited, whereas higher hull

girder vibration (mode 10) is not significant.

horizonzal bending are clearly present, whereas

higher hull girder vibration remains negligible.

6

Figure 4. Comparison of rigid body motion in head

waves with and without consideration of elastic deformation. Rigid body motion is hardly affected by elastic

deformation.

CONCLUSIONS

interaction problem in ship design has been presented. It is characterized by the approximation of

the structural deformation by a number of modes.

This serves three purposes,

that vertical bending is the only mode that is significantly excited. This is the expected behavior for

head waves. Also, this modal coefficient closely follows the pitch angle as the driving mechanism for

vertical bending. On the other hand, for oblique

waves, other modes become significant. In Fig. 6,

the modal coefficients for the elastic modes are

degrees of freedom of the distretized structural

equation system,

the suppression of high frequency contents of

the structural deformation which might lead to

overly small limits on the time step size, and

16

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deformations for each mode and therefore to

avoid solving artificial elastic problems for the

fluid mesh in each time step.

REFERENCES

Argyris, J. & Mlejnek, H.-P. (1988). Die Methode der

Finiten Elemente, Band III - Einfhrung in die Dynamik.

Braunschweig: Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn.

Asmussen, I., Menzel, W. & Mumm, H. (2001). GL

Technology, Ship Vibration. Technical report, Germanischer Lloyd.

Eisen, H. & Cabos, C. (2007). Efficient generation of cfdbased loads for the fem-analysis of ship structures. In

International Conference on Computer Applications in

Shipbuilding, Portsmouth.

Matthies, H.G., Niekamp, R. & Steindorf, J. (2006).

Algorithms for strong coupling procedures. Computer

Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering

195(1718), 20282049.

Oberhagemann, J., el Moctar, O. & Schellin, T. (2008).

Fluid-structure coupling to assess whipping effects on

global loads of a large containership. In 27th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Seoul.

of motion for the ship must be solved in the moving

coordinate system. This leads to full system matrices which depend on the ship translational acceleration and rotational velocity and acceleration.

The additional computational effort for these small

nonlinear sets of equations is nevertheless small,

since only few modes are applied. The rigid body

motion is also a result of this set of equations.

Compared to earlier approaches relying on a

beam approximation of the ship, torsional elastic

deformations can be considered. This is important

especially for large container vessels due to their

comparatively low torsional stiffness.

To improve the proposed method, future work

should focus on practical procedures for choosing

those modes, which are sufficient to describe the

most important effects of the structural deformation. In particular, the choice of global modes has

the natural limit of neglecting stresses due to local

effects. For this purpose, local deformation modes

of the particular structural elements could be

added to the set of global analysis modes.

17

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

hull strength monitoring system

A. Grasso & A. Vergine

RINA Services S.p.A., Genova, Italy

National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

A. Ferrari

DAppolonia S.p.A., Genova, Italy

ABSTRACT: The paper presents the design of two prototypes of a hull monitoring system which

employs temperature compensated laser based optical sensors. The prototypes have been developed for

a double side bulk carrier and an ice class tug boat. A set of finite element calculations has been carried

out for defining the optimum sensors installation areas in each ship. Preliminary tests on the algorithms

developed for the software onboard and a first analysis of a set of data measured on the tug boat are

reported.

1

INTRODUCTION

structural health assessment are described. Particularly, on the bulk carrier the software correlates measured strains with hull girder bending

moments, while on the tug it estimates maximum

stress levels on selected areas of the hull structure

when the tug operates as an icebreaker. FE analyses have been used for deriving the correlation

between the measured strains and the maximum

stress for the tug and for a preliminary test of the

algorithm employed on the bulk carrier.

The prototypes have been installed on the vessels and preliminary results related to the tug boat

are presented.

a hull monitoring system that have been developed

within the MOSES project Innovative Continuum

Multiplex Optical Sensors hull stress monitoring

system, supporting shipping safety and Enhancing the control capability over structural Ship

integrity.

Two vessels, within the fleets of owners that

are partners of the project (Premuda and PKL

AS), have been selected for testing the prototypes:

a double side bulk carrier and an ice class tug boat.

Considering the characteristics of each vessel,

it has been decided to design the systems for monitoring primarily:

length and local stresses in selected hot spots for

the bulk carrier;

Stresses in the bow area due to ice pressure loads

and stresses on the forward winch deck support

structure for the tug.

worldwide in the period from 1994 to 2002: a significant percentage of such incidents are caused by

structural problems. Hull stresses due to loading,

or stresses imparted by wave and adverse weather

conditions constitute primary source of risk to

all types of ships with a large hull. Bulk carriers,

large oil tankers (Eliopoulou & Papanikolaou

2007, Papanikolaou et al. 2007), container ships,

LNG carriers and RoRo are vessel types particularly subject to such type of risks. Due to concerns

about safety at sea, International Maritime Organization (IMO) has issued in 1994 a recommendation

A set of finite element calculations has been carried out for defining the optimum sensors installation areas in each ship and results are presented.

Stress distributions in these regions have been analyzed in order to identify the best locations for the

installation of strain measuring devices, as well as

their proper gage length.

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could have a complete understanding of the actual

values of still water bending moments, which could

be compared with the ones expected. Moreover,

fatigue cycles on selected structural details can

be monitored, gathering information about the

fatigue status of the vessel. Benefits are hence

associated with immediate increase in safety of the

ship, during loading as well as in shipping conditions, reduction of casualties, extended service life

of vessel, and targeted maintenance directed to

overcome the damages detected by the monitoring

system.

with a hull stress monitoring system (IMO 1994).

The concept of MOSES projectInnovative

continuum Multiplex Optical SEnsors hull Stress

monitoring systemis to apply highly knowledgebased methods to achieve control of loads in the

whole extension of the ship hull, using temperature compensated laser based optical sensors.

The employment of optical-fibre based architectures in hull stress monitoring systems was still

considered beyond commercial state of the art for

conventional metal ships in 1997 (Slaughter et al.

1997). The first systems adopting this technology

have been installed in Europe at the beginning of

this decade (Sagvolden et al. 2002) and nowadays

their commercial employment is growing. The

advantages of this technology rely mainly on:

high mechanical, chemical and temperature resistance of optic sensors (ideal for ship structures

and long term permanent structural health

monitoring);

immunity of the system to electromagnetic and

radio frequency interference;

intrinsic safety in hazardous areas, as sensors do

not employ electrical components;

accuracy and quality of the signal;

capability of being employed on long distances.

2.1

ON THE BULK CARRIER

Expected features

been decided to design the system for monitoring:

Hull girder bending moments along the ship

length;

Local stresses in selected hot spots.

Sensors for estimating hull girder shear forces

have been also installed in two sections.

This prototype of the system aims mainly at

monitoring and storing the global bending moments

and informing the ships Master if their values

exceed a predefined threshold. Actually, information on shear forces and hot spot stresses are to be

stored in order to be analyzed ashore for estimating

the condition of the structure under surveillance.

The monitoring software has been also linked

to the loading instrument, in order to provide,

if requested during loading and unloading, an

instantaneous comparison between the expected

and measured values of vertical bending moment.

of the working environment, in terms of ruggedness, reliability, response accuracy, resistance to

electromagnetic interference and multiplex connection capability. Their development, not described

in the present paper, has been based on laser signal

transmission with optical fibres, exploiting Fibre

Bragg Grating (FBG) or Fabry-Perot interferometer diffraction effect, a technology already applied

in other fields (Majumder et al. 2008), like civil

engineering (Li et al. 2004, Maaskant et al. 1997)

and composite materials structural monitoring

(Silva-Muoz & Lopez-Anido 2009, de Oliveira

et al. 2008).

The project objectives involved sensor development, FEM structural calculations and data conditioning, to grant the applicability to the widest

types of ships. The new system, developed for an

operational employment, aims at providing more

accurate and reliable data for assessing hull structural condition, identifying damages at early stage

through direct readings or through analysis which

correlates the reading to the most severely stressed

areas. The design should allow achieving this goal

minimizing the number of sensors installed.

In heavy weather, the information provided by

the system should help the ship Master taking decisions regarding the optimum speed, heading and

ballast condition to avoid excessive wave-induced

bending or, eventually, local overloads. Similarly,

2.2

A preliminary analysis has been carried out considering a set of load cases derived from four mutually exclusive load combinations referred to three

loading conditions, which are:

Full load (departure), with the holds fully filled;

Full load (departure), with Cargo = 3 t/m3;

Ballast (departure).

The combinations of loads are provided in

RINA Rules for structural analysis (RINA 2010)

and are generally employed for structural element

analyses which do not require complete ship models. These load cases take into account also wave

induced hull girder loads, inertial loads due to ship

accelerations and static pressures induced by an

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and inclined conditions.

Only three cargo holds have been modeled, with

the center one actually analyzed. The three dimensional model is assumed to be fixed at its aft end,

while at its fore end rigid constraint conditions

have been applied to all nodes located on longitudinal members, in such a way that the transverse

section remains plane after deformation. Hull

girder loads have been forced at a selected section

of the central hold, applying adjustment loads

to the fore section of the model. Particularly, the

total vertical bending moment has been forced, for

each loading condition, in the section experiencing

the maximum value of still water bending moment.

Figure 1 shows distributions of vertical bending

moments due to steel weight, local loads (which

include seawater pressure) and adjustment loads

for one of the cases analyzed. The plot also reports

the total bending moment distribution (both the

one estimated before the calculation and the one

actually obtained by FE analysis), which accomplish to the condition above mentioned, referred to

target in the figure.

The structure of the ship has been modeled

employing plate and beam elements. The principal

dimensions of the elements correspond transversally to the spacing of the longitudinal ordinary

stiffeners and longitudinally to the ordinary frame

spacing. Altogether, the model contains 50041

nodes, 33178 beam and 60544 plate elements.

Figure 2 shows the mesh of the model.

Linear static analyses have been performed

employing Leonardo Hull 3D, a pre and post

processor developed by RINA, and the solver

MSC-NASTRAN 2008.

As expected, the higher stresses appear to be

mainly related to global loads (vertical bending moments) and hence the deck and, less,

Figure 2.

Concentration effects are found at the hatch corners, which appear to be a very important zone to

be monitored. On the bottom, due to combination

of global and local loads, the part corresponding

to the center of the hold presents higher values of

stresses, compared both to the values found in the

surrounding elements and also predicted using an

hull girder section theory. Nevertheless, this zone

appears to be less critical.

The following hot spots have been also found to

be of interest for the monitoring system:

Connection of the inner bottom with the hopper

tank sloping plate;

Connection of the hopper tank sloping plate

with the inner side;

Connection of the inner bottom with the transverse bulkhead lower stool;

Connection of the transverse corrugated bulkheads with the topside tank;

Ends of longitudinal hatch coamings.

x 106

2.3

Vertical bending moment [kN m]

Model mesh.

Location of sensors

basis of global loads distributions, FE analyses

and known issues, a preliminary list of points of

interest for measuring strains was defined, which

included sensors on deck and bottom for bending

moments, sensors on the side for shear stresses and

sensors at the hot spots reported in the previous

section. From this preliminary list, a subset of locations has been selected, with the aim of optimizing

the number of sensors considering the constraints

related to junction box specifications. Moreover,

there was the need for developing a system actually affordable in the market. The following layout

appeared to be a good balance of technical and

economical requirements.

Target

4

Steel weight

Local loads

Adjustment loads

VBM predicted

VBM calculated

8

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

Figure 1. Example of load distributions and comparison of the predicted total bending moment with the result

of FE analysis.

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measuring hull girder bending moments. Four

sensors, which evaluate longitudinal strains on the

deck and on the bottom, are provided in each of

the sections highlighted in Figure 4.

Figure 5 shows the sensors locations for measuring hull girder shear stresses. Two rosettes of

three sensors each, with relative orientation of 45,

are provided in each of the sections highlighted in

Figure 6.

Figures 7 to 10 show the sensors placement

for measuring local stresses; at each point of

measure, two sensors are mounted for measuring

longitudinal and transversal/vertical strains.

Temperature sensors are also provided for compensation.

stresses are evaluated.

stresses in cargo holds.

bending moments in the section.

Figure 8.

stresses.

moments are evaluated.

2.4

the locations selected for measuring local

stresses

evaluating stress distributions in the areas selected

for monitoring local stresses (Figures 7 to 10). This

kind of analysis can provide useful information

for identifying the best length of each sensor and

a guideline for their installation in order to measure picks of stress.

Fine meshes have been obtained refining the

coarse one near each hot spot and the solutions

of the previous calculations have been forced, in

terms of displacements, as boundary conditions

on the refined models.

shear stresses.

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inner bottom with the transverse bulkhead lower stool.

Figure 9. Location of sensors for monitoring local

stresses at hatch corners.

Figure 10.

stresses.

The final decision on the dimensions of the sensors was taken however considering also technical

issues related to the sensors characteristics and

their capability to be properly protected from the

environment. Actually, small strain gauges resulted

to be less suitable for an employment in harsh environments and hence have been avoided.

A calibration and zeroing procedure is required

prior to the employment of the system. The evaluation of the zero stress, necessary for referring

the measurements to their actual absolute values,

has to be done in calm water in a well known

(reference) loading condition, comparing the average strain measured by each sensor during a proper

time interval with expected values provided by

means of FE analyses. Ballast condition has been

preferred, in order to reduce uncertainties related

to the loading. Temperatures measured during this

procedure are also stored as reference values.

have been performed employing Leonardo Hull 3D

and MSC-NASTRAN 2008. All the structures,

including stiffeners, have been described employing

quadrilateral and triangular plate elements. Shells

around each location have been modeled by elements of about 2 cm of edge, dimension which has

been progressively increased moving away from the

hot spot zone. In the outer region, elements with

edges of about 20 cm have been used. Welding has

not been taken into account.

Figure 11 shows an example of a refined mesh.

Two loading conditions have been analyzed:

onboard

Ballast (departure).

onboard vertical and horizontal bending moments,

is turned on, a set-up subroutine loads all the

relevant data and arranges the connection with the

output of the reading unit, in order to read strains

and temperatures at its proper sampling frequency.

After each reading, stresses are calculated and

referred to the zero value derived during the calibration procedure. Strains due to temperature variations are also estimated for each sensor and the

stresses are compensated consequently, in order to

discard the effects related to temperature gradients

in the evaluation of bending moments.

The combinations of loads are the same employed for the preliminary analysis (Section 2.2).

Results showed that gradients of stress may be

great in the locations analyzed, with the exception

of the hatch corners. Small strain gauges (of about

2 cm of length) appear hence to be the preferable

solution for most of these hot spots, even if sensors

up to 10 cm, if installed properly, can be generally

employed, providing equally useful information on

local stresses. For the hatch corners, stress distributions seem to allow the employment of strain

gauges with a length between 10 and 20 cm.

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vertical and horizontal bending moments (MV and

MH) applied to each cross-section as follows:

4

MV

KV i i

(1)

K H i i

(2)

i =1

4

MH

i =1

where i represents the compensated stress measured by the i-th sensor and KV and KH are coefficients depending on the characteristic of the

cross-section and on the position of the sensor

in the section. The two coefficients are derived in

order to average the results obtained from the sensors on the deck and on the bottom.

Results are also provided to the crew in terms of

a ratio between the measured bending moment and

the maximum allowed for the section considered.

Every time the monitoring task highlights a critical

situation (i.e. actual values exceed the allowed limit

values) the monitoring software raises an alarm,

both visual and sonorous, that could be of different

importance (e.g. one if a threshold is approached

but not reached, the other if a threshold is reached

or exceeded).

The Monitoring Software is governed through a

Graphical User Interface that allows an operator to

interact with the workstation and is also connected

to the Loading Instrument, allowing the comparison of the measured bending moments with the

expected values during loading and unloading

operations.

2.7

Figure 12.

errors related to maximum values of bending

moments satisfactory for the application.

The load cases employed for these preliminary

tests represent of course standard conditions for

structural checks of the ship and not simulations

of realistic situations. Nevertheless they should

give a satisfactory idea of the reliability of the procedure in severe weather conditions.

The tests have also shown that the order of magnitude of the errors appears to be generally constant and hence the percentage increases for small

values of bending moments. The system could

hence be employed satisfactorily for detecting hazardous situations due to extreme loads, but cannot

be used efficiently, for instance, for the evaluation

of fatigue accumulated due to global loads.

The effect on the prediction of bending moments

varying the longitudinal location of the sensors

between two frames has been also analyzed.

In order to check the stability of the algorithm,

further tests have been performed, introducing

systematically, one sensor per time, an error corresponding to 10% of the stress value. The results

have shown that the influence of this error in the

prediction of higher values of bending moments is

generally satisfactorily low (lower than 2% of the

maximum allowable vertical bending moment).

for the software onboard

A preliminary set of tests for ascertaining the reliability of the algorithm has been performed using

FE analyses. A transversal ring, including the relevant section in hold 5 (Figure 4), has been refined

and analyzed as already reported in Section 2.4.

The structures have been described employing

plate and beam elements. The reference dimension

of the elements was about 18 cm. Figure 12 shows

the mesh employed for this calculation.

For each combination of loads analyzed, stresses

predicted by FEM have been used as input of

the algorithm, for estimating the related bending

moments. These results have been then compared

with the bending moments obtained by FE analyses.

Figures 13 and 14 show the comparison of vertical

and horizontal bending moments respectively. In

the plots FL indicates full load condition, while

BL the ballast condition; the other letter represents

the load case, as reported in RINA rules.

3

3.1

ON THE TUG BOAT

Expected features

monitoring system is to provide the master and

crew with accurate information about the stress

levels on selected areas of the hull structure when

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positioning of strain measuring devices. For the

forward winch loading, a shell model of the main

deck between frames 36 and 55 was used, including all support and stiffening members of the deck.

Again, the aim of the analysis was to identify areas

with increased load levels during winch operation

for sensor placement.

Figure 15 presents the bow section area of the

vessel modeled for the ice-loading study. All hull

bottom and side plating including their respective

transverse and longitudinal reinforcing members

between frames 46 and 59 have been included in

the FE model, and the platform deck (at 3200 mm

from baseline) and bulkheads at frames 50 and 55

have been fully modeled as well (Figure 16). The

structures at the fore and aft ends (Fr. 46 & 59)

and the main deck itself have not been modeled

directly, but they were taken into account by using

appropriate boundary conditions (Figure 17).

The ice loading and seawater hydrostatic pressure

have been applied as normal and hydrostatic pressure respectively, on all hull plate surfaces that

are actually loaded in working conditions. Two

ice loading scenarios have been investigated, each

with a different width zone of application, extending from the waterline to a depth of about 50 and

90 cm respectively, while the pressure is uniform

with a nominal value of 0.3 MPa (Figures 18 and

6.0E+06

FEM

Estimated

5.0E+06

4.0E+06

3.0E+06

VBM [kN*m]

2.0E+06

1.0E+06

0.0E+00

1.0E+06

2.0E+06

3.0E+06

4.0E+06

5.0E+06

FL-A

Crest

Figure 13.

FL-A

Trough

FL-B

FL-C

FL-D

BL-A

Crest

Load Case

BL-A

Trough

BL-B

BL-C

BL-D

2.0E+06

FEM

Estimated

1.5E+06

HBM [kN*m]

1.0E+06

5.0E+05

0.0E+00

5.0E+05

1.0E+06

1.5E+06

2.0E+06

FL-A

FL-A

FL-B

Crest Trough

FL-C

FL-D

BL-A BL-A BL-B

Crest Trough

Load Case

BL-C

BL-D

the worst actual and maximum permissible stress

in the hull shell structure is to be continuously displayed, while appropriate warning and alarm triggers are implemented in the system.

Strains from each sensor and the worst stress

ratios are to be stored so that post-processing analysis may be performed at later times, if needed.

Sensors for monitoring deck structure winch

loading have also been installed in the winch support members.

3.2

Figure 15.

Figure 16.

two separate studies, one to investigate the ice load

response of the hull shell and another for the forward winch deck support structure. The ice-load

study used a three-dimensional shell model of the

bow area below the main deck between frames

46 and 59, which is the area mainly affected by

ice pressure loads when the vessel acts as an icebreaker. The decision to limit the modeled part

of the vessel was based on the fact that longitudinal strength is more than adequate in this type

of ships, because of their short length and the

generally increased scantlings of their structures.

The aim of the analysis was to identify areas with

25

MARSTRUCT.indb 25

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omitted for clarity).

port side view.

modeled with 5-DOF shell elements, while the

HP hull side stiffeners and floor flanges have been

modeled using 3-D beam 6-DOF elements.

In the case of winch loading study, all main deck

transverse and longitudinal reinforcing members

between frames 36 and 55 have been included in

the FE model (Figures 20 and 21). The hull sides

and the structure at the models fore and aft ends

(Fr. 36 & 55) have not been modeled directly, but

they were taken into account by using appropriate

boundary conditions. The winch load of 65 tons

has been applied on the winch base positions on the

main deck while the model was fixed on the longitudinal and vertical axes at its aft end on frame 36.

Boundary conditions preventing both vertical displacement and rotation around the longitudinal

axis were applied on all nodes along the hull sides,

port and starboard. Along frame 55, only the vertical displacement was restrained. The structure has

been modeled with about 80000 5-DOF shell elements, whereas 3500 6-DOF beam elements were

used to model the bulbs of the HP stiffeners.

The analysis was performed with version 23.1

of the general purpose code Autodesk ALGOR,

using the linear elastic analysis sparse solver.

It is noted that the magnitude of the applied

ice loading, which equals 0.3 MPa, is a nominal

static load. This loading condition gives the stress

pattern expected rather than the absolute values of

stresses under ice conditions. Actual measurements

of ice loads vary significantly. In way of example

and in order to get a feeling of what a 0.3 MPa

uniform pressure represents, it is mentioned that

peak values of dynamic ice pressures according

to Kujala et al. (2007) were measured between

0.63 MPa and 0.84 MPa.

Bearing the above in mind it is observed that

for a static pressure of 0.3 MPa the side hull stress

levels are low and not critical, because of the

increased plating thickness and the reinforcing

port side view.

Figure 20.

part is made of high strength steel with a yield

point greater than 315 MPa. The winch support

structure stresses are also low, because of the

increased plating thickness and the strong reinforcing members.

26

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2/18/2011 5:40:01 PM

system includes sensors placed only longitudinally according to the reference system shown in

Figure 23. To overcome the lack of strains data

in the transverse direction which are required for

accurate stress calculations, a FE analysis has been

performed, the aim of which was to derive relations

and mathematical expressions, linking the existing

Figure 21.

3.3

Location of sensors

constant evaluation of strains in selected panels

and stiffeners of the bow structure, at the area just

below the water-line. The decision on sensor placement has been made based on the results of the

FE analysis: Figure 22 shows the planning for the

placement of sensors on the port side of the bow

between frames 51 and 53, while a second set of

sensors was similarly installed on starboard side.

In addition, sensors on the deck winch supporting

structure can provide information about the towing operational status of the vessel, as a function

of time.

Figure 23 shows the reference system for the

general case of sensors placement on panels:

aspect ratio a/b is to be taken with a on the

indicated transverse axis of each panel, and sensors are to be installed in any of the two positions

shown as middle and quarter. Both are on the

b/2 transverse line, at 50% and 75% of the transverse length a. Each sensor is to be positioned

along the indicated longitudinal axis (x) of the

respective panel.

Sensors placement on stiffeners is to follow the reference system shown in Figure 24. Sensors are to

be positioned on top of the stiffener flange and at

the middle of the stiffener span, along the stiffener

longitudinal axis.

Regarding the winch loading sensors, they are

placed on the flange and web of the main deck

support girders, under the winch base (Figure 25).

Temperature sensors are also provided for

compensation.

3.4

Figure 22.

Figure 23.

Figure 24.

In the loading case under study, which is lateral pressure acting on the hull panels from the

ice, the developed stress state in the panels is

2-dimensional. Because of the limited number

of available channels/sensors for installation, the

27

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2/18/2011 5:40:03 PM

loading.

Figure 26. Test panel example, aspect ratio 2,

b = 600 mm.

and, additionally, linking the longitudinal stresses

at the sensor location to the maximum von Mises

stress developed elsewhere on the panel. All calculations were carried out for flat plates with fixed ends

and having various aspect ratios and thicknesses.

Three separate lateral pressure load conditions due

to ice were taken into account:

The ice thickness is either equal to or greater

than the panel dimension , thus covering the

full span of the side panel in the transverse

direction of the vessel.

The ice thickness is approximately equal to 2/3

of the panel dimension , thus partly loading

the side panel, and

The ice thickness is approximately equal to 1/3

of the panel dimension , again partly loading

the side panel.

Trend line for aspect ratio less than 2.5.

distributed. Taking in addition into account different locations of the partial ice lateral pressure,

six load cases were defined in total. The proposed

algorithm performs all calculations for every one

of the above load conditions and finally selects the

highest von Mises stress value to compare with the

permissible stress.

The FE analysis was performed in a series of

flat rectangular test panels (Figure 26), with the

following parameters:

position.

is also based on typical frame spacing values of

similar vessels. The analysis performed was linear

static, with uniform pressure applying totally or

partially on panels with all four sides fixed. The

analysis was performed only for steel panels.

For each load case and panel geometry, the values of x-strain (xx), y-strain (yy) and x-stress (xx)

were calculated for both the middle and quarter positions, along with the maximum von Mises

stress VM of the whole panel. The results were

then tabulated and the following strain and stress

ratios were plotted against the aspect ratio values

for both middle and quarter positions:

Aspect ratio a/b (b is the longitudinal side, parallel to the sensor axis) ranging from 1 to 4. Actual

values examined were 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5,

3 and 4.

Plate thickness: Three values have been taken

into account: 12 mm, 15 mm and 18 mm.

Panel length b: Three values have been taken

into account: 500 mm, 600 mm and 700 mm.

yy / xx

xx / VM

The analysis showed that both ratios are unaffected by the thickness value and the value of the

based on actual thickness measurements found in

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2/18/2011 5:40:05 PM

3.5

Figure 28.

Figure 29.

Figure 30.

onboard

uniquely identified and correlated to a panel/

stiffener position, and also to the side of the hull it

is placed on (port or starboard). When setting up

the system, the user has to specify geometric and

material details as the panels aspect ratio and the

sensors position (middle or quarter, for panel

sensors only), the material Modulus of Elasticity,

Poissons ratio and thermal expansion coefficient,

and also the maximum permissible stress values for

each panel/stiffener.

The system must be calibrated and zeroed in the

harbor condition; this is the zero strain and temperature state for all calculations. The only external load acting on the hull in harbor conditions is

hydrostatic pressure, and for the panels where the

sensors are installed, expected ice load pressure

will be 5060 times greater than this hydrostatic

sea pressure. Strains due to hydrostatic pressure

are very low and thus can be safely ignored.

At the end of the setup phase all data is stored,

and in the sequence retrieved whenever the system

is turned on; the setup procedure will need to be

repeated only to modify the input data, for example the permissible stress values. The system reads

the setup data and then starts the measurement

phase, reading and storing the measured strains

from each sensor. In the sequence, a temperature

compensation calculation is carried out for the

strains measurements. Having the final value of

strains, a series of calculations provides the respective stress at each position, i, and, additionally,

the corresponding maximum expected stress in

each panel and stiffener.

In the sequence, the system passes into the display and evaluation of results phase. In this phase,

the system calculates the ratio between the calculated maximum stress and the permissible stress,

for each monitored panel and stiffener and the

worst value of this ratio is then displayed to the

crew and stored for post processing. A warning is

to be provided when the ratio is between 0.8 and 1.

Values greater than 1 shall trigger an alarm.

3.6

the plots for the fully pressured panel load case

are presented in Figures 27 to 30. For each plot,

an exponential or polynomial trend line has been

fitted and this equation is used to define the strain

or stress ratio (measured of strain or stress over the

anticipated maximum value) for any given aspect

ratio. The same procedure was followed for all load

cases in order to define a full set of mathematical

expressions for the strain and stress ratios.

for the software onboard

of the Tug bow described in section 3.2 was used

to compare the numerical results of the ice loading

analysis with the stress values calculated using

the formulas derived from the analysis described

in section 3.4. Figure 31 shows one typical test

panel between the platform deck and the horizontal girder on the hull side. The aspect ratio for all

29

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2/18/2011 5:40:07 PM

Figure 32.

starboard.

operational conditions.

Data measured on the bulk carrier are not yet

available.

Figure 31.

The paper describes a hull stress monitoring system which employs temperature compensated

laser based optical sensors, developed within the

MOSES project. The design of two prototypes are

described, one installed on a double side bulk carrier and the other on an ice class tug boat. The evaluation of hull girder bending moments along the

ship length and local stresses in selected hot spots

has been selected as main features for the system

on the bulk carrier. The measurement of stresses in

the bow area due to ice pressure loads and stresses

on the forward winch deck support structure have

been considered instead more important for the

tug boat.

The optimum sensors installation areas have

been selected by means of FE analyses, taking into

account also constraints related to junction box

specifications and looking for a good balance of

technical and economical requirements.

The paper describes also the algorithms for

the software provided onboard. Particularly, on

the bulk carrier the software correlates measured

strains with hull girder bending moments, while

on the tug it estimates maximum stress levels on

selected areas of the hull structure when the tug

operates as an icebreaker.

Preliminary tests on the software, performed

employing FE analyses, show that the two prototypes should be capable of providing results with

accuracy fully acceptable for the purposes of each

system.

At the present time, no measured data are available for the bulk carrier, while initial readings from

the tug boat operating in the gulf of Tallinn have

been obtained and currently investigated. The initial readings indicate that the structure of the tug

does not suffer high stresses under normal ice

breaking operating conditions. In any case, further

analyses for both the vessels are expected in the

future on a wider set of data.

neighboring panels is about 2.5, and two of section 3.4 analysis load cases were used to evaluate

the results.

The numerical strains calculated from the FE

model at the middle and quarter positions of

the panel shown in Figure 26 were used as input

in the corresponding mathematical expressions of

section 3.4, thus resulting in the analytical calculation of the maximum panel von Mises stress. This

value was then compared to the maximum von

Mises stress calculated by the FE analysis and the

difference was found to be between 2.5 and 6%.

This difference is very small and fully acceptable

for the purposes of the present study and may be

justified because of the curvature of the actual

bow panels and the hydrostatic sea pressure on the

hull sides, which were both not considered in the

flat rectangular panel analysis.

4

CONCLUSIONS

PRELIMINARY RESULTS

under test. At present, the ship operators have

provided for evaluation purposes only one set of

runs recorded during a week in the beginning of

February 2010, when the tug operated in 20 cm

thick floating ice.

Sample plots of strain data for some 24-hour

periods verified the presence of increased strain

levels for those time frames the Tug was actually

operational. Figure 32 shows a 3-hour strain plot

of two strain sensors (P1P is on a port side plate

and P1S is on the symmetric panel on starboard

side, see Figure 22) where the Tug was operational

between 09:35 am and 11:00 am. The scale between

two horizontal grid lines is 10 , which illustrates

that the structure is not heavily stressed and the

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Rizkalla, S.H. & Guha-Thakurta, A. 1997. Fiberoptic Bragg grating sensors for bridge monitoring.

Cement and Concrete Composites, Volume 19, Issue 1,

pp. 2133.

Majumder, M., Gangopadhyay, T.K., Chakraborty, A.K.,

Dasgupta, K. & Bhattacharya, D.K. 2008. Fibre Bragg

gratings in structural health monitoringPresent status and applications. Elsevier Sensors and Actuators A:

Physical, Volume 147, Issue 1, pp. 150164.

Papanikolaou, A., Eliopoulou, E., Alissafaki, A.,

Mikelis, N., Aksu, S. & Delautre, S. 2007. Casualty

Analysis of AFRAMAX Tankers. Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, Proceedings

of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M,

Volume 221, pp. 4766.

RINA S.p.A. 2010. Rules for the Classification of Ships,

Part B, Vol. 2, pp. 3335.

Sagvolden, G., Pran, K., Vines, L., Torkildsen, H.E. &

Wang, G. 2002. Fiber Optic System for Ship Hull

Monitoring. 15th IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, 1, pp. 435438.

Silva-Muoz, R.A. & Lopez-Anido, R.A. 2009. Structural health monitoring of marine composite structural joints using embedded fiber Bragg grating strain

sensors. Composite Structures, Volume 89, Issue 2,

pp. 224234.

Slaughter, S.B., Cheung, M.C., Sucharski, D. &

Cowper, B. 1997. State of the art in hull response

monitoring systems. Report SSC-401, Ship Structure

Committee.

funded by the European Commission under the

Framework Programme 7, Grant Agreement 22083.

The partners of the consortium are DAppolonia

S.p.A., Italy; Smartec BV, Switzerland; Pegaso

Systems S.r.l., Italy; PKL AS, Estonia; HENER

Henryka Weber, Poland; Premuda, Italy; RINA

Services S.p.A., Italy; National Technical University

of Athens, Greece.

REFERENCES

De Oliveira, R., Ramos, C.A. & Marques, A.T. 2008.

Health monitoring of composite structures by embedded FBG and interferometric Fabry-Prot sensors.

Computers & Structures, Volume 86, Issues 35,

pp. 340346.

Eliopoulou, E. & Papanikolaou, A. 2007. Casualty Analysis of Large Tankers. Journal of Marine Science and

Technology 12: 240250.

International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1994.

Recommendations for the Fitting of Hull Stress Monitoring Systems.

Kujala et al. 2007. Maximum ice-induced loads on

ships in the Baltic Sea. Proceedings of PRADS 2007,

pp. 12781286.

Li, H.N., Li, D.S. & Song, G.B. 2004. Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in

civil engineering. Engineering Structures, Volume 26,

Issue 11, pp. 16471657.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

characteristics of bulk carriers

L. Kaydhan

Delta Marine, Istanbul, Turkey

Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak,

Istanbul, Turkey

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a hydroelastic investigation into the dynamic response characteristics

of a group of bulkers with different load carrying capacities, e.g., two handysize vessels with carrying capacities of 20 000 and 32 000 dwt, respectively; one handymax vessel with a carrying capacity of

53 000 dwt; one panamax vessel with a carrying capacity of 76 000 dwt; two capesize type vessels with

carrying capacities of 140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively. For all the bulk carriers adopted in this study,

detailed three dimensional finite element structural models are prepared, separately, by using commercial

finite element software. The calculations are carried out for two different loading conditions, namely, fully

loaded and ballast conditions. The dry and wet frequencies are computed by using the finite element, and

they are compared with those calculated by using a higher-order 3-D hydroelasticity theory.

1

INTRODUCTION

the ship structure, and also 3D boundary element

method with a pulsating source distribution over the

mean wetted surface for 3D fluid-structure interaction effects. They reported differences between 2D

and 3D fluid-structure interaction models, for the

anti-symmetric case, and mostly on the evaluated

wave loads. These differences are attributed to the

inability of the employed Timoshenko beam theory to model the non-prismatic features of the bulk

carrier and open-deck structures realistically. Very

recently, Tian et al. (2009) used a three dimensional

hydroelasticity theory in the analysis of a large bulk

carrier of 180 000 dwt traveling at its design speed in

regular and irregular head waves. The analysis was

repeated without the forward speed effect, and it

was observed that the forward speed effect had certain influence on the springing induced bending

moment.

This paper presents a hydroelastic investigation

into the dynamic response characteristics of a group

of bulkers with different load carrying capacities,

e.g., two handysize vessels with carrying capacities

of 20 000 and 32 000 dwt, respectively; one handymax vessel with a carrying capacity of 53 000

dwt; one panamax vessel of 76 000 dwt carrying

capacity; two capesize type vessels with capacities

of 140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively. For all

the bulk carriers adopted in this study, detailed

three dimensional finite element structural models

three largest groups of vessels within the merchant

fleet. However, bulk carriers comprise approximately 40% of the world merchant fleet. In 2006,

seven bulk carriers over 10 000 dwt were identified

as having suffered total loss together with the loss

of thirty seven lives, according to a report submitted to the maritime safety committee of IMO

by INTERCARGO (2007). One of those losses

was directly attributable to structural failure with

twenty six seafarers reported as lost from that one

incident. Once again the bulk carrier industry was

concerned by the heavy loss of life associated with

the total loss of a ship due to a catastrophic structural failure. Therefore, considerable effort has

been made to understand the wave induced structural response behavior of bulk carriers.

Bishop et al. (1985, 1991) used a two dimensional

hydroelasticity theory to investigate structural failures experienced by bulk carriers such as the Onomichi Maru and OBO MV Derbyshire, respectively.

In their studies, they investigated the steady-state

and transient response behaviors of the ship structures. Hirdaris et al. (2003, 2006) applied 2D and 3D

hydroelasticity theories to predict and compare the

dynamic behavior of a bulk carrier in waves based

on OBO MV Derbyshire. They employed strip theory for calculating 2D fluid-structure interaction

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finite element software, i.e., Abaqus (2008).

The three dimensional structural models consist

entirely of the shell finite elements, representing

all major external and internal structural components. The surrounding fluid domain is discretized

by using three dimensional fluid finite elements

available in the commercial software. Both symmetric and antisymmetric response characteristics

are obtained in terms of the dry and wet frequencies with the associated mode shapes. The calculated dry and wet frequency values are presented as

a function of characteristic parameter of the bulk

carriers, in order to reflect overall response behaviors of the ship structure, for fully loaded and ballast conditions.

In a further study, a higher-order 3-D hydroelasticity method was employed for calculating the

fluid-structure interaction effect in terms of the

generalized added mass and hydrodynamic damping coefficients. The wet resonance frequency values were calculated and they are compared with

those obtained from the finite element analysis for

the bulk carrier of 140 000 dwt carrying capacity.

The response behaviors in terms of principal coordinates are also presented for the 32 000 dwt bulk

carrier excited by regular head waves. For the wet

resonance frequency calculations, an infinite frequency limit condition is assumed on the free surface. It is to say that the fluid-structure interaction

forces are associated with the inertia effect of the

fluid, independent of the frequency of vibration,

and that the hydrodynamic damping is zero.

2

2.1

the equation

(2M + K)d = 0.

oscillations of the free undamped structure, and

the in vacuo normal modes, d, and natural frequencies, , are obtained from this equation.

The distortions of the structure may be

expressed as the sum of the deflections in the

normal modes as

U = D p(t),

(4)

the in vacuo, undamped mode vectors, d, of the

structure and p is the principal coordinates vector.

By substituting equation (4) into equation (1) and

pre-multiplying by DT, the following generalized

equation in terms of the principal coordinates of

the structure is obtained:

+ bp(

t)

ap(t)

cp((t )

(5)

Q( )

Here a, b, c denote the generalized mass, damping and stiffness matrices, respectively, and are

defined as

a = DTMD, b = DTCVD, c = DTKD, Q = DTP (6)

It should be noted that the generalized mass,

a, and stiffness, c, matrices are diagonal. The

generalized force matrix Q(t) represents the fluid

structure interaction and all other external forces

(e.g., wave forces, etc.), and may be expressed as

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Q(t))

(Ap(t)

) + Cp( ))

Bp(

(7)

(t ),

fluid damping, and fluid stiffness matrices, respectively, and (t) denotes the generalized external

forces. Thus, equation (5) may be rewritten in the

form

a 3D discretized (finite element) structure to external excitation may be written as Ergin (1997)

.

M + CVU + KU = P

(1)

where M, CV, K denote the mass, structural damping .and stiffness matrices, respectively. The vectors

U, U and represent the structural displacements,

velocities and accelerations, respectively, and the

column vector P denotes the external forces.

In an in vacuo analysis, the structure is assumed

to vibrate in the absence of any structural damping and external forces reducing equation (1) to the

form

M + KU = 0.

(3)

A)p(t)

2.2

(b

t)

B)p(

(c

C)p( )

( )

(8)

The fluid is assumed ideal, i.e., inviscid and incompressible, and its motion is irrotational, so that the

fluid velocity vector associated with the unsteady

flow, v, can be defined as the gradient of a velocity potential function as v(x, t) = , where

x = (x, y, z)T and t denote the position vector and

time, respectively. In general, satisfies the Laplace

equation, 2 = 0, throughout the fluid domain,

an appropriate free surface boundary condition,

the kinematic boundary condition on the wetted

(2)

of U = d eit and substituted in equation (2).

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and G(x, ) stands for the Green function for timeharmonic flows without forward speed, which can

be given in the form

condition. For time-harmonic flows without forward speed, the linearized form of the free surface

boundary condition states g/z + 2/t2 = 0 on

the free surface, where g is the gravitational acceleration and z denotes the vertical axis.

For an elastic structure in contact with fluid

medium, the principal coordinates describing

the vibratory response of the structure may be

expressed as (Uurlu & Ergin, 2006, 2008)

p(t) = p0eit,

4 G

(9)

r(

) p0 r

i t

, r 1, 2,.., nm .

(10)

ne

N ej ej

j =1

interest, and p0r is the amplitude for the rth principal coordinate.

The kinematic boundary condition for the rth

modal vibration of a structure in contact with fluid

can be expressed as

r

u r n,

n =

t

surface pointing out of the fluid domain, and ur

denotes the displacement response of the structure in the rth principal coordinate that may be

written as

(12)

P = f ( / t),

{G(

, )q

) q( )

)

(16)

The kth generalized fluid structure interaction

force component due to rth modal vibration of

the elastic structure is defined as (Ergin et al, 2007;

Uurlu & Ergin, 2009)

potential can be expressed by the boundary integral equation

SW

(15)

j =1

second-order terms, the dynamic fluid pressure on

the elastic structure due to the oscillation of the

elastic structure can be written as

potential

c( ) ( )

ne

qe = N ej q ej .

forces

median surface of the elastic structure obtained

from the in vacuo analysis.

2.3

(14)

points assigned to the eth element and the shape

function adopted for the distribution of the potential

function, respectively, and they together determine

the imposed approximation order for the potential

and flux distributions over the wetted surface.

In this study a higher order, linear, representation

is preferred by adopting four nodded quadrilateral

and triangular boundary elements.

(11)

ur(x, t) = ur(x)preit.

H.

field and source points, and the field point and free

surface image of the source point, respectively, and

H represents the contained free-surface effects.

For the solution of equation (13) with the boundary condition (11), the mean wetted surface can be

idealized by using boundary elements, over which

the variations of the potential function and its

flux are described in terms of shape functions and

nodal values as

The velocity potential function due to the vibration of the structure in the rth in vacuo vibrational

mode may also be written in terms of principal

coordinates as (Ergin & Temarel, 2002)

r ( , t)

1/ r + 1/ r

Zkr

(i )r dS.

(17)

SW

G n ( , ) ( )} dS

d .

(13)

forward speed, the radiation potential is complex

in general, and Zkr may be expressed in terms of

the generalized added mass coefficient, Akr, and

hydrodynamic damping coefficient, Bkr, that are

in phase with the acceleration and velocity, respectively. Namely,

the source and field points on the mean wetted

surface of the structure, Sw, q = /n refers to the

flux, the free term c() identifies the fraction of

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( f

Akr

[ (i

dS ],

others are either under construction in Turkish

shipyards or at the final stage of their design. Six

bulkers with different load carrying capacities

were investigated: two handsize type (20 000 and

32 000 dwt), one handymax type (53 000 dwt),

one panamax type (76 000 dwt) and two capsize

type (140 000 and 180 000 dwt). The handsize and

handymax type bulkers under investigation have

double hull side constructions.

For the each bulk carrier adopted in this study, a

detailed three dimensional finite element structural

model was prepared by using a commercial finite

element software, i.e., Abaqus (2008). The three

dimensional structural model consists entirely of

the shell finite elements, representing all major

external and internal structural components. Shell

element S4 was selected for modeling the primary

and secondary members of the structural model.

The shell element adopted for the calculations can

carry bending, membrane and shear loads. This is a

general purpose shell element with four nodes, and

three nodes for triangle elements. The four nodded

shell element is mainly adopted for the structural

model, and the three nodded triangle shell element

is used when it becomes necessary. At each node

of the shell elements, six degrees of freedom are

assigned: three translations and three rotations.

The triangle elements were used in the areas of

large curvature, such as the bilge and side shells in

the vicinities of bow and stern. A limited number

of beam elements was also adopted for the calculations. Beam element B31 available in Abaqus

(2008) was used, and it is a Timoshenko beam and

allows for the transverse shear deformation. C3D

linear 3D solid elements were also used for modeling the main engine, etc. This element can have

eight or six nodes, and each node has three degrees

of freedom (three translations). The three dimensional models of the bulk carriers were generated

with sufficient detail to model the decks, inner and

outer bottom, machinery spaces, cargo spaces, etc.

All the primary structural members were modeled by using shell elements, and for the secondary structural members such as stiffeners, shell and

beam elements were adopted. In order to obtain

an accurate idealization of the dynamic behavior

of the vessels, a close agreement was obtained

between the finite element models and designed

vessels for the vertical and horizontal centers of

gravity and total weights.

The investigations were performed for two different loading conditions, i.e., fully loaded and

ballast conditions. Depending on the loading condition (fully loaded and ballast conditions), the

cargo loads, ballast loads, fuels, hatch covers, etc

are idealized by using the mass elements available

in the finite element program. The main engines,

(18a)

SW

( f

Bkr

[ (i

)I

dS ].

(18b)

SW

2.5

is the ambient waves, generally composed of

two components that are related to the incident

wave system and its disturbance due to the scattering effect of the body. The incident wave and

diffraction potential fields, respectively denoted

by i and d, are connected through the relation

(i + d)/n = 0 on the wetted surface of the

structure, which may invoke another boundary

integral equation in the form of equation (13) for

the diffraction potential distribution. Considering

a generalized excitation in the form of (t) = 0eit,

which may be caused by sinusoidal waves of frequency , the diffraction problem can be avoided

by using the Haskind relations, and the resulting

generalized wave forces for a stationary structure

may be defined as

0r

(i

r i ) u r n dS ,

(19)

SW

where 0r represents the force component associated with the rth modal vibration, and i is the

amplitude of the incident wave potential.

The equation of motion for a harmonically

excited elastic structure may be written as

Dp0 = 0,

(20)

where

D = 2(a + A) +(c + C) + i(b + B).

(21)

from

p0 =

adj

dD

aadj

dj D (det

(d D)*

0 =

0 .

2

det D

det D

(22)

expression. From the calculated principal coordinates, the resonance frequencies of the coupled

fluid-structure system can be deduced.

NUMERICAL STUDY

by Delta Marine Turkey, and some of the adopted

36

MARSTRUCT.indb 36

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resonance frequencies for the 140 000 dwt bulk in water

for fully loaded condition (Hz).

elements, whose length, weight and centers of gravity (vertical and horizontal) coincide, respectively,

with those provided by the engine manufacturer.

The shaft systems and propellers were modeled,

respectively, by using beam elements and mass

elements.

For the handysize bulkers with 20 000 dwt and

32 000 dwt load carrying capacities, respectively,

135 700 and 24 462 structural finite elements were

adopted for the structural analysis. 25 546 structural finite elements were used for the handymax

bulker of 53 000 dwt load carrying capacity, and

70 609 finite elements for the panamax type bulker

with the load carrying capacity of 76 000 dwt. On

the other, for the finite element models of the capsize bulkers with the load carrying capacities of

140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively, 64 810 and

78 370 structural finite elements were distributed.

It is believed that the finite element idealizations

used in the modeling are adequate to obtain the

dynamic response behavior of the bulk carriers in

vertical bending and coupled horizontal bending

and torsion. Figure 1 shows the finite element idealization of the 32 000 dwt bulk carrier.

The surrounding fluid domain is discretized by

using three dimensional acoustic fluid finite elements available in the commercial software. The

calculations are carried out for the fully loaded

and ballast conditions. The results of the finite element calculations are presented for the 140 000 dwt

bulker in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively for the

fully loaded and ballast conditions. The modes of

the ship hull are identified by the most dominant

vibrational shape.

The amplitudes of principal coordinates for

the first three mode shapes are presented for the

full loaded bulk carrier of 32 000 dwt capacity in

Figure 2 for the head waves. The dry natural and

Mode

FEM

(dry)

FEM

(wet)

BEM

(wet)

2 Node VB

2 Node HB

1 Node T

3 Node VB

3 Node HB

4 Node VB

4 Node HB

5 Node VB

2 Node T

0.923

1.312

2.339

1.789

2.590

2.540

3.634

3.183

5.598

0.656

1.142

1.797

1.295

2.245

1.886

3.249

2.420

3.837

0.674

1.148

1.793

1.330

2.266

1.935

3.093

2.486

3.681

Table 2. Comparison of the dry natural and wet resonance frequencies for the 140 000 dwt bulk carrier in

water for ballast condition (Hz).

Mode

FEM

(dry)

FEM

(wet)

BEM

(wet)

2 Node VB

2 Node HB

1 Node T

3 Node VB

3 Node HB

4 Node VB

4 Node HB

5 Node VB

2 Node T

1.260

1.857

2.413

2.543

3.710

3.750

5.322

4.716

5.893

0.848

1.699

1.875

1.629

3.391

2.348

5.064

2.985

3.881

0.827

1.600

1.873

1.639

3.389

2.398

5.180

3.042

3.704

Table 3. Comparison of the dry natural and wet resonance frequencies for the 32 000 dwt bulk carrier in water

for fully loaded condition (Hz).

Mode

FEM

(dry)

FEM

(wet)

BEM

(wet)

2 Node VB

2 Node HB

1 Node T

3 Node VB

3 Node HB

4 Node VB

4 Node HB

5 Node VB

2 Node T

1.285

1.553

1.833

2.919

3.263

4.539

5.539

6.576

6.214

0.875

1.337

1.510

1.960

2.832

3.055

4.687

4.135

5.117

0.903

1.343

1.547

2.018

2.833

3.211

4.777

4.391

5.115

Table 3 for the fully loaded case. It can be seen

from Table 3 that there is a very good agreement

between the finite element and boundary element

calculations. The principal coordinates presented

in the figures are associated with the excitation

by regular sinusoidal waves of 1 m amplitude.

Figure 1. 32 000 dwt capacity bulk carrier finite element model in ballast condition.

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resonance frequency curves, respectively, for

the fully loaded and ballast conditions. It should

be noted that these curves were drawn by using

the resonance frequency data obtained from the

finite element calculations of six bulk carriers

with different load carrying capacities. The figures

only show the vertical bending dominated modes

(Figures 34) and torsional vibration dominated

modes (Figures 56). The resonace frequency values are presented as a function of I / L3 , where

I is the second moment of area for the mid-ship

section, is the displacement and L overall length.

The parameter I / L3 represents the bending and

torsional mechanical properties of the midship of

bulk carriers and a similar representation was also

adopted by Todd (**). The freqeuncy curves shown

in these figures can be used to predict the resonance

observing the major peaks in these figures.

For instance, the first wet resonance frequency

is 0.903 Hz (2-noded vertical bending mode) and

the major peak occurs at the vicinity of this frequency value. Due to the coupling of these modes

with other principal modes, each principal coordinate generally has humps occurring in the data set

near these frequencies. The effect of the irregular

frequencies is observed in the principal coordinate

data presented. It should be noted that the principal coordinates presented in Figure 2 represent the

first three elastic principal modes.

loaded bulk carriers.

Key: X 2-node vertical bending; 3-node vertical

bending; 4-node vertical bending; 5-node vertical

bending.

Key: X 2-node vertical bending; 3-node vertical

bending; 4-node vertical bending; 5-node vertical

bending.

of the principal coordinate vector for elastic modes and

head waves.

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2/18/2011 5:40:17 PM

were prepared, separately, by using the commercial

finite element software. In a first group of calculations, the wet resonance frequencies and associated

mode shapes of the bulkers were calculated for

the fully loaded and ballast conditions by using

the finite element method. The surrounding fluid

domain was discretized by using three dimensional

fluid finite elements. Both symmetric and antisymmetric response characteristics were obtained in

terms of the dry and wet frequencies with the associated mode shapes, and they are presented for the

bulk carrier of 140 000 dwt capacity in Tables. The

calculated dry and wet frequency values for six different bulk carriers are also presented as a function

of the characteristic parameter, in order to reflect

overall response behaviors of the ship structures,

for fully loaded and ballast conditions. These

frequency curves could be used by the designers at

the preliminary design stage of the bulk carriers.

In a second group of calculations, a higherorder 3-D hydroelasticity method was employed

for calculating the fluid-structure interaction effect

in terms of the generalized added mass and hydrodynamic damping coefficients. The wet frequency

values were calculated and they are compared with

those obtained from the finite element analysis for

the bulk carrier of 140 000 dwt carrying capacity.

As can be seen from Tables 12, there is a very

good comparison with those obtained from the

finite element analysis.

The frequency dependent response behaviors in

terms of principal coordinates were calculated by

using the higher order boundary element method,

and presented for the 32 000 dwt bulk carrier

excited by regular head waves and beam waves.

The resonance behaviors might be observed from

the peaks of the principal coordinate response

amplitudes.

Figure 5. Wet resonance frequency curves of bulk carriers for fully loaded condition.

Key: 1-node torsion; 2-node torsion.

in ballast condition.

Key: 1-node torsion; 2-node torsion.

stage. The frequency values increase with increasing parameter value, except for the 1-noded torsional mode shape.

4

REFERENCES

ABAQUS 2008. Theory Manual. SIMULIA, U.S.A.

Bishop, R.E.D., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P. 1985. A hypothesis concerning the disastrous failure of the OnomichiMaru, Transactions of RINA 127: 169186.

Bishop, R.E.D., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P. 1991. A theory

on the loss of MV Derbyshire. Transactions of RINA

133: 389453.

Ergin, A. 1997. The response behavior of a submerged

cylindrical shell using the doubly asymptotic approximation method (DAA). Computers and Structures

62: 10251034.

Ergin, A., Kaydihan, L. & Uurlu, B. 2007. Hydroelastic analysis of a 1900 TEU container ship using finite

element and boundary element methods. Proceedings

of the International Conference of Asian-Pacific

Technical Exchange and Advisory Meeting on Marine

Structures, Yokohama, Japan.

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, a hydroelastic investigation was carried out into the dynamic response characteristics

of a group of bulkers with different load carrying

capacities, e.g., two handysize vessels with carrying

capacities of 20 000 and 32 000 dwt, respectively;

one handymax vessel with a carrying capacity of

53 000 dwt; one panamax vessel of 76 000 dwt carrying capacity; two capesize type vessels with capacities of 140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively. For

all the bulk carriers adopted in this study, detailed

39

MARSTRUCT.indb 39

2/18/2011 5:40:21 PM

liquid-filled and submerged, horizontal cylindrical

shell. Journal of Sound and Vibration 254: 951965.

Hirdaris, S.E., Miao, S.H., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P.

2006. The influence of structural modelling on the

dynamic behaviour of a bulker in waves. Proceeding

of the 4th International Conference on Hydroelasticity

in Marine Technology, China, 2533.

Hirdaris, S.E., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P. 2003. Two- and

three-dimensional hydroelastic modelling of a bulker

in regular waves. Marine Structures 16: 627658.

INTERCARGO. 2007. Bulk carrier casualty report,

London.

Tian, C., Wu, Y.S. & Chen, Y.Q. 2009. Numerical predictions on the hydroelastic responses of a large bulk

carrier in waves. Proceedings of the 5th International

Conference on Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology,

England.

for vibrating structures containing and/or submerged

in flowing fluid. Journal of Sound and Vibration

290: 572596.

Uurlu, B. & Ergin, A. 2008. A hydroelastic investigation

of circular cylindrical shell containing flowing fluid

with different end conditions. Journal of Sound and

Vibration 318: 12911312.

Uurlu, B. & Ergin, A. 2009. Using higher-order boundary elements in hydroelasticity analysis of surface

piercing structures. Proceedings of the 5th International

Conference on Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology,

England.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

subjected to water entry using an explicit finite element method

Hanbing Luo, Shan Wang & C. Guedes Soares

Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon,

Instituto Superior Tcnico, Lisboa, Portugal

ABSTRACT: An explicit finite element code is applied to study the impact loads on one two-dimensional

rigid wedge subjected to water entry. This wedge with deadrise angle 30 degree impacting the calm water

is modeled. The numerical results are compared and validated against published experimental slamming

force, pressure distributions at different time instances, and pressure histories at different points on the

wetted surface, obtaining very good comparisons. A convergence study for parameters, such as mesh

density and penalty factor, is carried out. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the results is

discussed.

1

INTRODUCTION

correction factors calibrated with experiments as

reviewed for example in Ramos and Guedes Soares

(1998). However, improvements are required on

this type of approach based on better predictions

of slam loads.

Most of earlier research work focused on 2D

and simple geometry section problems, e.g. Zhao

and Faltinsen (1993), Engle and Lewis (2003),

Wu, et al. (2004), Sun and Faltinsen (2009). Not

much research has been carried out on 3D slamming problems, except the hemisphere, or conical

shapes, e.g. Faltinsen et al. (2004), Peseux, et al.

(2005), Korobkin, et al. (2006).

Several good reviews have been published during past years. Faltinsen (2004) reviewed practical

slamming problems for ships and offshore structures, including water entry on an initially calm

free surface, wetdeck slamming, green water and

sloshing. Xu (2009) presented a review of theoretical and numerical simulation techniques on hydrodynamic impact of ships.

With the development of computing technology

and capability, codes based on explicit Finite Element Method (FEM) began to be applied to predict

local slamming loads. Bereznitzki (2001) analyzed

hydroelastic problems using the MS-Dytran code.

Stenius et al. (2006) studied modeling techniques for

rigid wedge impact problems using the LS-DYNA

code. Several parameters that influence the convergence of simulation, such as mesh density and contact stiffness were discussed. Aquelet et al. (2006)

discussed the influence of penalty factor on the

damping effect. Luo et al. (2010) used MS-Dytran

to study the impact of one stiffened panel, showing

that an explicit code has the potential to predict

water because of large vertical relative motions

between the ship and the wave surface. This

hydrodynamic impact phenomenon is defined as

slamming. The impulsive pressure loads induced

by slamming will affect the ships structures both

locally and globally. In rough seas, this impact force

is so large that many ships have reported local structural damages due to the slamming loads, especially

in heading waves with high forward speed. For

example, the tragedy of MV Estonia in the Baltic

Sea on 28 September 1994, one of the deadliest

marine disasters of 20th century, was initialized by

the break of the bow door due to the severe slamming, which the Ro/Ro ferry experienced. In this

paper, the local slamming problem will be studied

and a numerical model will be developed to reproduce the conditions used in an early experimental

study with which results it will be compared.

There is a considerable amount of research

conducted on slamming by experimental, analytical, and numerical simulation methods since

Von Karman (1929) and Wagner (1932). Ship

slamming depends on the relative motion, body

geometry, water surface profile, air cushion,

hydroelasticity of structures, compressibility of

water, and others. This makes ship slamming such

a complicated physical process that it is difficult to

model in all aspects. To develop a model of ship

slamming, it is necessary to build upon accurate

predictions of slamming forces by arbitrary shapes

such as ship sections on water.

Much work has been done by modeling the

slamming forces in different ship sections by a

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the critical one. Pressure sensors are located on the

center of each shell elements at the coupling surface to obtain the pressure signals.

elastic structures.

Alexandru, et al. (2007) carried out a comparison of simulation of 2D slamming problems, using

Boundary Element Methods (BEMs), Computational Fluid Dynamics (FLUENT and FLOW-3D

codes), Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH),

and Explicit FEM (LS-DYNA code). Fairly good

agreements were achieved. Some differences in time

domain after the peak value for slamming pressure on one wedge with dead rise angle 25 degree

were observed. There were even much differences

between the pressures predicted with each other on

an impacting rigid bow section. Nevertheless, the

results obtained are encouraging overall, but more

validation work still needs to be carried out on

tuning parameters in order to get better numerical

results.

In this paper, the explicit FEM code LS-DYNA

is applied to study the fundamental water entry

problem on initially calm free surface of 2D rigid

wedge. The predicted results are compared with the

experimental results Zhao, et al. (1996). The main

purpose of this paper is to carry out a convergence

study on the parameters that influence the simulation efficiency and accuracy of the results.

2

PROBLEM

in MARINTEK by Zhao et al. (1996) as shown

in Figure 1. Table 1 presents the main data for

the test section. Results of measured pressure and

slamming force will be adopted to compare with

predicted numerical results in this paper.

Figure 2 shows the wedge model setup

in LS-DYNA. There is one element along the z direction. All nodes are constrained for displacement in

y direction in order to simulate the two-dimensional

water entry in the plane x-y. Symmetry boundary

condition is applied on the surfaces where x = 0.

Only half of the wedge, water and air are needed

to be modeled. So the simulation CPU time will be

decreased dramatically. Nonreflecting boundary

conditions are added on the external surfaces of

air and water domain, except the symmetric surfaces. The size of air and water domain in x and y

direction is selected to try to eliminate the effects

of limited boundaries as much as possible. The size

of water domain is 1250 mm * 700 mm in plane

x-y which is about five times of the wedges size,

and that of air domain is 1250 mm * 200 mm.

SETUP

(version 971, 2007) is used with double precision

for the numerical simulation. It is based on explicit

time integration. The Arbitrary Lagrangian

Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is chosen in this paper.

Water and air are modelled as Multi-material

Eulerian mesh. Then the free surface can be modeled by Volume of Fluid method. The structure

is modeled by the Lagrangian mesh with rigid

material.

The penalty coupling method is applied for the

interaction of Eulerian fluids and the Lagrangian

solid, which is different from the penalty based

contact coupling method used by Stenius et al.

(2006). The penalty factor used here is defined to

simulate the coupling effect between the fluids and

the structure. The coupling effect is limited to the

normal direction of the solid surface. So the sliding

is allowed in the tangent direction. Usually, compression coupling direction option is selected for

rigid body impact. By combining the ALE solver

and the Eulerian-Lagrangian penalty coupling

algorithm, LS-DYNA has the capability to simulate the slamming problems.

The critical time step size is the minimum time

value that the sound travels through all elements

(solid and shell mesh). The time step used in the

Zhao et al. (1996).

Table 1.

Breadth of section

Length of measuring section

Length of each dummy section

Total length

Dead rise angle

Total weight

Weight of measuring section

0.50 m

0.20 m

0.40 m

1.00 m

30

241 kg

14.5 kg

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Table 2.

Figure 2.

4.1

Parameters

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Mesh size

5 mm

2.5 mm

1.25 mm

Number

of elements

(Fluids +

Structures)

5725 +

118

29500 +

215

127000 +

430

Number of

elements on

impacting

wedge surface

58

115

230

CPU time *

56 m

9 h 49 m

96 h 54 m

*

Note: It was run on one PC with 2.4 GHz processor and

2 Gigabytes of memory.

is 6.15 m/s in vertical y-direction. Gravity is not

considered.

From considerations of computational efficiency, it is not a good choice to mesh uniformly

the total fluids (air and water) domains. Only the

domain near the wedge and also where the wedge

will pass through are meshed uniformly with finer

meshes. This mesh density will be studied to obtain

a compromise between CPU time and simulation

results. The domain far away the wedge is moderately expanding toward the boundaries.

4

FOR 2D RIGID WEDGE

Figure 3.

Model 2.

Slamming force

the water entry problem. The mesh size for air and

water is chosen as 5 mm, 2.5 mm, 1.25 mm respectively, and mesh size for wedge is set the same as

that for fluids. Table 2 lists the main parameters for

the three models. The predicted accelerations are

proportional to the slamming force on the measuring section in the test. The instant when the vertex

of 2D wedge touches the element on the water surface is set as 0.0s. Figure 3 shows part of meshes in

air and water domains near the vertex of the wedge

from model 2.

Figure 4. compares the predicted vertical slamming forces with experimental results. It shows

that:

and predicted results with different mesh sizes.

The predicted slamming forces agree satisfactorily with the experimental one in the time

domain, from the beginning of slamming, to the

flow separation on the knuckle at about time

0.0158s, and to the later stage of water entry in

the figure. The predicted results are about 5%

larger than the experimental ones in the middle

of water entry before flow separation. Maybe it

is mainly due to the three-dimensional effect on

as up to 20%, which was predicted by BEMs of

Zhao et al. (1996).

When the mesh size is 5 mm (Model 1), there are

some high frequent oscillations on the curve

because of numerical noise. Especially at

the beginning of impact, the peaks are very

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experimental slamming force after flow separation is too big.

When the mesh size is 2.5 mm (Model 2), the

result is better except the small oscillations at the

beginning. Further it can simulate the separation very well at the knuckle. The slamming force

reduces quickly after flow separation, and then

decays slowly. The CPU time is also acceptable.

Finally, when the mesh size is 1.25 mm (Model 3),

no obvious oscillations are observed in the curve.

It shows best consistency in this case, but it will

take about 4 days to run even one simulation in

a normal personal computer.

4.2

(a) t1 = 0.00435s

time instances

wetted surface of the wedge are presented at three

time instances, and are compared with experimental

results in Figure 5. V(t) is the drop velocity from

the test. The time instance in Figure 4 is the time in

the test. Y is the vertical coordinate on the wedge

surface, yk is vertical coordinate of the vertex, and

yD is the draft of the wedge.

(b) t2 = 0.0158s

the measured pressures. The measured pressures

are smaller than the predicted ones in general,

especially after the initial stage as shown in

Figures 5 (b) and (c). It is mainly because of

three-dimensional effects in the test then.

When a much finer mesh is used, the predicted

results are much smoother. The pressures from

Model 3 are the best. It shows good consistency with experimental results. Only the value

of pressure P2 in Figure 5 (a) from the experiment is larger than the predicted results from

LS-DYNA. The reason for this difference is not

clear, maybe mesh density at the initial stage here

is not finer enough, or maybe due to experimental errors, because this value of pressure P2 from

the experiment is also larger than the predicted

results by BEMs in Zhao et al. (1996).

In the initial stage, Figure 5 (a) shows that results

from both Model 1 and 2 are not good, while in

Figures 5 (b) and (c), results from both Model 1

and 2 are better. It may be explained as that the

mesh density near the vertex of wedge in model

1 and 2 is not finer enough to describe the slamming pressure in this case.

(c) t3 = 0.0202s

Figure 5. Comparison of pressure distributions at

different time instances.

for example, 1.25 mm, then the predicted results

at the initial stage in Figure 4 and Figure 5 (a) will

become better and acceptable comparing with

those from Model 3. Not so much CPU time is

needed as Model 3. It may be a good solution from

the view point of computational efficiency.

Figure 4, it may be concluded that the mesh density in the water and air domains near the vertex of wedge is most important. In other words,

if the mesh density in water and air domain of

4.3

at different points on the wetted surface of the

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varies during water entry process, non dimensional

pressure is not applied here. The predicted pressure

results from model 2 and 3 are shown, but those

from model 1 are not included because the results

are not good due to too coarse meshes.

The predicted results show good agreement with

the experimental ones in general. Usually, they

are a little larger than the experimental ones,

except at point P2 in Figure 6 (b), the reason was

explained in 4.2 before.

The peak values of pressure histories from

model 3 with finer mesh 1.25 mm are larger

than those from model 2, while the pressure distributions after peak are almost same. There is

one obvious impulse in pressure curves before

the pressure peak from model 2 in Figures 6

(b), (c) and (d). Maybe these impulses are due

to numerical noise, because when finer mesh

1.25 mm is used, the phenomena disappear as

shown in Figure 6.

The peak value of pressure P1 is smaller than that

of P2, P3, and P4, and the shape of P1s peak is

not as good as others. Perhaps it is because the

mesh density near the vertex of wedge and also

P1 is still not fine enough in model 3.

In order to capture the pressure peak phenomena correctly and also to eliminate the numerical

noise in the curves, much finer mesh is needed in

this case, for example 1.25 mm. For the case of

slamming force, mesh size 2.5 mm maybe is enough

as shown in Figure 4 before.

4.4

at different time instances

Figure 7 presents both water jet and pressure contour phenomena from time 0.00435s, 0.0158s, to

0.0202s, corresponding to pressure distributions

described in Figure 5. Half of rigid wedge and part

of the water domain near the wedge is shown. The

vertex of the rigid wedge of model 3 will touch

the calm water at time 0.0036 s in the LS-DYNA

simulation, which corresponds to the time 0.0s in

the drop test. Three coupling points option is chosen for each coupled Lagrangian element, and no

fluid leakage is observed on the coupling wedge

surface.

and (b), the maximum pressure appears in the

inner domain, or the up-rise which was described

in Wagner (1932) theory. The slamming pressure

will decrease in the outer domain in the water,

or in the jet flow along the wedge surface. The

pressure in the jet flow is so small that it can

Figure 6. Comparison of pressure histories at different

positions.

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along the coupling wetted surface along wedge,

but it is much smaller comparing with that

before flow separation as shown in Figures 7 (a)

and (b). It is also observed from pressure distributions in Figure 5. That is the reason why the

slamming force will reduce very much comparing with that before flow separation. It is consistent with what is presented in slamming force

curve in Figure 4.

4.5

(a) t1 = 0.00435s

Penalty factor

scaling the estimated stiffness of the interacting coupling system. It is applied to compute the coupling

force to be distributed on the structure and fluids.

Simulations are run for three cases when PFAC are

set as 0.5, 0.1, and 0.01 for model 3. Figures 8 and

9 shows comparison of slamming force and pressure distributions with different values of PFAC

respectively. Little difference is observed. In this

paper the default value 0.1 is used.

(b) t2 = 0.0158s

(c) t3 = 0.0202s

Figure 7. Predicted water jet flow and pressure contour

in water by LS-DYNA.

theory can explain the water impact almost correctly, and still be widely used today.

The position of maximum pressure on the wetted surface of wedge will move from the vertex

to the knuckle during the water entry process.

The peak value of slamming pressure does not

decrease much before flow separation comparing from Figures 7 (a) and (b), so slamming force

will increase gradually when the wetted surface

is increased as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 7 (c) shows the water jet and pressure

contour in the final stage after flow separation

different values of PFAC at t2 = 0.0158s.

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4.6

pressure histories after the peak very well. However, the coarser mesh, such as 2.5 mm for this

case, is enough to predict the slamming force.

It is found that the mesh density is the most

important parameter influencing the predicted

accuracy. Small differences are observed when the

penalty factor is modified. One appropriate value

for time step scale should be set to reduce CPU

time and also to prevent the negative volume errors

during the simulation.

The water jet flow and pressure contours in

the water domain are presented during different

stages of the impact. It simulates the phenomena

correctly in general from model 3 with 1.25 mm

mesh size. The peak pressure appears in the inner

domain before the flow separation, while the pressure along wedge surface is very low after the flow

separation. The value of pressure predicted in the

jet flow is so small that it may be ignored.

The modelling techniques described here can be

adopted to model wedges of different types, and to

study other hydrodynamic impact problems.

Time step

that the sound travels through any elements in the

model. One scale factor TSSFAC can be adopted

to compute the time step used in simulations. The

time step calculated should not be larger than the

critical one, otherwise negative volume errors will

appear. But if the time step is set to one value that

is too small, then the simulation CPU time will

increase correspondently. The critical time step size

can be approximated firstly before the simulation,

in order to set one sale factor to obtain one appropriate time step.

CONCLUSIONS

two-dimensional rigid wedge with the deadrise

angle 30 degree is carried out by the explicit FEM

code LS-DYNA in order to validate experimental

results. The Arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian solver

and penalty coupling algorithm is used.

Slamming force, pressure distributions at different time instances, and also pressure histories

at different points on wetted surface of wedge are

predicted, and the results are compared with the

experimental ones published by Zhao et al. (1996).

It shows good agreement between each other.

The predicted 2D slamming force correctly

describes the impact process from the initial stage,

flow separation, to the final one, and the values

are a little larger than the 3D experimental ones.

So are the pressure values, especially after the initial stage of impact. This is mainly because of the

three-dimensional effects during water entry.

A convergence study is carried out. Different

mesh sizes, 1.25 mm, 2.5 mm and 5 mm, are compared. The finer the mesh size is, the better results

can be obtained. But the CPU time will increase

dramatically once the mesh density is increased.

The compromise between mesh density and CPU

time should depend on what will be predicted.

In order to capture the peak of slamming

pressure, much finer mesh is needed, for example, 1.25 mm in this case. The value of the pressure peak predicted by the coarser mesh model is

smaller than that by the finer mesh. For example,

the maximum non-dimensional pressure coefficient from model 3 at the time 0.0158s before the

flow separation is 7.32, while that from model 2

is only 6.65, which is about 9% smaller. The peak

value of pressure P1 predicted in model 3 is smaller

than that of P2, P3, and P4, and the shape of P1s

peak is not as good as others. Perhaps it is because

the mesh size 1.25 mm near the vertex of wedge

and also P1 is still not finer enough. Both models

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work has been performed in the scope of the

project EXTREME SEASDesign for Ship Safety

in Extreme Seas, (www.mar.ist.utl.pt/extremeseas),

which has been partially financed by the EU under

contract SCP8-GA-2009-234175.

REFERENCES

Alexandru, I., Brizzolara, S., Viviani, M., Couty, N.,

Donner, R., Hermundstad, O., Kukkanen, T.,

Malenica, S. & Termarel, P. (2007). Comparison of

experimental and numerical impact loads on ship-like

sections. Advancements in Marine Structures, Guedes

Soares, C, and Das, P.K., (Eds), Taylor & Francis,

UK, 339349.

Aquelet, N., Souli, M. & Olovsson, L. 2006.

EulerLagrange coupling with damping effects:

Application to slamming problems. Computer Methods

in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 195, 110132.

Bereznitski, A. 2001. Slamming: the Role of Hydroelasticity. International Shipbuilding Progress. 48, 333351.

Engle, A. & Lewis, R. 2003. A comparison of hydrodynamic impacts prediction methods with twodimensional drop test data. Marine Structures. 16, 2,

175182.

Faltinsen, O.M. & Chen, Z.M. 2005. A generalized

Wagner method for three-dimensional slamming,

Journal of Ship Research, 49, 4, 279287.

Faltinsen, O.M., Landrini, M. & Greco, M. 2004.

Slamming in marine application. Journal of Engineering Mathematics. 48, 187217.

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theory of water impact. Part 2. Linearized Wagner

problem. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 549, 343373.

LS-DYNA, Keyword Users Manual, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Version 971, May

2007.

Luo, H.B., Hu, J.J. & Guedes Soares C. 2010. Numerical

simulation of hydroelastic response of flat stiffened

panels under slamming loads. Proceedings of the 29th

International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic

Engineering (OMAE10), 611 June, 2010, Shanghai,

China, ASME, Paper OMAE2010-20027.

Peseux, B., Gornet, L. & Donguy, B. 2005. Hydrodynamic impact: Numerical and experimental investigations. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 21, 277303.

Ramos, J. & Guedes Soares, C. (1998). Vibratory response

of ship hulls to wave impact loads. International Shipbuilding Progress. 45 (441): 7187.

Stenius, I., Rosn, A. & Kuttenkeuler, J. 2006. Explicit

FE-modeling of fluid-structure interaction in hullwater impacts. International Shipbuilding Progress.

53, 1031121.

Sun, H. & Faltinsen, O.M. 2009. Water entry of a bow

flare section with a roll angle. Journal of Marine

Science and Technology. 14, 6979.

during landing. National Advisory Committee for

Aeronatics. Techinical note No. 321, 309313.

Wagner, H. 1932. Uber Stoss- und Gleitvergange an der

Oberflache von Flussigkeiten. Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 12, 193215.

Wu G.X., Sun H. & He Y.S. 2004. Numerical simulation

and experimental study of water entry of a wedge in

free fall motion. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 19,

3, 277289.

Xu, G.D. & Duan, W.Y. 2009. Review of prediction

techniques on hydrodynamic impact of ships. Journal

of Marine Science and Applications. 8, 204210.

Zhao, R. & Faltinsen, O.M. 1993. Water Entry of TwoDimensional Bodies. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 246,

593612.

Zhao, R., Faltinsen, O.M. & Aarsnes, J.V. 1996. Water

entry of arbitray two-dimensional sections with and

without flow separation. Proc. 21st Symposium on

Naval Hydrodynamics. 408423.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

spectrum

Wengang Mao & Igor Rychlik

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

ABSTRACT: In this paper a simple method is proposed to estimate extreme ship response, defined as

the return values of the responses. Real ship responses are often non-Gaussian, hence a transformation,

defined by the cubic Hermite polynomials, of a Gaussian process is employed to model the responses.

The transformation is a function of the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and zero up-crossing frequency of a response. The parameters vary with changing sea conditions and operation conditions and

are easily available from measured responses. In the case when measurements are not available the parameters are estimated by an empirical model from the significant wave height and operation conditions.

The model is derived from the measurements, but can be also estimated by means of a theoretical analysis.

The proposed method is compared with the typical engineering approach to estimate the return values of

a response. The full-scale measurements of a 2800TEU container ship during the first six months of 2008

are used in the comparisons.

1

sampling methodology is often employed to limit

the computation effort. For example, the environmental contour line, see Winterstein et al. [3],

is a popular way to limit the number of sea states

needed to be considered.

In the engineering community method, described below, is often used. The methods is

originally derived for Gaussian responses but

can be used for non-Gaussian responses as well.

It employs the fact that the distribution of local

maxima Xm in a stationary Gaussian response X is

known, viz. the so-called Rices distribution characterized by few spectral moments. Then the long

term cumulative distribution function (cdf) of Xm

in one year is estimated and used to approximate

the distribution of yearly maximum M. Finally xT

is estimated by solving

INTRODUCTION

say, during one year. The extreme response is often

characterized by the most probable value, i.e. the

location of a mode of M, or by the return value.

More precisely, let T = 10, 20 or 100 years, then the

return value of response xT is the 1/T quantile of

M, viz. a solution of the following equation,

P (M

xT ) =

1

T

(1)

assuming stationary shipping and ergodicity of

the responses, xT could be estimated by one of

standard statistical procedures. For example, the

Gumbel or Generalized Extreme Value distribution could be used to fit the distribution of the

observed maxima of blocks of recorded response.

Another popular method is the Peak Over Threshold (POT), for more details see Coles [1].

If there are no data available, then the distribution of M in Eq. (1) has to be estimated in other

ways, using the available information. Often, one

can assume that shipping is known, so that the long

term distribution of sea states can be determined.

Then response at a given sea state can be simulated

by means of dedicated numerical software. Next

suitable statistical method could be used to estimate

the distribution of M, see e.g. Naess et al. [2]. Since

frequency of sea states when responses exceeding

P (X m

xT ) =

1

,

n T

(2)

one year. The long term cdf of Xm is often approximated by a Weibull distribution, see DNV [4].

Here the approach to approximate the long term

cdf of Xm (even for non Gaussian responses) by

the Weibull distribution and then solving Eq. (2)

to estimate the return response xT will be called

Method 1.

This paper focuses on an alternative method for

extreme response prediction, the so called Rices

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state (usually from 20 minutes to several hours) is

generated using, for example, a linear (Gaussian)

or a Stokes (quadratic) wave model. Most often, it

is defined by a vector of parameters; say W, whose

elements could be the significant wave height Hs,

wave period Tp, etc. The encountered wave environments are described by a sequence of sea states

Wi, i = 1, , K, where K is the average number of

sea states encountered during a long term period.

The distribution of W is called long term distribution of sea states. The probability density function

(pdf) of the distribution will be denoted by f(W).

However it is not obvious how to define (estimate)

the pdf f(W). Loosely speaking long term pdf of

sea state parameters describes the variability of

encountered sea state W, which depends on shipping routes. However it will also depend on the goal

for the computations. We will not discuss this subject deeply just point out nature of the problem.

In this paper, ship responses X are estimates

of structural stresses and clearly depend on the

encountered sea states. The mean value of stresses

is assumed to be a constant and without loss

of generality, is set to be zero, for simplicity of

expressions.

as follows

P (M

x)

E ( N1+ ( x )) + P(

P (X (0)

x ),

(3)

of level x by the response X in one year, while

E(N) is the expected value of N, see Cramer

and Leadbetter [5] for more detailed discussion.

Neglecting the term P(X(0) >x) and combining

Eq. (1) and Eq. (3) gives the Rices estimate of

the return response xT. In the following section

we shall slightly reformulate the Rices estimate of

xT to demonstrate its connection with the narrowband approximation of long term cdf of Xm. Here,

this method will be referred to as Method 2.

Method 2 requires the computation (estimation) of E(N

N1+ ( x )) . Typically, developing a model

for ship response variability involves: (a) using

some well established models for variability of

encountered waves; (b) mathematical description

of ship wave interaction to compute wave loading;

(c) a model for structure properties to compute

structural stresses. In the simplest case, this procedure leads to Gaussian model for the response,

under stationary sea conditions, and the expected

number of upcrossing during a sea state is given

by an analytical formula, see Rice [6]. Next, given

a shipping, the long term distribution of sea states

enables evaluation of E ( N1+ ( x )), see Eq. (11).

However, due to the complexity of interaction

between ship structure and encountered waves,

the real ship responses are non-Gaussian, particularly under large sea states. In such an eventuality,

the Gaussian model can lead to large prediction

errors, e.g., severe underestimation (50%) of xT

was reported in Mao et al. [7]. There are several

numerical approaches proposed in the literature

to numerically compute Rices formula for nonGaussian responses, see some recent references

Naess and Karlsen [8], Butler et al. [9] or Galtier

et al. [10]. In this paper, the 4 moments Hermite

transformation, proposed in Winterstein et al. [11],

is used to model the non-Gaussian ship responses.

The transformation requires only the knowledge

of variance, skewness, kurtosis and mean level

upcrossing frequency of the responsse. The advantage of the method is that the expected number of

crossings of any level x, during a sea state, is given

by an explicit analytical formula, see Eq. (16).

The long term cdf of response local maxima Xm

is defined as the limiting value of the ratio of the

number of local maxima with height below x and

the total number of local maxima as the observation period tends to infinity. Since one has only

finite length measurements, the long term cdf of

Xm has to be estimated practically. Often, when

long records of measurements are available, the

Weibull distribution is used to estimate the long

term cdf of Xm, viz.

x k

FX m ( x ) 1 exp

.

(4)

maxima during t (unit: year) is n(t), then expected

number of local maxima during a year, n, is estimated by

n=

n(t )

,

t

(5)

Eq. (2) (T often equals to 20, 50 or 100 years).

However, the long term Weibull cdf in Eq. (4) is

very sensitive to the value of location parameter ,

which is hard to estimate when measuring campaign length t is not very long. Furthermore the

EXTREME ESTIMATION

BY METHOD 1 & 2

by the encountered waves, which can be modeled

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also makes estimate of n, Eq. 5, very uncertain.

This makes practical use of the original version of

Method 1 somewhat difficult. In the following,

the upcrossing spectrums of ship responses will be

used to approximate the long term cdf.

2.2

the typical behavior that the empirical cdf of Xm is

close to the bound in the tails defined in Eq. (6).

The bound is often known as the narrow-band

approximation.

However the narrow-band method is most useful when +(x|W) can be computed from a model

for the responses. For example when ship response

at W is Gaussian, then the upcrossing spectrum can

be analytically evaluated by Rices formula and one

derives that the cdf of Xm is bounded by Rayleigh

cdf. The long term cdf of Xm during period t, is

given by

into a series of stationary parts (sea states). For

each sea state W, expected number of upcrossing

of level x in unit time by the stationary response is

denoted by +(x|W). The short term cdf of Xm at

the sea state W can then be bounded by

1 FX m ( x | W )

+ (x |W )

,

+ (0 | W )

FX m ( x ) = FX m ( x | W f (W )dW

d ,

(6)

(7)

defining the sea states encountered in the period t.

Further the fraction n(t)/t in Eq. (5) is approximated by

upcrossing frequency +(x|W) need to be estimated

or computed from the model.

In Figure 1 (a), empirical cdf of Xm is compared

with the approximated bound when +(x|W) is

n(t)/t +(0|W)f(W)dW .

(8)

estimation of the return value.

2.3

Examples

full-scale measurements of a 2800TEU container

vessel is taken to compare different estimates of

the long term cdf of Xm. For the region there are

well established models (Weibull) long term pdf of

encountered significant wave height f(W). However the measuring period is rather short and we

do not expect that the variability of the encountered significant wave heights is well described by

the model. Hence the empirical cdf of Xm could differ from that estimated by Eq. (7). The alternative

could be to use the encountered seas to estimate

the long term pdf of W. This would still require

numerical computations of the integral in Eq. (7).

Since in this section we only wish to compare different means to estimate the long term cdf of Xm,

a related method, not requiring the integration,

will be used instead in the following.

As before, let Nt+ ( x ) denote the number of upcrossings of level x by the response in a period of

length t, then the empirical distribution of encountered response maximums Xm satisfies

FX m ( x ) 1

Figure 1. (a): short term distribution FXm(x|W),

bounded by Eq. (6) (solid line) and empirical distribution

(dotted line) from full-scale measurements at a stationary

sea state; (b): long term (t = 1 month) empirical cdf FXm(x)

(dotted line) and the bound given in (9) (solid line).

Nt+ ( x )

.

Nt+ ( )

(9)

values of x as can be seen in Figure 1(b) where one

presents the empirical cdf of encountered local

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empirical distribution at high levels.

If ship response at each sea state is assumed to

be Gaussian, the Gaussian response can be simulated using the response spectrum from measurements. Next the same comparisons, as presented

in Figure 2, were performed for the Gaussian

responses and presented in Figure 3. Now, one can

see a very good agreement between the empirical

distribution, fitted Weibull distribution and the

bound from Eq. (9).

stresses in t = 1 month. It is shown that the bound

using upcrossing spectrums as Eq. (9) can well

model the empirical cdf of high levels (at the tail

area).

We turn next to comparisons with the Weibull

fit to the empirical cdf. In Figures 2 and 3, the

logarithmic scale on Y-axis is chosen to check

the agreement of the exceedance probability, i.e.

1FXm(x), at very high levels.

Figure 2 presents the exceedance probability

obtained from the full-scale measurements. In the

figure one can see that the fitted Weibull distribution slightly underestimate the extreme response

at the same probability level, while there is a trend

2.4

Comparison of methods 1, 2

to estimate the return value of response xT, viz. as

a solution of the following equation

E ( N1+ ( xT )) =

1

,

T

(10)

+

where E ( N1 ( x )) is the expected number of

upcrossings of the level x by the responses in

one year. Obviously the expected value has to be

estimated.

Let assume that one can choose a minimal

length of the stationary periods (sea states) t,

e.g. 20 or 30 minutes. Furthermore, one estimate

that in average the ship will encounter K sea states

during a year, i.e. the sailing time is Kt. Then

the expected number of upcrossings at level x,

E ( N1+ ( x )), is given by

E ( N1+ ( x ))

ship response (solid line); the bound proposed in Eq. (9)

(dashed line) and fitted Weibull distribution (dash-dotted

line).

K t + ( x | W f (W )dW

d ,

(11)

x at a sea state W, and t is the duration time of a

sea state and assumed to be 1800 seconds. Finally,

the return value of the response is a solution of the

equation

K t+(xT|W)f(W)dW = 1/T .

(12)

xT of Eqs. (2, 68), with the Method 2 estimate,

i.e. solution to Eq. (12). It is easy to see that if the

zero-crossing frequency +(0|W) is independent of

sea state, then the two methods would give identical estimates. Since only severe sea states are essential for estimation and for those seas the heading

angle 0 thus approximately +(0|W) is constant.

Remark: Suppose sea states are characterized by

a single parameter, the significant wave height W,

say. Further let each sea state be experienced by a

ship for the same period of time t, e.g. 30 minutes.

If one plans to employ Method 2, i.e. Eq. (3), to

estimate the return response and use the standard

Gaussian response for each sea state, where the response

spectrums are obtained from measurements.

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spectral moments of responses X(t). The first two

terms on the right hand side of Eq. (13) are often

referred to as the zero up-crossing frequency

long term pdf f(W) of sea states is the limit, as sailing time increases, of the normalized histogram of

encountered significant wave height. In contrary, if

one plans to employ Method 1, i.e. Eq. (2), to estimate the return response and use the decoupling

argument, e.g. Eq. (7), then long term pdf f(W)

of significant wave height is biased by the intensity

of the maximums. More precisely, it is the limit, as

sailing time increases, of the normalized (to have

integral equal to one) histogram of encountered

significant wave height scaled by the intensity of

local maximums of the responses. Note that the

two long term pdf are equal if the intensity of local

maximums does not depend on the sea state.

fz

In order to use Method 2 as Eqs. (1112), upcrossing intensity +(x|W) has to be estimated for at

least severe sea state. Then the long term pdf of

sea states for the particular shipping needs also be

determined first. In this section we shortly review

computations of +(x|W) .

If the joint pdf of ship responses X(t) (zero

mean stresses) and its derivative X (t ) under a sea

state W is known, then the upcrossing frequencies

can be computed by Rices formula viz.

X ( ),

(t )

( x,, |W ) .

X(t) = G(u(t)) = m + X

[c1H1(u(t))] + c2H2(u(t)) + c3H3(u(t))],

x2

2

exp

,

0

0

(15)

standard Gaussian process (in what follows, the

mean stress m = 0). The coefficients of the Hermite

polynomials are chosen so that the first 4 moments

of X(t) could match that of the transformed

Gaussian process, more details see Winterstein

et al. [11].

Let G1 be the inverse function of G, and then

u(t ) = G 1(X (t )). Hence,

G 1( )2

,

+ ( |W ) = fz (W )exp

2

up-crossing intensity is computed by Rices viz.

1

2

(14)

Hermite polynomials with quadratic terms in

the Hermite model. Providing the stochastic

parameters of response X(t) at a sea state W,

denoted by = (m,x, X ,3,4) with skewness

3 E [ X (t )3 ] / X3 , and kurtosis 4 E [ X (t )4 ] / X4 ,

the transformed Gaussian process is defined by

+ ( |W ) =

2

.

0

1

2

processes

or hard to compute, e.g., for quadratic responses

see Butler et al. [9], Naess [13] . In our previous

work Mao et al. [14], the so-called Laplace Moving

Average (LMA) is shown to be able to model the

non-Gaussian ship responses. It requires knowledge of response power spectrums, skewness and

kurtosis of the stresses. A limitation of the Laplace

model, similar to the second order Stokes Waves, is

that the pdf fX (t ),X (t ) x, z |W ) is not available in an

analytical form (the pdf is defined in the frequency

domain by its characteristic function and has to be

computed using numerical methods).

We will next present cases when the crossing

intensity is given by an explicit analytical formula.

3.1

W)=

as the real environmental loads, e.g. ocean waves,

show considerable non-Gaussian features, such

as a skewed marginal distribution with heavy

tails. Further, the non-linear interaction between

ships and wave loads can no longer be neglected

for extremely large sea states. Gaussian assumption of ship responses largely underestimates the

extreme values based on the investigation of fullscale measurements. Hence, an alternative method

is needed to model the expected up-crossings for

the non-Gaussian responses.

+ ( |W ) =

fz W ) =

(13)

1 G

2 G

(X )

(X )

(16)

process u(t).

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3.3

Gaussian model

model are functions of the encountered sea

state W. The parameters of the non-Gaussian ship

responses were widely studied in Sikora [15] and

Mansour and Wasson [16], and more recently in

Jensen and Mansour [17]. The estimations presented in these papers are efficient for applications at ships conceptual design stage, since the

parameters can be derived from the ships main

dimensions, encountered waves, and operational

parameters.

As is known, wave environments are generally

described by the significant wave height Hs and

wave period Tp. Due to the difficulty in determining the strongly uncertain parameter Tp, its long

term conditional distribution given Hs, for example DNV [18], can be used to simplify the estimations. Hence, in the following, the sea conditions

are characterized by a single parameterthe

significant wave height Hs. In the previous work

by the present authors, Mao et al. [7], the standard

deviation of response, X(W), is estimated from Hs

by an explicit relation terms of ship speed U and

heading angles viz. X (W) = C(; U)Hs. The

zero up-crossing frequency, fz(W), is approximated

by the encountered wave frequency.

Finally, only the relation between skewness (and

kurtosis) and the encountered significant wave

height should be further established. Skewness and

kurtosis are measures of non-Gaussianity of the

responses. It is well known that the effects of nonlinear interactions between ship and waves are no

longer negligible for large sea states. Therefore, we

expect skewness and kurtosis to depend mostly on

the encountered significant wave height, see also

Jensen and Mansour [17].

The following investigation is based on the previously used full scale-measurements. The measurements contain both winter and spring voyages,

so that they can be used to represent the variability

of longer term wave environments. For the extreme

response prediction, only stresses under heavy seas

are of interest, here sea states with significant wave

height Hs above 4 meters are considered.

The values of kurtosis 4 for sea states with

H s 4 m, are presented in Figure 4. It shows that

there is no significant trend between kurtosis and

Hs. Similar conclusion is also derived in Mansour

and Wasson [16]. Here, the kurtosis is assumed to

be 3.4. For some pairs of parameters ( 3 , 4 ), the

cubic Hermite polynomials in Eqs. (1516) does

always remain monotone. One can resolve this

problem by using alternative values of kurtosis.

This approach is motivated by an observation

that the computed expected upcrossing spectrum

mid-section and after-section.

whole response inducing high frequency vibration such as

springing and whipping, computed from observations and

by the formula proposed in Jensen and Mansour [17].

of the kurtosis.

In order to compute the values of skewness of

responses at all different sea states Wi, the relation

between 3 and Hs should also be established. When

measurements of ship responses are available, the

relation can be easily regressed by, for example,

a least square method. Alternatively, a numerical

analysis is usually used to get the responses when

no measurements are available. As is known that

the high frequency responses, such as whipping

and springing, are very important for the extreme

response analysis, so that ship hull should be modeled as a flexible body for a numerical analysis.

However, this makes the computation extremely

time consuming and expensive. Based on the

investigation of full-scale measurements, Figure 5

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are good enough to compute the skewness of real

ship repsonses, since the skewness of wave induced

responses is almost identical with that of the whole

responses. This conclusion is also consistent with

that reported in Jensen and Mansour [17]. Hence,

ship hull is then modeled as a rigid body and even

some commercial software is able to conveniently

compute the wave induced responses.

3.4

constant for severe sea states then the narrow band

estimation (Method 1) of the return response is

equivalent to the Rices approach (Method 2). This

is also what we assume in order to be able to compare the methods, see the Remark in Section 2.

In practice the long term cdf of response

maxima (or long term narrow band cdf) is often

approximated by means of Weibull distribution. If

the tails of the long term cdf are well approximated

by the Weibull tails then the Methods 1 and 2

would still be equivalent. In order to facilitate the

comparisons between the two methods we propose

to approximate the expected number of upcrossing

during one year of level x as follows

( N1+ ( x ))

xk

E(N

E(

E (N

( N1+ (0 ))exp

,

(17)

Figure 6. Upcrossing spectrum in time t = 0.5 year

estimated by Eqs. (1516) (referred to Method 2), by

fitted Weibull distribution as Eq. (17) (referred to as

Method 1), and computed by Eq. (9) assuming Gaussian

response, together with the observed upcrossing for both

after section (a) and mid section (b).

or from the actual measured responses.

The methods will be compared using the time

history from the full-scale measurements at two

places of the 2800TEU container ship. The measured places are located at the 1/4 ship length forward of after perpendicular (denoted as after

section), and amidships (denoted by mid section),

respectively. The detailed information can be

referred to Storhaug et al. [19].

Firstly, assuming the ship response under each

sea state to be Gaussian processes, the corresponding upcrossing spectrums are computed by Rices

formula as Eq. (13). The upcrossing spectrum at all

sea states are then integrated as Eq. (11) to get the

long term upcrossing spectrum in time t. Secondly,

instead of Gaussian assumption, the upcrossing

spectrum at each sea states is estimated by the transformed Gaussian approach as Eqs. (1516) (also

refer to the Method 2 in this paper). In addition,

when the time history of ship responses is available, the fitted Weibull distribution is then used to

approximate the long term upcrossings as Eq. (17).

Figure 6 presents the upcrossings computed by the

above 3 approaches, together with the observed

assumption of ship response largely underestimates the upcrossing spectrum at high levels x. For

the real non-Gaussian ship response, fitted Weibull

approach (Method 1) and transformed Gaussian

approach (Method 2) give almost identical results,

and both are close to the observed upcrossings.

Further, the upcrossing spectrums computed by

Method 1 and 2 converge when extrapolating to

even higher levels. Therefore, both methods are

able to estimate the extreme response for the given

set of data.

4

the extreme response prediction using the fullscale measurements through an practical example.

55

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the measurements by a linear regression analysis. Method 1 is also applied and its result is

taken as a validation for Method 2. Further, in

Method 2 the significant wave height is a very

important parameter in computing the upcrossing

spectrums, two different sources of encountered

waves are used for comparison.

remain montone at high levels, we have increase the

value of kurtosis in some cases with large skewness.

It is also checked that the increase will not affect the

computation of upcrossing spectrum.

Skewness of responses under large sea states

against the encountered significant wave height

Hs is plotted in Figure 7. It shows that the value

of skewness will increase with the encountered Hs.

The linear regression method gives the value of

skewness as a function of Hs for both after section,

3 _ aftf , and midsection, 3 _ mid , as follows

The standard deviation of ship responses X,

is determined through its relation with Hs, i.e.,

X = C(; U)Hs. The values of C(; U) are computed by a linear strip theory. For the 2800TEU

container ship, its value in terms of heading angle

under service ship speed U = 10 m/s is given in Mao

et al. [20]. Zero upcrossing frequency of response,

fz, is approximated by the encountered wave frequency. Again, kurtosis is assumed to be 3.4 in

3 _

0 11

0 35 3 _ mid

id

0.063H s 0.39.

(18)

terms of other parameters, e.g., heading angle,

are also tested by a linear regression method. But

the more complex models do not explain the variability of the skewness any better than the simple

regression model as Eq. (18).

Note that for the midsection of the ship, a

semi-analytically closed formula in terms of significant wave height and operational profiles (ship

speed and heading angle) was proposed to estimate the skewness of ship responses in Jensen and

Mansour [17]. But as shown in Figure 7(b), there

is a big gap of skewness computed by these two

approaches. In particular for the full-scale measurements, there are a lot of sea states with negative

skewness, and some of them are Gaussian even for

very high sea states. However, in order to check if

the model can be applicable for extreme response

predictions, the skewness regressed from the fullscale measurements will be used for the following

study.

4.2

Encountered waves

besides the relation between the stochastic parameters and wave environments W (mainly characterized by significant wave height Hs), one also

needs to know the expected number of encountered

sea states K and the long term distribution of Hs.

The first quantity is related to the expected sailing time while the second depends on the shipping. Since the available stress data are measured

in North Atlantic, this region will be considered in

what follows.

The variability of sea environments, here Hs,

has been extensively studied and many databases

are available. (Note that it is not always clear that

the distribution is adequate for the studied problem; see the Remark in Section 2.) In the following,

the measurements of Hs from the onboard radar

installed on the above 2800TEU container ship

of significant wave heights. (a): Results for After-section;

(b): Results for Mid-section, also including the skewness computed by the closed expression in Jensen and

Mansour [17].

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distribution of Hs recommended by DNV [18] is

also used as an input of Method 2, and compared

with the onboard measurements.

The distribution of Hs measured onboard contains much more moderate seas than DNV [18]

recommended, but the probability of high Hs from

DNV is larger than that from the onboard observations. For extreme analysis, large Hs are of more

interest to estimate the extreme values. Hence, we

expect that using DNV recommended Hs will give

larger values of extreme responses than that using

observed Hs.

The difference of Hs obtained from above

2 approaches could be a consequence of the routing plan system installed in the measured ship.

However, the difference may be just caused by statistical errors, since the distribution of observed

Hs is obtained from only half years measurements

over many years.

4.3 Results of extreme values

In the following, the so-called 100-year response xT

(T = 100 years) will be estimated by both Method

1 and 2 on the basis of six-month (t = 0.5 year)

full-scale measurements. In this case the expected

number of upcrossings by the level of 100-year

response is equal to t/T = 0.05. If the onboard

observed Hs are used as the input of Method 2, it

is denoted as Method 2(a). While if Method 2 uses

DNV [18] recommended Hs, it is then denoted as

Method 2(b).

Figure 8 presents the expected number of

up-crossings and the estimates of x100 for both after

section and mid section. The expected numbers of

up-crossings computed by Method 1 (Eq. (17))

and Method 2(a) are very close to each other and

converge fast to the observed upcrossings at high

levels. For the after section, the value of x100 is

about 210 Mpa and 230 Mpa estimated by Method

1 and Method 2(a), respectively. For the midsection, the two methods give almost identical results

of x100, 350 Mpa.

The expected number of upcrossings computed

by Method 2(b) significantly deviates from the

other two methods, in particular for the midsection.

Method 2(b) overestimates more than 40% of the

100-year than Method 1 and Method 2(a). It is due

to that the distribution of Hs used in Method 2(b)

is quite difference from the measurements. Hence,

for extreme prediction during ships design stage, it

is extremely important to describe the encountered

waves accurately along its operation period.

5

CONCLUSIONS

prediction of extreme response, e.g. 100-year stress

x100. In the method, Wintersteins transformed

Gaussian approach is used to model the nonGaussian ship responses. The expected numbers

of upcrossings by the real ship responses are then

computed by Rices formula from the transformed

Gaussian processes. The computed upcrossings

are easily applied to estimate the values of extreme

responses. The accuracy of this method is validated by the typical Weibull fitting method, on the

basis of full-scale measurements of a 2800TEU

container ship.

Parameters of the transformed Gaussian model,

i.e., standard deviation and skewness of stationary

ship responses, are derived as a function of encountered significant wave height. The relation between

skewness and Hs can be directly computed using

months full-scale measurements. The expected numbers of upcrossings are computed by Method 1 Eq. (17)

(dotted lines), and Method 2 with onboard measured

Hs (dashed lines) and Hs recommended by DNV [18]

(dash-dotted lines). Solid lines represent the observed

upcrossings. Horizontal dash-dotted lines represent the

expected number of upcrossings related to the 100-year

stress. (a): Results for After-section; (b): Results for

Mid-section.

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MARSTRUCT.indb 57

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through a simple nonlinear numerical analysis

assuming as a rigid ship body.

Finally, the proposed method is conveniently

applicable for extreme estimation with limited

information, mainly encountered significant wave

height Hs. However, due to the strongly relation

between the encountered Hs and estimates of

extreme responses, a correct distribution of

encountered Hs should always be initially determined for applications.

the Level Crossing Rate of Second Order Stochastic Volterra Systems. Probab. Eng. Mech. 2004; 19,

pp. 155160.

[9] Butler, R., Machado, U. & Rychlik, I. Distribution

of wave crests in non-Gaussian sea. Applied Ocean

Research, 2009; 31, pp. 5764.

[10] Galtier, T., Gupta, S. & Rychlik, I. Crossings of

Second-order Response Processes Subjected to

LMA Loadings. Journal of Probability and Statistics 2010; Volume 2010, Article ID 752452, 22 pages,

doi:10.1155/2010/752452.

[11] Winterstein, S.R., Ude, T.C. & Marthinsen, T.

Volterra models of ocean structures: extreme and

fatigue reliability. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 1994; 120(6), pp. 13691385.

[12] Rychlik, I. & Leadbetter, M.R. Analysis of ocean

waves by crossing and oscillation intensities. International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering,

2000; 10, pp. 282289.

[13] Naess, A. Statistical analysis of second-order

responses of marine structures. Journal of Ship

Research, 1985; 29(4), pp. 270284.

[14] Mao, W., Li, Z., Galtier, T., Ringsberg, J.W. &

Rychlik, I. Estimation of wave loading induced

fatigue accumulation and extreme response of a

container ship in severe seas. In: Proceedings of the

OMAE2010, Shanghai, China, 2010. (Reference:

OMAE2010-20125).

[15] Sikora, J.P. Cumulative Lifetime Loadings for Naval

Ships. Symp. On Hydroelasticity and Unsteady

Fluid Loading on Naval Structures, 1998; Anaheim

CA, Novermber 1520.

[16] Mansour, A.E. & Wasson, J.P. Charts for estimating

Nonlinear Hogging and Sagging Bending Moments.

Journal of Ship Research, 1995; 39(3), pp. 240249.

[17 Jensen, J.J. & Mansour, A.E. Estimation of Ship

Long-term wave induced bending moment using

closed-form expressions. Trans, RINA, 2002;

pp. 4155.

[18] DNV-RP-C205. Environmental conditions and

environmental loads, Recommended Practice. April,

2007.

[19] Storhaug, G., Moe, E. & Piedras Lopes, T.A. Whipping Measurements Onboard a Midsize Container

Vessel Operating in the North Atlantic. International Symposium on Ship Design and Construction, 2829th of November, 2007, Shanghai, China,

pp. 5570.

[20] Mao, W., Rychlik, I. & Storhaug, G. Safety Index of

Fatigue Failure for Ship Structure Details. Journal

of Ship Research, Vol. 54(3), pp.197208.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the support from the EU

project SEAMOCS (Applied Stochastic Models for

Ocean Engineering, Climate and Safe Transportation) and Gothenburg Stochastic Center and the

Swedish foundation for Strategic Research through

GMMC, Gothenburg Mathematical Modeling

Center. Also many thanks to DNV, crews, management company and owner for providing data.

REFERENCES

[1] Coles, S. An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of

Extreme Values. Springer-Verlag, 2001.

[2] Naess, A., Gaidai, O. & Haver, S. Efficient estimation of extreme response of drag dominated offshore structures by Monte Carlo simulation, Ocean

Eng. Vol. 34 (16), 2007, pp. 21882197.

[3] Winterstein, S.R., Ude, T.C., Cornell, C.A.,

Bjerager, P. & Haver, S. Environmental Parameters for Extreme Response: Inverse FORM with

Omission Factors, Proceedings, ICOSSAR-1993,

Innsbruck, Austria.

[4] DNV. Postprocessor for Statistical Response Calculations. December 15th, 2007.

[5] Cramer, H. & Leadbetter, M.R. Stationary and

Related Stochastic Process: Sample Function Properties and Their Applications. Wiley, 1967 (Republication by Dover 2004).

[6] Rice, S.O. The mathematical analysis of Random

Noise. Bell syst Tech J, 1944 & 1945; 23 & 24,

pp. 282332 and pp. 46156.

[7] Mao, W., Ringsberg, J., Rychlik, I. & Storhaug, G.

Development of a Fatigue Model Useful in Ship

Routing Design. To be appear in the Journal of Ship

Research.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

loads to structural strength at real sea state

Yoshitaka Ogawa & Masayoshi Oka

National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT: The authors developed a whole ship finite element analysis system from wave loads to

structural strength at real sea state. In the present study, methodology for the rational analysis of structural strength by means of such a whole ship analysis particularly from the viewpoint of loads is discussed. Consequently, for the rational evaluation of strength in waves, the effect of operation particularly

on wave loads should be considered. It is verified that the evaluation without the effect of operation may

overestimate the stress induced by waves.

1

INTRODUCTION

the computation with sufficient number of time

steps in an encounter period. It is also clarified that

high stress close to the yield stress can be evaluated

by the present computation although the present

method takes the nonlinear effect of wave loads

into account.

It is considered that there may be certain discrepancies between the computed wave loads and

real situation because such a computation basically

doesnt take the effect of operation into account.

For the further investigation, finally, the effect

of operation, that is the effects of speed reduction, change course and operational limitation

(limitation of wave height), on the fatigue strength

was examined. The sensitivity of such effects is

discussed for the rational analysis of structural

strength.

longer and faster. As a result, it is difficult for such

ships to apply the empirical background for the

determination of design loads, structural requirements and so forth while those for conventional

ships are adjusted by means of the empirical background.

In addition to this, the transparency of technical

background of design loads and structural requirements will be strongly required owing to the adoption of IMO/GBS because such transparencies are

clearly drafted in the functional requirement of

the GBS.

Based on this background, authors developed

a whole ship finite element analysis system from

wave loads to structural strength at real sea state.

In the present study, methodology for the rational

analysis of structural strength by means of such a

whole ship analysis particularly from the viewpoint

of loads is discussed.

Firstly, the whole ship finite element analysis system is developed by the combination with

the computation of nonlinear wave loads. In this

system, time-domain nonlinear strip method is

used for the robust and rational computation of

dynamic pressure. A basic function of the present

system and verification of wave loads, which is one

of dominant factors for evaluation of structural

strength, is indicated.

Secondly, time-domain finite element analysis is

conducted. In this computation, statistic finite element analysis by means of the wave pressure distribution in each time step is carried out. An adequate

time steps in one wave encounter period is examined through the computation in regular wave. It is

2

2.1

ANALYSIS

Computation of wave pressure

on hull surface

means of the time domain simulation program,

developed by the National Maritime Research

Institute of Japan (Ogawa, 2005). The program,

namely NMRIW (Nonlinear Motion in Regular and Irregular Waves), is based on a nonlinear

strip method (Bishop et al., 1977; Jensen, 1979;

Yamamoto, 1980; Fujino, 1983; ISSC, 2000).

The NMRIW was developed reflecting the latest results of a seakeeping and manoeuvring

study (Hamamoto, 1993). Forces due to linear

and nonlinear potential flow are combined with

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well known that it is difficult to compute nonlinear

wave loads in bow and quartering seas by means

of the existing time domain computation method.

Using the present method, wave loads in bow and

quartering seas can be estimated rationally.

Ship motion components, Xj ( j = 1, 2 ..., 6), are

determined from a set of 6 differential equations of

motion with its origin at the centre of gravity. Here

j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 refer to surge, sway, heave, roll,

pitch and yaw modes, respectively. With respect to

rotations, a right-handed convention is used. The

equations of motion for a ship traveling with forward speed U are described as

(M

A ij X

j

ij

FW

j

FVj

Biijj X

j

= K P e + K I edt + K D

e =

(2)

deviation of the ship course. and 0 denote the

instantaneous course and target course respectively. KP, KI and KD denote the proportional gain,

integral gain and differential gain, respectively.

NMRIW can compute the wave pressure in both

regular and irregular waves. The sea surface and

wave kinematics are described based on the linear

wave theory. The sea surface of irregular waves is

described by the linear superposition of regular

waves with random phase angles. Irregular wave

was realized by the sum of 200 components of

waves in accordance with the Jonswap spectrum.

To obtain the stable results, 10 times simulations

with the duration of 3600 seconds of ship scale were

carried out in each condition. The combination of

phase angle of each wave component was varied

in each simulation. Figure 1 shows the example of

the spectrum of incident wave. It is found that the

planed spectrum, which is shown as Base, is the

same as the computed spectrum, which is derived

from the time history of computed incident wave

and is shown as Cal.. It is found that present

computation method can adequately realize the

wave spectrum, which is the basis for the utilization of direct computation for the clarification of

statistical value of ship response in waves.

Figure 2 shows the example of the time history

of vertical bending moment at midship and S.S. 7.5.

It is also found that two-node vibration owing to

the whipping occurs with natural frequency of

the present container ship. It is clarified that the

present method can execute the robust computation of wave loads including whipping vibration.

Present computation method has been verified

through the comparison with experiments of many

kinds of ship (Ogawa, 2005 & 2007). In addition

Cij X j

i j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

de

dt

(1)

and X

denote motion acceleration and

where X

j

j

velocity, respectively. Mij and Aij denote mass and

added mass respectively. Bij denotes damping.

Cij denotes the restoring coefficient. The index,

i, denotes the direction of the fluid force. FWj denotes

the wave exciting force. FVj denotes the excitation

force due to viscous effects.

In terms of global flexible modes, the modal

superposition approach is applied in accordance

with formulation by Yamamoto et al. (Yamamoto,

1980). Equations of motion including flexible

modes are solved in the time domain by means

of a 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme. The FroudeKrylov force, which has considerable effect on the

nonlinearity of ship motions, is estimated by the

integration of the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic

wave pressure along the instantaneous wetted surface of the hull at each time step.

With respect to the sectional wave radiation force

and potential value at each time step, the integral

equation method is utilized. Source and doublet are

distributed at the origin of each section to avoid the

irregular frequency, in accordance with Ohmatsus

method (Ohmatsu, 1975). The sectional diffraction

force, in the present method, is computed by solving the Helmholtz equation at each time step.

Wave impact load due to slamming is computed by means of the displacement potential

approach (Takagi, 2007; Ogawa, 2009) in terms of

the instantaneous wetted surface at each time step.

The viscous effect of roll damping due to ship hull

and bilge keels is estimated using various empirical formulae. The propeller thrust is described by

means of the propeller characteristics. The hull

resistance is a function of the instantaneous speed

and draft. Lateral force and yaw moment due to

rudder is considered to keep a target course o for

the ship in the simulation. The rudder is controlled

by the PID control as follows:

7

Base

Cal.

S()

5

4

3

2

1

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

wave (significant wave height:5 m, mean wave period:

8.0 sec.).

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0.0012

S.S. 5

S.S. 7.5

300000

Cal. (Fn = 0.164)

0.001

200000

0.0008

100000

Tx/gL B

(ton-m)

400000

0

300

-100000

320

340

360

380

400

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

-200000

0

0

-300000

Time (sec.)

0.5

1.5

/L

Figure 2. Time history of the wave vertical bending moment of the post-panamax container ship at

S.S.7.5 and S.S.5 ( = 180 deg., Fn = 0.219, Hw = 9 m,

/L = 1.0).

Figure 4. The wave torsional moment response amplitude operator of the mega container ship at S.S.5.5

( = 150 deg., wave height: Hw = 6 m).

Cal. (Head seas, Fn = 0.11)

Cal. (Head seas, Fn = 0.164)

Cal. (Bow seas, Fn = 0.164)

Exp. (Head seas, Fn = 0.11)

Exp. (Head seas, Fn = 0.164)

Exp. (Bow seas, Fn = 0.164)

0.03

0.025

MV/gL2B

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0

0.5

1.5

/L

amplitude operator of the mega container ship at S.S.5.5

with various ship speed and headings (wave height:

Hw = 6 m).

finite element model by means of the present computation (GUI of NMRIW).

verified through the comparison with experiments

of the large container ship.

Details of the experiments have already been

published (Oka, 2009). Figure 3 shows example of

validation for the wave vertical bending moment in

head and bow seas, for the ship travelling at various

speeds. The fundamental frequency component,

Mv, is divided by gBL2. Here, and g describe

the density of fluid and acceleration of gravity,

respectively. , B and L describe wave amplitude,

ship breadth and ship length, respectively.

It is found that the computed wave bending

moment of the mega container ship is in ample

agreement with experiments. It is also found that

ship speed and wave encounter angle have effect on

the bending moment. It is clarified that the present

method can explain the effect of ship speed and

wave encounter angle on wave load quantitatively.

Figure 4 also shows example of validation for

the wave torsional moment in bow seas, at various ship speeds. The fundamental frequency component, Tx, is divided by gBL2. Based on both

torsional moment in the stern quartering seas was

significant in the stern quartering seas compared

with that in bow quartering seas.

It is found that the present method can explain

the measured wave torsional moments, which were

measured accurately using the newly developed

backbone model (Oka, 2009). It is confirmed that

the present method, which can estimate roll motion

in the stern quartering seas adequately, estimates

not only the vertical bending moment but also the

wave torsional moment in various wave condition.

2.2 Whole ship finite element analysis

The present system computes a time history of

stress in regular and irregular waves. In this computation, static finite element analysis by inputting

the computed wave pressure distribution, which is

shown in Figure 5, in each time steps are carried

out. By means of the present system, outer shell

of a subject ship can be extracted automatically.

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on finite element model by means of the present

computation.

Figure 7. The whole ship finite element analysis in the

regular head seas (Stress distribution under the hogging

condition) (N = 12, Head seas, wave height:12 m, wave

length ratio to ship length:0.8.).

distribution on finite element model. It is found

that wave pressure is loaded only on the outer

shell.

The NASTRAN software is used for the present

finite element analysis. Prior to the computation, density of container was tuned to adjust the

weight, center of gravity and radius of inertia of a

finite element model. Dynamic forces and inertia

of a finite element model is adjusted by means of

the inertia relief function of the NASTRAN.

3

3.1

EXAMINATION OF RESULTS

OF FNITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Examination of time step of time-domain

analysis

Firstly, an adequate time step in one wave encounter period is examined through the computation in

regular wave. In the present study, the computed

stress of the large container ship is examined to

clarify the adequate step with the variation of time

step N from 12 to 120. Figures 7 and 8 are examples of the stress distribution under the hogging

condition in the case of N = 12 and 40. It is confirmed that stress distribution in the case of N = 40

are same as that in the case of greater number of

step. It is clarified that stress distribution converges

at N = 40 in various wave period. It is found that

stress amplitude in waves is 10% different between

in the case of N = 12 and in the case of N = 40.

It is confirmed that the present analysis system

with sufficient number of time step can evaluate

the stress amplitude in waves adequately.

3.2

regular head seas (Stress distribution under the hogging

condition) (N = 40, Head seas, wave height:12 m, wave

length ratio to ship length:0.8.).

supposed that there is certain discrepancy between

computed wave loads and real situation.

Figure 9 shows the example of the long term

prediction of wave vertical bending moment of a

large container ship. Response amplitude operator,

which is basis for these long term values, is computed by means of the linear strip method. It is

well known that probability of occurrence of once

in 25 years correspond to 108. In the meanwhile,

probability of occurrence of the design wave load,

determined by the IACS UR-S11 (IACS, 2006), of

this container ship corresponds to 106. It is found

that there is certain discrepancy in wave loads

related to those two probabilities.

For the consideration of design wave loads for

existing ship, that discrepancy is adjusted based on

stress close to the yield stress can be evaluated

by the present computation although the present

method takes the nonlinear effect of wave loads

into account. It is considered that the validity of

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(Post-panamax container ship)

0.002

0.06

0.0016

0.04

Midship

S.S. 7 1/2

? = 180deg

? = 90deg

? = 0deg

All Headings

0.02

Mv/gBL2

Mv/?gBL3

0.0012

0.0008

0

600

1100

1600

2100

2600

-0.02

0.0004

-0.04

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-0.06

log10Q

t(sec.)

Vertical Bending Moment (Fn =0.182, T02 = 15sec. H1/3 = 10m)

moment of a large container ship computed by means of

linear strip method.

0.06

Midship

S.S. 7 1/2

0.04

Mv/gBL2

0.02

is difficult for new type of ship to compensate such

a discrepancy based on a voyage re-cord. Therefore, it is important to evaluate wave loads rationally and to assess the effect of operation on it by

means of a direct computation.

4

4.1

0

1400

1410

1420

1430

1440

1450

1460

1470

1480

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

t(sec.)

Figure 10. The example of time history of wave vertical bending moment ( = 180 deg., significant wave

height:10 m, mean wave period:15.0 sec.) (Below: magnification of above time history of 2000 second within one

hour duration).

OF OPERATION ON WAVE LOADS

The effect of the change of ship speed

on the short term probability of wave loads

history of vertical bending moment. It is found

that the hull girder vibration owing to the whipping occurs frequently in such a severe sea state.

It is confirmed that two-node vibration occurs with

natural frequency of the present container ship.

It is also found that the large bending moment can

be induced due to whipping in the sever sea state.

Figure 11 shows the relation of speed reduction with the probability of wave vertical bending

moment. This probability is derived from the histogram of the computed sagging moment. The value

of horizontal axis denotes the non-dimensional

value divided by gBL2 (in this case, is the

significant wave amplitude). The solid line in

Fig. 11 shows the probability of occurrence without speed reduction. This means that computation

is carried out with constant ship speed. For the

evaluation of the effect of hull girder vibration,

wave loads taking only rigid motion into account

is computed in the same irregular waves. This computation derives the wave loads without hull girder

vibration. The probability of wave loads computed without hull girder vibration is also shown

in Fig. 11 as the small dotted line.

Although the number of peak value is different owing to the hull girder vibration, it is found

that hull girder vibration has a certain effect on

0

1

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

With speed reduction

Wave component only (without hull girder vibration)

0.1

0.01

0.001

Mv/gBL2

Figure 11. The relation of ship speed with the probability of occurrence of wave vertical bending moment

at midship ( = 180 deg., significant wave height:10 m,

mean wave period:15.0 sec.).

clarified that it is important to consider the effect

hull girder vibration on the statistical characteristics of wave loads.

However, in the real navigation, ship speed

is reduced owing to the nominal speed loss and

deliberate speed loss. Particularly, those speed

loss become significant in rough seas because ship

motion and wave loads become large. In addition to this, in the real navigation, ship course are

changed to avoid severe condition particularly in

63

MARSTRUCT.indb 63

2/18/2011 5:41:07 PM

the statistical characteristics of wave loads should

be also evaluated in various wave conditions that

hull girder vibration doesnt occur.

Based on the results in Figures 11 and 12, it is

verified that the setting of ship speed has much

effect on the probability. Therefore, it is important

to compute wave loads taking the effect of speed

reduction into account.

for the evaluation of statistical characteristics of

ship motion and wave loads have been generally

conducted under the assumption that ship speed

and course are constant. Therefore, it is inadequate

to assess the effect of hull girder vibration on wave

loads quantitatively based on the computation and

the model experiments with constant ship speed

and course. This implies that computation and

model experiments taking the effect of operation

should be conducted.

Using the present computation method, the

probability of occurrence with speed reduction is

computed. It is shown as the dotted line in Fig. 11.

In this computation, ship speed was reduced to

two third of initial ship speed when the pitching

motion becomes large in the computation.

It is found that the probability with speed reduction becomes smaller than that without speed

reduction because the whipping induced hull girder

vibration is significantly reduced owing to the

speed reduction. It is clarified that the evaluation

without the effect of operation may overestimate

the effect of hull girder vibration on statistical

characteristics of wave loads quantitatively.

Figure 12 shows the example of the computed

probability of occurrence of wave vertical bending

moment with various ship speeds. This probability is derived from the histogram of the computed

sagging and hogging moment separately. It is

found that the occurrence probability of sagging

moment is slightly different from that of hogging

moment because the effect of hull girder vibration

and nonlinearity of ship motion are not significant

in 5 m wave height. In the meanwhile, it is clarified that the effect of ship forward speed on the

probability is significant. In the real navigation,

criteria for the speed loss and the course change

are based on not only hull girder vibration but also

4.2

term probability of wave loads

with the probability of wave vertical bending

moment. The solid line in Fig. 13 shows the probability of occurrence without course change. This

means that computation is carried out with constant headings. In the meanwhile, the dotted line

shows the probability of occurrence with course

change. In this computation, heading angle was

varied from head seas (180 deg.) to bow quartering

seas (170 deg.) when the pitching motion becomes

large in the computation. It is found that the probability with course change becomes smaller than

that without course change because the whipping

induced hull girder vibration is certainly reduced

owing to the course change. It is clarified that the

direct computation can explain the effect of course

change on the probability rationally.

In addition to them, probability of wave loads

at bow seas (170 deg.) computed without course

change is also computed. This is shown as the

small dotted line in Fig. 13. Although the resulting

heading is same as bow seas (170 deg.), it is found

that the probability at bow seas is different from

that with course change in head seas. It is clarified the evaluation of statistical characteristics of

wave loads with constant course may be different

1

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

With Course change

Sagging(Fn = 0.182)

Hogging(Fn = 0.182)

Sagging(Fn = 0.12)

Hogging(Fn = 0.12)

0.1

P

0.1

0.01

0.01

0.001

0.001

Mv/gBL^2

Mv/gBL2

the probability of occurrence of wave vertical bending moment at midship ( = 180 deg., significant wave

height:10 m, mean wave period:15.0 sec.).

of occurrence of wave vertical bending moment at midship ( = 180 deg., significant wave height:5 m, mean

wave period:15.0 sec.).

64

MARSTRUCT.indb 64

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to compute wave loads taking the effect of course

change into account.

In the meanwhile, it is considered that further

quantitative examination of the degree of speed

reduction is required in the future study. Particularly, the relation of the criteria for the speed loss

and the course change with statistical characteristics of wave loads should be examined further

although it is clarified that the direct computation

can explain the effect of speed reduction on the

probability rationally.

5

System and the Equations Describing Manoeuvring

Motion of Ship in Waves, J Soc Naval Arch of Japan,

Vol. 173, pp. 209220.

IACS, Longitudinal strength standard, 1993. IACS

S-11.

IACS, 2001. Standard Wave Data, IACS Recommendation No. 34.

ISSC, 2000. Extreme hull girder loading, special task

committee VI. 1, 14th international ship and offshore

structures congress, Nagasaki, Japan, pp. 263320.

Jensen, J.J. & Pedersen, P.T. 1979. Wave-induced bending moments in shipsa quadratic theory, Transaction of Royal Institute of Naval Architects, Vol. 121,

pp. 151165.

Ogawa, Y. et al., 2005. The effect of a bow flare shape

on the water impact pressure, International Journal

of Offshore and Polar Engineering (IJOPE), Vol. 16,

No. 2.

Ogawa, Y. 2007. A study on nonlinear wave loads of a

large container carrier in rough seas, 10th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and

other Floating Structures (PRADS), 1, pp. 132140.

Ogawa, Y. & Takagi, K. 2009. An evaluation of whipping vibration utilizing the displacement potential

method, Hydroelasticity 2009, pp. 213222.

Ohmatsu, S. 1975. On the Irregular Frequencies in

the Theory of Oscillating Bodies in a Free Surface,

Papers of Ship Res Inst, Tokyo, Vol. 48, pp. 113.

Oka, M., Oka, S. & Ogawa, Y. 2009. An experimental

study on wave loads of a large container ship and its

hydroelastic vibration, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology.

Takagi, K. & Ogawa, Y. 2007. Flow Models of the Flare

Slamming, Proceedings of International Conference

on Violent Flows (VF-2007).

Yamamoto, Y., Fujino, M. & Fukasawa, T. 1980. Motion

and longitudinal strength of a ship in head seas and the

effects of nonlinearities, Naval Architects and Ocean

Engineering, Journal of Society of Naval Architects of

Japan, Vol. 18.

CONCLUSIONS

from load to structural strength at real sea state,

the effect of operation on wave loads and strength

is examined. Conclusions are as follows:

1. The direct computation by means of the present

method can explain wave loads in various

wave height, wave period and wave direction,

rationally.

2. The present analysis system with sufficient

number of time step can evaluate the stress

amplitude in waves adequately.

3. In the meanwhile, for the rational evaluation of

the stress in waves, the effect of operation on

wave loads should be considered. It is verified

that the evaluation without the effect of operation may overestimate the stress induced by

waves.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A part of the present study was supported by a

Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research of the Japan

Society for Promotion of Science (No. 20360400).

REFERENCES

Bishop, R.E.D., Price, W.G. & Tam, P.K.Y. 1977.

A unified dynamic analysis of ship response to waves,

Transaction of Royal Institute of Naval Architects,

Vol. 119, pp. 36390.

Fujino, M. & Chiu, F. 1983. Vertical Motions of Highspeed Boats in Head Sea and Wave Load, J Soc

Naval Arch Japan, Vol. 154, pp. 151163.

65

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

prediction of slamming loads of containerships

J. Parunov, M. orak & I. Senjanovi

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the paper is to investigate long-term distribution of slamming loads of

containerships accounting for different types of environmental and operational uncertainties. Following

uncertainties are studied: the choice of the wave scatter diagram, the effect of the avoidance of heavy

weather, the effect of the maneuvering in heavy weather and the uncertainty of the method for prediction of the long-term extreme slamming pressure. Long term distributions of bottom slamming pressures are computed using different combinations of the aforementioned uncertainties. The purpose of

the study is the uncertainty assessment for the application in the reliability based design of ultra-large

containerships.

1

the long-term prediction via Poisson outcrossing

method.

INTRODUCTION

In the design and operation of ultra-large containerships important hydroelastic effects appear

in addition to the rigid body response. The most

relevant hydroelastic phenomenon concerning the

longitudinal strength of large containership is whipping, the transient vibration of ship hull occurring

as a consequence of slamming. Such vibration may

considerably increase the extreme vertical wave

bending moments amidships and thus needs to be

considered in the ship structural design.

Estimation of design slamming parameters, as

the frequency of the slamming occurrence and

design slamming pressures is demanding task

depending on numerous uncertainties. The reason

for this is that slamming phenomenon is very sensitive to the environmental conditions, ship speed

and heading angle. These parameters depend on

assumed shipping route, the ship masters actions

to avoid heavy weather and on the maneuvering in

heavy weather. These assumptions can not be set

with large confidence that makes design slamming

loads quite uncertain.

This paper aims to quantify influence of mentioned uncertain parameters on the long-term

extreme slamming pressures. The effect of the following uncertainties is studied:

Two types of slamming loads appear in containerships: the bow flare slamming and the bottom

slamming. Although both types of the slamming

are important and can excite hull-girder vibration,

only the bottom slamming is considered in the

present study.

It is assumed that the bottom slamming pressure psl is proportional to the square of the relative

velocity v of the bottom and the wave surface:

psl

1

k

kv 2

2

(1)

is assumed according to Ochi and Motter (1973).

v0

0 093 gL

(2)

It is worth mentioning that the threshold velocity given by Equation (2) is used by Jensen et al.

(2008) in recently published study of the wave

induced hull girder loads on containerships. The

associated threshold pressure takes the form:

p0

avoidance of heavy weather,

maneuvering in heavy weather.

1

kv02

k

2

(3)

a way to avoid assumption on the method for

calculating slamming pressure coefficient k. The

approach is elaborated in Section 2.

Furthermore, two methods for calculating longterm extreme slamming pressures are compared:

67

MARSTRUCT.indb 67

2/18/2011 5:41:11 PM

Table 1.

where

Ship particular

Flokstra

S175

Lpp

B

T

Tballast

CB

full

ballast

Vn

270

32.2

10.85

0.598

57499

24.5

175

25.4

9.5

7.0

0.572

24742

17157

22.15

m

m

m

m

tonnes

tonnes

knots

Flokstra containership,

S175 containership.

Results of model tests of two ships are well documented and available in the references Flokstra

(1974) and Wu et al. (2002). Main particulars of

the ships are specified in Table 1.

The hydrodynamic assessment is performed by

the linear strip theory. Although more sophisticated

3D hydrodynamic tools are available nowadays,

for the purpose of comparative study performed

herein, the linear strip theory is considered to be

a convenient tool. The hydrodynamic strip models

of the containerships and their validations are presented by Parunov & orak (2010).

The present paper is organized in such a way that

methods for long-term slamming pressure calculation are described firstly. After that, the effect of

different environmental and operational uncertainties on the long-term extreme slamming pressures

is studied. The number of slams in 20 years is also

estimated. Finally, paper ends with conclusions

summarizing obtained results.

Fp ( psl ) =

nH

psp

sl

p0

i j ,k

sl =

sl

Sj

Zk

) r (T ) p (H

Zk

Sj

ssl

ssl

(8)

1 V

Psslam

2 M

(9)

is given as:

n

2

i =1

nH nT

sl i j ,k HS j TZk , i p HS j TZk

jk

sl =

*

) (

(10)

Model tests and full-scale trials show that necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of

slam impact are the bottom emergence, i.e. relative bow motion being larger than local draught d,

and impact velocity being higher than the critical

velocity v0.

(4)

) f ( p) dp = 1 e ( p

F psl HS TZ , =

where sl is the slamming frequency in each individual short-term sea state, given as:

random variable which follows the probability law

given as truncated probability density function in

the exponential form (Ochi and Motter 1973):

p0 psp

nT

r ( TZ , ) =

The lifetime weighted sea method for longterm distribution of slamming pressure

f ( psl ) = e

i =1

,TZk

jk

(7)

where p(HS,TZ) is the probability of occurrence

of sea state, while the relative number of slamming appearances in each short-term sea state is

given as:

PRESSURE

2.1

(6)

pressure coefficient k = 1. This is possible, as pressure as well as 1/ in the exponential part of the

Equation (5) is proportional to k and therefore k

can be cancelled. Actual extreme pressures can be

obtained by simply multiplying calculated unitary

pressure values by actual value of the pressure

coefficient k.

Long-term distribution of slamming pressure psl

can be modeled as series of short term sea states

where each heading angle have the same probability of occurrence. Probability distribution of slamming pressure in short term is given by Equation (5)

and the long-term distribution is given as:

the present study:

1

k r2

p )

(5)

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MARSTRUCT.indb 68

2/18/2011 5:41:12 PM

independent random processes which follow

Rayleigh distribution (Senjanovi et al., 2003).

Based on that fact, probability of slamming can

be written as:

d2

v2

+ 02

2

2 M 2V

2.2

x ) d

(12)

p (

V2 = SV (

x ) d

(13)

After establishing long-term distribution in discrete form by applying Equation (7), the theoretical threeparameter Weibull distribution may be

fitted:

FWeibulll ( psl ) = 1 e

=e

b

a

1

1

=

N sl T *

C

sl

ext

( pext p )

) sll e

(14)

(18)

( ( p

p

eext

xt

HS TZ , tsea

(19)

in the short term conditional on sea state and

heading angle, one obtains extreme distribution

of slamming pressure for all sea states for the

assumed sea state duration tsea:

n

2

i =1

nH nT

Fi

jk

j ,k

( pext HS TZ , ;ttsea )

p HS j ,TZk

(20)

(15)

the long-term return period (e.g. TC = 20 years) is

obtained by the order statistics:

fitted. For the long-term return period (e.g. TC = 20

years), the probability of exceeding the most probable extreme slamming pressure is given as:

q=

(17)

Poisson outcrossing method

parameter, shape parameter and location

parameter respectively. Probability FWeibull given

by Equation (14) represents the probability that

the slamming pressure is less than psl in one, randomly chosen wave cycle. The Weibull 3P distribution may be presented in the linear scale, and then

Weibull parameters may be calculated by the least

square method as:

term sea state calculated according to (9). Distribution of extreme slamming pressures pext over the

sea state duration is than given as:

p

sl

ln(- ln( q )

a

the slamming pressure over the stationary period

of time of a single sea state tsea, conditional on the

sea state defined by the three parameters (HS, TZ, )

is obtained via the Poisson outcrossing approximation. The appropriate value for tsea depends on the

geographical location and is considered to vary

between 1800 and 43200s. Here a value of 10800s

(3 hours) is assumed.

First step is evaluation of the mean outcrossing

rate p, for the value of the extreme slamming pressure pext, based on the exponential function:

(11)

2 and

where M

V2 are variances of the relative

motion and the relative velocity, respectively, in a

short term sea state. These are different for each

mean zero crossing period TZ, heading , ship

speed and loading condition. Short term sea states

are modeled by PiersonMoskowitz wave spec2 and 2 are given as:

trum, while M

V

2

M

= SM (

+e

pext

Fext ( pext ;T

TC )

(16)

Feext

xt ( pext tsea )

nsea

(21)

term, the extremes reached in different sea states

are independent random variables and where the

number of stationary sea states in the period TC,

nsea, is given by TC /tsea.

given return period can then be calculated as:

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MARSTRUCT.indb 69

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to avoid the ship capsizing or excessive ship rolling amplitudes that may interfere with normal

working activities on board. Consequently, the

probability of head seas is much higher in heavy

weather than in normal sea conditions. However, this is valid only for smaller ships (less than

about 200 m in length). For large ships, the course

changes in heavy weather are not so frequent.

The explanation for this finding could be that the

masters of larwge ships feel safe even in rather

rough seas.

Another important maneuver in rough seas is the

speed reduction. This action is not dependent on

the ship size. Speed could be reduced due to technical reasons, such as the added resistance of wind

and waves, change of submerged part of the hull,

change of wake field and loss of thrust. Very large

motion amplitudes, velocities and accelerations,

slamming, green seas, overload of the main engine

could be the reason for voluntary speed reduction.

The effect of the speed reduction in heavy

weather is assessed by analyzing three different

ship speeds:

described procedure may be fitted by the theoretical Gumbel distribution. Probability that the slamming pressure remains less than a given value pext

over a long time period TC, is then given as:

FGumbel ( pext ) = e

p p*

ext

(22)

If Gumbel distribution is presented in the linear

scale, then Gumbel parameters can be calculated

by the least square method as:

1

,

a

p*

(23)

line. Finally, the most probable extreme impact

pressure over the long-term return period is equal

to the Gumbel parameterp*, i.e. pext = p*.

Reduced speed 80% of the nominal speed

Zero speed.

ASSESSMENT OF EXTREME BOTTOM

SLAMMING PRESSURE

in 20 years according to the lifetime weighted sea

method (k = 1).

route on the extreme bottom slamming pressures,

long-term calculations are performed for following

scatter diagrams:

(IACS)

North Pacific scatter diagram (N-P)

Scatter diagram for shipping route North

EuropeFar East through Suez Chanel (Suez).

Floxtra S175

Wave scatter

diagram

Ship speed

FL

FL

BL

IACS

vn

0.8 vn

zero

237

201

60

242

207

40

278

236

61

N-P

vn

0.8 vn

zero

179

152

49

223

191

37

275

236

64

Suez

vn

0.8 vn

zero

170

142

48

203

172

39

257

221

69

N-P modified

Modified Suez scatter diagram.

vn

0.8 vn

zero

170

145

56

214

185

47

267

230

79

Suez modified

when the ship is in heavy seas are course changing

from beam seas to head or following seas and voluntary speed reduction (Guedes Soares 1990).

vn

0.8 vn

zero

147

128

59

199

175

53

254

223

89

BL ballast condition

the resulting extreme slamming pressures are presented in Section 4.

The next issue covered in the paper is the effect

of the heavy weather avoidance. The problem is

approached by the truncating probability density

function of a significant wave height, as explained

in Section 5. The truncation of the scatter diagrams

results in two additional scatter diagrams for which

long-term calculations are performed:

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MARSTRUCT.indb 70

2/18/2011 5:41:19 PM

in 20 years according to the Poisson outcrossing method

(k = 1, short-term duration of sea states 3 hours).

1.40

1.30

1.20

1.10

Floxtra S175

1.00

Ship speed

FL

FL

BL

0.90

IACS

vn

0.8 vn

zero

277

227

58

327

265

38

423

337

60

0.80

N-P

vn

0.8 vn

zero

181

167

48

248

208

36

333

273

64

Suez

vn

0.8 vn

zero

169

149

47

217

183

38

293

241

69

vn

0.8 vn

zero

173

155

54

241

204

45

330

275

79

vn

0.8 vn

zero

147

133

55

225

194

50

308

262

90

N-P modified

Suez modified

0.70

on the slamming pressure for full load condition.

10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

pressure for full load condition.

1.80

1.60

1.10

1.40

1.05

1.00

1.20

0.95

0.90

1.00

0.85

0.80

0.80

0.75

slamming pressure.

LongTerm/Poisson extreme - vn

0.70

0.65

0.60

Furthermore, for each scatter diagram, calculations are performed for two long-term calculation

methods:

slamming pressure (3 hours assumed duration of shortterm seas states in Poisson outcrossing methods).

Poisson outcrossing method.

unitary pressures (k = 1) are calculated at section at

the distance of 10% from the fore perpendicular.

Section 7.

Summary results of the long-term slamming

pressure analysis for two ships are presented in

Tables 2 and 3 for the lifetime weighted sea method

and Poisson outcrossing method respectively.

Also, these results are graphically presented in

Figures 13 and Figure 4 for full load condition

study is the influence of the shipping route on the

extreme slamming pressure. The North Atlantic

environment, proposed by IACS for calculation of

71

MARSTRUCT.indb 71

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frequent trading route for containerships, although

some of containerships are sailing on that route as

well. However, the North Atlantic is considered as

the most severe environment and as such can cover

all situations that the ship may encounter during

her lifetime, including the situation that the ship

permanently sails in the North Atlantic (Guedes

Soares 1996).

The idea of the present research is to study

differences in the extreme slamming pressure if

some other shipping route is selected, aiming to

model more realistically the operational features of

containerships.

Two important containership routes considered

in the present study are the North Pacific route

between Yokohama and San Francisco, and the

Europe-Asia route connecting European ports

Hamburg and Rotterdam with Shangai through

the Suez Channel.

The scatter diagram for the North Pacific trading route is obtained by combining wave zones 13,

20, 22 & 29 from Global Wave Statistics (GWS)

(Hogben et al. 1986).

The scatter diagram for the EuropeAsia trading

route passing through Suez Channel is obtained by

combining wave zones 11, 16, 17, 25, 26, 27, 29, 40,

41, 50, 60, 61 & 62 from GWS.

For both mentioned scatter diagrams, it is

assumed that the ship spends equal time in each

of the zones, i.e. equal probability of occurrence is

attached to each of them.

The diagram showing the influence of the shipping route is presented in Figure 1. The figure

presents the most probable extreme pressures of

N-P and Suez scatter diagrams relative to IACS

diagram.

The results in Figure 1 indicate that extreme

slamming pressures for IACS design wave environment are considerably larger than slamming pressures calculated for other wave environments. Only

in the case of ships speed equal to zero, this effect

is less pronounced. This is seen as ratios approximately equal to 1 in the Figure 1. Maximum ratio

between extreme pressures for IACS and N-P

environment is about 1.5, while the maximum ratio

between extreme pressures for IACS and Suez

environment is about 1.6.

5

not repeated herein.

Ratios of the most probable extreme slamming

pressures between original and truncated scatter

diagrams are presented in Figure 2.

In the most cases the effect of truncation is to

reduce extreme pressures up to about 10% and 30%

for N-P and Suez wave environments respectively.

Values lower than one indicates that larger extreme

pressures are obtained for truncated than for the

original scatter diagram. Numerical inaccuracies in

fitting theoretical distributions used in calculation

of the most probable slamming pressures could

be the reason for these discrepancies within the

low values of pressures. These values are typically

achieved for zero speed, but since those pressures

are relatively low, such results may be disregarded.

6

The influence of the ship speed on the longterm extreme slamming pressures is presented

in Figure 3. The figure represents ratios of extreme

slamming pressures calculated for nominal ship

speed and extreme slamming pressures calculated

for zero speed case.

It may be seen from Figure 3 that the ship speed

has crucial effect on the bottom pressures. By

reducing speed from design speed to zero, extreme

bottom pressure is decreased several times. As

speed reduction in heavy weather is decision of

ship master, it is evident that such maneuvering

may be critical for extreme slamming loading of

containerships.

7

FOR CALCULATION OF THE MOST

PROBABLE EXTREME SLAMMING

PRESSURE

slamming pressure are similar, but not exactly

the same. The main difference is that in Poisson

outcrossing method, duration of individual short

term sea states needs to be specified, while that is

not required in the lifetime weighted sea method.

Physically, by modifying duration of individual

short-term sea states, one determines level of correlation between successive sea states. Therefore,

there is an additional uncertainty due to the type

of the long-term calculation method employed.

In Figure 4, comparison between two methods

is presented with assumed duration of short-term

sea states in Poisson outcrossing method equal

to 3 hours. For zero speed, the lifetime weighted

sea method is slightly conservative. However,

OF HEAVY WEATHER

Avoidance of heavy weather is assessed by comparing long-term extreme pressures calculated for

truncated and original Suez and N-P wave scatter

diagrams. Scatter diagrams are truncated at significant wave heights of 10.5 m. Truncation procedure

72

MARSTRUCT.indb 72

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assessing influence of the heavy weather avoidance. In average, the effect of truncation of the

scatter diagram is to reduce extreme pressures up

to about 30%.

As expected, there is a huge influence of the ship

speed on the extreme slamming pressures. Reduction of the ship speed from nominal speed to zero

speed causes decrease of slamming pressures in

average 45 times.

Method for calculating long-term extreme slamming pressure is also one potential source of uncertainty. For zero speed case, dispersion of results is

relatively low and both studied methods, i.e. the

lifetime weighted sea method and the Poisson

outcrossing method, lead to the similar extreme

values. Increased ship speed, however, causes that

the method of Poisson outcrossing predicts larger

extreme slamming pressures, but also uncertainty

of results increases considerably.

Impulsive forces acting on the ship bottom are

proportional to the pressures calculated in this

study. Furthermore, whipping bending moments

are also proportional to the impulsive forces.

Therefore, calculated uncertainties will have direct

consequence on uncertainties of whipping bending moments. Furthermore, whipping bending

moments are to be combined with rigid hull vertical wave bending moments for the assessment

of the hull-girder strength of the ultra-large containerships. Because of large uncertainties in both

wave-induced and whipping bending moments,

reliability-based methods are to be used in design

of these ships.

Floxtra

Wave scatter

diagram

S175

Ship speed FL

FL

BL

IACS

vn

0.8 vn

Zero

25991

17492

360

58262

37471

136

371453

244470

2883

N-P

vn

0.8 vn

zero

7697

5678

178

28002

20052

144

203907

146297

3758

Suez

vn

0.8 vn

zero

3963

2964

111

15906

11793

117

128593

95839

3395

N-P modified

vn

0.8 vn

zero

7010

5104

172

27206

19387

177

211755

151425

4082

Suez modified

vn

0.8 vn

zero

2364

1828

125

12066

9207

190

108599

82106

3991

sea method tends to produce lower extreme values

comparing to Poisson outcrossing method.

8

NUMBER OF SLAMS

slams in ships lifetime is calculated by Equation

(16) and presented in Table 4. These values can be

useful in design, for example, they can be used to

assess number of transient vibration loading processes reducing the hull-girder fatigue life of the

containership.

9

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The investigation is funded by EU FP7 Project

Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships (TULCS),

what is gratefully acknowledged.

CONCLUSIONS

uncertainties in calculation of long-term extreme

slamming pressure. Uncertainty in calculation

of the pressure coefficient k is excluded from the

analysis in a way that k was taken as unity. Actual

extreme pressure may be calculated by multiplying

obtained results by actual value of k according to

some of available methods.

The influence of the choice of the shipping

route is analyzed in the paper firstly. In average,

adopting Suez route, extreme slamming pressures

are reduced by factor of 1.5 compared to the

North Atlantic IACS scatter diagram. If the North

Pacific shipping route is adopted instead of IACS

diagram, then average reduction of extreme slamming pressures would be 1.3.

NOMENCLATURE

psl

Slamming pressure

Sea density

v0

Gravity constant

Ship lenght

p0

Threshold pressure

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MARSTRUCT.indb 73

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f psl )

F psl HS TZ ,

FP ( psl )

p( HS TZ )

r (TZ , )

sl

sl

n

of the impact pressuree

Short-term probability

distribution of the slamming

pressure

Long-term probability

distribution of the slamming

pressure

Probabiility

l of occurrence of

sea

e state

2

M

slamming pressure forr TC

nsea

states in TC

FGumbel

Gumbel distributio

u n

p ,

distribution

a

apperances in sh

hort-term sea

state

Slamming ffrequency in each

short term sea state

Unconditional extreme

distribution of the

slamming pressure for tsea

REFERENCES

Flokstra, C. 1974. Comparison of Ship Motion Theories

with Experiments for a Container Ship, International

Shipbuilding Progress, 21, 168189.

Guedes Soares, C. 1990. Effect of Heavy Weather

Manoeuvring on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending

Moments in Ship Structures, Journal of Ship Research,

Vol. 34, No. 1, 6068.

Guedes Soares, C. 1996. On the Definition of Rule

Requirements for Wave Induced Vertical Bending

Moments. Marine Structures 9. 409425.

Hogben, N., Dacunha, N.M.C. & Olliver, G.F. 1986.

Global Wave Statistics. British Maritime Technology

Ltd. Felltham.

Juncher Jensen, J. et al. 2008. Wave induced extreme hull

girder loads on containerships. Transactions SNAME

116, 128152.

Ochi, M.K. & Motter, L.E. 1973. Prediction of slamming

characteristics and hull responses for ship design.

Transactions SNAME. Vol. 81.

Parunov, J. & orak, M. 2010. Influence of environmental and operational uncertainties on vertical wave

bending moments of containerships. Proceedings of:

The William Froude ConferenceAdvances in Theoretical and Applied Hydrodynamics, Past and Future,

Portsmouth, 2425 November 2010. UK., 201207.

Senjanovi, I., Tomaevi, S. & Parunov, J. 2003. Ship

Slamming and Whipping in Rough Sea. Brodogradnja

51, 4556.

Wu, M.K. & Hermundstad, O.E. 2002. Time-domain

Simulation of Wave-induced Nonlinear Motions and

Loads and its Applications in Ship Design, Marine

Structures 15, 56159.

in all sea states

Variance of the relative

bow motion

V2

bow velocity

Pslam

Probability of slamming

SM ( , x )

t

relative bow motion

SV ( , x )

Response

p

spectrum

p

of the

relative bow velocity

FWeibulll

Three-parameter Weibull

distribution

, ,

distribution

P obability of exceeding

Pr

the most

N sl

Number of slams

TC

pext

Fext

extreme slamming pressure

slamming pressure in

short-term sea stateiod

74

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

in ship vibration

M. Wilken

Germanischer Lloyd SE, Hamburg, Germany

A. Menk

Robert Bosch GmbH, CR/APJ3, Stuttgart-Schwieberdingen, Germany

H. Voss

Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

C. Cabos

Germanischer Lloyd SE, Hamburg, Germany

ABSTRACT: Simulating global ship vibration can be split into three steps: firstly, the computation

of the dry elastic vibration of the ship structure, secondly determination of the hydrodynamic pressures

caused by a given time harmonic velocity distribution on the outer shell and thirdly, the solution of the

coupled vibration problem by considering the interaction of fluid and structure. In this paper various

approaches for the solution of the third problem for large models are compared and discussed. They are

based on reduction methods for the hydrodynamic mass matrix and make use of fast solution methods

for the exterior fluid problem for given velocity distributions of the shell. A numerical example is used to

assess the accuracy and the speed of the solution procedures.

1

INTRODUCTION

vibrations which despite of their small amplitudes

can affect human comfort and may cause fatigue

damages. In order to predict ship vibrations it is

indispensable to account for the effect of the surrounding water because the hydrodynamic forces

acting on the ships hull can considerably reduce

the natural frequencies of the dry ship and therefore can significantly affect the vibration response.

1.1

vibrating outer shell.

1.2

vibrations of a ship can be modeled as an additional mass distribution on the outer shell. The

acceleration of the structure causes the fluid near

the interface to accelerate which in turn exerts an

opposing force on the ships hull (see Figure 1). The

additional force which is needed to accelerate the

surrounding fluid can be interpreted by Newtons

law as an additional mass distributed on the ships

hull. That mass is often called hydrodynamic mass

or added mass.

mass effect

are small compared to the dimensions of the ship,

the ship and the surrounding fluid can be modeled

by a set of linear PDEs. Moreover the flow of the

water around the ships hull is assumed to be inviscid and irrotational.

Hence, the velocity field of the fluid is the

gradient of a velocity potentialwhich due to

mass conservation satisfies the Laplace equation

p = 0

(1)

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discretization of the coupled fluid-solid problem

has the same dimension as the FE model of the

dry ship alone in case the free surface boundary

condition is handled using the method of images

(Wilken et al., 2009). However, as a drawback the

part of the mass matrix corresponding to the wet

hull of the ship is fully populated.

To determine the eigenfrequencies of the

coupled problem, the following eigenvalue problem must be solved:

outer shell

kk

Figure 2.

Problem description.

domain, boundary conditions have to be specified at the free water surface and at the submerged

ships hull (Figure 2). The exact boundary condition at the free surface is nonlinear (Newman

1977), but for frequencies above 1 Hz and small

displacements it can be linearized to yield a pressure release condition which takes the form p = 0

on f . At the submerged ship surface the fluid

velocity normal to this surface must be equal to the

normal velocity of the structure,

p

= 2u T n on k

n

2

K S u wet

wet (M S

2.1

(3)

mass matrix of a FE model of the ship which are

large-scaled and sparse. The hydrodynamic mass

matrix MH models the impact of the surrounding

water on the ship. Only rows and columns of MH

corresponding to wet degrees of freedom contain

entries which are different from zero. However, the

total number of non-zero entries in the coupled

system is still increased considerably. Computing

the complete hydrodynamic mass matrix in this

way leads to a cubic scaling of required computation time and a quadratic scaling of memory usage

with the number of fluid panels.

(2)

the fluid density, the excitation frequency, u

the displacement of the structure and n is the outward normal.

2

MH ) u = 0

Consideration of the effect of the surrounding

water for the computation of global ship vibrations dates back to the first half of the 20th century. Regarding a ship as a slender body, Lewis

(Lewis 1929) showed that the inertia of the water

can be approximately be accounted for by analyzing the two-dimensional flow around ship cross

sections.

The hydrodynamic mass of a cylindrical cross

section was generalized to more complex shapes

by introducing reduction coefficients. Assuming

that a ship is a slender body, Lewis succeeded in

determining the hydrodynamic mass affecting

vertical bending vibrations of a ship (Figure 3).

Since the hydrodynamic mass derived with this

method depends on the particular bending mode

of the ship, it is typically valid only for a specific

range of frequencies around the corresponding

eigenfrequency of this mode. Wendel (Wendel

1950) and Landweber (Landweber 1957) extended

Lewis work by considering also horizontal and

rotational acceleration of ship cross sections. Grim

(Grim 1953, 1960) examined the reduction coefficients for higher modes. The Lewis method is

most appropriate for a Finite Element analysis, if

the ship is modeled by several beam elements. For

the three dimensional analysis of ship vibrations

based on a Finite Element model, the use of the

CONSIDERATION OF

HYDRODYNAMIC MASS EFFECTS IN

GLOBAL SHIP VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Standard procedures

To account for the surrounding water, an FE

model of the ship can be complemented by an FE

discretization of the water to solve the Laplace

equation with coupling boundary condition (2)

(Arman et al., 1979). This causes considerable

additional cost since only a bounded region of the

fluid domain can be modeled this way and suitable

boundary conditions on the outer boundary have

to be specified or the remaining unbounded region

of the water has to be discretized by semi infinite

elements. If Boundary Element (BE) methods are

used in combination with a special fundamental

solution, an unbounded fluid domain can be modeled, but only the submerged ship hull has to be discretized. Thus the problems previously mentioned

are avoided. The mesh can simply be generated

from the FE mesh of the ships hull. Today this is a

standard approach if three dimensional effects have

to be included in the analysis (Cabos et al., 2003).

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the next sections.

Neglecting the influence of the surrounding water

one obtains the so called dry eigenvalue problem

for the ship structure

K S u dry 2MS u = 0

structure of the matrices.

While the eigenvectors of (3) and (4) exhibit

similar characteristics, it is found that the eigenmodes of these problems are quite close to each

other. This observation suggests to project the

eigenproblem (3) onto a space spanned by a

selected subset of nsel eigenvectors Udry of (4).

This is done by assuming the wet eigenvectors as

linear combination of the dry eigenvectors and

multiplying the resulting equation from the left

side with UTdry yielding a new eigenvalue problem

of a smaller dimension nsel:

x

Figure 3. Lewis assumption of deformation of the ship

structure over the ship length.

only the total force onto a ship cross section (or

better its total hydrodynamic mass) can be computed. The actual distribution of the hydrodynamic

mass over the contour of the section is determined

with a heuristic approach. In a three dimensional

vibration analysis this can lead to hydrodynamic

forces having components tangential to the shell

surface. Despite these approximations and shortcomings, the Lewis approach has proven to yield

good results in the low frequency range having a

very good performance in terms of CPU time and

memory consumption.

2.2

(4)

T

2

U dr

ry K S wet

wet (M S

M H ) U drryw = 0

(5)

be choosen as eigenvectors with eigenfrequencies

smaller than an appropriate multiple of the upper

frequency bound of interest. Instead of explicitly calculating the hydrodynamic mass matrix

it suffices to evaluate the matrix vector product.

This can be done by a standard boundary element method but also more efficiently by the fast

multipole boundary element method.

Solving this eigenvalue problem yields eigenvectors w defining linear combination factors to

be used for approximating the wet eigenvectors

from the dry eigenvectors. This approach can be

improved by projecting onto approximated wet

modes (semi wet modes) resulting from an eigenvalue problem with an approximate hydrodynamic

mass matrix:

The standard boundary element method computes the pressure on a fluid panel caused by

each other vibrating panel. This is done in an

exact manner with no restriction on the shape of

the immersed hull. The so called fast multipole

method takes advantage of the concrete hull shape

of the vibrating structure based on the following

advisement:

Solving the Laplace equation (1) for vibrating point sources close to each other, the far field

result is a pressure field that decreases with one to

the square of the distance to these points. It can

therefore be idealized in the far field as a pressure

field caused by a single vibrating point source. This

effect is exploited by the fast multipole method

yielding a fast and memory saving procedure for

computing the resulting pressure field of a vibrating structure (Wilken et al., 2009).

Considering a typical hull form, it is obvious

that the far field approximation above could be

applied for the majority of pairs of panels since

only a small fraction of them is close to each

other. For this reason the fast multipole boundary element method seems to be well suited for its

(K

semi

(6)

yields

T

2

U se

mi K S wet

wet (M S

M H ) U semi w = 0

(7)

2semi

2

wet

I

MH

T

Ussemi

M H semi U semi w = 0

(8)

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Having determined the approximation M

H

to MH, we have to solve the reduced eigenvalue

problem

used for projection, the precision of the wet modes

can be influenced.

In the present work the semi wet modes are

calculated using the Lewis approach described in

section 2.1.2. The solution of the forced vibration

problem is then easily obtained by modal superposition using the derived wet modes from (8).

2 M

KS u =

wet

wet

S

approach

The eigenvalue problem (3) can be solved by the

shift-and invert Lanczos method (Bai et al., 2000).

Using this method requires the solution of the linear system

KS x

(9)

hH

i xi xiT

(10)

MH x

(13)

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

3.1 Model

ordered by magnitude. Then the best approximation to MH by a matrix of rank n with respect to

the spectral norm is the truncation of (10)

M

H

(M S

Since KS and MS are sparse the LU factorization

of KS MS can be determined efficiently and

is quite small compared to

since the rank of M

H

the dimension of the problem it is inexpensive to

employ the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula

(Golub et al., 1996) for solving problem (13).With

this approach the shift-and-invert Lanczos method

for the reduced problem (12) essentially requires

the following work: To initialize one provides those

vectors and matrices which are independent of the

right hand side b when solving (13) by the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula. To this end a

slightly larger number than n solutions of the BE

system are necessary in a Lanczos process for com . Additionally n solutions of linear sysputing M

H

tems (Ks MS)wj = xj and n 2 scalar products of

length n are required in this preprocessing phase.

Thereafter, every iteration step requires one solve

of a linear system of dimension n, and n scalar

products of length n.

a direct method which requires the explicit form

of the matrix MH (i.e., nH solves of the BE system) and which, due to the structure of the system matrix A: = KS (MS + MH), is very time and

memory consuming. Solving (9) by an iterative

solver like MINRES (Saad 2003), every Lanczos

step requires a suitable Krylov subspace. Hence,

one has to apply the system matrix A to a couple of

vectors, and each of these multiplications demands

the solution of one BE system. In the following we

derive a reduction method which is much more

efficient from a computational point of view. The

hydrodynamic mass matrix MH is symmetric and

positive definite. We take advantage of the spectral

decomposition

MH

(12)

method one has solve a linear system

2.2.3

MH u

length and 32 m breadth having 35262 degrees of

freedom was investigated to assess the accuracy and

the speed of the described techniques. This model

is capable to compute global vibration responses

n

i xi xiT

(11)

since it does not employ

an approximation to M

H

the explicit form of the matrix MH but only matrixvector products and according to the Kaniel-Paige

theorem (Golub et al., 1996) it converges first to

extreme eigenvalues and in particular to the largest

ones which are better separated than the smallest

ones. Notice that the Lanczos process for com can even be accelerated by replacing

puting M

H

the solution of the BE approximation by the fast

multipole approach (Wilken et al., 2009).

Figure 4.

breadth.

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Figure 5.

used in the calculations leading to 1490 wetted

elements of the outer shell with 4554 degrees of

freedom.

3.2

Figure 6.

20 Hz.

Computations

3.3.1 Precision

For comparing the eigenvectors of the different

approaches the modal assurance criterion (MAC),

see e.g. Allemang (1980), will be used

eigenvalues and the forced vibration response

caused by a typical propeller induced excitation

were calculated. The following approaches for the

solution of the vibrational fluid-structure interaction problem were performed

MAC

Cij =

computed by a standard BEM method hereinafter referred as FULL_HYM method.

2. Usage of a diagonal hydrodynamic mass matrix

approximation hereinafter referred as LEWIS_

HYM approach.

3. Projection of vibration equation (3) onto a

set of semi wet modes hereinafter referred as

PROJECTION approach. The semi wet modes

were taken from an eigenvalue computation

approximating the hydrodynamic mass matrix

according to Lewis. This Lewis approximation

yields 338 eigenvectors below 20 Hz (88 modes

more than the reference FULL_HYM method)

which all were used for the projection.

4. Usage of a modal approximation of the hydrodynamic mass matrix hereinafter referred as

MODAL_HYM approach. Due to comparability reason with the PROJECTION

approach the same number of (Fast-) BEM

applications were performed leading to a modal

hydrodynamic mass matrix approximation of

rank 338.

3.3

(v

2

T

i ref M H v j appr

viTref M H vi ref

e

)(

(14)

by the FULL_HYM method, MH denotes the

full hydrodynamic mass matrix and vj,appr denotes

the j-th mode computed by the approaches

24. A MAC value near to 1 indicates that the

approached eigenvector vj,appr is quite similar to the

reference eigenvector vi,ref .

This criterion can be subsequently used to compare the eigenvalues of the most similar eigenvectors computed by the FULL_HYM method and

the particular approach:

relErr

E ri =

i ,appr

j ref

{j

M C )}

(MAC

i j

(15)

computed according to LEWIS matching the

reference eigenvectors only for the first 100 modes.

The differences in eigenfrequencies is below 5% in

the lower frequency range and goes up to 20%

in the higher frequency range to 20 Hz.

Relative differences in eigenvalues of the PROJECTION and MODAL_HYM approach are of

the same magnitude, i.e. below 5% over the total

frequency range from 0 Hz to 20 Hz. Also the

eigenvectors of these 2 different approaches are

of the same similarity compared to the reference

eigenvectors.

Comparison

eigenvalue and eigenvector, and forced vibration

results (i.e. velocity at dedicated locations) of the

FULL_HYM method serves as reference values

for the comparison of the various approaches.

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reference eigenvectors according to MAC.

Figure 10. Relative error of MODAL_HYM eigenvalues and reference eigenvalues ordered by MAC value.

and reference eigenvalues ordered by MAC value.

and reference eigenvectors according to MAC.

and reference eigenvalues ordered by MAC value.

and reference eigenvectors according to MAC.

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(15 min and 20 min) only the distribution

between pre computation time and mode computation differ considerably: The pre computation

time of the PROJECTION approach, i.e. the semi

wet mode computation time according to Lewis

is much less than the pre computation time of

the MODAL_HYM approach where the modal

approximation of the hydrodynamic mass matrix

has to be computed.

caused by the single and double propeller blade

passage excitations computed by the different

approaches are shown. The response curves computed according to LEWIS gives the qualitative

characteristics in the low frequency range but deviates in the higher frequency range considerable

from the reference curve. Application of the PROJECTION approach yields the best accordance

with the reference velocity whereupon the velocity

results of the MODAL_HYM approach are only a

little less inaccurate.

4

3.3.2 Run time

All computations were performed on a 64-bit linux

computer Quad-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2356 with 32 GB RAM and a clock rate of

2.3 GHz.

The FULL_HYM method as the most accurate procedure is also the most time consuming

method with a total computation time of 1.8 h

and the most inaccurate approach (LEWIS) is the

fasted with 2 min CPU time. The PROJECTION

and the MODAL_HYM approach having total

CONCLUSIONS

The presented PROJECTION approach combines the fast and robust LEWIS method with

an advanced fast boundary element technique

yielding very accurate eigenfrequencies and accurate forced vibration results within small computation times. The MODAL_HYM approach

exhibits only slightly worse characteristics in precision and run time. Both approaches require user

experience: the PROJECTION approach in case

of selecting the number of eigenvectors used for

projection and the MODAL_HYM approach in

case of number of modes needed for approximation the hydrodynamic mass matrix.

A particular advantage of the proposed methods is that they scale very well. The effort to compute the hydrodynamic mass effect is dominated

by evaluations of the hydrodynamic mass operator. Through application of the fast multipole

method, the cost for this application grows approximately like N log2(N) for large numbers N of wet

panels.

REFERENCES

Allemang, R.J. 1980. Investigation of Some Multiple

Input/Output Frequency Response Function Experimental Modal Analysis Techniques. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Department

of Mechanical Engineering, pp. 141214.

Armand, J.-L. & Orsero, P. 1979. A method for evaluating the hydrodynamic added mass in ship hull vibrations. SNAME Transactions, 87:99120.

Bai, Z., Demmel, J., Dongarra, J., Ruhe, A. & van der

Vorst, H.A. 2000. Templates for the Solution of Algebraic Eigenvalue Problems: A Practical Guide. SIAM,

Philadelphia.

Cabos, C. & Ihlenburg, F. 2003. Vibrational Analysis of

Ships with Coupled Finite and Boundary Elements.

Journal of Computational Acoustics, 11(1):91114.

Golub, G.H. & Van Loan, C.F. 1996. Matrix Computations. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

and London, 3rd edition.

Grim, O. 1953. Berechnung der durch Schwingungen

eines Schiffskrpers erzeugten hydrodynamischen

Krfte. STG Jahrbuch.

approaches.

Pre Computation

Approach

Item

FULL_HYM

6060

553

6613

LEWIS_HYM

126

128

MODAL_HYM

409

1196

PROJECTION

Lewis modes

744

870

Figure 14.

126

81

MARSTRUCT.indb 81

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Schiffskrpers. Schiffstechnik, 7(35):13.

Landweber, L. 1957. Mass of Lewis Forms Oscillating in

a Free Surface. Proceedings: Symposium on the Behaviour of Ships in a Seaway, Wageningen.

Lewis, F.M. 1929. The Inertia of the Water Surrounding

a Vibrating Ship. Transactions of the SNAME, 37.

Newman, J.N. 1977. Marine Hydrodynamics. The MIT

Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Saad, Y. 2003. Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Systems. SIAM, Philadelphia, 2nd edition.

hydrodynamische Massentrgheitsmomente 14. Jahrbuch der STG, vol. 44, 207255.

Wilken, M., Of, G., Cabos, C. & Steinbach, O. 2009. Efficient calculation of the effect of water on ship vibration. C. Guedes Soares and P.K. Das, Analysis and

Design of Marine Structures, pages 93101, London,

Taylor & Francis.

82

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Ultimate strength

MARSTRUCT.indb 83

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

shearing

E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica

University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Romania

ABSTRACT: In this paper postbuckling behaviour and estimation of global buckling ultimate strength

of the delaminated rectangular plates are presented. The influence of the position and geometry of

elliptical delamination on the changes in the buckling behaviour of ship deck plates made of composite

materials is considering. The composite plates models were analyzed using COSMOS/M and database

is prepared for different diameter ratios and position of delamination. A delamination model, describing delaminating mode, by using COSMOS/M soft package, is applied, so that the damaged part of the

structures and the undamaged part have been represented by layered shell elements. The influence of the

position and the ellipses diameters ratio of delaminated zone on the critical buckling force is investigated.

The applied methods have been improved in the Marstruct Project.

1

INTRODUCTION

shell as one unit). Local plate buckling and stiffeners crippling on the other hand are localized failure

modes involving local failure of only the skin in

the first case and the stiffener in the second case.

A grid stiffened panel will fail in any of these failure

modes depending on the stiffeners, plate thickness,

shell winding angle and type of applied load.

Understanding delamination is essential for preventing catastrophic failures. Therefore, analysis

of delamination behavior from tests, modelling

delamination, analysis of structural performance

under delamination and preventing and mitigation

of delamination are the main aim of the research

team that performed the work.

In (Thurley & Marshall 2002) the buckling

behaviour of laminated panels with one stiffener,

subjected to compression by using a layer wise

finite element formulation, is presented.

In (Nemeth 1992; Nemeth 1997) Nemeth have

done some parametric studied based on orthotropic plate theory and produced generic buckling

design charts in terms of useful nondimensional

parameters for unstiffened composite panels subjected to different loadings.

In (Mallela & Upadhyay 2006) some parametric

studies on simply supported laminated composite

blade-stiffened planels subjected to in-plane shear

loading. Few important parameters influencing

the buckling behaviour are identified and guidelines are developed.

The aim of the work presented in this paper is

to analyze the influence of delamination on the

changes in the buckling behaviour of ship deck

Laminated composite panels, which are anisotropic, are gaining popularity in structural applications such as ship hulls, decks, ship and offshore

superstructures. These panels are becoming increasingly used in structural marine applications due

to their high specific stiffness and specific strength

(Altenbach, Altenbach & Kissing 2001). The use

of laminated composites provides flexibility to

tailor different properties of the structural elements to achieve the stiffness and strength characteristics. These panels, unfortunately, have one

important characteristic connected to big sensitivity on geometrical and mechanical imperfections

(different dimensions comparative with the design

ones). Another kind of imperfections is about

material (Adams, Carlsson & Pipes 2003; Jones

1999). Taking into account that fabrication technologies of composite materials are hand made

based, the probabilistic occurrence of defects is

quite too high.

These defects are of following types: directions

of fibers are different of the designed ones, variations in thickness, inclusions and initial transversal

deformations (Thurley & Marshall 1995).

Ship structure plates are subjected to any combination of in plane, out of plane and shear loads

during application. Due to the geometry and general load of the ship hull, buckling is one of the

most important failure criteria. Buckling failure

mode of a stiffened plate can further be subdivided

into global buckling, local skin buckling and stiffener crippling. Global buckling is collapse of the

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has been solved by using the finite element method,

in (Beznea 2008). An orthotropic delamination

model, describing mixed mode delaminating, by

using COSMOS/M soft package, was applied. So,

the damaged part of the structures and the undamaged part have been represented by well-known

finite elements (layered shell elements). The influence of the position and the ellipses diameters

ratio of delaminated zone on the critical buckling

force was investigated.

If an initial delamination exists, this delamination may close under the applied load. To prevent

the two adjacent plies from penetrating, a numerical contact model is used.

2

and

k = k1 + tk/2.

k

4

Q11

C11

c

2

xy w /

4

/

23

y +

13

y3 = 0

Dij

Qijk ( zk

k =1

zk

)3

k

Q13

k

Q23

(

(C

= (C

12

11 2C33 C12

s = sin ; c = cos .

2C333

c 2 s 2 + C33

c4 + s4 ;

)c s + (

)cs + (

3

C12

C22

+ 2C33

C12

C222

+ 2C33

)cs ;

)c s.

3

El

Et

; C22

=

;

1 lt tl

1 lt tl

lt Et

tl El

C12

=

=

= C21

;

1 lt tl 1 lt tl

C33

Gllt ; C13

C31

= C23

C32

= 0.

C11

=

characteristics in the longitudinal (l ) and transversal (t) orthotropic directions, and is the angle

between the x axis and l direction.

The last two terms from equation (1) are the

measure of the orthotropic coupling, resulting

from the fact that the principal orthotropic axes

are not orthogonal with the plate geometry axes.

For a special orthotropic plate, D13 = D23 = 0.

This is a case which has received the most attention by the researchers.

The problem of the stability of orthotropic

plates due to shear was apparently first examined

by Bergmann and Reissner (Johns 1971), who

considered it an infinitely long in the x direction

and they also neglected the bending stiffness in that

direction. The governing differential equation

used was

y4

w / x 3y

+ 2N

N xy 2w / xy 0

(1)

(5)

obtained for the buckling of clamped edged

finite plates, using the Rayleigh-Ritz method.

The same approximate deflection functions are

assumed as

(2)

calculated from the equation

tk = zkzk-1,

4C33

c 2 s 2 + C12

c4 + s4 ;

Q3k3 = C11

11 C222 2

where D11, D22, D33, D13, D23 are the orthotropic plate

stiffnesses, calculated according to the equation

N

4

2C33

c 2 s 2 C22

s ;

k

4

4

Q22

= C11

s + 2 C12

+ 2C33

c 2 s 2 + C22

c ;

in-plane loads either compressive or shear, they

buckle. The phenomenon of buckling is a nonlinear one which is characterized by disproportionate increase of the displacements associated

with the small increments of the loads. The methodology for determining and analyzing the buckling behaviour of laminated composite plates is in

essence identical to that applied to isotropic plates.

As in isotropic plates it involves the solution of

an eigen-value problem associated with a governing set of homogeneous differential equations

and a prescribed set of homogeneous boundary

conditions.

In the case of isotropic plates, of sizes axb,

exact buckling solutions are available only for

a few combinations of loading and boundary

conditions.

The theory and differential equation of bending

of anisotropic plates were established by Huber

and the governing differential equation for shear

buckling of a general orthotropic plate is

2 C12

C11

+ C22

k

Q12

OF ORTHOTROPIC PLATES

(4)

(3)

AmnX mYn

m

(6)

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possibility to determine which node of the so-called

master surface is in contact with a given node on

the slave surface. Hence, the user can define the

interaction between the two surfaces.

In the analysis, the certain layers are intentionally not connected to each other in ellipse regions.

The condition is that the delaminated region does

not grow. In COSMOS/M these regions were

modeled by two layers of elements with coincident but separate nodes and section definitions to

model offsets from the common reference plane.

Thus their deformations are independent. At the

boundary of the delamination zones the nodes

of one row are connected to the corresponding

nodes of the regular region by master slave node

system.

The square plates (320 320 mm), clamped

on the all sides are made of 9 macro-layers having the charactersitics presented in Table 1. The

material is E-glass/polyester having the material

characteristics:

where

Xm

Yn

x 3 2x

x 2 + x + (

y 3 2yy 2 + y + (

)m (x

)n ( y

x

y

) m1 sin mx

) n1 sin nyy

Analyses are made with m and n as variables and

it is shown that solutions only exist in two distinct

ranges, i.e. when (m + n) even and (m + n) odd.

The case when (m + n) is even gives the lower critical shear loads. That this may not necessarily be

true in general has been shown in isotropic panels

where m + n < 6.

OF IN-PLANE SHEARING LOAD

PLATES

The finite element delamination analysis was carried out using COSMOS/M finite element software. There are several ways in which the panel

can be modeled for the delamination analysis.

For the present study, a 3-D model with 3-node

SHELL3L composite element of COSMOS/M is

used. The panel is divided into two sub-laminates

by a hypothetical plane containing the delamination. For this reason, the present finite element

model would be referred to as two sub-laminate

model. The two sub-laminates are modeled separately using 3-node SHELL3L composite element,

and then joined face to face with appropriate

interfacial constraint conditions for the corresponding nodes on the sub-laminates, depending

on whether the nodes lie in the delaminated or

undelaminated region.

The delamination model has been developed

by using the surface-to-surface contact option

(Fig. 1). In case of surface-to-surface contact, the

FE meshes of adjacent plies do no need to be iden-

5 GPa, Gxz = 5 GPa, Gyz = 4.6 GPa,

RTx = 1.062 GPa, RTy = 0.031 GPa, RCy = 0.118 GPa,

R xy = 0.72 GPa. xy = 0.3, yz = 0.42, xz = 0.3

The in-plane loading was applied as a uniform

shear pressure on the sides (Figure 2).

The ellipses diameters of the delamination area

placed in the middle of the plate are considered

from the condition of the same area for all cases.

In the parametric calculus, the following diameters

ratios were considered:

Case 1 (Dx/Dy = 0.5): transversal diameter Dy = 141 mm, longitudinal diameter

Dx = 70,5 mm;

Case 2 (Dx/Dy = 1): transversal diameter Dy = 100 mm; longitudinal diameter

Dx = 100 mm;

Case 3 (Dx/Dy = 2): transversal diameter Dy = 70.5 mm; longitudinal diameter

Dx = 141 mm.

The position of the delamination along the

thickness its been considered between two neighbors macrolayers i and i + 1, (i = 1, 9). We have

considered all cases. Taking into account the thickness symmetry of the plates, will be presented only

cases of position of delamination on one side of

symmetry axis.

For the material model two cases has been

considered:

Figure 1.

linear behaviour;

nonlinear behaviour (Tsai-Wu failure criterion).

Delamination model.

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Table 1.

Plate lay-up.

Thickness [mm]

0.62 0.31

0.62

0.31

1.24 0.31

0.62

0.31

0.62

mathematical form

(K + KI)i-1 di = Q

(7)

where

K is the linear stiffness matrix,

KI is an incremental stiffness matrix based upon

displacements at load step i-1,

di is the increment of displacement due to the

i-th load increment,

Q is the increment of load applied.

Figure 2.

Table 2.

method.

matrix has been a point of some controversy.

The incremental approach is quite popular (this is

the procedure applied in this study), due to the ease

with which the procedure may be applied and the

almost guaranteed convergence if small enough

load increments are used.

In this paper, buckling and post-buckling analysis has been performed for all types of panels.

Since the plates have an initial imperfection, as it

is seen in the Figures 1 and 2, the increasing of the

transversal deformation is starting from the beginning, that is so named buckling is starting as the

in-plane load is starting to increase from 0.

The explanation is that due to the initial imperfection, the in-plane loading produces the shearing

in the plate and also bending in the area of imperfection. Therefore it is difficult to determine the

buckling load by numerical way.

This is why we have chosen the graphical method,

by drawing the asymptote to the curve in the area

where the slope is changing almost suddenly. The

intersection of the asymptote with the loading axis

can be considered as buckling load.

Anyway the asymptote is not an unique one and

we may determine the buckling loading in a range

of values.

So, as it is seen in the Figures 36, according

to the plotted asymptotes, for all cases of position

of delamination, the buckling loads of the plates

(having the diameters ratio presented above) are

placed in the domain

Position of delamination

Min pcr

Max pcr

Macro-layer 1 Macro-layer 2

Macro-layer 2 Macro-layer 3

Macro-layer 3 Macro-layer 4

Macro-layer 4 Macro-layer 5

115.42

119.61

121.23

123.71

279.92

284.35

286.39

289.97

value of the buckling load is:

linear calculus: pcr = 169.76 MPa;

nonlinear calculus: pcr = 334.71 MPa.

To solving geometrically and material nonlinear

problems, the load is applied as a sequence of sufficiently small increments so that the structure can be

assumed to respond linearly during each increment.

For each increment of load, increments of displacements and corresponding increments of stress and

strain are computed. These incremental quantities

are used to compute various corrective stiffness

matrices (variously termed geometric, initial stress,

and initial strain matrices) which serve to take into

account the deformed geometry of the structure.

A subsequent increment of load is applied and the

process is continued until the desired number of

load increments has been applied. The net effect is

to solve a sequence of linear problems wherein the

stiffness properties are recomputed based on the

current geometry prior to each load increment.

Also, according to these Figures, the buckling

load is decreasing since the diameters ratio of the

delamination is increasing.

In this paper, buckling and post-buckling analysis has been performed for all types of panels.

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of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers 1 and 2.

of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers 2 and 3.

Tsai-Wu failure criterion in the case of the general

buckling does not occur till the first-ply failure

occurring. In this case, the buckling load is considered as the in-plane load corresponding to the

first-ply failure occurring.

The Tsai-Wu failure criterion provides the mathematical relation for strength under combined

stresses. Unlike the conventional isotropic materials where one constant will suffice for failure stress

level and location, laminated composite materials

require more elaborate methods to establish failure

can be based on the strength of individual plies

within the laminate. In addition, the failure of plies

can be successive as the applied load increases.

There may be a first ply failure followed by other

ply failures until the last ply fails, denoting the ultimate failure of the laminate. Progressive failure

description is therefore quite complex for laminated composite structures. A simpler approach

for establishing failure consists of determining the

structural integrity which depends on the definition of an allowable stress field. This stress field is

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of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers

3 and 4.

of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers 4 and 5.

in the material principal directions.

The failure criterion is used to calculate a failure index (F.I.) from the computed stresses and

user-supplied material strengths. A failure index

of 1 denotes the onset of failure, and a value less

than 1 denotes no failure. The failure indices are

computed for all layers in each element of your

model. During post processing, it is possible to

plot failure indices of the mesh for any layer.

The Tsai-Wu failure criterion (also known

as the Tsai-Wu tensor polynomial theory) is

commonly used for orthotropic materials with unequal tensile and compressive strengths. The failure

index according to this theory is computed using

the following equation (Thurley & Marshall 1995)

F.I. = F1 1 F2 2 + F1111 12

+ F22 22 F66 62 + 2F

F1122 1 2

F1 =

(8)

1

1

1

; F11 = T C ;

R1T R1C

R1 R1

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Table 3.

F2 =

Position

of delamination

Type of

degradation

Dx/Dy = 0.5

Dx/Dy = 1

Dx/Dy = 2

Macro-layer 1

Macro-layer 2

Macro-layer 2

Macro-layer 3

Macro-layer 3

Macro-layer 4

Macro-layer 4

Macro-layer 5

Tension

Compression

Tension

Compression

Tension

Compression

Tension

Compression

25

90

25

90

25

90

25

90

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

1

1

1

C ; F22 = T C ;

T

R2 R2

R2 R2

1

F66 = 2 .

R12

importance to the composite industry. It involves a

breakdown in the bond between the reinforcement

and the matrix material of the composite. Understanding delamination is essential for preventing

catastrophic failures. Due to the geometry and

general load of the ship deck, buckling is one of

the most important failure criteria.

The FEM based methodology was successfully developed for the investigation of buckling problems of composite plates having central

delamination.

Two hypotheses regarding the type of material

modeling were used (linear and nonlinear). The

FEM model is robust in that it can be used to predict

the global buckling loads of composite plates either

on one side or both sides. Finite-elements analysis

was carried out to assess the reliability of the methodology. The two-sublaminate model developed in

this work provides a convenient method to model

delaminated composite panels.

For the values of in-plane loads lower than

80 MPa, the displacement values are increasing

since the diameters ratio is decreasing. This trend is

due to the fact the transversal diameter is decreasing (since the delaminated area remains constant).

Smaller transversal diameter means increasing of

shear stiffness.

In the case of the in-plane loading values

bigger than 80 MPa, the displacement values are

increasing since the diameters ratio is increasing.

This trend is due to the contact pressure between

the layers in contact in the delamination, which is

increasing since the loading force is increasing.

For an in-plane loading of about 130300 MPa

in each case, a small instant jumping of transversal

displacement is observed.

This means that what is recover in plate stiffness

after the increasing of contact pression in the delamination area, is lost due to the lamina damage

occurring.

(9)

parameter of interaction between 1 and 2 is to be

obtained by a mechanical biaxial test. In the equations (9), the parameters RCi , RTi are the compressive strength and tensile strength in the material in

longitudinal direction (i = 1) and trasversal direction (i = 2). The parameter R12 is in-plane shear

strength in the material 12 plane.

According to the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, the

failure of a lamina occurs if

F.I > 1

CONCLUSIONS

(10)

as a material with nonlinear behaviour (the nonlinear material curve) or case of introducing the

material strength components for Failure criteria

using for composites. This latest case is the case

analyzed in the paper.

The failure index in calculated in each ply of each

element. In the ply where failure index is greater

than 1, the first-ply failure occurs, according to the

Tsai-Wu criterion. In the next steps, the tensile and

compressive properties of this element are reduced

by the failure index. If the buckling did not

appeared until the moment of the first-ply failure

occurring, the in-plane load corresponding to this

moment is considered as the buckling load.

In the nonlinear calculus, for the buckling load,

the graphical method and Tsai-Wu failure criterion

were used. The values obtained for buckling load

were placed in the range specified in each case.

In Table 3, the variations of the buckling load

corresponding to the fails in the tension and

compressive cases, versus diameters ratios are

presented.

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delamination having the diameter ratio less than 1,

the buckling load is almost double than the plates

with the delamination having diameters ratio bigger than 1.

The buckling load determination is too difficult

without applying a graphical method, or applying

the Tsai-Wu failure criterion in the case of the general buckling not occurred till the first-ply failure

occurring.

The first two failures occur in the material of the

plate at values of buckling load that is not depending on the position of delamination.

The first failure occurring in an element is based

on the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, which provides the

mathematical relation for strength under combined

stresses was used.

The failure index is calculated in each ply of

each element. In the ply where failure index is

greater than 1, the first-ply failure occurs, according to the Tsai-Wu criterion. In the next steps, the

tensile and compressive properties of this element

are reduced by the failure index. If the buckling

did not appeared until the moment of the first-ply

failure occurring, the in-plane load corresponding

to this moment is considered as the buckling load.

1922 sept. 2007, Sibiu, Romania, pp. 213214.

Beznea, E.F., Chirica, I. & Chirica, R. Buckling behaviour of plates with central elliptical delamination,

Proceedings of MARSTRUCT 2009, The 2-nd International Conference on Marine Structures, Lisbon,

Portugal, 1618 March 2009, Analysis and Design of

Marine Structures - Guedes Soares & Das (eds), 2009

Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp. 429434.

Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F. & Chirica, R. Placi compozite,

Editura Fundatiei Universitare Dunarea de Jos,

Galati, 2006.

Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F., Chirica, R., Boazu, D. &

Chirica, A. Buckling Behavior of the Delaminated

Ship Hull Panels, Proceedings of The 12-th International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean

CongressIMAM, 26 sept. 2007, Varna, Bulgaria,

pp. 161166, vol. 1-Maritime Transportation, Ed.

Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-43725.

Huo, M.V., Harik, I.E. & Ren, W.X. Buckling behaviour of stiffened plates, Int. J. Solids Struct, 39, 30,

pp. 3955, 2002.

Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials, Ed.

Taylor & Francis Group, London, 1999.

Johns, D.J. Shear Buckling of Isotropic and Orthotropic

Plates, A Review, R. & M. No. 3677, 1971.

Mallela, K.U. & Upadhyay, A. Buckling of laminated

composite stiffened panels subjected to in-plane

shear: A parametric study, Thin-Walled Structures 44,

pp. 354361, 2006.

Nemeth, M.P. Buckling behaviour of long symmetrically

laminated plates subjected to combined loadings,

TP 3195, NASA, 1992.

Nemeth, M.P. Buckling behaviour of long symmetrically

laminated plates subjected to shear and linearly varying axial edge loads, TP 3659, NASA, 1997.

Smith, R.C.T. The buckling of plywood plates in shear,

Australian C.S.I.R. Aero. Res.Labs. (Melbourne) Rep.

SM 51, 1946.

Thurley, G.J. & Marshall, I.H. Buckling and Postbuckling of Composite Plates, Ed. Chapman & Hall,

London, 1995.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work has been performed in the scope of

the Romanian Project PN2IDEI, Code 512

(20092011).

REFERENCES

Adams, D.F., Carlsson, L.A. & Pipes, R.B. Experimental

Characterization of Advanced Composite materials,

Ed. Taylor & Francis Group, 2003.

Altenbach, H., Altenbach, J. & Kissing, W. Mechanics of

Composite Structural Elements, Ed. Springer, Berlin,

2001.

Beznea, E.F. Studies and researches on the buckling

behaviour of the composite panels, Doctoral Thesis,

University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, 2008.

Beznea, E.F., Chirica, I., Boazu, D., Chirica, R. &

Chirica, A. Buckling Analysis of Delaminated Ship

Deck Plates, Made of Composite Materials, Proceedings of the 24-th DAS-2007: Danubia-Adria Sympo-

92

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica

University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Romania

ABSTRACT: Shear buckling and postbuckling behaviour of the square plates, made of composite

materials, with central cut-outs is treated in this paper. In the analysis, finite element method (FEM) was

applied to perform parametric studies on various plates based on the shape and position of the elliptical hole. This study addressed the effects of an elliptical/circular cutout on the buckling load of square

composite plates. The laminated composite plates were arranged as symmetric cross-ply. The cutouts

are either circular holes or elliptical holes. The shear-buckling strengths of the plates could be increased

considerably only under aspect ratios. The plate-buckling mode can be symmetrical or anti-symmetrical,

depending on the plate boundary conditions, aspect ratio, and the hole size. In this paper, the analysis

has been performed only for the plate clamped on sides. The results and illustrations provide important

information for the efficient design of ship structural panels made of composite materials, having cutouts. The aim of the work presented in this paper is to analyze the influence of cut-out on the changes

in the buckling behaviour of ship deck plates made of composite materials. For each diameters ratio

there are plotted variation of the transversal displacement of the point placed in the middle of the plate,

according to the pressure that has been applied. Buckling load determination for the general buckling of

the plate has been made by graphical method. The post-buckling calculus has been performed to explain

the complete behaviour of the plate.

1

INTRODUCTION

circular holes under in-plane edge shear has been

studied both theoretically and experimentally by

various authors. (Mallela & Upadhyay 2006) presented a parametric study on laminated composite

blade-stiffened panels subjected to in-plane shear.

They proposed some design charts that can be

used to selecting the optimum parameters for better stiffener propositions.

The methods of theoretical analysis used by

most of the past investigators were the RayleighRitz minimum energy method and the Timoshenko

method. However, except for Schlack (1964) and

Kawai and Ohtsubo (1968), the theoretical analysis methods used do not allow the boundary and

loading conditions to be precisely defined for

larger hole sizes because the stress distributions

of the infinite perforated plate are used as the prebuckling stress solution for the finite perforated

plate. Thus, most of the earlier buckling solutions

are limited to small hole sizes, and are not fit for

studying the effects of different plate boundary

conditions on the buckling strengths of the finite

plates with arbitrarily sized holes using those

approximate solutions.

The objective of this paper is to describe the

results of the research that has been conducted

on the buckling and postbuckling behaviour of

in many advanced structural applications and in

the last decade are extensively used in ship hull

structure. Cut-outs are commonly used in ship

hull components as access ports for mechanical

and electrical systems, or simply to reduce weight.

Structural panels with cut-outs often experience

in-plane loads that are induced mechanically can

result in panel buckling. The buckling behavior of

the structural panels with cut-outs is interested by

naval architects in the structural design.

For an unperforated rectangular plate of finite

extent (i.e., with finite length and finite width)

under uniform shear loading on the sides, the

closed-form buckling solutions are easily obtained

because the prebuckling stress field is uniform

everywhere in the plate. When a finite rectangular plate is perforated with a central cutout (e.g.,

a circular or a square hole), however, the buckling

analysis becomes extremely cumbersome because

the cutout introduces a load-free boundary that

causes the stress field in the perforated plate to

be non-uniform. Hence, the closed-form buckling

solutions are practically unobtainable, and various

approximate methods had to be developed to analyze such perforated plates.

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Dy = 100 mm; longitudinal diameter

Dx = 100 mm;

Case 3 (Dx/Dy = 2): transversal diameter Dy = 70.5 mm; longitudinal diameter

Dx = 141 mm.

that have a cutout.

2

PLATES CHARACTERISTICS

sides, are made of E-glass/epoxy having the material characteristics:

Gxy = 5 [GPa], Gxz = 5 [GPa], Gyz = 4.6 [GPa].

xy = 0.3, yz = 0.42, xz = 0.3.

finite element software. For the present study, a

3-D model with 4-node SHELL4L layered composite element of COSMOS/M is used.

For shear buckling analysis the uniform pressure on sides was incremental applied.

Strengths:

T

x

RTy

[GPa

Pa ], RCx

[GPa ], RCy

[GPa ] ,

[GPa ] ,

3.1

buckling loads has been done.

The results of the study is presented in the

Figure 2. As it is seen, the optimum number of the

element on side is 16 for all plates with cut-out having the analized diameters ratio.

In Table 1, the results of linear buckling calculus

for each diameters ration are presented.

For the plate without cut-out, the load buckling

from linear buckling calculus is

The thickness of the plate is 4.96 mm. The thickness of a layer is 0.31 mm.

Topological code of the plate is [02/45/902/45/02]s.

For the material behaviour model two cases have

been considered:

linear behaviour;

nonlinear behaviour (Tsai-Wu failure criterion).

The in-plane loading was applied as a uniform

shear pressure on the sides (Figure 1).

The ellipses diameters of the cut-out area

placed in the middle of the plate are considered

from the condition of the same area for all cases.

In the parametric calculus, the following diameters

ratios are considered:

In the Figures 3, 4 and 5, the deformed plate

after buckling is presented for all cases of diameters ratio.

As it is seen, due to the diametric symmetry of

the shear loading, the buckled shape plate in the

cases 1 and 3 are similar.

Dy = 141 mm, longitudinal diameter

Dx = 70.5 mm;

Table 1.

Dx/Dy

pcr [MPa]

Dx

0.5

154.52

1

158.87

2

160.159

x

Dy

y

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

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161

160

Pcr [MPa]

159

158

157

156

155

154

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Dx/Dy

Dx/Dy = 0.5.

versus diameters ratio Dx/Dy.

3.2

problems, the load is applied as a sequence of sufficiently small increments so that the structure can

be assumed to respond linearly during each increment. For each increment of load, increments of

displacements and corresponding increments of

stress and strain are computed. These incremental

quantities are used to compute various corrective

stiffness matrices (variously termed geometric,

initial stress, and initial strain matrices) which

serve to take into account the deformed geometry of the structure. A subsequent increment of

load is applied and the process is continued until

the desired number of load increments has been

applied. The net effect is to solve a sequence of

linear problems wherein the stiffness properties are

recomputed based on the current geometry prior

to each load increment. The solution procedure

takes the following mathematical form

Dx/Dy = 1.

(K + KI)i1di = Q

(1)

Dx/Dy = 2.

where

K is the linear stiffness matrix,

KI is an incremental stiffness matrix based upon

displacements at load step i1,

di is the increment of displacement due to the

ith load increment,

Q is the increment of load applied.

in Figure 6, where the variation of the buckling

load function of the ratio Dx/Dy is plotted.

As it is seen, the buckling load is increasing since

the ratio Dx/Dy is increasing.

Opposite, in the case of uniaxial compressive

buckling the variation is so as the buckling load

is decreasing since the ratio Dx/Dy is increasing

(Chirica, Beznea & Chirica 2009).

matrix has been a point of some controversy. The

incremental approach is quite popular (this is the

procedure applied in this study). This is due to

the ease with which the procedure may be applied

and the almost guaranteed convergence if small

enough load increments is used.

Buckling and post-buckling analysis has been

performed for all types of panels.

In certain cases, the general buckling does not

occur till the occurring of the first-ply failure.

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Tsai-Wu failure criterion may be used.

The Tsai-Wu failure criterion provides the

mathematical relation for strength under combined

stresses. Unlike the conventional isotropic materials

where one constant will suffice for failure stress

level and location, laminated composite materials

require more elaborate methods to establish failure

stresses. The strength of the laminated composite

can be based on the strength of individual plies

within the laminate. In addition, the failure of plies

can be successive as the applied load increases.

There may be a first ply failure followed by other

ply failures until the last ply fails, denoting the ultimate failure of the laminate. Progressive failure

description is therefore quite complex for laminated composite structures. A simpler approach

for establishing failure consists of determining the

structural integrity which depends on the definition of an allowable stress field. This stress field is

usually characterized by a set of allowable stresses

in the material principal directions.

The failure criterion is used to calculate a failure

index (F.I.) from the computed stresses and usersupplied material strengths. A failure index of 1

denotes the onset of failure, and a value less than

1 denotes no failure. The failure indices are computed for all layers in each element of your model.

During post processing, it is possible to plot failure

indices of the mesh for any layer.

The Tsai-Wu failure criterion (also known as the

Tsai-Wu tensor polynomial theory) is commonly

used for orthotropic materials with unequal tensile and compressive strengths. The failure index

according to this theory is computed using the following equation, (Altenbach & al, 2004).

F.I. F1 1 + F2 2 F1111 12

+ F22 22 F66 62 + 2F

F1122 1 2

failure of a lamina occurs if

F.I. > 1.

(4)

as a material having the behaviour according to the

Tsai-Wu Failure criteria.

The failure index is calculated in each ply of

each element. In the ply where failure index is

greater than 1, the first-ply failure occurs. In the

next steps, the tensile and compressive properties

of this element are reduced by the failure index.

If the buckling did not appeared until the moment

of the first-ply failure occurring, the in-plane load

corresponding to this moment is considered as

being the buckling load.

In the Figure 7, the variations of the buckling

load corresponding to the fails in the tension cases

(Fail 1) and compressive cases (Fail 2), versus

diameters ratio are presented.

As it is seen, the value of the buckling load corresponding to the fail 1 (tension) has the same

value for all diameters ratios.

For the panels with elliptical central cut-out the

values of the buckling load is placed in the range.

150 [MPa] < pcr < 190 [MPa]

Using graphical method, the buckling load may

be estimated by drawing an asymptote to the curve

in the point where the slope is changing suddenly.

The postbuckling behaviour of the plate may be

explained according to the curves in the Figure 8,

from region drawn after buckling occurring.

(2)

where

1

1

1

; F11 = T C ;

R1T R1C

R1 R1

1

1

1

1

F2 = T C ; F22 = T C ; F66 = 2 .

R2 R2

R2 R2

R12

1

F1 =

(3)

parameter of interaction between 1 and 2 is

to be obtained by a mechanical biaxial test. In

the equations (3), the parameters RCi , RTi are

the compressive strength and tensile strength in

the material in longitudinal direction (i = 1) and

trasversal direction (i = 2). The parameter R12 is

in-plane shear strength in the material 12 plane.

fail 1 and fail 2, versus diameters ratio.

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Figure 8.

Variation of maximum transversal displacement versus in-pane load for each diameters ratio.

the buckling load corresponding to an element

failing which is damaged by compression is also

increasing.

the graphical method and Tsai-Wu failure criterion

were used. The values obtained for buckling load

were placed in the range specified in each case in

Figure 7.

4

relative to the plate width, most of the compressive load is carried by the narrow side strips of

material along the plate boundaries. As it is well

known, a stronger plate boundary condition (e.g.,

clampedrather than simply-supported boundaries) increases the buckling strength, while the

higher stress concentration decreases the buckling

strength.

Thus, which effects become dominant will

determine the increase or decrease of the buckling

strengths of the perforated plates.

For the circular-hole cases, the narrow shear

side strips are under stress concentration, which

reduces the buckling strengths.

The unusual buckling characteristics of the perforated plates offer important applications in ship

structural panel design. Namely, by opening holes

of proper sizes in ship structural panels for weight

saving, their buckling strengths can be boosted

simultaneously.

The buckling load determination is too difficult

without applying a graphical method. In certain

cases, the using of Tsai-Wu criterion may predict

so named buckling load, if general buckling of

the plate does not occurred before first-ply failure

occurring.

The first failure occurring in an element is based

on the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, which provides

the mathematical relation for strength under combined stresses may be used.

The lack of the criterion is referring to the anticipation of the real mode to occurring the cracking.

CONCLUSIONS

In the paper, the results of the FEM based methodology that was successfully developed for the

investigation of buckling problems of composite

plates with central elliptical cut-out is presented.

Two hypotheses regarding the type of material

modeling is used (linear and nonlinear).

The buckling behavior of plates with central holes as presented in figure 8 is quite peculiar because, under certain boundary conditions

(clamped edges) and cut-out aspect ratios, the

mechanical-buckling strengths of the perforated

plates, contrary to expectation, increase rather

than decrease as the hole sizes grow larger. The

conventional wisdom is that, as the hole sizes

increase, the plates lose more materials and

become weaker. Therefore, the buckling strengths

were expected to decrease as the hole sizes

increase. This was not the case. Such peculiar

buckling phenomenon of the perforated plates

may be explained as follows.

Certain conclusions after the shear buckling analysis of the perforated plates may be

performed:

the buckling load is increasing since the ratio

Dx/Dy is decreasing;

the buckling load corresponding to an element

failing which is damaged by tension, has the

same value that is not depending on the ratio

Dx/Dy;

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of Compression-loaded Composite Shells, Proceedings

of the 6th Annual Technical Conference of the

American Society for Composites, Virginia.

Kawai, T. & Ohtsubo, H. 1968. A Method of Solution for

the Complicated Buckling Problems of ElasticPlates

With Combined Use of Rayleigh-Ritzs Procedure in

the Finite Element Method, AFFDLTR-68-150.

Khamseh, A.R. & Waas, A.M. 1992. Compression Failure

Mechanisms of Uni-Ply Composite Plates with a Circular Cutout, AIAA-92-2276-CP.

Komur, M.A., Sen, F., Atas, A. & Arslan, N. 2010.

Buckling analysis of laminated composite plates with

an elliptical/circular cutout using FEM, Advances in

Engineering Software, 41/2: 161164.

Kremer, T. & Shurmann, H. 2007. Buckling of tensionloaded thin-walled composite plates with cut-outs,

Composite Science and Technology.

Liu, Y., Jin, F. & Li, Q. 2005. A strength-based multiple

cutout optimization in composite, plates using fixed grid

finite element method, Composite Structures 73 (2006)

403412.

Mallela, U. & Upadhyay, A. 2006. Buckling of laminated

composite stiffened panels subjected to in-plane

shear: a parametric study, Thin-Walled Structures,

(44), 354361.

Nemeth, M.P. 1996. Buckling and postbuckling behavior

of laminated composite plates with a cutout, NASA

Technical Paper 3587.

Qablan, H.A., Katkhuda, H. & Dwairi, H. 2009.

Assessment of the Buckling Behavior of Square

Composite Plates withCircular Cutout Subjected to

In-Plane Shear, Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering,

Volume 3, No. 2, 2009.

Rezaeepazhand, J. & Jafari, M. 2008. Stress Analysis

of Composite Plates with Non-circular Cutout,

Key Engineering Materials Vols. 385387 (2008)

pp. 365368.

Rezaeepazhand, J. & Jafari, M. Stress Analysis of

Composite Plates with a Quasi-Square Cutout

Subjected to Uniaxial Tension, Journal of Reinforced

Plastics and Composites July 2010 29: 20152026.

Schlack, A.L., Jr. 1964. Elastic Stability of Pierced Square

Plates. Experimental Mechanics, June 1964: 167172.

SRAC. 2001. Cosmos/M FEM program user guide.

Structural Research & Analysis Corporation.

(www.cosmosm.com)

Thurvey, G.J. & Marshall, I.H. 1995. Buckling and

Postbuckling of Composite Plates, Chapman & Hall,

London.

Yazici, M. 2009. Influence of Cut-Out Variables on

Buckling Behavior of Composite Plates, Journal of

Reinforced Plastics and Composites October 2009

Vol. 28 No. 19, 23252339.

formulation, the Tsai-Wu failure criterion is easy

to be applied. Additionally, this criterion offers

advantages concerning the real prediction of the

strength at variable loadings. It is to remark that

by applying linear terms, it is possible to take into

account the differences between the tension and

compression strengths of the material.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work has been performed in the scope of

the Romanian Project PN2IDEI, Code 512

(20092011).

REFERENCES

Adams, D.F., Carlsson, L.A. & Pipes, R.B. 2003. Experimental Characterization of Advanced Composite materials, Ed. Taylor & Francis Group.

Altenbach, H., Altenbach, J. & Kissing, W. 2004.

Mechanics of Composite Structural Elements, Ed.

Springer, Berlin.

Ambarcumyan, S.A. 1991. Theory of Anisotropic Plates:

Strength, Stability, and Vibrations, Hemispher Publishing, Washington.

Baba, B.O. & Baltaci, A. 2007. Buckling Characteristics

of Symmetrically and Antisymmetrically Laminated

Composite Plates with Central Cutout, Appl Compos

Mater (2007) 14, 265276.

Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F. & Chirica, R. 2006. Placi compozite (in Romanian). Edit. Fund. Univ. Dunarea de

Jos, Galati, ISBN (10) 973-627-337-7; ISBN (13) 978973-627-337-7.

Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F. & Chirica, R. 2009. Buckling

behaviour of the ship deck composite plates with cutouts, Proceedings of MARSTRUCT 2009, The 2-nd

International Conference on Marine Structures,

Lisbon, Portugal, 1618 March 2009, Analysis and

Design of Marine Structures - Guedes Soares &

Das (eds), 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London,

pp. 423428, ISBN 978-0-415-54934-9.

Dash, S., Asha, A.V. & Sahu, S.K. 2004. Stability of

Laminated Composite Curved Panels with Cutout Using

Finite Element Method, International Conference on

Theoretical, Applied Computational and Experimental Mechanics (ICTACEM 2004) December 2831,

2004, IIT, Kharagpur.

Engelstad, S.P., Reddy, J.N. & Knight, N.F. Jr. 1992. Postbuckling Response and Failure Prediction of GraphiteEpoxy Plates Loaded in Compression, AIAA Journal,

30(8), 21062113.

98

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

subjected to combined loads

Sang-Rai Cho

University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea

Hyun-Soo Kim

Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan, Korea

Jeong-Bon Koo

Samsung Heavy Industries, Geoje, Korea

Korean Register of Shipping, Daejon, Korea

ABSTRACT: A robust ultimate strength formulation is proposed for stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression, shear force and lateral pressure loadings. Before the

formulation was derived, a simplified numerical method was developed to trace the structural behavior

of stiffened plates under combined loadings. A rigorous parametric study was, then, performed using the

developed numerical method to predict the ultimate strength of various stiffened plates under various

combinations of loadings. The formulation was derived through a regression study using the parametric

study results. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed formulation were compared with those of a

commercial package, ABAQUA and DNV PULS and with the experimental results.

1

INTRODUCTION

should be considered in ultimate strength

predictions:

structures are composed of stiffened plates, which

are normally fabricated by welding. Welded plates

contain initial shape imperfections and residual

stresses. Furthermore, ship structures are subjected

to various combined loadings. Therefore, it is difficult to develop analytical methods or procedures

for predicting the ultimate strengths of marine

stiffened plates with reasonable accuracy.

Accurate ultimate strength analyses of ships

stiffened plates require nonlinear analyses using

commercial packages. Learning to operate and

perform the analyses with these packages is time

consuming. To overcome these shortcomings, Det

Norske Veritas (DNV) developed a simplified

analysis package called Panel Ultimate Limit State

(PULS) and requested the performance of ultimate strength analyses for all the stiffened plates.

Therefore, we developed our own simplified analysis program and developed design formulations

with which structural designers can easily predict

the ultimate strength of stiffened plates subjected

to combined loadings.

buckling

b. Combined loading effects

c. Interaction between buckling modes

d. Initial shape and material imperfections

The ultimate strengths of marine structural

elements can be predicted using analytical methods, numerical methods, experimental methods,

simplified analytical or numerical methods and

design formulations. However, in most cases, analytical methods are not appropriate when the above

effects are considered in the procedures. Numerical predictions using commercial computer codes

are popular among researchers. Nonlinear analyses using commercial codes are necessary for ultimate strength predictions, but they are difficult to

operate and are time consuming. Among others,

experimental methods seem most reliable to structure owners, but they are still the most expensive

and require a relatively longer time to perform.

Any simplified analytical or numerical methods

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easy to develop simplified methods that provide

acceptable levels of accuracy. However, due to the

shortcomings and disadvantages of the aforementioned four methods, in structural design, the ultimate strengths of marine structural elements are

predicted using easy-to-use strength formulations.

Ultimate strength formulations can be derived

through direct regression analysis of test data if the

numbers of available test data is sufficiently large

and if the ranges of their geometric and material

parameters and reduced slenderness parameters

include those of the actual structural elements.

However, the strength formulations obtained via

direct regression analysis may not demonstrate

meanings related to the physical states of the structural elements. Therefore, it seems more sensible to

adopt a strength formula as the basis of the formulation and to perform regression analysis for

the modification factors in the formula. Test data

have their own uncertainties, which may obstruct

the collection of meaningful regression results for

certain parameters. This kind of difficulty can

be overcome by employing theoretical analysis

methods.

In this study, a simplified numerical method was

developed and the predictions using this method

were substantiated with those of ABAQUS (2009)

and PULS. Rigorous parametric study was conducted covering wide range of design parameters.

Adopting the generalized Merchant-Rankine formula as the basis a design formulation was developed using the results of the parametric study.

2

2.1

Figure 1.

be concentrated at the edges of triangles (see

Figure 1). In other words the triangular elements

remain flat throughout the analysis, and triangle

edges can be folded. The edge rotations between

the triangles are restrained by non-linear torsional

springs representing the actual bending stiffness of the flat element. Only three translational

degrees of freedom are contained in the analysis.

The component of the resultant displacement at

each node parallel to the element plane causes the

in-plane deformation and internal forces. Using the

displacement component normal to the element

plane the hinge folding angle is calculated and then

the bending moment is obtained. The out-of-plane

internal forces are derived to balance the bending

moment.

2.2 Formulation

General

with initial shape and material imperfections, the

Finite Element method, Finite Difference method

and Dynamic Relaxation (DR) technique (Day

1965; Frieze et al., 1978) can be employed. In this

study, however, the DR technique is adopted as the

basis of the developed analysis method, for which

the procedure is straightforward and can also be

employed in dynamic problems.

In this study the stiffened plate is divided into

flat triangular elements and membrane and bending deformations of the element are decoupled.

This concept was originally proposed by Chan

and Davis (1983) and has been employed in plate

collision problems (Cho et al., 1996) and ultimate

strength analyses under hydrostatic pressure (Han

1999; Kim 2001).

The membrane deformation is represented

with finite triangular elements of constant strain

In the ultimate strength analysis using the DR

technique, the applied loads or imposed displacements are increased step by step and the responses

of the structure are dynamically traced. When

the structural behavior is elastic the equations of

motion can be written as follows:

[

] D

(1)

[K] = stiffness matrix; {D}n = nodal displacement

vector at the nth time step: { }n = nodal velocity

vector at the nth time step; { }n = nodal acceleration vector at the nth time step; and {Rext}n = nodal

external force vector at the nth time step.

For elasto-plastic dynamic analysis, however,

the second term on the left hand side of

Equation 1, [K]{D}n can be written as {Rint}n and

we write Equation 1 as follows:

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[M ]{D}n + [C ]{D}n + {R

} {R }

ext

(2)

nth time step, which can be obtained by superposing {Reint}n for all of the corresponding elements.

The nodal internal force vectors, {Rint}n are

represented in the global coordinate, which are

transformed from the element local coordinate.

The nodal internal force vectors of each element in

the local coordinate are composed of those parallel or normal to the element plane. The in-plane

internal forces (which are parallel to the element

plane) can be obtained through volume integration of the in-plane stresses of the element. The

normal components of the internal forces can be

calculated using the folding angles of the element

edges. The details of the internal force calculation

are discussed later.

The temporal central difference method provides the equations for nodal velocity and acceleration as follows:

{D }n = 21 t ({D}

{D}

{D}n = 1t ({D}

{D}n + {D}

(3a)

(3b)

By substituting Equations 3a and 3b into the

equations of motion, Equation 2 can be rewritten

as follows:

1

1

[C ] {D}n +1

2 [M ] +

2

t

t

1

= R

R

+ 2 [M ] 2 {D}n {D}

n

n

t

1

+

[ ]{ }n1

2t

{ } { }

) (4)

The nodal displacements at the (n + 1)th time step

can be calculated using Equation 4 together with

the nodal displacements at the (n 1)th and nth

time step and {Rint} and {Rext} of the nth time

step. Accordingly, the velocity and accelerations at

the (n + 1)th time step can then be obtained from

Equations 3a and 3b. We assume in this study

that the characteristics of the applied loading are

known. Therefore the problem to be solved is how

to calculate the internal force vectors, {Rint}n using

the nodal displacements at the nth time step.

For the simplicity of equations the subscript n

will be omitted when deriving the equations for the

internal forces, {Rint}n when the displacement vectors at the nth time step are provided. As mentioned

coordinate, {Rint}n can be obtained by superposing

the internal forces of each element on the global

coordinate, {Reint}n. Actually, the internal forces of

each element are calculated in the local member

coordinate and then transformed into the global

coordinate. Therefore, we first explain how to calculate the internal forces in the local coordinate and

describe the transformation procedure later.

In elasto-plastic problems, the strain-stress relationship is nonlinear. Therefore, it is necessary

to express this relationship in incremental form.

The strain increments, {} are easily calculated

when the strains at the (n1)th and nth time steps

are known. The stress increments, {} can be

expressed using Hookes law as in Equation (5).

{ } [ ]({ } {

})

(5)

obtained using the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule, and

this study adopts the von Mises yield criterion.

1. In-plane internal forces

In developing the analysis method, the constant strain flat triangular element is employed

to analyze the in-plane deformation. The nodal

displacements in the local coordinate can be

obtained via transformation of those in the

global coordinate. Herein, we explain the procedure for calculating the in-plane nodal internal forces in the local coordinate from the nodal

displacements in the local coordinate. For this

purpose, the strain of each element should first

be calculated from the nodal displacements and

the stress components can then be calculated

using the elasto-plastic strain-stress relationship. Finally, the in-plane nodal forces can be

obtained through volume integration of the

stresses over the element as follows:

re

T

v )

[B ] { o } d (vol

(6)

vol

2. Normal internal forces

In order to satisfy the moment equilibrium

conditions two adjacent element normal forces

are required at node i and l due to the torsional

moment at the common edge jk (see Figure 2).

These normal forces are then balanced by the

normal forces at node j and k. The first step in

deriving the relationship for the out-of-plane

internal force is to describe the folding angle in

terms of the nodal translational displacements.

The nodal internal forces for each element

should be calculated in the local coordinate and

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analyses were also performed for two models provided by DNV and the results were also compared

with those of PULS and ABAQUS.

internal forces.

coordinate before summing for a node. The coordinate transformation is necessary not only for

this purpose but also when calculating the element

strain from the nodal displacements in the global

coordinates.

3. Development of computer program: SPUSA

Following the formulation of the developed

analysis method, a computer program, denoted

as Stiffened Plates Ultimate Strength Analysis

(SPUSA) was developed and its calculation procedure is as follows:

step 1: set-up boundary conditions

step 2: set-up displacement increments

step 3: calculate strain increments

step 4: calculate stress increments

step 5: calculate bending moments

step 6: calculate internal forces

step 7: calculate new nodal displacements

step 8: < repeat steps 37 >

After trying with different values for the displacement increment the value finally chosen was

105 times the models dimensions (a b), which

provided the calculation efficiency and consistency

of results.

2.3 Substantiation of the developed analysis

method

To substantiate the developed analysis method, ten

stiffened models were collected from the literature,

which were subjected to axial compression. The

models were analyzed and their ultimate strengths

were predicted using SPUSA. These predictions

were compared with the test results and those

of PULS. For combined loadings of transverse

The dimensions and material properties of the

ten axially compressed test models used for

the comparison study are summarized in Table 1.

The comparison results of the predictions not

only by SPUSA, but also by PULS are provided in

Table 2, along with the test data.

In Table 1, a, B and b are the length, whole

breadth and spacing of stiffeners of the model,

respectively; ns is the number of stiffeners; tp is

the thickness of the plate; hw and tw are the height

and thickness of the stiffener web, respectively;

wf : and tf : are the width and thickness of the stiffener flange, respectively; E and Y are the Youngs

modulus and the mean yield stress of the material,

respectively; and FB, AB and TB denote a flat-bar,

angle-bar and tee-bar, respectively.

As seen in Table 2, the theoretical predictions

of SPUSA and PULS agree relatively well with

the test results. However, the initial shape imperfection levels of the small-scale test models should

Table 1. Dimensions and material properties of test

models under axial compression (Unit: mm, MPa).

Model

ns

tp

Stiff.

type

S3F3

S5F3

S3A3

S5A3

S3A100

C-12

C-34

600

600

600

600

600

1434

1152

250

450

250

450

260

1197

960

100

100

100

100

100

239

192

3

5

3

5

3

4

4

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

1.86

5.80

6.00

FB

FB

AB

AB

AB

FB

FB

R

FL1

FL2

1700

577

577

1168

635

635

457

136

136

3

5

5

9.95

4.93

4.93

TB

FB

FB

Model

hw

tw

wf

tf

S3F3

S5F3

S3A3

S5A3

S3A100

C-12

C-34

R

FL1

FL2

50

50

40

40

40

105.8

102

136.1

63.5

63.5

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

1.99

5.70

8.00

7.36

3.02

3.02

15

15

15

28.6

2.13

2.13

2.13

15.9

248000

248000

235000

235000

220000

205000

205000

205000

190000

190000

332

332

330

330

316

271

269

377

321

247

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of PULS (Unit: MPa).

Model

Ref.

Cho &

Song

(2003)

S5F3

Cho &

Song

(2003)

S3A3

Cho &

Song

(2003)

S5A3

Cho &

Song

(2003)

S3A100 Cho &

Song

(2003)

C-12 Fukumoto

et al.

(1974)

C-34 Fukumoto

et al.

(1974)

R

Murray

(1975)

FL1

Faulkner

(1977)

FL2

Faulkner

(1977)

(1) (2)

(3)

(1)/(2) (1)/(3)

S3F3

230

260

270

0.88

0.85

213

259

255

0.82

0.84

261

281

291

0.93

0.90

215

280

270

0.77

0.80

260

259

253

1.00

1.03

202

218

241

0.93

238

0.99

1.00

271

296

276

0.92

0.98

250.1 266

250

0.94

1.00

172.4 186

186

0.93

0.93

Stiffener

span

8800 mm

Plate

thickness

12.0 mm /

14.5 mm

Stiffener

spacing

890 mm

Stiffener

type

Tee-bar

No. of

stiffeners

Stiffener

height

700 mm

Youngs

modulus

208 GPa

Web

thickness

13 mm

Poisson ratio

0.3

Flange width

150 mm

Yield stress

355 MPa

Flange

thickness

18 mm

ABAQUS (Unit: MPa).

Model

0.84

239.1 242

analyzed models.

Load

type

(1)

(2)

(3)

(1)/(2) (1)/(3)

Model I Pure

shear 204

Pure

trans.

comp. 62.0

Model II Pure

shear 204

Pure

trans.

comp. 71.5

analyses. Therefore, further study seems necessary

to investigate the effects of imperfection level on

the ultimate strength of stiffened plates.

2.3.2 Shear force and transverse compression

For the case of combined transverse compression

and shear force loadings the ultimate strengths of

two models provided by DNV (Byklum 2003) were

analyzed using SPUSA and the results were compared with those of PULS and ABAQUS. Table 3

provides the dimensions and material properties

of the two models. The models with thicknesses of

12.0 mm and 14.5 mm are denoted as Model-I and

Model-II, respectively.

The ultimate strength analysis results of the two

models subjected to pure shear force and pure

transverse compression are summarized in Table 4

together with those of ABAQUS and PULS. When

the pure transverse compression is applied to

Model-I, the SPUSA prediction is approximately

10% greater than that of PULS but is similar to

that of ABAQUS. Under shear force, the ultimate

strength predicted by SPUSA is approximately

200

184.3

1.02 1.10

55.0

61.5

1.13 1.01

200

186.7

1.02 1.09

69.0

76.0

1.04 0.94

Similar to the trend of Model-I, the strength

predicted by SPUSA is 10% greater than that of

PULS for transverse compression, but is 10% less

for shear force.

3

3.1

PARAMETRIC STUDY

Stiffened plates for parametric study

Prior to deriving the ultimate strength formulation proposed in this study, a rigorous parametric

study was performed. The stiffened plates considered in the parametric study were similar to those

provided in ISSC 2000 committee VI.2 (Yao et al.,

2000). The size of the local panel between stiffeners was taken as:

a b = 2,400 800; 4,000 800 (mm)

tp = 10; 13; 15; 20; 25 (mm)

Three types of stiffeners were considered;

a flat-bar, an angle-bar and a tee-bar, and three

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Table 5.

Dimensions of stiffeners.

Type

Size 1

Size 2

Size 3

Flat-bar

Angle-bar

Tee-bar

150 17

150 90 9/12

138 9 + 90 12

250 19

250 90 10/15

235 10 + 90 15

350 35

400 100 12/17

383 12 + 100 17

Table 6.

Figure 3.

loading.

Location

Constraints

x=0

x = a/2, 3a/2

x = 2a

y = 0, 4b

Tx = 0, Ry = 0

Tz = 0

Ty = 0, Ry = 0

Tz = 0

The initial shape imperfections assumed in the

study were determined using Equation 7 for plates

and Equation 8 for stiffeners.

w po = Ao si m x

a

sin y

b

wso

Bo sin x vso

,

a

+ Be sin

Co sin

i x

a

x

a

(7)

(8)

Instead of using m in Equation 7 as the aspect

ratio of the plate, we assumed m = 1 to better represent reality. The residual stresses due to welding

were assumed as those provided by ISSC2000 committee VI.2.

The stiffened plate model considered in the parametric study is depicted in Figure 3, which shows

one and two halves span model. The number of

stiffeners in the standard model was three as shown

in Figure 3.

The boundary conditions imposed for the

ultimate strength analyses are summarized in

Table 6 and the displacement loadings applied

in the analyses are depicted in Figure 4 for axial

compression, transverse compression and shear

force. The displacement loadings were linearly

figures.

In the analyses using ABAQUS, the element

size of the model was 100 mm 100 mm for the

plate and 100 mm 50 mm for the stiffener web.

The stiffener flange was divided into 2 elements at

one side. The finite element chosen for the analyses was S4R which is a 4-node, quadrilateral,

stress/displacement shell element with reduced

integrations and a large-strain formulation.

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3.2

As a part of the parametric study, computations were first conducted for single loadings

including axial compression and transverse compression using PULS, ABAQUS, and SPUSA. The

results of these computations were utilized not

only for the further substantiation of the developed

analysis method but also as part of the raw data

with which the strength formulation was derived.

The computation results are summarized

in Table 6. The stiffened plates are denoted as

Xijklm, indicating that:

X = F for flat-bar, L for angle-bar, T for

tee-bar;

i = aspect ratio (a/b); jk = plate thickness; lm = 15

for a stiffener of size 1, 25 for a stiffener of size 2,

35 for a stiffener of size 3.

For example, F31015 represents a stiffened plate

with an aspect ratio and plate thickness of 3 and

10 mm, respectively, for which the stiffener is a flatbar of size 1.

As can be seen in the table, 45 cases were analyzed for axial compression, and the ratios of predictions are summarized. The prediction ratios

(Xm) of PULS/ABAQUS, PULS/SPUSA, and

ABAQUS/ SPUSA provide means of 0.989 (5.30%

COV), 0.985 (6.38% COV) and 0.996 (4.02%

COV), respectively. The results for the transverse

compression load are also presented in the table.

Comparing with the accuracy of the predictions

for axial compression larger uncertainties can be

found for transverse compression.

3.3

Combined loadings

axial compression, transverse compression, shear

force and lateral pressure loadings using PULS,

ABAQUS and SPUSA. Some of the results

obtained using PULS are depicted in Figures 4(a)

and 4(b).

As shown in the figures, the effects of transverse

compression for the case of bi-axial loadings can be

negligible if the transverse compressive stress is less

than about 10% of the yield stress. If the transverse

compression is greater than that, however, the axial

capacity may decrease dramatically. When combined with shear force the reduction in axial compression capacity is negligible until the shear stress

is less than about 30% of the yield shear stress.

The effects of lateral pressure on the ultimate

strength of stiffened plates can be found by comparing Figures 4(a) and 4(b). When axial compression is dominant lateral pressure may strengthen

the ultimate capacity. However, when transverse

compression is dominant the opposite effects can

be expected.

and SPUSA for axial and transverse compression

loadings. <axial compression>

(Xm)axial

Model

PULS/

ABAQUS

PULS/

SPUSA

ABAQUS/

SPUSA

F3 (1025)15

F3 (1025) 25

F3 (1025) 35

L3 (1025) 15

L3 (1025) 25

L3 (1025) 35

T3 (1025) 15

T3 (1025) 25

T3 (1025) 35

mean

COV

1.034

0.954

1.010

1.003

0.976

0.993

0.954

0.959

1.021

0.989

5.30%

0.959

0.945

1.024

1.037

0.970

0.989

0.988

0.955

0.998

0.985

6.38%

0.929

0.989

1.013

1.035

0.992

0.995

1.036

0.995

0.977

0.996

4.02%

<transverse compression>

(Xm)trans.

Model

PULS/

ABAQUS

PULS/

SPUSA

ABAQUS/

SPUSA

F3 (1025)15

F3 (1025) 25

F3 (1025) 35

L3 (1025) 15

L3 (1025) 25

L3 (1025) 35

T3 (1025) 15

T3 (1025) 25

T3 (1025) 35

mean

COV

0.912

1.014

1.292

0.967

1.012

1.069

0.948

1.008

1.026

1.028

12.01%

0.927

1.087

1.410

1.003

1.072

1.132

0.979

1.033

1.093

1.082

13.60%

1.017

1.076

1.090

1.042

1.061

1.059

1.037

1.032

1.068

1.054

6.85%

parametric study by changing the aspect ratio and

plate thicknesses of the stiffened plates.

4

4.1

DERIVATION OF STRENGTH

FORMULATION

Basis of the derived formulation

derive a good ultimate strength formulation, we

must take into account not only the interaction

between yielding and elastic buckling but also

the interaction between different buckling modes.

Even under axial compression alone various buckling modes may be experienced depending on the

geometries and material properties of stiffened

plates. The axial compression becomes much more

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compression and/or shear force.

In this study, the generalized Merchant-Rankine

formula (Odland & Faulkner 1981) is adopted as

the basis of the proposed ultimate strength formulation for stiffened plates. In the formula proposed

by Odland and Faulkner, the von Mises yield criterion is adopted to monitor the collapse of stocky

structures while the elastic buckling stress subjected to combined loading is estimated using the

linear sum of each component.

All the parametric study results obtained using

SPUSA, ABAQUS and PULS were utilized in

the regression analyses to derive the knock-down

factors.

4.2

Axial compression

written as Equation 9 for axial compression incorporated with lateral pressure (Cho et al., 1998).

2

compression and lateral pressure loadings, the

knock-down factors c and t were determined

through regression analysis as Equations 10(a)

and 10(b), respectively. The knock-down factor for

overall buckling, oa was assumed to be 1.0.

c

t

47

0.47

c

(10a)

t 1.14

3 51

(10b)

oa = 1.0

(10c)

p

where

Y ec is the slenderness ratio of the

ratio; c

stiffener for column buckling; and t

Y et is

the slenderness ratio of the stiffener for tripping.

4.3

The proposed formulation for transverse compression alone can be written as follows:

xa

xa + xbs

xa xa + xb

+

+

+

= 1

oa eoax Y

c ec

t et

(9)

where xa = applied axial compressive stress;

xbs = bending stress at the stiffener flange

due to Meq; ec = Euler column buckling

stress of stiffener including associate plating;

Y = Yp Ap Ys As Apps , is the mean yield stress;

et 1 I o (G

GJJ 4 2 L2 ( ECw )), is the elastic

tripping stress of a stiffener; xb = Y M eq M p ,

is the equivalent bending stress due to the

end bending moment and lateral pressure;

M eq M e + pbl 2 16 ; J hsf tsf 3 hswtssww3 3 , is the

St. Venant torsion constant; I 0 I w + As es2 + I f , is

the moment of inertia of the stiffener; Iw = polar

moment of inertia of stiffener web; If is the polar

moment of inertia of the stiffener flange; es = distance between the stiffener centroid (plate excluded)

and its toe; Cw I f (h

( hw t f )2 , is the torsional

warping constant;

onst

eoax = n Dy ax B 2 [ Dx B 2 Dy L2 + 2 m 2 Dxxy n2

Dy m 4 L2 n 4 B 2 ], is the overall grillage buckling stress; L,B are overall length and breadth,

respectively; ax is the average cross-section area per

unit width of plating and longitudinal stiffeners; Dx,

Dy are effective flexural rigidity per unit width of

stiffeners with attached plating in the longitudinal

(x) and transverse (y) directions, respectively; Dxy is

the twisting rigidity per unit width

c is the knock-down factor for column buckling

of stiffener; t is the knock-down factor for tripping of stiffener; and oa is the knock-down factor

for overall buckling of stiffened plate under axial

compression.

2

2

y

y

=1

+

Y

yCbc ey

(11)

2

2

2

2

where ey E ( ) (b a ) t p b is

the, local plate buckling stress under transverse

compression; y

c1 34 } is the knockdown factor for local plate buckling under transverse compression;

03

Cbc

p{ .

1 65 (b a ) } is the strengthening coefficient of the boundary condition for local

plate buckling.

4.4

strength approaches the yield stress. The formulation for pure shear force derived through regression analysis of the parametric study results is as

follows:

2

2

3 xy

xy

+ = 1

Y

e

(12)

elastic shear buckling stress of local plate; and

= 4.0 is the knock-down factor for plate shear

buckling

4.5

Combined loads

strength of stiffened plates subjected to combined

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force and lateral pressure is obtained as follows:

xa

xa + xbs

xa

+

+

oa eoax

c ec

t et

2

y

xy

+

+

e

yCbc ey

( xa + xb )2 ( xa + xb ) y + y2 + 3 xy2

4.6

=1

(13)

for single loadings via regression analyses using

the results of the parametric study. Therefore it is

Figure 5(b). Ultimate strength of stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression and shear force with lateral pressure loadings

(p = 0.10 MPa).

loadings. Figure 5 compares the predictions for

combined axial compression and transverse loadings according to the proposed formulation with

those of PULS, ABAQUS and SPUSA. Fairly

good agreements were observed.

5

Figure 5(a). Ultimate strength of stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression and shear force without lateral pressure loadings.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study an ultimate strength analysis program called SPUSA, is developed for analysis of

stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression, shear force and

lateral pressure. The developed method employs the

Dynamic Relaxation technique temporally and the

Finite Element method spatially. Relevant test data

and PULS and ABAQUS predictions are utilized

to substantiate the developed method. Good agreements were obtained between the predictions.

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and lateral pressure loadings.

REFERENCES

Figure 6. Comparison of predictions by the proposed formulation with those of PULS, ABAQUS and

SPUSA.

using SPUSA, PULS and ABAQUS. Adopting

the generalized Merchant-Rankine formula as

the basis and using the parametric study results, a

robust ultimate strength formulation was derived

for stiffened plates subjected to combined axial

Byklum, E. 2003. ABAQUS analyses of stiffened panel

subjected to combination of shear load, transverse

compression and lateral pressure. Det Norske Veritas,

Report No. 2003-0285.

Chan, A.S.L. & Davis, G.A.O. 1983. A simplified finite

element model for the impact of thin shells. Structures under Shock and Impacts, Proc. 1st Intl Conf on

Structures under Shock and Impact, Bulson, P.S. (Ed),

Elsevier, Amsterdam: 361380.

Cho, S-R. & Song, I-C. 2003. Experimental investigations on the ultimate and post-ultimate strength of

Stiffened plates under axial compression. Jour. of Ship

and Ocean Technology (SOTECH), 7(1): 112.

Cho, S-R., Choi, B-W. & Frieze, P.A. 1998 Ultimate

strength formulation for ships grillages under combined loadings. Proc. 7th Intl Sym. Practical Design

of Ships and Mobile Units (PRADS), Oosterveld,

M.W.C. and Tan, S.G. (Eds), Elsvier, Amsterdam:

125132.

Cho, S-R., Lee, S-B. & Kim, I-W. 1996. Experimental

and theoretical investigations on the collision strength

of plates. Proc. 10th Asian Technical Exchange and

Advisory Meeting on Marine Structures (TEAM X),

Pusan National University, Pusan: 287305.

Day, A.S. 1965. An introduction to dynamic relaxation.

The Engineer, 219: 218221.

Faulkner, D. 1977. Compression tests on welded

eccentrically stiffened plates panels. Steel Plated

Structures, Dowling, P.J. Harding, J.E. and Frieze, P.A.

(Eds), Crosby Lockwood Staples, London: 581617.

Frieze, P.A., Hobbs, R.E. & Dowling, P.J. 1978. Application of dynamic relaxation to the large deflection elasto-plastic analysis of plates. Computers &

Structures, 63 (2): 301310.

Fukumoto, Y., Usami, T. & Okamoto, Y. 1974. Ultimate

compressive strength of stiffened plates. Proc. ASCE

Speciality Conf. on Metal Bridges, St Louis.

Han, D-W. 1999. A study on ultimate strength analysis

technique for ring-stiffened cylinders having initial

shape imperfections. M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. of Naval

Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Univ. of Ulsan

(in Korean).

Kim, S-M. 2001. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the ultimate strength of ring-stiffened cylinders having initial shape and material imperfections.

M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean

Engineering, Univ. of Ulsan (in Korean).

Murray, N.W. 1975. Analysis and design of stiffened

plates for collapse load. Structural Engineer, 53:

153158.

Odland, J. & Faulkner, D. 1981. Buckling of curved steel

structuresdesign formulations. Integrity of Offshore

Structures, Faulkner, D. Cowling, M.J. and Frieze, P.A.

(Eds), Applied Science Publishers, London: 419443.

Yao, T. et al. 2000. Report of ISCC committee VI.2

Ultimate hull girder strength. 2: 321391.

108

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

of aluminum structures

M.D. Collette

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

ABSTRACT: A series of rapid semi-analytical methods for predicting the collapse of aluminum

structures is presented, including methods for tensile and compressive limit states. The methods presented

have been designed to be extensible to a wide range of structural topologies, including both conventional

stiffened-panel topologies and more advanced extrusion topologies. Unlike existing steel ultimate strength

methodologies, particular attention is paid to capturing aluminum-specific response features, such as

alloy-dependent material stress-strain curve shapes and the weakening effect of fusion welds. The methods

are validated against finite element analysis and previously published experimental results.

1

INTRODUCTION

high-speed vessels for commercial and military

applications has created the need for improved

aluminum structural engineering tools. The

increased size of these vessels and their exposed

operating environments has resulted in a corresponding increase in the wave-induced loads on

these vessels. As these vessels become larger and

take on increasingly challenging military missions,

the safety implications of structural failure have

grown as well. To effectively optimize and approve

lightweight structures for such vessels, naval architects require rapid ultimate strength methods for

the 5xxx and 6xxx-series aluminum alloys suitable

for use in the design process.

The industry has developed mature rapid ultimate strength tools for steel vessel structures,

mostly based on Smith (1977) type approaches to

the ultimate collapse strength of hull girders under

global bending loads. In the Smith-type approach,

individual load-shortening and load-extension

curves are derived for the different plates and

stiffened panel elements in the structure, and then

these curves are used to approximate the momentcurvature relation for the hull girder. While there is

reason for concern that aluminum structures may

not fully satisfy the interframe collapse assumption inherent in the Smith method (Benson et al.,

2010), extending the Smith-type collapse approach

is a logical first step in developing ultimate strength

methods for the new generation of aluminum

vessels.

Although there are a large number of mature

rapid load-shortening prediction methods available

steel formulations are unlikely to be sufficient

to support the analysis of aluminum structures.

First among these reasons is the weakening effect

of fusion welding on marine aluminum alloys.

In the heat-affected zone (HAZ) near a weld bead,

the aluminum material is weakened compared to

surrounding material, with reductions in material

proof stress typically between 30% and 50%. This

material inhomogeneity significantly complicates

the structural response; when loaded in tension,

plastic strains tend to localize in the HAZ and final

failure often involve rupture in these HAZ at low

global strains. Likewise, the HAZ may also impact

the compressive strength of the panel.

Another key difference between aluminum and

steel is that aluminum has a much more rounded

stress-strain curve than steel with an elastic modulus only 1/3 that of steel. Furthermore, the degree

of rounding varies by alloy type. The rounded curve

removes a clear yield stress and thus aluminum

alloys are typically rated in terms of their 0.2%

offset proof stress. The 5xxx-series aluminum

alloys also show a marked softening before the

proof stress is reached which reduces the buckling

strength of these alloys as the tangent modulus has

been significantly reduced at stress values below

the proof stress.

A final important difference between aluminum

and steel is that aluminum is easy to extrude, especially in the 6xxx-series. This opens up many different geometric alternatives for stiffened panels

beyond rolled profiles welded to flat plates, such

as hat-shape stiffeners or double-sided extrusions, examples of which are shown in Figure 1.

The ability to employ custom extrusions means

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stiffened panel arrangements in aluminum.

buckling modes of the stiffening shapea check

traditionally performed by the material producer

when rolling compact steel profiles for ships.

This paper presents a series of new methods

for rapidly assessing the tensile and compressive

strength of aluminum structures. Key goals of the

methods are to include alloy specific stress-strain

curve in the formulation, be applicable to a wide

range of extrusion topologies, and to use only rapid

semi-analytical formulations so that the method is

suitable for early-stage design and optimization

approaches. The work performed on compressive

analysis is presented first, including analysis of unstiffened plates and stiffened extruded structures

and panels in compression. This is followed by an

examination of tensile limit states. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future work are

presented.

2

COMPRESSIVE ANALYSIS

extrusions is developed on a plate-separation

model approach, where the response of individual

un-stiffened plate elements is determined initially,

and then the combined properties of assemblies of

plate elements is addressed. In the work to date,

only formulations for uni-axial compression have

been validated and are presented here, although

potential extensions to shear and bi-axial compression are possible at the plate level using existing

interaction equations.

2.1

(1999) extension of Stowells (1948) unified buckling theory. Stowells theory proposes that the uniaxial buckling stress can be expressed as:

Buckle = Elastic

(1)

used to correct for plastic effects in stocky sections.

The classical elastic buckling stress for plates is:

Elasti

l c =k

2E

12 1 2

t

b

taken as 0.3 for aluminum, t is the thickness of the

member, b is the breadth, E is the elastic modulus, and k is the buckling geometry coefficient. For

the flat plates simply-supported on all four edges

investigated in this report, k was taken as 4. The

factor also changes based on plate geometry.

Stowell (1948) proposed the following for simplysupported flat plates:

=

ESEC

E

1 1 1 3 ETAN

2 + 2 4 + 4 E

SEC

modulus of the materials stress-strain curve, thus

capturing the alloy-dependent stress-strain curve.

As both the secant and tangent modulus depend

on the instantaneous stress level, an iterative

approach is required to calculate the buckling stress

via Equation 2 and Equation 3. This approach has

been shown to be reasonably accurate at predicting

the initial buckling stress in both the elastic and

plastic regions; however, it does not include any

post-buckling strength.

Hopperstad et al. (1999) extended Stowells theory so that the entire compressive load-shortening

curve of the plate in compression could be predicted, thus including any post-buckling strength

that may occur. The basis for the approach is

the effective width approach, where the nominal

width of the plate is reduced as buckling occurs to

account for the loss of stiffness and resisting force

associated with buckling. Thus, for any instantaneous average compressive stress, the effective width,

beff, can be found as:

befff

avg

e

(2)

(4)

across the plate and e is the current edge stress,

which is equal to the stress obtained from the

material compressive stress-strain curve at the current value of axial strain.

Hopperstad et al.,s approach fundamentally

assumes that the effective width of the plate once

the edge stress of the plate has surpassed the

initial buckling stress can be found by calculating

the width of the plate that would first buckle at the

current edge stress value. Thus, the stress after

the onset of buckling can be evaluated as:

= Elasti

l c e e

(3)

(5)

the current edge-stress value and the elastic bucking

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with the original plate geometry. The inequality simply enforces an effective breath proportion

equal to or less than one. The ultimate strength of

the plate is now found numerically as the maximum

value on the stress-strain curve. Hopperstad et al.,

presented some promising results for outstands

where one long edge the plate was left free, and

noted that this approach also seems to work well

when compared to simply-supported data, using in

part the Mofflin (1983) plate test results, without

providing details.

The initial proposal by Hopperstad et al., does

not include the impact of initial out-of-plane

deformations (IOOPD), residual stresses, or HAZ

on plate strength. Extensions to include these were

formulated. For IOOPD, a simplified model was

developed to reduce the effective plate thickness

based on the assumptions that: the IOOPD will be

roughly equal to the plate thickness and can be represented by a single parameter and the reduction in

plate ultimate strength is related to the amount of

bending induced by the IOOPD. By investigating a

series of aluminum plates tested by Mofflin (1983)

with various levels of IOOPD, the following formula was developed which showed a good fit to

the Mofflin data:

tefff

M U ET 0.2

t

t 1 k

, with 2 < tefff

M

E

0.2

T U

Mu = utMAX

M 0.2 =

0.2t

6

t (6)

(7)

(8)

0.2 for the Mofflin plate dataset, ET is the tangent

modulus of the material stress-strain curve calculated at that 0.2% proof stress or the ultimate stress

of the plate without considering IOOPD. The

moment from Equation 7 is the moment induced

at the maximum IOOPD by the ultimate stress

u, calculated by Equation 5 without considering

IOOPD, and the moment from Equation 8 is that

required to reach the yield stress at the extreme

fiber of the plate.

With the effective thickness determined from

Equation 8, the load-shortening curve determined

for the un-deformed plates is then corrected by the

ultimate strength of the plate with reduced effective thickness:

IOOP

PERFECT

U _ IOOP

U _ PERFECT

(9)

stiffness observed in plates with large IOOPD.

of the applied loading was included, as were residual stress effects. Residual stresses were modeled

with the familiar tension-block assumption along

the plates edges parallel to the applied load, with

a balancing compressive stress in the mid-region

of the plate. Three different corrections were made

to the load-shortening curve to account for these

impacts. First, the load-shortening curve for the

central part of the plate that was loaded in compression was adjusted at each strain value by adding the elastic strain resulting from the residual

stress and then subtracting off the residual stress

from the resulting stress value:

PLATE _ R ( a ) = PLATE ( a + R ) R

(10)

compressive residual strain, and R is the compressive residual stress. The outer edges of the plate

were then modified in the subsequent two steps.

The tension block was assumed to unloaded elastically at first, and then re-load along the HAZ

material stress-strain curve. The HAZ that extends

outside of the tension block was assumed to follow the HAZ stress-strain curve in compression.

The overall resisting force in the plate was then

assembled by adding the contributions from the

central region, tension block region, and HAZ

region. This approach is only valid for welds parallel to the direction of applied stress. Transverse

welds are also important, however, a simplified

model for these types of welds has not yet been

developed.

Interaction between compressive residual

stresses and IOOPD has been observed in steel

plates, and simply combining the strength reduction from these sources is usually overly conservative (Guedes Soares 1988). A similar situation

was observed in aluminum, and a method for correcting the observed IOOPD in the presence of

residual stresses for a reduced IOOPD for use in

Equation 6 was defined:

IOOP _ REDUCED

l c R

IOOP Elasti

Elasti

l c

(11)

Equation 2, and R is the compressive residual

stress.

2.2

data are available for simply-supported aluminum

plates. The total available database consisted of

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+ 0.002

E

0.2

(12)

measured compressive stress-strain properties.

Using compressive stress-strain properties in place

of tensile stress-strain properties is important for

aluminum, especially for the 5xxx-series alloys in a

work-hardened condition as there may be large differences between the tensile and compressive proof

stress, often exceeding 10%.

The first test program is that of Mofflin

(1983) which tested 76 aluminum plates in uniaxial compression at the University of Cambridge.

The plates were made from 5083 and 6082 alloys.

The 6082 plates were in a TF temper, which

is roughly equivalent to a modern T6 temper,

while the 5083 were in a mill finish condition; a

loose specification used at the time with considerable variability in proof stress. All of the plates were

nominally 6 mm thick, tested at a single aspect

ratio of four to one, and tested with simple supports on the unloaded edges that did not constrain

the plate from pulling in. Initial imperfections were

intentionally induced, although not in the plates

lowest buckling mode, and welds were simulated

along the longitudinal edges by making TIG passes

without depositing weld metal.

The second test program was a series of 6061

and 5456 plates tested under uni-axial compression at the David Taylor Model Basin in the 1960s

(Conley et al., 1963). The 6061 plates were in the T6

temper, while the 5456 plates were tested in the H24

and H321 tempers. Eight un-welded 6061 plates and

16 un-welded 5456 plates were used in the current

comparison. The plates were all 914 mm long, with

widths of 305 mm and 457 mm. The compressive

proof stress of the plates was measured, but the knee

exponent, n, in the Ramberg-Osgood relation was

not measured. For the purposes of the current validation study, it was assumed that the 6061-T6 alloys

had a knee exponent, n, of 25 while both tempers of

the 5456 alloy had an exponent of 16. The experimental program addressed quite slender plates, with

b/t ranging from 48 to 144. IOOPD were noted to

be as-supplied, and believed to be typical of what is

present in the shipyard, but were not measured.

The third and final test program is a series of

aerospace alloy plates tested by NACA (Anderson

and Anderson 1956). While the plates were tested

over a wide range of slenderness, including very

stocky plates, the base material was normally quite

manufacturing residual stresses in these plates may

be different from thicker marine plates. 58 different plate tests are included in the current validation

effort. The plates were primarily of the 7075-T6

alloy, although a smaller number of 2024-T3 and

2014-T6 plates were also included. A compressive

stress strain curve was presented for each alloy. The

plates covered b/t ranges from 15 to 60. The plate

length is not specified, but was selected so at least

five buckles could form in the direction of applied

load. IOOPD are thought to be small.

Initially, only Hopperstad et al.,s extension to

the Stowell theory was compared to the unwelded

plates in the dataset, without corrections for

IOOPD. The results are shown in Figure 2.

Defining the bias of the prediction as the

predicted strength divided by the experimental

strength, the mean bias for the predicted ultimate

strength was 1.03 with a Coefficient Of Variation

(COV) of the bias of 8%. The initial buckling

stress, measured only in the DTMB and NACA

data sets was predicted with a mean bias of 1.03

and COV of 12%. Notably, the bias in the formula

was independent of the alloy type, indicating that

the effect of alloy-dependent material stress-strain

curve has been adequately captured.

IOOPD, residual stresses, and HAZ corrections

were applied progressively to Mofflin plates that

1.5

Perfect Prediction

Mofflin Plates with large IOOP

Mofflin Plates with small IOOP

DTMB Plate-All Alloys

NACA Plates - All Alloys

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Equation 5 against all unwelded plate data.

1.5

study, the well-known Ramberg-Osgood curve

was used to represent the stress-strain curve of the

aluminum alloy:

Perfect Prediction

Stowell, No OOP

Stowell, With OOP

Stowell, With OOP and Weld

1

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

from welding on Mofflin plate test data.

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The results are shown in Figure 3, indicating that

the proposed corrections largely remove the error

arising from these sources.

2.3

distinct from the edge stress, e, used above with a

lower-case e subscript. E is found as:

E =

level, as well as the plate level, so that grillage and

hull-girder collapse modes can be investigated.

Typically, stiffeners and attached plate or extrusion section can be idealized as a column supported by the transverse frames on each end of the

panel. Using this column idealization, an elastic

column buckling parameter, , can be defined for

the stiffened panel roughly analogous to the plate

slenderness parameter depends on the length

of column, l, and the cross-sectional area, A, and

area moment of inertia, I.

b 0.2

t

E

l 0.2

=

,

r E

r=

I

A

(13)

is presented in this section. This is based upon the

classical panel column buckling approach developed and presented by Faulkner et al. (1973) for

steel panels, which was further extended to predict the entire load-shortening curve by Gordo

and Guedes Soares (1993). In this approach, the

strength of a steel plate and stiffener combination

in compression can be determined as:

C CB AS bet

=

Y

Y AS bt

(14)

yield stress of the steel, CB is the column buckling

stress, b is the plate width, be is the effective plate

width at failure, t is the plate thickness, and AS is

the stiffener cross-sectional area. The second term

in this expression assumes that the plate between

stiffeners will buckle before the overall panel fails,

and thus an area reduction factor for this must be

included. In this approach, the column buckling

stress is calculated using the Johnson-Ostenfeld

interaction approach to transition from elastic

buckling to in-elastic buckling as:

CB

1 Y

= 1

, E 0 5Y

Y

4 E

CB E

=

, E < 0 5Y

Y

Y

2

I F

E EEFF

2

AS bet

a

(16)

IEFF is a tangent effective moment of inertia, calculated assuming the plate between stiffeners has a

tangent effective width, be, related to the instantaneous compressive modulus of the plate accounting for its buckling failure. This is different than the

effective width, be, discussed previously. Faulkner

et al., gives formulations so effective width and

tangent effective width can be predicted for plates

within the edge stress range of 75% to 100% of

the plate yield stress. These are determined using

and effective plate slenderness, e that replaces the

proof or yield stress definition in the plate slenderness, , from Equation 13 by the current edge

stress. This approach is conceptually similar to the

Stowell buckling approach presented previously for

plates, except in the Faulkner et al., approach, the

maximum strength obtained by the plate is deterministic, and given when the edge stress reaches

the yield stress of the material.

This approach forms the basis of Gordo and

Guedes Soares (1993) extension to the method over

a wider range of edge stresses. Gordo and Guedes

Soares also extended this method to predict the

entire load-shortening curve of a column in compression by assuming that the approach can be generalized to any strain level. This in turn assumed that

Faulkner et al.,s equations for effective breadth and

tangent effective breadth are valid outside of the

range initially proposed, however the resulting loadshortening curves have proven to be quite accurate.

The conceptual approach taken by Faulkner

et al., and the modifications by Gordo and Guedes

Soares for predicting the entire load-shortening

curve were used as the basis of a load-shortening

curve methodology in the present work. In this

approach, the load-shortening curve accounting

for both plate and column buckling failure modes

was computed as follows.

First, the edge strain at which column failure

occurs was computed using Equation 14. In this

equation, the area term was adjusted for the general extrusion cross-section case where multiple

plating elements may buckle by replacing the area

term at the end of the expression by:

(15)

AEfff ( )

ATotal

, AEfff =

Efff i ( ) Ai

i

M ( ) Ai

(17)

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plate element, 1..i in the cross section calculated by

the plate strength approach given previously, M is

the fully-effective edge stress based on the material stress-strain curve in compression, and A is

the cross-sectional area of each plate element in

the overall cross section. The dependence on the

applied edge strain, , indicates that the area ratio

changes with applied strain. The effective width

and tangent effective width for Equations 1416

are calculated directly from the theoretical definitions of each quantity and the load-shortening

curve determined for each plate element as outlined previously.

This method is then extended to predict the

entire load-shortening curve, following the general

approach of Gordo and Guedes Soares. At strains

below the column failure strain, COL, the net resisting force in the column is calculated by summing

the individual plate load-shortening curves for

each plate element in the panel cross-section.

At strains above the column failure strain, COL,

the net resisting force in the column is determined

by applying Equation 14 at the instantaneous

value of edge strain. This approach gives a rapid

method of determining the load-shortening curve

of aluminum panels and complex extrusions in

compression.

( )

be

( ) = Efff i

b

M ( )

Efff i ( )

M ( )

be

( ) =

b

( )

2.4

(18)

three different experimental programs. The first

was a recent large-scale test program of 5083,

5383 and 6082 alloy panels conducted by Professor Paik and published as Ship Structure Committee report SSC-451 (Paik et al., 2008). These

were conventionally-stiffened panels, with fusion

welded stiffeners. The second test program was a

group of 4 extruded panels in 6082 alloy, tested

at NTNU (Aalberg et al., 2001). These stiffeners were hat shaped hollow extrusions joined

together by friction stir welding to form a 3 or

5-stiffener wide panel, two replicates were tested

at two different overall panel lengths. The final

group consisted of three tee-stiffened panels and

one flat bar panel constructed in the 5083 alloy

and tested in mid 1980s in the United Kingdom (Clarke and Swan 1985) by the Admiralty

Research Establishment (A.R.E.).

Table 1.

method.

Ultimate strengh

Ultimate strain

Experiment

Mean

Cov

Mean

Cov

SSC-451

NTNU Hat

A.R.E.

1.12

1.05

0.97

0.13

0.04

0.20

1.04

0.90

0.81

0.28

0.14

0.20

load-shortening curve, NTNU panel P.

Table 1 below, using the same definition of bias

and covariance as for the plate equations above.

The initially proposed method is slightly optimistic

for the panel ultimate strength, and slightly conservative for the panel ultimate strain. An example

load-shortening curve is given in Figure 4.

In general, it appears that updating the effective width and tangent effective width of plates

post-failure by Equation 17 is overly conservative,

and was causing the reduction in ultimate strain

shown in Table 1 and load-shortening curves that

were too steep in the post ultimate strength region.

Equation 17 reduces the effective properties of the

panel much more quickly than Gordo and Guedes

Soares extension of the Faulkner method.

While the current method does not include stiffener tripping, and should not be used on panels

where stiffener tripping could occur, with further

improvements to Equation 17, it does appear to be a

promising method of predicting the load-shortening

curve of complex extrusions that cannot be idealized as plate-stiffener combinations.

3

TENSILE RESPONSE

approach is the prediction of the response of the

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this is normally assumed to follow the material

stress-strain curve in tension. However, an aluminum vessel will have regular HAZ transverse to the

longitudinal bending stress, from unit and block

joints as well as HAZ from fillet welds joining web

frames to the shell plate. Thus, the tensile stiffness

of an aluminum hull girder depends upon the base

material properties as well as the size and distribution of these HAZ. Previous work has examined

a range of simplified models and compared them

to limited experimental tests with mixed results

(Collette 2007), as well as examining the risk of

fracture in the HAZ as a collapse mode that could

induce hull girder collapse (Collette 2005).

In this work, non-linear finite element analysis

of idealized HAZ in a butt weld, ignoring any

weld metal reinforcement was made as a way of

exploring the distribution of strain under uniform

tensile extension. From such analysis, the required

features of a simplified model were determined.

A picture of the idealization of the weld is shown

in Figure 5. A key to understanding how the HAZ

responds in tension is the concept of constraint.

When loaded in tension, weaker HAZ material

will deform plastically before the surrounding

base material. In isolation the plastic HAZ material would shrink both through the thickness of

the plate and along the length of the weld, but is

prevented from doing so by being fused to the stillelastic base metal. Thus, the base metal constrains

the HAZ and induces a hydrostatic stress state in

the HAZ material which can retard yielding of the

HAZ. The HAZ joint therefore appears stronger

and stiffer than the HAZ material properties determined from small weld or coupon tests without

adequate surrounding material.

The initial study concentrated on 2-D planestrain FEA models built with the ABAQUS

finite-element code. The plane-strain assumption

represents complete constraint along the length of

the weld and addresses constraint in the throughthickness direction only. In ABAQUS, eight-node

CPE8R quadratic elements were used along with

the deformation plasticity model for material

properties. All models used a symmetry boundary

condition at the weld centerline with enforced displacement at the free edge of the weld. Square elements were used with a minimum of eight elements

through the thickness of the plate. The plate was

assumed to be 8 mm thick with an overall width of

125 mm. Within this 125 mm overall width, the relative width of the HAZ, strength of the HAZ, and

shape of the material stress-strain curve were varied parametrically. A sketch of the 2-D FEA model

and boundary conditions is shown in Figure 6.

To evaluate the effect of through-thickness constraint forces, the load-extension curve for 125 mm

Figure 5.

tensile response.

constraint.

allowing the weld HAZ width to vary from 40 mm

to 2 mm (5 times the plate thickness to 0.25 times

the plate thickness). The results from this study are

shown in Figure 7. The HAZ proof strength was

kept as 50% of the base material proof strength

in this study. It appears that the through-thickness

constraint becomes significant only for HAZ

whose width is less than the plate thickness. For

very narrow HAZ, the HAZ strength approaches

that of the base material as the constraint stresses

become quite large. For most fusion welds, the

HAZ width is assumed to be roughly three times

the thickness; based on these result the throughthickness constraint does not need to be included

in the simplified tensile response model.

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of the weld was studied next by removing the

plane-strain assumption of the 2-D model. In a

large stiffened panel, this constraint can likely be

approximated by a plane strain condition on the

HAZ alone, as differential deformations between

the HAZ and base material along the length of

the weld cannot develop. However, such constraint

forces are likely to be missing in small-scale tensile

test specimens typically used to develop material

properties for structural modeling. Thus, a method

of moving from the small-scale measured properties to the response of a larger structure is needed.

To study this effect, the 2-D FEA model shown

in Figure 6 was replaced by a series of 3-D models where the depth of the model out of the plane

Figure 6 was progressively increased. For this

model, 20-node quadratic elements were used with

the same boundary conditions as Figure 6. Based

on this study, it appears that a simple correction

factor, c, accounting for the constraint stresses in

the transverse direction applied to both the uniaxial proof stress and elastic modulus of the HAZ

used in Equation 12 would be adequate to approximate the behavior:

c=

1

1 + 2

1.13

(19)

HAZ material properties, a very simple series

model (Collette 2007) can be proposed for the

load-extension of the HAZ, where the strain,

, in the HAZ material and base material are found

separately by requiring equal stress (and hence net

force) in each material, using Equation 12 with

proof stress and elastic modulus modified by the

c factor computed from Equation 18. These strains

are then combined in proportion to their lengths,

L, to give the overall strain of the joint:

= HAZ H

LHA

HAZ

H

Z + LB

BASE

S

(20)

and the plane-strain 2-D FEA analysis for a 6082

HAZ joint with a HAZ width three times the plate

thickness and varying levels of proof strength in

the HAZ from 50% to 90% of the base strength is

shown in Figure 8. As can be seen from the figure,

the simplified model performs remarkably well

until through-thickness deformations reduce the

cross-sectional area in the HAZ thus reducing the

strength predicted by the FEA model. This simplified model can be used to determine the loadextension curve of the hull girder in the presence

of transverse HAZ.

HAZ width three times plate thickness, HAZ strength

varies from 50% to 90% of base plate strength.

CONCLUSIONS

have been presented for the compressive and tensile response of aluminum welds, plates, and stiffened panels. These models are designed to allow

Smith-type progressive collapse approaches to be

implemented for aluminum vessels. These models

take into account important differences between

aluminum and steel, such as alloy-dependent stressstrain curve shape, weaker material near fusion

welds, and the ability to extrude aluminum into

complex extrusions. In limited comparison of the

results to FEA studies and published experiments

the methods generally perform encouragingly, and

represent a rapid, aluminum-specific approach to

ultimate strength calculations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author would like to acknowledge support of

Dr. Paul Hess at the U.S. Office of Naval Research,

Code 331, who has supported this work through

several different projects and grants, and encouraged its development.

REFERENCES

Aalberg, A., Langseth, M. & Larsen, P. 2001. Stiffened

aluminium panels subjected to axial compression.

Thin-Walled Structures 39:861885.

Anderson, R. & Anderson, M. 1956. Correlation of crippling strength of plate structures with material properties. NACA Technical Note 3600. Washington, DC:

NACA.

Benson, S., Downes, J. & Dow, R. 2010. A semi-analytical

method to predict the ultimate strength and

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In Proceedings 11th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures,

PRADS 2010, Rio de Janeiro: 10911101.

Clarke, J. & Swan, J. 1985. Interframe buckling of aluminium alloy stiffened plating. Admiralty Research

Establishment Dunfermline Report AMTE(S) R85104.

Dunfermline: ARE.

Collette, M. 2005. Strength and reliability of aluminium

stiffened panels. PhD Thesis, School of Marine Science

and Technology. Newcastle: University of Newcastle

upon Tyne.

Collette, M. 2007. Impact of fusion welds on the ultimate

strength of aluminum structures. In Proceedings 10th

International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships

and Other Floating Structures, PRADS 2007, Houston,

Texas: 944952.

Conley, W., Becker, L. & Allnutt, R. 1963. Buckling and

ultimate strength of plating loaded in edge compression progress report 2unstiffened panels. David

Taylor Model Base, Structural Mechanics Laboratory,

R&D Report 1682. West Bethesda, MD: DTMB.

Faulkner, D., Adamchak, J., Snyder, G. & Vetter, M.

1973. Synthesis of welded grillages to withstand compression and normal loads. Computers & Structures 3:

221246.

Gordo, J. & Guedes Soares, C. 1993. Approximate load

shortening curves for stiffened plate under uni-axial

compression. In Proceedings of the 5th International

Conference on the Structural Integrity of Offshore

Structures, Glasgow, UK: 189211.

compressive strength of unstiffened plate elements

with initial imperfections. J. Construct. Steel Research

9: 287310.

Hopperstad, O., Langseth, M. & Tryland, T. 1999. Ultimate strength of aluminum alloy outstands in compression, Thin-Walled Structures 43: 279295.

Mofflin, D. 1983. Plate buckling in steel and aluminum.

PhD Thesis, Trinity College. Cambridge: University of

Cambridge.

Paik, J., Thayamballi, A., Ryu, J., Jang, J., Seo, J.

Park, S., Soe, S., Renaud, C. & Kim, N. 2008.

Mechanical collapse testing on aluminum stiffened

panels for marine applications. Ship Structure Committee Report SSC-451. Washington, DC: Ship Structure Committee.

Smith, C.S. 1977. Influence of local compressive failure

on ultimate longitudinal strength of a ships hull.

In Proceedings International Symposium on Practical

Design in Shipbuilding, PRADS 77, Tokyo: 7379.

Stowell, E.Z. 1948. A unified theory of plastic buckling

of columns and plates, NACA Technical Note 1556.

Washington, DC: NACA.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

for offshore applications

Purnendu K. Das, K.K. Subin & Paul C. Pretheesh

Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde,

Glasgow, UK

ABSTRACT: Advanced design methods and procedures are getting published every now and then from

all corners of the world. But the practicing codes could not always append all the refined or essential

recommendations timely. Stiffened cylinders are one among those structural components. Most of the

offshore floating platform components are made as stiffened cylinders and an improved model in the

design process can affect the total construction cost and schedule to a great extent. Reliability based

design approach is now seems to be advantageous over the deterministic type of structural designing

process as it addresses uncertainties in the design variables and leads to consistent level of safety. The Reliability based approach still needs a robust strength model to predict the capacity with respect to random

design variables. Numerical analysis methods are suitable for this purpose but the time and effort involved

are quite high and hence a robust analytical approach is preferred for reliability analysis. DNV and API

are the most widely used design codes which offer strength models for stiffened cylindrical shell under

different loading conditions. This paper establishes a strength model for ring, stringer and orthogonally

stiffened cylindrical shells which is actually a modified version of a strength model proposed earlier. The

proposed model shows better agreement with the experimental results compared to the practicing DNV

and API design codes. The model uncertainty factor and the strength model can be utilised for the reliability analysis of similar structures.

1

INTRODUCTION

components in offshore engineering world.

Researchers from the last century (Thimoshenko

and Gere (1961), Windenburg and Trilling (1934),

Von Mises (1929) etc.) rigorously investigated

the underlying mechanisms of this category of

structures and predicted the structural behaviour

under various loading conditions. Many of these

closed form relations in terms of the basic geometrical and material design parameters predicts

the behaviour reasonably accurate. The revolutionary developments in the computing realm within

the last century increased the power of numerical

analysis to a great extent that it can predict results

so close to the reality. It has the capability to analyse

the structures with all its geometrical and material

complexities under static or dynamic loading situation with prevailing environmental conditions.

It can even perform coupled type of analysis to

combine various physical phenomenons such as

mechanical, thermal, electrical etc.

The modern design approaches consider structural reliability as one of the essential criteria to

be satisfied for structural integrity. The design

optimisation with reliability based approaches need

a tool to predict the structural capacity very accurately. Hence the strength analysis of structures

with a higher degree of accuracy is quite important

and crucial in the overall design process. Numerical analysis tools calibrated with reasonable model

uncertainty factor are absolutely suitable for this

purpose.

The structural reliability analysis needs to do

the capacity assessment of the structure numerous

times with variations in the design parameters

to evaluate the structural reliability. Although

the numerical methods can be used for reliability

analysis, the time and expense involved is quite

high. It further demands great effort and expertise for acceptable results. Considering the above

facts, an analytical approach in terms of basic

structural design parameters to predict the structural capacity is more suitable for the reliability

analysis. Moreover, a component level reliability

assessment for a huge structure with number of

local structural parts at a preliminary design stage

cannot afford much time and expense. The necessity of a good analytical strength model for initial design process is hence very important at this

instance.

There are various rule based design codes

available for the assessment of structural capac-

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ity of stiffened cylindrical structures under different loading conditions. DNV-RP-C202 and API

BUL 2U are two of the major industry recommended codes in practice. This paper proposes a

formulation for the strength assessment of ring

stiffened and ring-stringer stiffened cylinders. The

codes and the proposed formulation are compared

statistically with respect to mean and COV of a

large population of screened test data collected

over the years.

2

BUCKLING OF STIFFENED

CYLINDERS

important structural components in buoyant

semi-submersible and Tension leg type offshore

platforms. The legs of these structures are generally and most likely made of stiffened cylinders

because of its inherent capability to resist high

axial loads and bending moments with lateral pressure loads.

The stiffened cylinders are classified as ring stiffened, stringer stiffened and ring-stringer stiffened

cylinders which is also known as orthogonally stiffened cylinders. Ring stiffened cylinders are made

of fabricated cylinder with ring frames welded

externally or internally at wide spacing. Stringer

stiffened cylinders will have equally spaced longitudinal stiffeners known as stringers welded internally or externally around the fabricated cylinder

throughout the length. Orthogonally stiffened cylinders will have both of these stiffeners. The stiffeners can be of many types like flat bar, angle bar

and T bar etc. The structure is fabricated by butt

welding process from cold or hot-formed plates so

that the structural continuity of the stiffeners and

the cylinder is established. The welding introduces

geometrical distortion and residual stresses in the

structure in addition to the pre-fabrication and

mechanical handling imperfections. The strength of

the structure is mainly dependent on the basic geometrical and material structural design parameters.

At certain ideal conditions, the strength prediction

considering the basic structural parameters could

be reasonably accurate. But this approach never

can represent any real life situation. It involves a

lot of known and unknown parameters which

potentially governs the structural behaviour. Some

of them are the effect of geometrical imperfections,

residual stresses, type and direction of stiffeners

(whether internal or external) etc. The contribution of these parameters on the structural behaviour at different loading and support conditions

will be surprisingly different.

Basically the stiffened cylinder structure

can buckle and eventually fail in two ways.

cylinders.

of the curvature locally at certain combination of

axial loads and the successive bending moments

and results in a total failure as there is no chance

of moment redistribution. Other failure type is

the classical type of bifurcation buckling. Various

local and overall buckling modes of stiffened cylinders are shown in Figure 1.

3

ANALYTICAL STRENGTH

MODELLING

model should predict the strength of the structure

accurately under the imposed loading and support

conditions. As mentioned earlier, because of the

assumptions and approximations considered in

the analytical relations along with the unaccounted

factors, there always remain a certain percentage

of error in the structural strength prediction. So

a strength model can be rated based on the deviation from the experimental results. The best way

to quantify this uncertainty is with the modelling

parameter i.e., ratio of experimental value and

the theoretically predicted value. This modelling

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factor Xm. In structural reliability analysis, the

model uncertainty factor is incorporated in the

failure surface equation as follows

1; Zl 2.85

C = 1.425 + 0.175

75; Zl < 2.85

Zl

Z = XmRS

04

0 003Zl 1

;

0.75 0.142(Zl 1)

300t

n = 1 Zl < 20

R

0

; Zl 20

0.35 0.0003

t

with strength R S is the load and Z is the g(.)

function in the first order Second order reliability analysis. Z represents the safety margin in the

structural component.

Xm can be calculated for various theoretical

strength models comparing with the experimental

data. A good analytical strength model will have

mean of Xm tends to unity and the coefficient of

variation will be small. The strength models can be

compared based on these values for different loading cases as axial, radial and combined.

The design strength of the ring stiffened cylinders under axial, radial and combined loading are

computed based on the limit state approach. This

formulation focuses on the shell collapse between

ring stiffeners. The recommended formulation is

similar the one suggested earlier, Das et al. (2003)

with some modification on the knockdown factors

so that the experimental results are getting closer

to the prediction.

Under axial compression

The limit state approach estimate the elastic buckling strength of a ring stiffened cylinder subjected

to axial compression as,

where

Zl =

n =

1

(1 + e4 )

e =

load,

Xm =

4.2

For hydrostatic pressure, the proposed formulation, Faulkner et al. (1983) is identical with the

approach in BS5500. The inelastic hydrostatic collapse pressure is estimated as,

0.5 phm ; py phm

py

phc =

py 1 0.5 p ; py < phm

hm

where

elastic hydrostatic buckling pressure of an unsupported cylinder is as follows.

Et

Et

= 0.605 ,

2 R

R

3(1 )

Timoshenko & Gere, (1961)

1.3

1 + 0.3 n n 1

used to predict the inelastic collapse stress.

c = y

e = BnCcr

cr =

STIFFENED SHELLS

4.1

B=

buckling

stress,

phm

L2

1 2

Rt

Et

R

=

2

1 R

n2 1 +

2 L

2

2

2

1

t2

R

+

n 1 +

2

2

2

L

2 L 2 12R 1

n + 1

nC cr

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simplified expression as follows.

1

( )( +

phhm =

phm

t

R

4.3

t

R

prm =

L

0.636

Rt

The above expression does not provide satisfactory results for too small or too large values

of L / Rt . The above expression assumes pinned

boundary condition at the supported cylinder end.

Even though more advanced analytical expressions

are available, the above expression is widely used

because of the simplicity and the parameter Phm

has low influence in the prediction of inelastic collapse pressure.

Wilson (1966), proposed relatively simple linear

equation for the circumferential yield stress of the

cylindrical shell.

t

y

R

py =

1 G

R

Ar

Rcr

pressure load,

4.4

G=

and radial pressure

p

+ p = 1

c

rc

cosh ( L ) cos ( L )

N=

,

sinh ( L ) sii ( L )

p

prc

Most of the design codes handle the combined loading based on an interaction approach. The general

interaction expression is in the following form.

1.285

Rt

2 sinh

R

t

1 0.5 phm

e

py

prc =

py 1 0.5 p ; py < prm

rm

Xm =

J 1

2

=

2 Nt

J + trht +

phm

pressure load is computed similar to the hydrostatic case as below.

where,

and radial pressure load, the proposed model predicts the elastic radial collapse pressure as follows.

L

0.636

Rt

0.919E

=

p

phc

Xm =

L

L

L L

cos

+ cosh

siin

2

2

2 2

sinh (

si ( )

) + sin

L, i.e., which cannot be expressed in terms of

algebraic operations or satisfy a polynomial

equation.

The Model uncertainty factor for the hydrostatic

pressure load,

criteria for the structure stability under combined

loading. Hence, there exist a number of loading combinations which can cause the collapse

of the structure. Eventually, the above expression

provides the model uncertainty factor for combined loads at which a structural collapse occurs.

The best results with the available data is noticed

with m = 1 and n = 2.

Therefore,

p

Xm = +

c prc

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MARSTRUCT.indb 122

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AND STRINGER STIFFENED SHELLS

5.1

of the ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under

axial, radial and combined loading. It is basically

RCC formulation with a revised value for the bias

of knockdown factor.

The steps to calculate the axial strength are as

follows.

i. The elastic buckling stress for perfect shell under

curved panel formulation,

cr

2

1

s

Kr =

2 (

t

1; r < 0.53

) (

; r 0.53

Shell effective width,

1.05 0.28

sem

2 K r ; r 0.53

= r

r

s

1; < 0.53

r

Shell reduced effective width,

3Z 2

t

0.904 E 4 + 4s ; Zs 11.4

s

=

0.605E t ; Z > 11.4

s

0.53

sem

K ; 0.53

= r r r

s

1; < 0.53

r

viii. MI of stringer and the reduced effective width

of the shell

s2

1 2

Rt

Zs =

3

As dcs + .5t )2 sem

t

+

As

12

1+

semt

I e

1 25

0 0024Zs 1

;

1 0.919Zs

300t

Z 11.4

n = s

1.5 27

R

0.27 +

+

+ 0.008 Zs 1

;

300t

Zs Zs2

11.4

70

s

the sum of column elastic stress considering

the effective shell width and product of critical stress for smeared un-stiffened shell and

shell knock down factor. The shell knockdown

factor is assumed to be 0.75

t

0.605E R

2 EI e

e = 2

+ s

L ( As + semt )

1 + As

st

B=

n =

1.6; n > 1

1 + 0.6 n n 1

n cr

=

e

y

to find inelastic stress.

es = Bncr

v. Shell reduced slenderness parameter,

r =

Is +

ps ( ps )

1

y ps

c =

<

p

y

s

y

es

using the width of the tension block . For

continuous structural fillet welds, = 4.5. For

light fillets or for significant shake down situation,

= 3. For stress relieved structures, = 0.

ps =

pps

y

The structural proportional limit ps is 0.75

for stress relieved structures and 0.5 for all other

cases.

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2/18/2011 5:42:57 PM

and revised effective shell width

where

Effective pressure correction factor,

c

es

= r

es

y

re =

0.85

Kp =

0.12

0.98 +

g 500 < g < 2500

500

1.05 0.28

se

2 K r ; re

re 0.53

=

re

s re

1; re < 0.53

g=

A

c s

A

5.2

K L =

L

Ht

, Cp =

R

Rt

1; M x 3.42

1 ; M x < 3.42

Let

1 +

< 3.42

N

N

N

2 R

R

Ar

Rcr

1 56 Rtt

twr L

pressure load,

H = Mx 1.17 + 1.068k1 (k1 = 0 for radial pressure and 0.5 for hydrostatic pressure)

ii. Plastic collapse pressure of stiffener shell

combination

K L

N = p(R + 0.5t)

Le

t)

t

N =

where

16

pcs = 2 As dcs y

sL

L

k2 =

1.27 t 2

1.18

E ; M x 1.5; H < 2.5

+ 0.5 R

H

0.92 t 2

R

E ; 2.5 < H < 0.208

R

t

A

=

3

t

0.836C 11.061E ; 0.208 < C < 2.85

p

p

3

0.275E t ;C > 2.85

p

(R

1; x 1.26

0; x 3.42

Mx =

=p

where

The proposed strength formulation for radial pressure is according to API Bul 2U with some changes

in the effective pressure correction factor.

The steps to calculate the axial strength are as

follows.

i. Local buckling pressure of un-stiffened shell

peL

s

Rt

set

st

load,

Xm =

M x M LtAs

, M =

Is

Xm =

5.3

p

pcB

and radial pressure

The proposed interaction equation for the combined axial and radial loads is similar to the

API Bul 2U with a different definition for the

factor Cc.

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2/18/2011 5:43:02 PM

R/t (15529),

s/t (29132),

Zs (434),

Zl (1.51550),

L/R (0.075.82)

Rx

R

+ Cc Rx R + = 1

x

In which,

Cc =

)2 (

)2

where

Rx =

R =

p (R +

t y

x =

u

y

cB

y

t)

characterises the limiting structural stability criteria, it represents the model uncertainty factor of

the structure for the combined loading condition.

The model uncertainty factor for combined

loading is,

2

R

R

X m = x + Cc Rx R +

x

6

EXPERIMENTAL DATA

wide literature survey over the last century. It is

observed that majority of the experimental works

on stiffened cylinders are being undertaken during

1960s to 1980s and there is not much experimental works available recently as the researches are

comfortable with the numerical results with the

increased capabilities and accuracy. In this paper,

only the valid experimental data collected from

the documentation mentioned in the references

are considered. The data collected from various

technical documents mentioned in the reference

are subjected to critical examination to avoid any

unreliable data. The data collected can be classified

based on various factors like geometrical properties, material properties, Method of production,

Test conditions etc. The proposed formulation

considered here is applicable to structures with

parameters of the following range.

The data collected are carefully arranged and tabulated with all the necessary inputs for the code

based design. The data is then pushed through the

analytical relations of DNV, API and the Recommended Models for stiffened cylinders. The strength

predicted by each of the models is then compared

with the experimental results to evaluate the model

uncertainty factor for each set of data. The mean

and COV of the model uncertainty factor is then

computed for each codes for ring stiffened and ringstringer stiffened cases based on three loading conditions, axial, radial and combined. The predicted

and experimental strength are then represented in

a graphical form which is normalised in terms of

yield strength. For combined loading cases, the

model uncertainty is plotted against L/R ratio as it

is not straight forward to represent the strength.

7.1

against the local shell buckling which is the dominant failure mode in this type of structures. Other

modes of failure and its interactions also have been

taken into account.

7.1.1 Under axial compression

Table 1 shows the statistical results of the ring stiffened cylinders under axial compression for a population of 40 for DNV, API and the recommended

strength model. Figure 2 to Figure 4 shows the

comparison of predicted and experimental data

for the different approaches. The strength prediction of the recommended model is more accurate

compared to the other two approaches in terms of

its statistical measures. Figure 4 shows the spread

of the results about its mean line which is having

a better bias to the unity with low COV and it is

evident visually also.

Table 1. Statistical results of ring stiffened cylinder

under axial loading.

Mean

COV

Population 40

DNV

API

Recommended

model

1.28

17.94%

1.15

11.84%

1.05

10.01%

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Table 2 shows the statistical results of the ring stiffened cylinders under Radial pressure for a population of 65 for DNV, API and the recommended

strength model. Figure 5 to Figure 7 shows the

1.00

- Test

0.80

0.60

under radial loading.

0.40

Mean - 1.28

COV - 17.94%

0.20

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

Mean

COV

Population 65

1.00

- Predicted

DNV

API

Recommended

model

0.98

19.43%

1.35

19.09%

1.01

17.51%

stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

1.50

1.25

1.00

1.00

- Test

- Test

0.80

0.60

0.75

0.50

0.40

Mean - 1.15

COV - 11.84%

0.25

0.20

Mean - 0.98

COV - 19.43%

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

0.50

1.00

1.50

- Predicted

1.00

- Predicted

Figure 3. API prediction and test results of ring stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

cylinders under radial pressure.

1.50

1.00

1.25

1.00

- Test

- Test

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.50

Mean - 1.05

COV - 10.01%

0.25

0.20

0.00

0.00

0.75

Mean - 1.35

COV - 19.09%

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

0.00

1.00

- Predicted

0.50

1.00

1.50

- Predicted

results of ring stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

cylinders under radial pressure.

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under combined loading.

1.50

1.25

- Test

1.00

Mean

COV

Population 25

0.75

DNV

API

Recommended

model

1.45

20.79%

1.10

21.86%

1.16

17.02%

0.50

2.50

0.25

Mean - 1.01

COV - 17.51%

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

- Predicted

Xm

1.50

results of ring stiffened cylinders under radial pressure.

1.00

0.50

for the different approaches. The average and

spread of the population is much better for the

recommended model. The recommended model

shows better central tendency compared to the

other two approaches.

Under combined axial compression

and radial pressure

Table 3 shows the statistical results of the ring

stiffened cylinders under combined axial compression and Radial pressure for a population of

25 for DNV, API and the recommended strength

model. Figure 8 to Figure 10 shows the comparison of predicted and experimental data for the

different approaches. Here the mean of the modelling parameter for the recommended model

is slightly high compared to API model, but the

COV is pretty low compared to that approach.

It confirms that the recommended approach is

more stable in the prediction of strength than the

other models.

0.00

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

5.00

stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

Mean - 1.10

COV - 21.86%

0.20

7.2

4.00

L/R

Xm

7.1.3

Mean - 1.45

COV - 20.79%

0.00

stiffened cylinders are considered in one category

as the analysis is considering the effect of ring stiffeners with the ring stiffener spacing and its geometrical and material parameters.

7.2.1 Under axial compression

Table 4 shows the statistical results of the ring and

stringer stiffened cylinders under Axial compression for a population of 32 for DNV, API and

the recommended strength model. Figure 11 to

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

L/R

stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

experimental data for the different approaches.

The recommended model predicts the strength

almost similar to that of the API model and which

is better when compared to DNV model.

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2/18/2011 5:43:12 PM

1.80

1.40

1.60

1.20

1.40

1.00

1.00

- Test

Xm

1.20

0.80

0.80

0.60

0.60

0.40

0.40

Mean - 1.16

COV - 17.02%

0.20

Mean - 1.06

COV- 14.92%

0.20

0.00

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

0.00

L/R

0.00

test results of ring stiffened cylinders under combined

loading.

Recommended

model

1.00

23.18%

1.06

14.92%

1.00

14.99%

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

stringer stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

1.40

1.20

1.00

- Test

Mean

COV

Population 32

API

0.40

- Predicted

stiffened cylinder under axial loading.

DNV

0.20

1.40

0.80

0.60

0.40

1.20

Mean - 1.00

COV - 14.99%

0.20

1.00

- Test

0.00

0.00

0.80

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

- Predicted

0.60

results of ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under axial

compression.

0.40

Mean - 1.00

COV - 23.18%

0.20

stiffened cylinder under radial pressure.

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

- Predicted

stringer stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

Table 5 shows the statistical results of the ring

and stringer stiffened cylinders under Radial

pressure for a population of 9 for DNV, API and

the recommended strength model. Figure 14 to

Figure 16 shows the comparison of predicted and

Mean

COV

Population 9

DNV

API

Recommended

model

1.33

47.38%

1.12

21.54%

1.06

18.38%

recommended model has low bias and low COV

compared to the other two models.

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radial pressure

Table 6 shows the statistical results of the ring and

stringer stiffened cylinders under combined Axial

compression and Radial pressure for a population of 25 for DNV, API and the recommended

strength model. Figure 17 to Figure 19 shows the

1.00

- Test

0.75

0.50

Mean - 1.33

COV - 47.38%

0.25

stiffened cylinder under combined loading.

0.00

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

DNV

API

Recommended

model

1.84

43.82%

1.33

22.19%

1.26

20.12%

1.00

Mean

COV

Population 25

- Predicted

stringer stiffened cylinders under radial pressure.

4.00

1.00

Mean - 1.84

3.50

COV - 43.82%

3.00

0.75

Xm

- Test

2.50

0.50

1.50

Mean - 1.12

COV - 21.54%

0.25

2.00

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

0.00

1.00

0.00

- Predicted

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

L/R

stringer stiffened cylinders under radial pressure.

stringer stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

1.80

1.00

1.60

1.40

1.20

Xm

- Test

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.80

Mean - 1.06

COV - 18.38%

0.25

0.60

Mean - 1.33

COV - 22.19%

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

0.00

- Predicted

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

L/R

results of ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under

radial pressure.

stringer stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

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1.80

1.60

1.40

Xm

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

Mean - 1.26

COV - 20.12%

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

L/R

results of ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

the different approaches. The recommended model

is showing low bias and COV compared to DNV

and API models.

8

CONCLUSIONS

the fact that the recommended model predicts the

structural capacity more accurately in most of

the individual cases compared to API and DNV

codes.

The statistical parameters of the analysis show

that the recommended model is more stable in

predicting the strength of the stiffened cylinders

compared to the DNV and API codes.

The experimental data available for the radial

pressure load cases for ring-stringer stiffened cylinders are very low and it is required to do further

investigation to acquire more data.

The design equations and the model uncertainty

factors derived in this paper is suitable for reliability analysis and evaluating the partial safety factors

for similar structures.

REFERENCES

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Carl, T.F., Ross, J.R. & Sadler. (2000), Inelastic shell

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Das, P.K., Faulkner, D. & Zimmer, R.A. (June 1992),

Selection of Robust Strength Models for Efficient

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Das, P.K., Frieze, P.A. & Faulkner, D. (1984), Structural

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Das, P.K., Thavalingam, A., Hauch, S. & Bai, Y. (June

2001), A New Look at the Model Uncertainty of

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Janeiro, Brazil.

Das, P.K., Zanic, V. & Faulkner, D. (May 1993),

Reliability Based Design Procedure of Stiffened Cylinders Using Multiple Criteria Optimisation Techniques, Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) 93,

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Faulkner, D., Chen, Y.N. & De Oliveira, J.G. (June 1983),

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Faulkner, D., Guedes Soares, C. & Warwick, D.M.

(1988), Modelling requirements for structural design

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Frieze, P.A., Das, P.K. & Faulkner, D. (1983), Partial

safety factors for stringer stiffened cylinders under

extreme compressive loads, PRADS 83, The 2nd

International Symposium on Practical Design in Ship

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Kendrick, S.B. (March 1955), Analysis of results of

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

laminates

M. Gaiotti & C.M. Rizzo

DINAEL, Faculty of Engineering, University of Genova, Italy

Ris National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

ABSTRACT: The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem

to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i.e., delaminations, which may affect the stiffness and stability of structural components. Especially deep delaminations

in the mid surface of laminates are expected to reduce the effective flexural stiffness and lead to collapse,

often due to buckling behaviour. This paper deals with the numerical modelling of the buckling strength

of composite laminates containing delaminations. Namely, non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses are carried out to predict the critical buckling load of elementary composite laminates affected by

rectangular delaminations of different sizes and locations, which are modelled by finite elements using

different techniques. Results obtained with different finite element models are compared and discussed.

1

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Delaminations in multilayer laminates

defined as an area with lack of bonding between

two adjacent layers. This can originates either in

the manufacturing process or from damage during

production, transport or service. Typical damage

that gives origin to delamination is impact, but also

stresses concentrations around structural discontinuities and three dimensional stress conditions on

free edges may cause the initiation and growth of

the delaminations. Delaminations may also be generated in the composite laminating process due to

lack of impregnability of the fibers, or to thermal

and chemical shrinkage of composite components

during the matrix polymerization (Bolotin 1996).

Delamination is usually the most critical type

of damage that composite and sandwich structure

experience under compressive loads (Abrate 1991,

Pavier & Clarke 1995).

When a delaminated panel is subjected to a

compressive in plane load then, depending on

delamination size and position, different behavior

can be observed; as expected, after a critical load

limit is reached, the panel starts buckling but the

mode in which the panel buckles has an important

influence onto the panel failure load. Typically

two different conditions are expected: global mode

of the delamination moves to the same side, and

local mode buckling where the sub laminates move

towards opposite direction. As observed by Peck &

Springer (1991) and by Pavier & Clarke (1995),

when local buckling occurs, it introduces bending

in the plies on the other side of the delamination so

that they are subjected to both bending and compressive stress resulting in a reduced failure load.

Much numerical and experimental work has

already been carried out to define the ultimate

strength of delaminated panel; in particular

Srensen et al. (2009) and Srensen et al. (2010)

from Ris DTU have conducted a sensitivity analysis using a 3D solid element model to evaluate

the critical non linear buckling load of flat panels

made of unidirectional layers.

1.2

approaches of delaminated multilayer composite

laminates: the former one, applied in Ris DTU,

adopts 3D 20-node orthotropic solid elements

with 3 Degrees Of Freedom (DOF) per node and

uses two or three elements through the thickness,

depending on the through thickness position of the

delamination, and the latter one, developed by the

University of Genoa, adopts shell elements with

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by off-setting two shells in the delaminated area

and by connecting them to the non delaminated

region (modeled by one shell only) through rigid

links, as better described in the following.

Results are in both cases presented as a map of

the deduction factor on the critical load that the

delamination introduces in the panel with respect

to a non delaminated plate, depending on delamination size and depth.

2

2.1

DIFFERENT MODELLING

APPROACHES

Material properties and specimen geometry

laboratory is used in this work, see Hansen et al.

(2009):

E11 = 46.5 GPa

E22 = 13.4 GPa

G23 = 2.6 GPa

12 = 0.25

23 = 0.25

The plate taken into account for the numerical analysis is rectangular with an aspect ratio

A/B = 1.36 where A is the length of the edge along

the load direction, having the same orientation

of the fibers, i.e., direction 1. See Fig. 1 for size

definitions.

The selected aspect ratio is obtained considering

the critical buckling load evaluated according to

the analytical formulation proposed by Bisagni &

Vescovini (2008):

N0 ( m,11) = F A, B, Dij

m

= 2 D11 + 2 ( D12

A

2

1 A

+ D22 4

B m

2 D66 )

1

B2

(1)

matrix obtained by the Classic Laminate Theory

(CLT). First buckling mode (n = 1) is considered

since it always gives the minimum value.

In facts, by calculating the first derivative with

respect to m and equaling the right side of Eq. 1

to 0 gives:

D m

dN

N0 ( m,1)

= 2 2 112

dm

A

1

D22 A2

=0

B 4 m3

1

A D 4

A D 4

m = 22 ; if

i m = 1 => = 11

B D11

B D22

(2)

t

Figure 1.

geometry.

ratio of the panel a/b = 1.36; where a, b are the edges

of the rectangular delaminated area (Fig. 1).

2.2

with 20-node orthotropic elements. Two or three

elements were used through the thickness depending on the through thickness position of the delamination in the Abaqus finite element software

(SIMULIA, 2009).

A small out-of-plane displacement corresponding

to the first buckling mode shape was appropriately

applied as an initial imperfection of the delaminated

sub-laminate. The amplitude of the initial imperfections was approximately 0.5% of the panel thickness for the flat panels and approximately 0.5% of

the panel thickness for the curved panels.

The elements were all joined in the interfaces,

except for the delaminated area where quadratic

contact conditions were applied to prevent penetration. The average number of degrees of freedom

(DOFs) was approximately 150.000. Nonlinear

geometric analyses were conducted with minimum

100 increments to ensure that a well described and

smooth graph could be made for in-plane force vs.

out-of-plane displacement. An explicit solution algorithm was adopted to avoid convergence problems.

2.3

defined by a single shell surface for the intact path

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intact and delaminated path.

delaminated layers.

surface representing one side of the delamination,

as shown in Fig. 2.

The middle plane of the model is defined

at the half thickness of the physical plate, and on

this plane shell elements are meshed to describe

the intact part of the model. The two sides of the

delamination are modeled onto two surfaces, offset

above and below the middle plane.

The offset h1 and h2 are defined as:

h1

1

t

T

2

2

h2

1

(T t )

4

(3)

where T is the intact laminate thickness; t sub laminates thicknesses in the delaminated area as shown

in Fig. 1.

The nodes along the edge of the delamination

are coupled to the nodes on the main surface by a

rigid link constraint, where the master node is the

node lying on the edge of the intact middle plane

and the nodes on both sub laminates edges are its

slave.

A 9-nodes shell elements mesh has been generated on the surfaces, for a total number of about

4800 elements; the element type is the MITC9 as

suggested by Buncalem & Bathe (1993), and Bathe

et al. (2000), to prevent element locking problems

for thin laminates.

Element locking is, as widely discussed in related

literature, the phenomenon of an element being

much too stiff compared with reality: in essence,

the phenomenon arises because the interpolation

functions used for an element are not able to represent zero (or very small) shearing or membrane

strains. If the element cannot represent zero shearing strains, but the physical situation corresponds

to zero (or very small) shearing strains, then the

element becomes very stiff as its thickness over

length ratio decreases. (see e.g., ADINA, 2008).

In the considered problem the MITC9 use is

justified when modeling delaminations very close

sub-laminates is very small if compared to other

dimensions.

To prevent penetrations between the surfaces

defining the sub laminates in the delaminated area,

a contact algorithm has been taken into account.

Similarly to the solid models, small out-of-plane

displacement field derived from a preliminary linear buckling analysis was appropriately applied to

trigger buckling in the non-linear analysis, as suggested in ADINA (2008).

The panel is considered simply supported on

all its edges; a distributed compressive line load is

applied on the short edges.

The analysis is performed applying a fixed inplane displacement, in 120 identical load steps to

ensure a resulting smooth curve, then plotting the

corresponding in plane force reactions.

3

THE BUCKLING LOAD

(2009, 2010) has been adopted to define the buckling critical load in both modeling approaches: this

method consists in the analysis of the in-plane displacements vs. in-plane load curve obtained from a

non linear static finite element model having the initial imperfections obtained by a preliminary linear

eigenvalue analysis performed on the same model.

The first part of the curve (in the criterion up to

the 30% of critical load) is linear: the criterion consists in the prolongation of the linear curve along

the in-plane displacements axis; the new curve

is then shifted down by a quantity equal to 2.5%

of the linearized critical load; eventually, the point

where the down-shifted linear curve meet the nonlinear curve defines the non linear buckling load

(Fig. 4).

Due to the weak non linearity observed in the

early loading history, in particular for cases where

local buckling occurs, instead of considering the

2.5% of the linearized buckling load of each model,

the offset calculated for the non delaminated case

has been taken into account and used for all the

other models considered.

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element finite element model.

Figure 4. Robust method to define buckling load in

non linear analysis.

surface delaminated models.

underestimating the critical load for those models

with delaminations very close to the surface of the

panel, see Fig. 5.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR 3D SOLID

MODELS

1

compression can buckle in local or global modes as

described in the introduction. A typical local buckling mode is shown in Fig. 6 for solid models.

However, results from the 3D solid models also

show that combinations of the global and local

modes can appear as so-called combined modes

or sub-modes. The sub-modes are found to appear

for special combination of delamination size and

through thickness position. In these studies five

different mode types have been observed.

These modes are illustrated in Fig. 7, where the

relation between the out-of-plane displacement at

the centre of the two delaminated sub-laminates

are plotted.

The different modes can be shown in a buckling mode map in a similar manner as reported

by Short et al. (2001) where only local and global

modes were considered.

The buckling map shown in Fig. 8 is divided

into the following 3 areas:

Figure 7. Delamination modes shown with the corresponding central out-of-plane displacement for the two

delaminated sub-laminates.

FE Global

FE Local

FE Global/Local I

FE Global/Local II

Global limit

Submode limit

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Non dimensional through thickness position, t/T

0.5

fiber composite laminate from solid model FE analyses.

Global buckling, occurring for small and deep

delaminations,

Sub-mode, occurring for large and deep

delaminations.

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5

5.1

5.2

RESULTS

Buckling modes for deep delaminations

placed in the mid thickness of the laminate, i.e.,

t/T = 0.5.

Under these condition, relatively small delaminations evolve into a mode 1 buckling shape; as

soon as the delamination size grows, a progressive transition from mode 1 to mode 2 is observed

when increasing the in-plane load; thereafter a pure

buckling mode 2 occurs when the delamination is

relatively larger. Fig. 9 shows an example.

This fact is rather unexpected since the model

has been designed, in agreement with the analytical formulation proposed by Bisagni & Vescovini

(2008), having an aspect ratio supposed to induce a

mode 1 buckling shape, i.e., a single half wave onto

the plate length. However, the above mentioned

analytical formulation applies to perfect rectangular plates and does not account for the effects

introduced by the delamination.

The different buckling mode does not affect the

load displacements curve, which appear smooth

for any considered delamination size.

The critical buckling load dependency on the

delamination size is easily observed from Fig. 10,

where it is also evident, as expected, that the delamination does not have any effect on the panel

stiffness until the panel starts buckling, thus introducing non linearities in the problem at this point.

right) obtained increasing the delamination size in shell

models.

Figure 10. Load displacements curves for panels presenting deep delaminations, for different delamination

sizes.

towards the surface

Considering the panel having t/T = 0.4, an unexpected behavior was observed: when the delamination size is b/B = 0.5, a drop in the in-plane

load is observed when increasing the in-plane

displacement.

Such behavior is attributed to the instability of

the model, see Fig. 11. The physical reason seems

to lie in the buckling mode suddenly shifting from

local to global, with an abrupt out of plane displacement of the thickest laminate, after remaining plane in the first part of the loading history.

This behaviour could explain some instant collapses observed during experimental tests being

conducted in Ris DTU National Laboratories.

5.3

close to the laminate surface

When the delamination is very close to the surface of the laminate, the thinnest sub-laminates

buckles in a very early stage of the loading history,

introducing a rather weak non linearity in the system. The obtained curves therefore differ from the

intact plate curve in practice since the beginning of

the calculation, and do not show a sudden steepness change when buckling begins.

This fact makes a buckling criterion definition

quite hard since the used offset-based robust criterion does not fit very well with a weak non linear

behavior of the curve without sudden changes in

the first derivative, as shown in Fig. 5. For this reason the same offset distance of the intact model

has been taken into account for all the geometrical

conditions considered.

In Fig. 12 the typical behavior of panels buckling in local mode is presented; it is also worth noting that local modes start from a delamination size

b/B > 0.4: the mode is still global with a rapid change

in steepness if delamination is at 40% of the thickness; the difference can be appreciated in the plot.

It is interesting to plot on the same chart

the curves obtained from the deep delaminated

for panels having t/T = 0.4; b/B = 0.5.

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Delamination depth

0.00 0.10

Delam. 0.00 1.00 1.00

Size

0.10 1.00 0.86

0.20 1.00 0.79

b/B

0.30 1.00 0.72

0.40 1.00 0.62

0.50 1.00 0.42

* Buckling mode 2.

Local/Global buckling limit.

modes.

for deep and surface delaminated models.

delaminated model (t/T = 0.9) as shown in Fig. 13.

Deep delaminated models buckle at higher

loads, but in the post buckling phase they show a

lower derivative with respect to the in-plane disU x ) in

placement of the in-plane load (i.e. x U

comparison to the surface delaminated models.

This fact implies that the curves relevant to the

surface delaminated models overlap the ones corresponding to the deep delaminated models at high

loads.

At this stage of the work it is deemed impossible

to predict if in reality panels with delaminations

closer to the surface could show a better resistance

to post-buckling collapse or if the collapse happens suddenly once the critical load is reached.

5.4

Compressive strength

to determine the critical load, the buckling strength

normalized with respect to the critical load for the

intact panel is presented as function of the delamination size and its through-thickness position.

Table 1 shows the limit between global modes,

typical for deep delaminations, and local modes,

involving deeper delaminations when extending

the delamination size.

From Table 1 it is possible to plot the linearized

residual strength map obtained through numerical

t/T

0.20

1.00

0.92

0.82

0.70

0.58

0.44

0.30

1.00

0.98

0.93

0.92

0.77

0.51

0.40

1.00

0.99

0.91

0.83

0.77

0.69

0.50

1.00

0.99

0.90*

0.79*

0.68*

0.55*

of delamination size and position.

by Srensen et al. (2010).

When looking at the map, it is interesting to note

that there is an increase of the residual strength

when the delamination position through the thickness assumes the value t/T = 0.4. At first this fact

could suggest a safer situation, but, accounting for

the previous considerations, this is also the condition of instable buckling, where the in-plane load

suddenly drops after buckling when increasing the

in-plane displacement.

6

MODEL COMPARISON

the models considered, is plotted in the same

mirrored chart in Fig. 15. The center of the chart

corresponds to a mid-thickness delamination: on

the left side is presented the 3D solid model while

on the right side the shell model.

On the x axis it is possible the residual strength

for a delamination getting closer to the surface of

the panel is defined proceeding left and right from

centre, while on the y axis the normalized delamination size is plotted.

From the results presented in Fig. 15 the following considerations arise:

The shell model is more sensitive to small delaminations: the residual strength, function of b/B,

starts reducing earlier than for the 3D model,

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the models presented in the paper.

maximum for t/T 0.4, whose amplitude is anyway much greater if shell model is considered,

Deep delaminations have greater influence on

shell models,

Wide and shallow delaminations effects

(t/T < 0.25; b/B > 0.5) are predicted almost identically in both models.

For the time being, it is not possible to establish

which numerical model better describes the physical problem, since very little comparison have been

made with experimental results.

As far as the computation costs is concerned,

a non linear analysis performed in 100 time steps

as above described takes up to 45 minutes when

running a shell element finite element model on a

4 processors and 16 GB RAM memory workstation, being less than one half of the 2 hours needed

to run the same calculation of 3D 20 nodes solid

element model on a workstation having the same

capabilities.

The computational effort for the 3D solid model

is basically due to the need of using at least 3 layers

of elements through the panel thickness, in order

to catch bending effects, whose influence is basic

in the problem.

7

CONCLUSIONS

delamination were assessed by two sets of finite elements calculations: at first a more intuitive modelling strategy was employed using 20 nodes solid

elements to model each layer of the laminate and

thus requiring rather large computation efforts; then

a different modelling approach adopting multilayer

shell elements to model the laminate was applied,

requiring more limited computational efforts.

In both cases plots summarizing the influence

of the geometrical parameters of the panel and of

the delamination onto the collapse buckling behavior were produced.

a residual strength chart depending on the geometrical parameters of the delaminations taken

into account.

The residual strength prediction is the same

considering shallow and wide delaminations, while

the shell model looks more sensitive to small or

deep delaminations. The trend of the curves is

similar for both approaches and show maximum

(t/T 0.4) and minimum (t/T 0.1) values of residual strength function of delamination depth.

These results seem to indicate that shallow delaminations result in more dangerous conditions, but

this is true only if no post-buckling life of the panel

is considered, as clearly shown in section 5.3.

The results provided by the shell model analysis

appear rather remarkable, especially considering

the lower computational efforts, and suggest to

proceed to a step forward in the work, involving

deeper experimental comparison.

REFERENCES

Abrate, S. 1991. Impact on laminated composite materials. Applied mechanical review 44:155190.

ADINA 2008. Theory and modeling guide, v. 8.5.3.,

Watertown (MA), ADINA R&D Inc.

Bolotin, V.V. 1996. Delaminations in composites structures: its origin, buckling, growth and stability. Composites: Part B 27B:129145.

Bisagni, C. & Vescovini, R. 2008. Analytical formulation

for local buckling and post-buckling analysis of stiffened

laminated panels. Thin-Walled Structures 47:318334.

Hansen, A.L., Lund, E., Pinho, S.T. & Branner, K. 2009.

A Hierarchical FE approach for simulation of geometrical and material induced instability of composite

structures. Composites 2009, 2nd ECCOMAS thematic

conference on the mechanical response of composites,

Imperial college London.

Pavier, M.J. & Clarke, M.P. 1995. Experimental Techniques for the Investigation of the Effects of Impact

Damage on Carbon-Fibre Composites. Composites

Science & Technology 55:157169.

SIMULIA (2009). ABAQUS/Standard Users Manual,

Rising Sun Mills, 166 Valley Street, Providence,

RI, USA.

Srensen, B.F., Branner, K., Lund, E., Wedel-Heinen, J. &

Garm, J.H. 2009. Improved Design of large wind turbine blade of fibre composites (phase 3). Summary

Report, Ris-R-1699(EN), Ris National Laboratory

for Sustainable Energy, Denmark.

Srensen, B.F., Toftegaard, H., Goutanos, S., Branner, K.,

Berring, P., Lund, E., Wedel-Heinen, J. & Garm, J.H.

2010. Improved Design of large wind Turbine Blade

of fibre composites (phase 4). Summary Report, RisR-1734(EN), Ris National Laboratory for Sustainable

Energy, Denmark.

Short, G.J., Guild, F.J. & Pavier, M.J. 2001. The effect of

delamination geometry on the compressive failure of

composite laminates. Composites Science and Technology 61:20752086.

139

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

on stiffened plate strength and behaviour

L.G. Gannon, N.G. Pegg & M.J. Smith

Defence Research and Development Canada Atlantic

Y. Liu

Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

ABSTRACT: Numerical simulation is used to study the influence of welding-induced residual stress

in welded, tee-stiffened plates focusing on the effect of shakedown. Residual stresses are simulated using

3D thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis. The influence of strain hardening and number of load

cycles on residual stress shakedown is then investigated. Load versus end-shortening curves are used to

characterize the strength and behaviour of stiffened plates under axial compression both before and after

shakedown. Results show that the reduction in residual stress due to shakedown occurs entirely during the

first load cycle provided that the magnitude of that load is not subsequently exceeded. Both the tensile

and compressive welding residual stresses are reduced by as much as 40% when the applied load causes an

average stress equal to 50% of the yield stress. This level of shakedown increased the ultimate strength of

tee-stiffened plates by as much as 6%.

1

INTRODUCTION

designed is wave-induced longitudinal bending.

The bending stresses are resisted by longitudinally stiffened plates that that also contain residual

stresses caused by welding during fabrication of the

structure. Several studies (Faulkner 1975; Guedes

Soares 1988; Gordo & Guedes Soares 1993) have

shown that residual stresses can have a detrimental

effect on the ultimate strength of stiffened plates

and consequently on the strength of a hull.

Welding-induced residual stresses may be relieved

to some degree by stretching of stiffened plates

under cyclic loads during service. This process is

commonly referred to as shakedown. Abdel-Karim

(2005) identifies three types of shakedown that

occur when the magnitude of the cyclic load lies

between the first yield and plastic collapse loads.

Elastic shakedown occurs when a finite amount of

plastic deformation occurs during the first few load

cycles, after which any further deformation is purely

elastic. In plastic shakedown, the structure experiences equal and alternating plastic strains during

each load cycle and continues to experience shakedown in the form of non-cumulative cyclic plastic

straining which eventually leads to failure by lowcycle fatigue. If the alternating plastic strains are

strain with each load cycle, incremental plastic collapse of the structure will occur. This incremental

accumulation of plastic strain during cyclic loading is called ratcheting.

Shakedown in ship structures has been investigated both experimentally and numerically; however most research has focused on the effects of

shakedown on fatigue behavior in welded structures. Latrou et al. (2005) studied the behavior of

welded joints accounting for residual stress and

shakedown using numerical models. A rectangular plate was modelled assuming plane stress and

residual stresses were simulated by application of a

non-uniform displacement on one side of the plate.

They found that after a low number of load cycles,

the behavior of the joint became elastic. Similar

results were reported by Liang et al. (2007). They

also studied the effect of residual stress relaxation

on the fatigue behavior of welded joints and found

that under constant amplitude cyclic loads, residual

stress relaxation was limited to the first load cycle.

In an experimental study of shakedown in

butt-welded aluminum plates subjected to 3-point

bending, Paik et al. (2005) found that measured

longitudinal residual stresses were reduced by 36%

and 21% in tension and compression respectively.

The load in that experiment was applied for three

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88% of the yield stress.

In the analysis of stiffened plates, simplified

residual stress distributions are sometimes assumed

based on measurements available in literature.

In design, fabrication related imperfections are

typically accounted for using an empirical method

such as the Johnson-Ostenfeld correction for plasticity in beam columns. In some cases however,

residual stresses are neglected under the assumption that they are relieved by shakedown.

A welding-induced residual stress distribution

commonly used in stiffened plate analysis assumes

that residual stress is constant along the length of

the stiffened plate. Based on experimental data

and assuming that the residual stresses acting over

the cross-section of the plate in a welded stiffened

plate are in equilibrium, Faulkner (1975) proposed

the idealized longitudinal residual stress distribution shown in Figure 1, where b is the plate width,

y is the yield stress, t is the plate thickness and

is a parameter describing the width of the tensile stress block at the weld in the middle of the

plate. Faulkner (1975) suggested initial values for

in the range of 4.56 and values ranging from

34.5 to allow for shakedown. From equilibrium

requirements, the compressive residual stress c is

given by:

c =

2 t y

b 2

(1)

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of residual stress shakedown on

the strength and behaviour of longitudinally stiffened plates typical of ship hull girders. The finite

element modelling technique used for the analyses

allows the complex three-dimensional distribution

of welding-induced residual stress and distortion

to be accounted for in assessing shakedown and

ultimate strength of stiffened plates.

Welding-induced residual stress and distortion in the stiffened plates were determined using

sequential 3D, nonlinear thermal and mechanical

plates are not subjected to any type of stress relief

such as annealing, a cyclic axial load was then

applied, causing shakedown of the residual stress.

An ultimate strength analysis was then conducted

and load-shortening curves that characterize the

behaviour of the stiffened plates under axial load

were obtained. The finite element method was also

used to determine the effect that strain hardening

of the material and variable amplitudes of loading have on the shakedown of welding-induced

residual stresses.

2

2.1

Welding simulation

welding-induced residual stress and distortion in

tee-stiffened plates. The simulation consisted of

sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal and structural analyses. The model made use of two element

types; 8-node, linearly interpolated hexahedrons to

mesh the solid volume, and 2-node nonlinear springs

to model contact between the stiffener base and

the plate. The material used for the stiffened plates

was AH-36 shipbuilding steel with a nominal yield

stress of 360 MPa and elastic modulus of 210 GPA.

An elastic, perfectly plastic material model was used

with temperature dependent properties adopted

from Michaleris and DeBiccari (1997).

Twelve elements were required through the

thickness of the plate in the vicinity of the weld

in order to accurately characterize the severe thermal gradient in that region. The mesh density was

decreased in regions further away from the weld

where the thermal gradient was small so that the

analysis could be run in a reasonable amount of

time with the computational resources available.

Figure 2 shows a finite element mesh typical of

those used for the tee-stiffened plates in this study.

A nonlinear thermal analysis was used to predict

the transient temperature field produced by the

moving heat source. A circular heat source with a

Gaussian energy distribution representing the heat

Y

X

Figure 2.

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(2008). Figure 4 shows that the vertical deflection

of the plate predicted by the welding simulation

method is in good agreement with experimental measurements provided by Deng et al. (2006).

Figure 5 shows the longitudinal residual stress distribution at the mid-length, mid-plane of the plate.

Although residual stress measurements from the

experiment were not available, the residual stress

Dimensions in mm.

1

Position (mm)

0

-1

100

200

300

400

500

-2

Plate centerline

(stiffener location)

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7

FEM

-8

with measured values.

350

path in 10 mm increments. After the continuous

fillet weld on one side was finished, the model was

allowed to cool for 30 minutes before the weld on

the other side of the stiffener web was started. The

thermal analysis considered temperature dependent material properties including thermal conductivity, specific heat and density. Heat loss due to

convection and radiation was accounted for using

a film coefficient given by Goldak et al. (1984) to

account for heat loss by both mechanisms. Latent

heats of melting and fusion were also accounted for.

User-defined subroutines were created using the

ANSYS parametric design language to model the

moving heat source and to control the activation

of weld elements as the heat source progressed.

For the second stage of the analysis, the transient temperature field from the thermal analysis

was used as a series of load steps in a structural

analysis. Each load step consisted of an incremental

progression of the heat source along the weld path.

As the heat source advanced along the weld path,

the ANSYS element birth and death feature was

used to activate the weld elements behind the heat

source once their temperature fell below the solidification temperature, taken as 1450C. This enabled the model to simulate the dynamic coupling

of the stiffener to the plate as the weld progressed.

The application of sequential thermal loads, and

the element activation scheme were controlled via

user-defined subroutines.

Boundary conditions in the structural analysis

were representative of the level of restraint in stiffened panels in ship hull girders where a panel with

multiple evenly spaced stiffeners can be divided into

several individually stiffened plates. Longitudinal

edges were constrained to remain straight, but free

to move in the plane of the plating. This produced

a level of restraint similar to that provided by adjacent panels in ship hulls (Dow et al., 1981). Simple

supports were applied at the end cross-sections by

constraining displacements along all three coordinate axes at the centroid of one end and the vertical and transverse displacements at the centroid of

the opposite end. An elastic-plastic material model

was used with von Mises failure criteria and associated flow rule. Nonlinearities due to large strain

and displacement were considered.

The accuracy of the simulation was verified

using the methods described above to simulate

a welding experiment carried out by Deng et al.

(2006). In the experiment, a steel flat-bar stiffener

was connected to a steel plate by sequential, 6 mm

fillet welds. Figure 3 shows the weld sequence and

direction along with the test specimen dimensions.

The material used in the experiment was SM400A

shipbuilding steel with a yield stress of 300 MPa.

Temperature dependent material data necessary for

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

-50

-100

-150

Position (mm)

welding simulation.

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is consistent with measured values available in literature (Michaleris & DeBiccari, 1997; Nagaraja

Rao & Tall, 1961; Kenno et al., 2010). For a more

comprehensive description of the welding simulation method, the reader is referred to Gannon et al.

(2010).

2.2

Shakedown analysis

every node in the section was connected to a single

node at the cross-section centroid using stiff beam

elements. These beam elements were deactivated

during the welding simulation using the ANSYS

element birth and death feature. For the subsequent

shakedown analysis, the beam elements were reactivated so that they forced the end cross-section

nodes to remain planar during the shakedown and

ultimate strength analyses. This constraint represents the support that would be provided by transverse frames added after the stiffeners are welded

to the plate. For the shakedown analysis, an axial

load was applied to the centroidal node of one end

cross-section while the other remained pin supported at its centroid.

3

Table 1.

Model

tw

tf

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

350

550

750

950

550

550

550

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

180

180

180

180

100

140

220

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

1.21

1.90

2.59

3.28

1.90

1.90

1.90

0.34

0.37

0.40

0.43

0.64

0.47

0.31

* All dimensions in mm

Figure 6.

Table 2.

PARAMETRIC STUDY

3.1

geometries chosen to cover a range of values of

two non-dimensional parameters commonly used

to characterize stiffened plate geometry. These are

the plate slenderness , and column slenderness ,

given by:

b y

E

t

(2)

a y

=

E

r

(3)

y is the yield stress, E is the elastic modulus, a is

the plate length and r is the radius of gyration.

A summary of the stiffened plate geometries is

given in Table 1 with dimensions defined as shown

in Figure 6. All stiffened plates were 2000 mm long

with 7 mm, continuous fillet welds on each side of

the stiffener base, connecting it to the plate. Welds

were deposited in the sequence shown in Figure 3.

3.2

Plate (mm)

Stiffener (mm)

Model

Vertical

Vertical

Horizontal

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

2.5

3.3

4.5

5.9

3.0

3.2

3.5

0.86

0.29

0.24

0.24

0.30

0.24

0.42

0.27

0.22

0.14

0.22

0.38

0.30

0.12

Geometry

Geometric imperfection

produced the familiar hungry horse shape seen

stiffeners deflects in a single half-wave towards the

stiffener side of the plate. The welding simulation

also produced column-type vertical, and lateral

distortion of the stiffeners. While maximum outof-plane distortions of the plate fell between the

slight and average levels defined by Smith et al.

(1992), vertical distortions of the stiffeners along

the length of the stiffened plates were slight in all

models except T1. A summary of maximum distortions in the stiffened plates is given in Table 2

where the direction of distortions is consistent

with the orientation shown in Figure 2. It should

be noted that distortions from hot-rolling were not

considered, nor were distortions due to any other

fabrication steps following welding of the stiffener

to the plate.

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Shakedown

0.25 y

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

0.20

0.14

0.10

0.08

0.13

0.14

0.13

0.79

0.79

0.79

0.79

0.79

0.79

0.79

0.17

0.12

0.08

0.07

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.57

0.57

0.57

0.57

0.57

0.56

0.56

0.13

0.09

0.06

0.05

0.08

0.08

0.09

1.00

1.01

1.02

1.02

1.01

1.02

1.01

250

200

150

100

50

0

-300

-200

-100

-50

100

200

300

-100

model T2.

200

After welding

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

-100

100

200

300

400

Figure 8.

model T2.

0

-60

0.5 y

Model t

300

Initial

After welding

350

plates was facilitated by application of a single

cycle of axial load at the centroid of the simply

supported stiffened plates. For each model, two

load amplitudes were considered; one producing

an average stress in the stiffened plate equal to

0.25 y, and the other producing an average stress

of 0.5 y. The load cycles began with a linearly

increasing compressive load. This was followed by

a linear transition to the same load in tension, after

which the load was reduced linearly back to zero.

Table 3 contains a summary of normalized

maximum tensile t , and compressive c , residual

stresses in the plates of the finite element models before and after shakedown. To exemplify

the change in the longitudinal residual stress distribution due to shakedown, Figure 7, Figure 8

and Figure 9 show the residual stress distributions in the plate, web and flange respectively, of

model T2. The results indicate that residual stresses

are reduced significantly by shakedown. Where the

applied load produced a stress equal to 0.25 y, tensile and compressive residual stresses were reduced

by approximately 20% and 15%, respectively. When

the applied load produced a stress equal to 0.5 y,

welding-induced residual stresses were reduced by

around 43% in tension and 40% in compression.

It is evident from the results in Table 3 that the

geometry of the stiffened plates had little influence

on the effects of shakedown. It is also noted that

due to the low magnitude of compressive residual

stress and the amplitude of the applied load, no

plastic straining occurred during the compressive

portion of the load cycle. Shakedown in this case

occurred only during the tensile part of the load.

The residual stress distribution in the plate of

model T2 before shakedown is shown in Figure 7.

The plate has a tensile stress zone approximately

66 mm wide, so that the tensile stress block

parameter (Figure 1) is equal to 2.75. After

400

3.3

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

60

-1

-2

-3

-4

After welding

1 cycle at 25% of yield stress

1 cycle at 50% of yield stress

model T2.

block decreased so that = 2.17 and = 1.57 for

shakedown stresses of 0.25 y and 0.5 y, respectively. This is consistent with Faulkners (1975)

statement that the range of decreases from 4.56

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values were lower than Faulkner's suggestion.

Distortion in stiffened plates was also affected by

shakedown. Figure 10 and Figure 11 show changes

in distortion in model T2 following one load cycle

at 0.5 y. These changes in distortions, along

with the reduced state of residual stress shown in

Figures 7 through 9 indicate that there are significant changes in fabrication-related imperfections

once a hull girder has been in subjected to longitudinal bending moments during service.

3.4

Ultimate strength

is characterized by plots of average axial strain versus average axial stress, known as load-shortening

curves. An axial displacement was applied at the

centroidal node of one end cross-section while the

opposite end remained pin-supported at its centroid, producing a compressive load on the stiffened plate that was uniformly distributed over the

cross-section through stiff beam elements connecting the nodes of each end cross-section. An applied

3.5

post-ultimate portion of the load-shortening curve

to be calculated.

Load-shortening curves were also calculated for

each stiffened plate considering welding-induced

distortions, but no residual stresses. This was done

to evaluate the ultimate strength when it is assumed

that residual stresses have been completely relieved

by shakedown. The ultimate strength analyses

considered large strains and displacements and

used the same material properties as the welding simulation and shakedown analysis described

previously.

Table 4 provides a summary of normalized ultimate stress values for the stiffened plates calculated

by finite element analysis. Ultimate stress values are

given before shakedown ( u,0 ), after one load cycle

at 0.25 y ( u,25 ), after one load cycle at 0.5 y ( u,50 )

and with no residual stress ( 0RS ). An example of

load-shortening curves before and after shakedown is given in Figure 12 for model T5, and the

deformed shape of the model in the post-ultimate

stage is shown in Figure 13. This overall column

type of buckling failure is typical of the stiffened

plates considered in this study where the effective

width of the plate is reduced until the cross-section

can no longer sustain the applied load.

3

2.5

Table 4.

2

1.5

1

After welding

0.5

0

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

Figure 10.

Model

u,0

u,25

u,50

0RS

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

1.00

0.87

0.65

0.58

0.86

0.86

0.86

0.99

0.89

0.67

0.59

0.89

0.89

0.88

0.99

0.92

0.68

0.61

0.92

0.92

0.91

1.00

1.00

0.73

0.63

1.00

1.00

1.00

mid-plane (mm)

0.3

0.25

0.2

After welding

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0

-0.05

Figure 11.

stiffener.

500

1000

1500

2000

(3)

0.9

No shakedown (1)

(2)

(1)

0.8

0.7

No Residual Stress

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

Figure 12.

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Shakedown of residual stress increased the ultimate strength of the stiffened plates by a maximum

of 3.4% for an applied stress of 0.25 y and 6.5%

for an applied stress of 0.5 y (models T5 and T6).

Results of the ultimate strength analyses indicate

that the percentage change in ultimate strength due

to shakedown does not vary significantly with the

geometry of the stiffened plate. Figure 12 shows

that although shakedown increased the ultimate

load of model T5, it had little influence on the

shape of the load-shortening curve. The shape of

load-shortening curves calculated for the other

stiffened plates were also similar before and after

shakedown.

A comparison of ultimate strengths after shakedown at a stress of 0.5 y against values calculated

without considering residual stress reveals that the

remaining residual stresses may still decrease the

ultimate strength by as much as 10%. This shows

that a potentially unsafe design may result if it

is assumed that residual stresses are completely

relieved by shakedown in order to simplify an ultimate strength analysis.

4

Figure 14.

400

1

3,5, 7

300

2

Stress (MPa)

Node 1

4,6

Node 2

200

100

3, 5, 7

0

-500

-300

-100

100

-100

2

300

1 8

4, 6

-200

Strain ()

kinematic hardening.

EFFECT OF HARDENING

AND NUMBER OF LOAD CYCLES

400

1

elastic perfectly plastic material so that it would be

consistent with the material behaviour used in the

welding simulation. In order to understand how

those results might differ from those of a shakedown analysis where kinematic strain hardening

is considered, shakedown analyses of a stiffened

plate with no strain hardening and with a kinematic hardening material were run and results are

compared below.

Model T5 (Table 1) was chosen for the analysis

and the initial residual stress was similar to that

show in Figures 7 through 9. A notional hardening modulus of 5 GPa (Andersen 2000) was

3,5,7

300

2

Stress (MPa)

Figure 13.

load.

structures. The difference in shakedown behaviour between the two analyses with different plastic material properties is shown by comparing the

strain histories at two nodes located at the midplane and at the mid-length of the model. Node 1

is located at the mid-width of the plate in the tensile stress zone, and node 2 is located near the edge

of the plate where the residual stress is compressive. The node locations are shown in Figure 14.

Figure 15 shows the strain history at these points

over 3 load cycles represented by 8 steps with a

stress amplitude of 0.25 y. Figure 16 shows the

same for the case where the material is perfectly

plastic. A summary of residual stresses at node 1

and node 2 at the points indicated in Figure 15 and

Figure 16, is provided in Table 5.

8

Node 1

Node 2

200

4,6

100

3,5,7

0

-400

2

-300

-200

-100

1

-100

100

200

300

400

4,6

-200

Strain ()

no hardening.

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difference (0.7%) in the tensile residual stress after

shakedown between the two models considering

perfectly plastic and kinematic hardening materials. The change in compressive residual stress due

to shakedown was virtually the same for both models. Furthermore, examination of Figure 16 and

Figure 17 reveals that for both the perfectly plastic

Table 5. Stress history comparison considering

perfect plasticity and kinematic hardening.

Kinematic hardening

Perfectly plastic

Step

Node 1

Node 2

Node 1 Node 2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

350

269

365

204

365

204

365

285

50

132

38

126

38

126

38

44

350

269

363

202

363

202

363

283

50

132

38

126

38

126

38

44

Applied stress, /y

0.15

0.05

1

8

-0.05

-0.1

-0.15

-0.2

-0.25

Figure 17.

400

1

2

300

Stress (MPa)

8

6

200

Node 1

Node 2

100

-200

2 6

-100

0

-100

3 7

0

-300

CONCLUSIONS

0.1

by elastic shakedown is controlled only by the

maximum applied load and not by the load history, model T5 was subjected to 3 variable amplitude load cycles. The complete load history is

illustrated in Figure 17 and the strain histories at

nodes 1 and 2 (Figure 14) are plotted in Figure 18.

The maximum applied stress was 0.25 y and the

material model used for the analysis assumed perfectly plastic behaviour.

After application of the variable amplitude

cyclic load, the tensile stress at node 1 and the

compressive stress at node 2 were reduced to

283 MPa and 44 MPa, respectively. Referring to

Table 5, where shakedown occurred entirely during the first cycle at a stress of 0.25 y, it is evident

that the maximum applied stress governs the final

magnitude of residual stress and that the sequence

of loads is not relevant.

6

0.2

-400

0.25

and kinematic hardening models, all plastic straining and thus, residual stress shakedown occurred

entirely during the first load cycle.

100

200

300

400

1 8

-200

Strain ()

loading.

and distortion fields in tee-stiffened plates were

simulated using finite element analysis. Cyclic axial

loads were applied to the stiffened plates and the

resulting reduction in residual stress due to elastic

shakedown was studied. Following the shakedown

analysis, a compressive axial load was applied to

the stiffened plates and their strength and behavior

was characterized by load-shortening curves. The

effects of strain hardening and variable amplitude

load cycles on shakedown were also investigated.

The following summarizes key conclusions drawn

from this study.

Welding-induced residual stresses in stiffened

plates typical of ship hull girders may be significantly reduced when subjected to axial loads while

in service. For applied axial stresses of 0.25 y and

0.5 y, longitudinal residual stresses were decreased

by around 20% and 40%, respectively. Residual

stresses are relieved entirely during the first load

cycle of a constant amplitude cyclic load. When

the load amplitude is varied, the magnitude of the

highest load is the primary factor controlling the

amount of residual stress shakedown achieved.

After partial stress relief by shakedown under

average axial stresses of 0.25 y and 0.5 y, the

ultimate strengths of tee-stiffened plates increased

by 1.53.5% and 4.57%, respectively. When

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and only distortions included, the ultimate strengths of the stiffened plates increased by 816%.

This suggests that although residual stress relief

by shakedown in stiffened panels is beneficial, it

should not be assumed in a hull girder analysis

that residual stresses are entirely removed due to

shakedown while in service, as this may lead to

overly optimistic estimates of hull girder ultimate

strength.

A comparison of strain hardening models demonstrated that for hardening moduli typical of

shipbuilding steels, kinematic hardening has little

influence on shakedown of welding-induced residual stress.

REFERENCES

Abdel-Karim, M. 2005. Shakedown of complex structures according to various hardening rules. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82:

427548.

Andersen, L.F. 2000. Residual stresses and deformations

in steel structures. PhD. thesis, Technical University of

Denmark, Department of Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering.

Deng, D., Liang, W. & Murkawa, H. 2006. Determination of welding deformation in fillet-welded joint by

means of numerical simulation and comparison with

experimental measurements. Journal of Materials

Processing Technology 183: 219225.

Deng, D. & Murakawa, H. 2008. Prediction of welding

distortion and residual stress in a thin plate buttwelded joint. Computational Materials Science 43:

353365.

Dow, R., Hugill, R., Clark, J. & Smith, C. 1981. Evaluation of ultimate ship hull strength. Extreme loads and

response symposium. SNAME, Arlington VA, October

1981.

the analysis of stiffened plating in bending and compression. Journal of Ship Research 19(1): 117.

Gannon, L.G., Liu, Y., Pegg, N.G. & Smith, M. 2010.

Influence of welding sequence on residual stress and

distortion in flat-bar stiffened plates. Marine Structures 23: 120.

Goldak, J., Chakravarti, A. & Bibby, M. 1984. A new

finite element model for welding heat sources. Metallurgical Transactions B 15B: 229305.

Gordo, J.M. & Guedes Soares, C. 1993. Approximate load

shortening curves for stiffened plates under uniaxial

compression. In D. Faulkner et al. (eds), Integrity of

Offshore Structures5, 189211.

Guedes Soares, C. 1988. Design equation for the compressive strength of unstiffened plate elements with

initial imperfections. Journal of Constructional Steel

Research 9: 287310.

Kenno, S.Y., Das S., Kennedy, J.B., Rogge, R.B. &

Gharghouri, M. 2010. Residual stress distributions in

ship hull specimens. Marine Structures 23: 263273.

Latrou, N., Thevenet, D. & Cognard, J.Y. 2005. A fatigue

crack initiation approach for naval welded joints.

Oceans 2005Europe, Vol. 2; Proc. IEEE, Brest,

2023 June 2005.

Michaleris, P. & DeBiccari, A. 1997. Prediction of welding distortion. Welding Journal 76(4): 172180.

Nagaraja, R. & Tall, L. 1961. Residual stresses in welded

plates. The Welding Journal 40: 468 s480 s.

Paik, J.K., Hughes, O.F. & Renaud, C. 2005. Ultimate

limit state design technology for aluminum multi-hull

ship structures. Transactions, SNAME 113: 137.

Smith, C.S., Anderson, N., Chapman, J.C., Davidson,

P.C. & Dowling, P.J. 1992. Strength of stiffened plating under combined compression and lateral pressure.

Transactions, RINA 134: 131147.

149

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

steel plates

Muhammad Rabiul Islam

Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan

Yoichi Sumi

Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan

ABSTRACT: Strength and deformability of steel plates for marine use are studied from the viewpoint

of geometry of corrosion pits and the size effect of corroded plates. The actual shape of corrosion pit

depends on the surrounding environment, which may result in a variety of pitting shapes such as conical and ellipsoidal shapes. In the present study, the effect of the two shapes has been investigated by

the non-linear, large deformation and three-dimensional finite element analyses for simulated corrosion

surfaces generated by a probabilistic model of a corrosion process. The strength of corroded plates with

semi-ellipsoidal pits is found to be estimated by the empirical formula obtained from that with conical

pits, where the estimation is based on the minimum cross sectional area of the plate. The deformability

and energy absorption of the corroded plates could be estimated by the surface roughness represented by

the difference of averaged plate thickness and that at the section of minimum cross sectional area. Having

investigated the size effect of corroded plates probabilistically, it has been quantitatively shown that the

strength and deformability reduce with increasing plate length, while they may increase with increasing

plate width. The size effect is more pronounced for deformability with the change of width.

1

INTRODUCTION

related deterioration of steel structures. Metal

degrades locally in pit forms reducing strength and

deformability, which are main salient features for

integrity of steel structures. Since the effect of corrosion is due to the geometric change of structures

where chemistry does not come into play (Oka et al.,

1990), studies related to pitting corrosion should

take into account of the actual shape of pitting,

which is considerably affected by the surrounding

environment. Nakai et al. (2004a, b) observed circular cone-shaped pits in the hold frames of bulk

carriers, and ellipsoidal-shaped pits in the bottom

shell plates of a tanker. They investigated actual

pitting corrosion observed on hold frames of

bulk carriers in different studies (2004a, b, 2005 &

2006). Paik et al. (2003 & 2004) studied the ultimate strength behavior of corroded plates, whereas

Sumi (2008) estimated tensile strength and deformability by using replica specimen.

The present study focuses on the effects due to

pit geometry and plate size, where various corrosion conditions with conical and ellipsoidal pits

have been simulated using probabilistic model

conical pits.

Strength and deformability reduction under

quasi-static uni-axial tensile load is estimated by a

series of non-linear implicit finite element analysis. Commercial code LS DYNA 971 is used with

the material type of piecewise linear plasticity.

In non-linear FE analyses it is required to define

materials behavior under large strain. Material true

stress-true strain relationship is investigated with

the help of tensile test by using vision-sensor technology. Inhomogeneous strain field is calculated

by the effective strain defined by Scheider et al.

(2004), and tri-axial state of stress is considered

using both Bridgman (1964) and Ostsemin (1992)

correction factors. Results of FE analyses are also

verified by experiments in the case of ellipsoidal

pits. The material used is a conventional structural

steel SM490A. Empirical formulae for strength

reduction (Paik et al., 2003) and deformability

reduction (Ahmmad and Sumi, 2010) have been

examined for ellipsoidal pits.

Size effects of strength, deformability and energy

absorption of corroded plates are also investigated

by the numerical simulation with the use of the

central limit theorem.

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Table 1.

Material

Material properties.

Youngs Tensile

Yield

Mass

strength density modulus strength

3

(MPa)

Elongation

(MPa) (kg/m ) (GPa)

SM490A 365.0

7853.6

206.9

509.4

28.73

Failure

strain

0.97

corrosion by the three sequential processes.

Life of paint coating (T0) follows lognormal distribution with parameters 0 (mean of ln(T0)) and

0 (standard deviation of ln(T0)):

fT0 (t ) =

Figure 1.

(1)

pitting (Tr) follows exponential distribution with

parameter (inverse of mean transition time):

gTr (t ) =

STRAIN

considerably under large deformation due to necking, which makes the measuring process of material response during the large plastic deformation

a great challenge. Inhomogeneous strain field may

result in a tri-axial stress state. In the case of large

and non-uniform deformation, the true form of

quantities of stress and strain should be considered. As far as the deformation is uniform the true

form can be calculated from engineering quantities, but after the initiation of diffuse necking,

it requires the precise measurement of the instantaneous deformation.

In the present paper, the vision-sensor technology (Ahmmad and Sumi, 2010) is used in obtaining

the relationship between the true stress and the true

strain beyond the onset of localized necking, which

can be accomplished by introducing Bridgman

(1964) and/or Ostsemin (1992) correction factors.

The mechanical properties of the material used in

the present work are listed in Table 1. In the current

study local necking is observed at effective strain,

0.41. The average percentage of stress correction

at this value is 0.8% (1% by Bridgman and 0.6%

by Ostsemin) so that the effect is not so significant

(see Figure 1).

3

( t )2

1

0

exp

.

2 0t

2 02

p ( t ).

(2)

with time () elapsed after the generation of progressive points as:

z() = a.()b; a, b coefficients,

(3)

where the coefficient b varies from 1 to 1/3 depending on materials, environmental conditions and etc.

The coefficient a follows lognormal distribution

with parameters a(mean of ln(a)) and a(standard

deviation of ln(a)):

ha ( x ) =

( x

1

exp

2 a x

2 a2

)2 .

(4)

probabilistic model from a survey carried by

ClassNK on 50 bulk carriers. These values are estimated for four different locations of those ships, in

which values corresponding to bulkhead plates in

cargo holds are used in this study. Using Monte

Carlo Simulation 5 data-sets for each process are

generated.

The shape functions for conical and ellipsoidal pits are defined in the following form; conical

shape:

W0 (

According to the description of a probabilistic corrosion model proposed Yamamoto and Ikegami

0 , r0 , 0 )

= 0 max 0 r0

(x x0 )2 + ( y y0 )2

(5)

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ellipsoidal shape:

0 , r0 , 0 )

W02 (

= 02

( {

2

center and that of an evaluation point, z0 and r0 are

the depth and the radius of a corrosion pit at X0.

The parameter 0 ( = z0/r0) follows normal distribution with parameters (mean of ) and (standard deviation of ):

f ( x ) =

( x )2

1

exp

.

2

2 2

(7)

by using equally spaced data points. Pit cusps are

located by using uniform random variants. CADsoftware RHINOCEROS is used to model the

corrosion surface by the NURBS surfaces. Corroded surfaces with different DOP (Degree of pitting intensity) are generated by varying the time ()

of equation (3).

4

finite element model is generated by MSC Patran

using 8-node hexahedron elements (Figure 3).

Analyses have been carried out by the nonlinear

Figure 2.

an elasto-plastic material where an arbitrary stress

verses strain curve can be defined. This material

model is based on the J2 flow theory with isotropic

hardening (Hallquist, 1998). A constant velocity,

V(t) = 3 mm/min, is applied in the loading direction. Fracture is introduced by allowing elimination of elements when strain to failure is achieved.

FE results are validated by experiments using the

test specimens with ellipsoidal pits.

4.1

Mesh size always has significant effects on finite element results. Strain to failure is generally increases

with finer finite element meshes. So, it was aimed

to find out an appropriate element size along with

strain to failure for which experimental total elongation of specimen can be achieved. In the case

of current model, it has been found that the effect

of element sizes except for the loading direction

are not so significant (Ahmmad and Sumi, 2010).

Therefore, the element size is kept constant (1 mm)

in width direction in the present analysis. Since the

element size in the thickness direction may vary

for specimens with corroded surfaces, the effects

of element sizes in the thickness along with length

(loading) directions are investigated.

As is shown in Figure 4, the total elongation

may change with the element size in the loading

direction. In the present analysis, the failure criterion in terms of the effective strain in an element

is determined in such a way that the total elongation in FE analysis reaches that of the experiment,

28.73% (Table 1) in a flat specimen. It is seen that

the total elongation reaches the experimental value

at effective strain 0.932 in the case of element

size, 1 mm, so that this value with 1 mm mesh is

used for the failure effective strain in the following

analyses. In Figure 5 effect of loading and thickness directional element size is shown, where the

strain to failure is normalized by the value 0.932.

Figure 3. Finite element modeling: (a) Boundary conditions. (b) The minimum value of hz is 1 mm under deepest pit cusp.

for stress-strain relationship.

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thickness directions with regard to the failure strain.

of 5 ellipsoidal pitted specimen.

the thickness direction does not exhibit significant

effect. In the case of corroded specimens, a minimum element size 1 mm is maintained by defining

a middle surface (Figure 3b), while the element size

is kept 1 mm in the other two directions.

4.2

results

(DOP 20%, DOP 50%, DOP 78%, DOP 93% and

DOP 99%) with ellipsoidal pits are processed in the

present study. Figure 6 shows the averaged cross

sectional area along the specimen length, in which

the locations of failure are also indicated. It may

be seen that they show very strong correlation with

the location of minimum thickness of the cross

section. From FE analysis it is observed that stress

concentration occurs at each pit cusp, where a

shear band begins to form. The final failure occurs

at the position of the minimum thickness in a shear

band. Locations of failure in FE analyses exactly

coincide with those of experiments (Figure 7)

except for DOP 50%, in which there exist the two

possible sections. (see the insets of Figure 6).

In comparing the experimental and FE results

(Figures 8 and 9), they generally exhibit fairly good

agreement with each other, where the nominal

stresses are based on the intact cross section of the

flat specimen. Since the continuous measurement

by extensometer is not available for DOP 78% and

DOP 93%, the total elongations are measured from

fracture specimens in these cases. The experimental

results and FE analysis are listed in Table 2.

4.3

experiments (bottom).

nominal strain (ellipsoidal pits).

and deformability

analysis have been carried out for different corrosion conditions considering conical and ellipsoidal

(ellipsoidal pits).

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ellipsoidal pits.

DOP (%)

Tensile

strength

(MPa)

Elongation

(%)

20

50

78

93

99

FE. 507.8 495.8 480.8 455.4 429.3 373.0

Exp. 28.7 24.0 24.0 18.5 19.0 18.0

FE. 28.7 21.5 23.5 18.5 17.6 18.0

corrosion model. From Figures 10 and 11 it is clear

that total elongation of pitted specimen decreases

considerably with increasing DOP whereas tensile

strength decreases moderately. Considering the

case where DOP = 99%, deformability decreases

51% and strength decreases 18% in case of conical shape whereas those amounts are 56% and 33%

respectively in the case of ellipsoidal pit. Higher

material loss due to elliptical shape is responsible

for this phenomenon.

Paik et al. (2003) derived an empirical formula

for predicting the ultimate compressive strength

and shear strength based on damage (Dm):

Ru = (1 Dm)0.73,

(8)

strain relationship (conical pits).

strain relationship (ellipsoidal pits).

plates normalized by that of an intact plate. The

damage is defined by

Dm =

A0

AP

A0

(9)

smallest cross sectional area due to surface pits.

The present study shows very good agreement with the formula for both types of pit shape

(Figures 12 and 13). Experimental results are also

plotted in Figure 13. It is found that strength

reduces approximately 20% in 10 years due to conical pits in a bulk carrier.

Ahmmad & Sumi (2010) derived two empirical formulae for predicting deformability reduction due to conical pit based on surface roughness

given by

Rd

1 8 14RS + 26.4RS2 f

0 Rs 0.15,

specimens with conical pits.

(10)

and

Rd

1 0 2RP 5.3RP2 f

0 RP 0.35.

(11)

elongation of pitted plate to that of an intact plate

specimens with ellipsoidal pits.

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surface roughness due to ellipsoidal pits.

length of plate to their representative quantities.

In this study the size effect coefficient so obtained

will be used to predict the size effect of strength,

deformability and energy absorption reduction

due to pitting corrosion.

According to Yamamoto (2008), a plate sample

is discretized by N number of cross sections where

each cross section consists of M number of points,

which means that N and M are the numbers representing plate length and width, respectively. The

average sectional corrosion diminution (

) can

be defined as:

ZM =

1

M

z (x ym ),

(14)

m =1

sampling point in a transverse section located at

position x. In the present analysis, the sampling

points are equally spaced in the x- and y-direction

with the distance 1 mm. The value, Z M , is assumed

to be a random variable, so that the central limit

theorem leads it to follow a normal distribution

regardless of the original distribution,, with a

standard deviation of mean as M M .

Therefore, we can obtain

maximum surface roughness due to ellipsoidal pits.

are given by

RS

Dm

zavg

T

; RP =

Pmax

T

zavgg

(12), (13)

diminution, T is the thickness of the intact plate

and Pmax is the depth of the deepest pit.

As illustrated in Figure 14, current study shows

that equation (10) is also applicable for ellipsoidal

pits with the specified range, whereas equation (11)

gives good estimation in a very limited range of

application, say surface roughness (RP) up to 0.1

for ellipsoidal pits (Figure 15). With increasing RP

value, the scatter of Rd increases, so that equation

(10) is recommended for use in the estimation of

deformability. Deformability is reduced more than

60% due to ellipsoidal pit for a corroded surface

with DOP = 99%.

5

SIZE EFFECT

in the evaluation of average thickness diminution

M=

2

= Representative Width,

2

M

(15)

diminution of the whole domain. The distribution

function for the maximum Z M among N sections

can be given by:

gN max ( z ) = N FZ M ( z )

N 1

fZ M ( z ) ,

(16)

of the normal distribution of Z M . The mode

value of the above distribution can be expressed by

using the inverse of standard normal distribution

function :

1

z MN mod = FZM1 1

N

=+

1 1 ,

N

M

(17)

the whole domain. Equation (17) shows that the

maximum average sectional corrosion diminution decreases and converges to with increasing

representative width, M, while it monotonically

increases with increasing representative length, N.

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can be expressed as:

N=

5.1

1

M z MN

1

(18)

sectional average corrosion diminution

(18) are examined by varying both actual width

and actual length from 200 mm to 1,000 mm by

100 mm interval for six sample specimens with

conical pits with seven corrosion conditions. The

averaged relations are shown in Figures 16 and 17,

in which they show linear correlation.

The maximum average sectional corrosion diminution (equation (17)) can be evaluated by adding

size effect coefficient, SC, multiplied by standard

deviation of corrosion diminution of whole area to

the average corrosion diminution of whole area.

corrosion diminution.

SC =

1

1

1 1 .

N

M

(19)

Figure 18, extending the length and width up to

3000 mm based on the results of Figures 16 and

17 in an averaged manner. This may cover the

standard size of stiffened panel in marine structures. The size effect of width is more pronounced

than that of length, and it decreases gradually

with increasing the width, while it increases with

increasing the length.

5.2

and energy absorption reduction

formula for estimating energy absorption reduction due to pitting, which is given by

Re = Ru Rd

Figure 16. Linear approximation for relation between

actual and representative width.

(equation (8)) and deformability reduction (equation (10)), respectively. Estimation of Ru solely

depends on damage of surface, whereas Rd can

be estimated from damage and average corrosion

diminution. In order to investigate the size effect

on Ru, Rd and Re, damage can be redefined as:

Dm =

actual and representative length.

(20)

z MN mod

T

(21)

equation (17) are statistically independent regardless of location. As an illustrative example, here, we

shall investigate the size effect of strength, deformability and energy absorption reduction of a specimen with plate thickness, T = 16 mm, = 3.09 mm

and = 1.33 mm, and the results are shown in

Figures 1921. As can be seen from Figure 19,

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CONCLUSIONS

corroded plates have been studied numerically

and experimentally to examine the strength and

deformability of corroded plates. The following

findings are obtained:

Figure 19.

Figure 20.

factor.

and deformability reduction derived for conical

pits are also applicable to ellipsoidal pits.

2. Strength and deformability reduction is higher

for ellipsoidal pits than those for conical pits

because of the geometrical effect.

3. By combining the size effect coefficient of the

maximum average sectional corrosion diminution with the strength and deformation

reduction factors, the size effect of strength

reduction, deformability reduction and energy

absorption reduction due to pitting corrosion

can be estimated.

4. Strength and deformability increase with

increasing the plate width, while they reduce

with increasing length.

5. The size effect of strength reduction is not so

significant for a plate wider than 500 mm,

while deformability is affected in a much wider

range.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors express their appreciation to

Mr. S. Michiyama and Mr. H. Arakaki for their

supports during the present work. This work has

been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific

Research (No. A(2) 22246109) from the Ministry

of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to Yokohama National University. The

authors are grateful for the support.

REFERENCES

Figure 21.

factor.

plates of wider than 500 mm, while deformability

reduction and energy absorption reduction are

influenced in a wider range.

The results also show that strength and deformability reduce with increasing plate length, while

they increase with increasing plate width. This

phenomenon may be interpreted in the following

way; the parallel load-bearing paths strengthen

the structural redundancy with increasing a plate

width. On the contrary, a least durable section may

appear by increasing the specimen length.

deformability of corroded steel plates under quasistatic tensile load. J Mar Sci Technol vol. 15(1),

pp. 115.

Bridgman, P.W. (1964). Studies in Large Plastic Flow and

Fracture. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Hallquist, J.O. (1998). LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.

Livermore Software Technology Corporation.

Nakai, T., Matsushita, H. & Yamamoto, N. (2004). Effect

of pitting corrosion on local strength of hold frames

of bulk carriers (2nd report)Lateral-distortional

buckling and local face buckling. Marine Structures

vol. 17, pp. 612641.

Nakai, T., Matsushita, H. & Yamamoto, N. (2005).

Pitting corrosion and its influence on local strength

of hull structural members. Proceedings of the ASME

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and Arctic Engineering OMAE2005-67025.

Nakai, T., Matsushita, H. & Yamamoto, N. (2006). Effect

of pitting corrosion on the ultimate strength of steel

plates subjected to in-plane compression and bending.

J Mar Sci Technol vol. 11(1), pp. 5264.

Nakai, T., Matsushita, H., Yamamoto, N. & Arai, H.

(2004). Effect of pitting corrosion on local strength

of hold frames of bulk carriers (1st report). Marine

Structures vol. 17, pp. 403432.

Oka, M., Kitada, H. & Watanabe, T. (1990). Experimental study on statistical strength of corrosive mild steel.

Journal of the Japan Society of Naval Architects and

Ocean Engineers vol. 167, pp. 229235 (in Japanese).

Ostsemin, A.A. (1992). Stress in the least cross section

of round and plane specimen. Strength of Materials

vol. 24(4), pp. 298301.

Paik, J.K., Lee, J.M. & Ko, M.J. (2003). Ultimate

strength of plate elements with pit corrosion wastage. J Engineering for Maritime Environment vol. 217,

pp. 185200.

Paik, J.K., Lee, J.M. & Ko, M.J. (2004). Ultimate shear

strength of plate elements with pit corrosion wastage.

Thin-Wall Structures vol. 42, pp. 11611176.

Schider, I., Brocks, W. & Cornec, A. (2004). Procedure

for the determination of true stress-strain curves from

tensile tests with rectangular cross-sections. Journal

of Engineering Materials and Technology vol. 126,

pp. 7076.

Sumi, Y. (2008). Strength and deformability of corroded

steel plates estimated by replicated specimens. Journal

of Ship Production vol. 24(3), pp. 161167.

Yamamoto, N. (2008). Probabilistic model of pitting

corrosion and the simulation of pitted corroded

condition. Proceedings of the ASME 27th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic

Engineering OMAE2008-57623.

Yamamoto, N. & Ikegami, K. (1998). A study on the

degradation of coating and corrosion of ships hull

based on the probabilistic approach. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering vol. 120,

pp. 121128.

159

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

offshore pipelines in Mexicos Bay of Campeche

J. Ochoa Z., J.E. Iturriaga F. & S. Melndez P.

PEMEX Exploracin y Produccin, Mxico

ABSTRACT: In Mexico, offshore pipelines are installed inside trenches. This has the effect of restraining

their movements to some extent, due to the weight of the backfill and the friction of the soil around the

pipe. When high temperature hydrocarbons start flowing through the pipelines, the friction around them

prevents the elongation and an axial force builds up. This force reaches a point where the restraining forces

are not enough to hold the pipe and buckling occurs. For buried pipelines the buckling is upwards, thus

the name Up Heaval Buckling (UHB). The mitigation measure for this problem is to add weight in the

form of rock or concrete mattresses at the places where UHB might occur. In Mexico a group of factors

have resulted in very expensive solutions, thus, PEMEXs engineering department is working on finding

the most adequate methods to cope with UHB.

1

INTRODUCTION

their dimensions, and particularly their length, due

to thermal expansion. When a pipeline is installed,

either offshore or inland, the contact between the

soil and the pipe restrains the movement to some

extent, due to the friction produced by this contact. When high temperature hydrocarbons start

flowing through the pipe, the temperature of the

pipe starts to increase, but the restraining force

produced by the friction prevents the elongation,

and an axial force starts building-up along the pipe.

As time passes, the pipeline temperature starts

approaching the temperature of the hydrocarbons.

If the temperature of the hydrocarbons is above a

certain limit, the axial force reaches a point where

the restraining forces are not enough to hold the

pipeline in place and elongation occurs.

Normally, the restraining forces that keep the

pipeline in place are not constant along the pipe,

so, the increasing axial force produced by heating

the pipe will be higher than the restraining forces at

certain locations first along the pipeline. These local

elongations between still-fixed sections implicate

that the pipeline will buckle where the restraining

forces are lower, thus exceeded first by the increasing axial force. Having a sideways or upwards

curvature along the axis of the pipeline makes

the location of the curvature prone to buckling.

As the curvature increases in a specific location,

so does the risk of buckling. When the curvature

of the pipelines axis is downwards (concave),

the development of the buckle is prevented by the

contact between the soil and the pipe.

as global buckling. Local buckling is when, in a

localized section, the plate that forms the pipeline

buckles. The scope of this work focuses on global

buckling.

Although high temperature is the factor that

affects the most the elongation of the pipeline and

therefore its eventual buckling, high internal pressure has a minor contribution. Generally, the pipelines that are prone to buckling are those known

as high temperature, high pressure or HT/HP

pipelines.

Global buckling is a load response and not a

failure mode as such. Global buckling may, however, imply an ultimate failure mode such as:

local buckling

fracture

fatigue. (DNV, 2007)

Global buckling not being a failure mode, in

some cases it is not just allowed but even needed

and designed to happen at predefined locations to

keep the stresses and response of the pipeline under

the allowable limits. Letting the pipeline buckle at

pre-defined locations can achieve significant

CAPEX reduction over the very few viable alternatives, such as trench and rockdump. (Hooper

et al., 2004).

DNV (2007) groups the possible pipeline buckling scenarios in 3 categories:

Exposed pipelines on even seabed

Exposed pipelines on un-even seabed

Buried/covered pipelines.

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permitted, and the analysis and design philosophy

is based on allowing the pipe to buckle at specified

locations. The design for these scenarios includes

horizontal curvatures meant to induce buckling,

which liberates the expansion forces. This method

is known as Snake-lay Design, and, as Hooper et al.

(2004) explain it, the philosophy involved is to

work with the response rather than against it.

Sometimes, in order to reduce the friction

between the soil and the pipeline in the locations

where buckling has to occur, thus facilitating the

process, the pipeline is laid over steel pipes installed

perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline, in the

locations where the curvature is specified. These

steel pipes over which the pipeline is installed are

known as Sleepers.

For buried or covered pipelines, the analysis

and design philosophy is to prevent buckling completely; this is achieved by maintaining the restraining forces always higher than the driving forces.

When a pipeline is installed inside a trench, the

buckling tends to be upwards, in a vertical plane,

as this direction presents less resistance to the pipe

movement, thus the name Up Heaval Buckling

(UHB).

In Mexico, the code for designing offshore pipelines (PEMEX, 2009) specifies that they have to

always be installed inside trenches, with a minimum

depth of lowering (DOL, vertical distance between

the top of the pipeline and the undisturbed seabed

elevation) of 1 m. This indicates that the HT/HP

pipelines prone to buckle would present UHB,

and they have to be designed as to prevent it from

happening.

Mexico has been producing hydrocarbons in offshore facilities for almost 40 years. PEMEX is the

Mexican National Oil Company, and by law, is the

only entity allowed to produce oil and gas within

the Mexican borders. Despite PEMEXs long

experience in offshore activities, the first HT/HP

pipeline prone to UHB in the Mexican part of the

Gulf of Mexico came around 2005 when some

oilfields from the Southwest Marine Region presented very hot oil.

Being a new problem for PEMEX, technical

support was hired from international engineering firms. A group of factors have resulted in very

expensive solutions, thus, PEMEXs engineering

department is working on finding the most adequate methods for Mexico to cope with UHB.

2

ANALYSIS

situations, UHB design is about making sure that

happening are safely above the driving forces that

induce it.

DNV (2007) suggests that the design process

should be performed in two stages:

Pre-installed design phase

Post-installed design phase.

The post-installed design phase, which is the

final design against UHB is performed with Finite

Element Modeling (FEM) and non-linear analyses. Although there are good commercial software packages capable of performing the analysis,

PEMEX is writing and testing its own software

in order to adapt it to its particular needs. A few

years ago, the post-installed design phase against

UHB was done using the theoretical prop shape

configuration, and the expressions derived from

this assumption.

For the pre-installed design phase, the expressions derived from the theoretical prop shape

configuration are still in use. A widely accepted

approach is that of Palmer et al. (1990) which

sets the bases for latter works. Expression 1 below

(DNV, 2007) is one example, and it is going to be

used as a support to what is being discussed and

analyzed in this work:

SF |

eff

f

(Rmax + wp +

wo

EI

4 wo

(1)

driving force in Newtons that induces UHB, and

the right-hand side is the restraining force that prevents it.

SF is the safety factor and has to be greater than

1 in order to prevent UHB; Seff is called effective

axial force and is the driving force that induces

UHB, it is measured in Newtons; Rmax is the additional required downward force to prevent UHB, in

Newtons per metre; wp and wo are the submerged

weights during operation and during installation

respectively, measured in Newtons per metre; E

is the Youngs modulus of the steel in Pa; I is the

moment of inertia of the transverse section of the

steel pipe and is height of the theoretical imperfection (prop).

The effective axial force Seff is obtained with

Equation 2 below (DNV, 2007):

Seff = H pi Ai (1 2 v) As E T

(2)

where H is the residual tension from the installation of the pipe in N, which is normally taken

as null to be conservative; pi is the difference in

internal pressure compared to as laid in Pa; Ai is

the internal transverse area in m2; v is the steels

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is the steels expansion coefficient in K1 and T

is the difference in the steels temperature compared to as laid in K.

2.1

Imagine that while laying a pipeline on a flat seafloor, a segment of it rests on an imperfection on

the trench bottom that is in contact with the pipeline just at one point, as depicted in Figure 1.

As seen in Figure 1, the soil is modelled as

Winckler springs, and the imperfection is modelled

as a simple support at a certain node, that has an

upwards ground displacement of m. Note that

the theoretical configuration is symmetrical with

respect to the simple support. For constructing

the model shown in Figure 1, springs in tension

are taken out, to have a better representation of

the pipe/soil interaction. There is a direct relationship between the magnitude of the curvature and

the propensity to UHB, the higher the curvature,

the lesser is the restraining force preventing UHB.

Besides the height of the theoretical imperfection

, other important parameters affecting the prop

shape and the curvature are the submerged weight

wo, the stiffness E I of the pipeline, and the stiffness of the soil. It should be clear now that in reality, when laying a pipeline inside a trench on the

bottom of the sea, the occurrence of a theoretical

imperfection configuration is very rare.

2.2

flexural moment diagram of the prop imperfection

configuration. The so-called wave-length, which is

two times the horizontal distance between the maximum and the minimum elevations of the pipeline,

which are the points with horizontal tangents; and

the convex zone which can be determined as the

horizontal distance between the inflection points

of the longitudinal axis of the pipeline. At those

inflection points the bending moment is null.

In Figure 2 below, the flexural moment diagram of

the theoretical imperfection configuration is presented with the prop shape. The convex zone and

wave-length are indicated.

shape showing the convex zone and wave-length.

mitigated with rock dump.

Equation 3 below is obtained:

R max

| Sefffff |

4 wo

w p 11 w o

E I

(3)

no requirement for additional weight to prevent

UHB, the own weight and stiffness of the pipe are

enough to keep the pipeline stable. If Rmax is positive, means that in order to prevent UHB, a downward force of Rmax magnitude has to be applied on

top of the pipeline in the convex zone. The most

common way to add weight on top of the pipeline

to prevent UHB is by dumping gravel inside the

trench, on top of the pipeline. Figure 3 depicts a

transverse section of a trenched pipeline mitigated

with rock dump.

When the length of the pipeline to be mitigated

against UHB is relatively short, other solutions

to achieve additional weight are used, as concrete

mattresses or geotextile bags filled with sand or

other material.

Analyzing Equations 2 and 3, it can be seen that

the parameters inducing UHB are:

steel transverse area As

high internal operating temperature T

height of the imperfection .

The parameters preventing UHB are:

(prop) of m of height.

submerged weight of the fluids being transported, included in wp

bending stiffness E I.

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pipeline to prevent UHB, affecting the parameters

inducing it has been thought of frequently. The

operating conditions pi and T are difficult to

reduce. In some cases, not in Mexico, T has been

manipulated by using cooling spools. The idea

of heating the pipeline while installing it, during

pipe laying thus reducing T has been discussed.

Increasing the Specified Minimum Yield Strength

(SMYS), hence being able to reduce the steel transverse area As is something common. Reducing the

height of the imperfection is directly related to

the methods and quality of the trenching.

3

IN MEXICO

offshore fields for almost 40 years, but the experience with HT/HP pipelines prone to buckling is

limited to some years, and not more than five pipelines. Although the number of pipelines designed

against UHB is very limited, they were long, and

the mitigating measures to prevent UHB proved to

be very expensive. PEMEXs engineering department was assigned to reduce the amount of mitigating measures and to investigate ways to reduce

the cost of implementing them.

3.1

(PEMEX, 2009) stipulates that offshore pipelines

have to be trenched. This responds to the fact that

the code was developed for shallow water pipelines,

where hydrodynamic stability on the sea bottom

of the pipeline is hard to achieve for hurricane

conditions. As explained before, when the pipeline is inside a trench, UHB has to be forcefully

prevented.

PEMEXs engineering department is exploring

the possibility of changing the code to allow for

exposed pipelines, while still maintaining hydrodynamic stability. As mentioned before, exposed

pipelines are allowed to buckle at specified locations, and there is the possibility of not using mitigating measures against buckling at all.

The Mexican code (PEMEX, 2009) specifies

that the pipeline has to be trenched with a DOL of

1 m, following, parallel, the profile of the seabed.

When the seabed is un-even, there might be crests,

and the code is asking the designer to impose the

same crest in the pipeline profile as there is in the

seabed. The possibility and advantages of specifying in the code a more rectilinear pipeline profile,

with a minimum DOL of 1 m is being studied and

its feasibility established.

proposing PEMEX to include in the future HT/HP

to insert expansion loops (omegas) each some

km that would be above the seafloor, and would

allow the pipeline to expand, liberating the internal

force created by the increasing temperature.

3.2 Modifying laying and trenching practices

In Mexico, offshore pipelines are first laid on the

seafloor, and then, with water-jetting, trenched

to the specified DOL. This trenching method has

served well its original purpose, which was to protect the pipeline against hydrodynamic instability,

and therefore little has changed in the technology

involved.

However, water-jetting the pipeline to trench it

produces a profile that has a significant amount

of imperfections and in previous paragraphs it has

been discussed the implications and consequences

of the imperfection heights for UHB mitigation.

It has become clear to PEMEX that in order to

reduce as much as possible the amount of imperfections and their height, and hence the amount of

mitigating measures against UHB, the laying and

trenching practices have to be improved, starting

to use the latest technology available. Improving the flatness of the trenching in Mexicos Bay

of Campeche will present challenges, as the soil

is extremely soft in most areas, intermingled with

paleochannels and dead coral zones.

3.3 Improving the smoothing of the raw

survey data

Once the pipeline is trenched in place, and after

the hydro-test has been performed, a survey of

the profile of the pipeline has to be performed.

This information is paramount to perform the

post-installation UHB analysis. No matter how

accurate the survey is, there is always some noise

in the measurements, so, in order to perform the

UHB analysis, the raw data has to be smoothed

by fitting a polynomial to it. Fitting one polynomial to several kilometres of pipeline would not

give a correct answer, so, the polynomial fitting has

to be performed by steps in much shorter lengths

of pipeline. International engineering firms have

the length over which the polynomial fitting is

to be performed predefined, irrespectively of the

exact characteristics of the pipeline and seabed.

PEMEXs engineering department is exploring

the advantages of fitting the polynomials ever the

exact length of the wave-length (see Fig. 2).

The polynomials degree for the fitting is something that is being studied. International engineering firms, and some literature specify a cubic

polynomial for the fitting. The opinion of PEMEXs

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theory, the regression polynomials degree has to

be at least 4.

The regression polynomial represents the elevation of the pipeline profile, in other words, the

deformed position of the neutral axis. Assuming

that the un-deformed neutral axis of the pipeline

is collinear with the X axis, and that the Y axis

represents the vertical direction, a general regression polynomial of third degree for smoothing

data for UHB analysis would be as presented in

Equation 4 below:

y(x) = a x3 + b x2 + c x + d

(4)

the pipeline axis is related to the flexural moment

by Equation 5 below:

M (x) = E I

d 2 y (x)

dx 2

(5)

also from beam theory, it is known that the derivative of the flexural moment along the axis of the

pipeline is the shear force, and that the derivative

of the shear force along the axis is the distributed

load, as presented in Equations 6 and 7 below:

dM ( x )

dx

dV ( x )

q (x) =

dx

V (x) =

(6)

(7)

on the pipeline is constant, the shear force would

be linear, the flexural moment would be quadratic,

as would the curvature of the pipeline, the slope

of the pipe line would be cubic, and the polynomial representing the deformed position of the

pipelines neutral axis would be of fourth degree,

as opposed to the third degree polynomial used by

the international engineering firms that assisted

PEMEX. The load pattern that affects an offshore

trenched pipeline must be at least quadratic, which

leads to believe that the real polynomial representing the pipeline longitudinal axis should be of

sixth degree.

It is important to mention that reducing the

length over which the regression is made, and

increasing the degree of the fitting polynomial,

makes it more compliant with the raw data, which

might introduce risks that are being studied.

3.4

UHB, the post installation survey was the means

Information System and for future interventions.

The equipment used for the survey was not part

of state-of-the-art technology, but again, for

the intended purposes it served well. The general position of the pipeline was known, which

was what was being needed. For UHB analysis,

the precision needed for the pipeline profile is

completely different. Lack of precision in a survey for UHB analysis has as a consequence that

continuous rock dump has to be applied along

the axis of the pipeline, which implies massive

amounts of gravel and money. The uncertainties on the exact location of the pipeline profile

impede the designer to know where the profile

is convex, hence eventually needing mitigating

measures. If the designer cannot identify the

locations where mitigating measures would be

needed, he will specify them for the whole susceptible length of pipeline.

For the common operating conditions in

Mexico, if the standard deviation of the differences between the smoothed profile and the raw

data is around 2.5 cm, there would not be the need

for continuous mitigating measures.

3.5

for UHB, once the pipeline is already trenched, are

rock dumping (see Fig. 3) and installing concrete

mattresses or geotextile bags filled with sand or

concrete.

If the total pipeline length to be mitigated is

relatively long, the solution is rock dumping, which

implies mobilization and demobilization of a special vessel, generally from the North Sea. The cost

of these is above five million dollars without taking

into account the cost of the rock, which is bought

in Mexican ports. For a pipeline that presents a

shorter length to be mitigated, the adopted solutions are installing, one by one, either concrete

mattresses or geotextile bags.

The problem with rock dumping, besides the

cost of bringing the equipment from the North

Sea, is that a huge amount of rock is not directly

working on top of the pipeline, it fills the sides of

the trench or simply rests on the sea floor. The poor

accuracy for locating the rock, added to the lack of

cohesion make that the amount of rock wasted is

considerable.

Using concrete mattresses or geotextile bags

present two problems, first, the geometry of both

do not match properly the top half of the pipeline,

and a big portion of them is not resting on top of

the pipe but on the seabed. Second, they have to

be installed one by one, with a diver directing and

participating in the maneuver.

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address and minimize the disadvantages presented

by the existing mitigating solutions. The chosen

name is alforjas which means saddlebags in

Spanish. Figure 4 shows a transverse section of a

pipeline with the saddlebags on top.

A pair of saddlebags is two high density concrete pieces connected to each other by chain or

steel rope. In figure 5 a 3D image of a single saddlebag is presented.

The saddlebags can be mass-produced and stored.

The geometry is designed to take into account:

Different pipeline outside diameters. The articulation on top of the pair of saddlebags allows

them to accommodate a range of outside

diameters.

Sedimentation area. The upper part of the pair

of saddlebags is designed to create a region of

low fluid velocity, hence allowing sedimentation

of suspended particles on the seawater, which

increases the downward force and the stability.

In extreme cases, this region would be used as

a base to other mitigating measures as rock or

concrete mattresses.

Different trench materials. The design allows

changing the outer wall inclination to accommodate trenches in soils with different angle

of rest.

Besides, the geometrical design implies a low

position of the centroid, giving stability to the saddlebags, once installed on top of the pipeline.

The concretes density can be increased, incrementing the weight of each saddlebag, or reducing

their sizes.

Some very interesting advantages of the saddlebags are being found, but the most promising

is the reduction of time of installation. It has been

mentioned that a pair of saddlebags is connected

on top by chain or steel rope. Longitudinally, a

series of pairs of saddlebags are also connected by

chain or steel wire. In previous paragraphs it was

commented that the additional downward force

needed to prevent UHB from happening has to

be applied in the convex zone of the imperfection.

measure designed in PEMEXs engineering department.

Figure 5.

Figure 7.

to obtain a length equal to the convex zone. The

distance between pairs of saddlebags is such as to

have the downward force per unit length needed.

This ensemble of pairs of saddlebags that has the

length of the convex zone can be installed on top

of the pipeline from a vessel, in a very similar way

as the pipeline is laid. In Figures 6 and 7 a group of

saddlebags, connected between them is depicted.

For installation purposes, the first end of the

saddlebags ensemble would have to be connected

to an anchor or dead-weight at the sea bottom.

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towards the imperfection, lowering the ensemble.

When the first end, composed by a pair of saddlebags reaches the seabed a diver or ROV would

have to direct it to land directly on top of the pipe,

as the vessel sails and lowers the rest of the saddlebags ensemble, the ROV or diver would have to

direct the vessel in order to place all the saddlebags

pairs on top of the pipeline.

At the current time, PEMEX is evaluating technically and economically the merits of pursuing

the saddlebags idea.

4

UHB for different imperfection heights.

RESULTS

solutions, an analysis has been made of the traditional rock-dumping.

PEMEX designed and installed a 30 pipeline

that is 21 km long, and will be transporting oil

at around 120C. During the design phase of the

project (PEMEX 2010), the downward force Rmax

required to keep the pipeline stable, thus preventing

UHB was determined. In table 1 in the next page,

the values of Rmax for different heights of the theoretical imperfection , and 120C are presented:

The values presented in the second column of

table 1 are then converted to either rock quantities or number of concrete mattresses. Using as

example rock-dump, for each value of downward

force, a rock cover height is determined. From the

rock cover height the amount of rock is computed

(PEMEX 2010). In table 2 below the values of rock

cover height and amount of rock are presented:

Comparing the downward force required to

prevent UHB from happening (second column of

table 1) against the weight of rock needed to provide

such downward force (third column of table 2), it is

found that the amount rock not directly acting on

top of the pipeline, thus not working in the UHB

solution ranges from 60% to 85% of the total.

The saddlebags solution, by design, applies all the

mobilized weight on top of the pipeline, thus making it a more efficient solution in this aspect also.

Table 1. Downward forces

required to prevent UHB for

different imperfection heights

and 120C.

Imperfection

height (M)

Rmax (kN/m)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

4.17

11.21

15.64

19.07

21.71

Imperfection

height (m)

Rock weight

(kN/m)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.55

0.75

0.9

1

45

50

66

78

93

CONCLUSIONS

prone to buckling is a new challenge for the otherwise offshore experienced PEMEXs engineering

department.

Allowing the design of exposed offshore pipelines could be a means of addressing HT/HP pipelines, but it requires changing the Mexican design

code for offshore pipelines (PEMEX, 2009), and

solving hydrodynamic stability in hurricane conditions in different ways than trenching it.

Laying, trenching, surveying and smoothing

practices have a very high impact on the amount

of mitigating measures needed for a specific pipeline prone to UHB.

Commonly used mitigating measures against

UHB in other parts of the world might not be the

most adequate for Mexicos Bay of Campeche. The

lack of operators, other than PEMEX, in Mexico

makes mobilization and demobilization costs

extremely high. The use of alternative solutions, as

the saddlebags presented here, could be adopted by

countries where the traditional solutions are not as

convenient as they are for the countries that originally developed them.

REFERENCES

DNV 2007. Global buckling of submarine pipelines.

Structural design due to high temperature/high pressure

DNV-RP-F110. Norway: Det Norske Veritas.

Hooper, J., Maschner, E. & Farrant, T. 2004. HT/HP

Pipe-in-Pipe Snaked Lay TechnologyIndustry Challenges. OTC 16379. Houston: OTC.

Palmer, A.C., Ellinas, C.P., Richards, D.M. & Guijt, J.

1990. Design of Submarine Pipelines Against Upheaval

Buckling. OTC 6335. Houston: OTC.

PEMEX 2009. Diseo de lneas submarinas en el Golfo de

Mxico. Mexico: PEMEX.

PEMEX 2010. 30 Pipeline BetweenandPredictive

Upheaval Buckling Report. London: KW LTD.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

plate and stiffened panel ultimate strength

J.K. Paik, S.J. Kim, D.H. Kim & D.C. Kim

The Lloyds Register Educational Trust Research Centre of Excellence, Pusan National University,

Busan, Korea

PAFA Consulting Engineers, Hampton, UK

O.F. Hughes

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA

ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to check the accuracy of the ALPS/ULSAP (Analysis of

Large Plated Structures/Ultimate Limit State Assessment Program) methods use to determine the ultimate strength of plates and stiffened panels. The details of the ALPS/ULSAP method and theory are

presented in both Ultimate Limit State Design of Steel-plated Structures, co-authored by J.K. Paik and

A.K. Thayamballi, and Ship Structural Analysis and Design, co-authored by O.F. Hughes and J.K. Paik.

In this benchmark study, the accuracy of the plate and stiffened panel ultimate strength obtained with

the ALPS/ULSAP method is ascertained through comparison with that obtained using nonlinear finite

element methods and the DNV/PULS method.

1

INTRODUCTION

is a much better basis for the design and strength

assessment of ship structures than allowable working stress (Paik & Thayamballi 2003, 2007; ISO

2007; Hughes & Paik 2010), which also holds true

for the condition assessment of aged structures

(Paik & Melchers 2008).

Plates and stiffened panels are the basic structural components that govern the overall failure of

ships and offshore structures. Their accurate and

efficient calculation is thus a very important task

in the design and safety assessment of ships and

offshore structures.

The ultimate strength algorithms for plates and

stiffened panels developed by Paik and his colleagues (Paik & Thayamballi 2003; Hughes & Paik

2010) have been implemented in ALPS/ULSAP

software (2010). The present paper reports the

results of a benchmark study comparing the

ultimate strength of plates and stiffened panels

obtained using the ALPS/ULSAP method with

that obtained with nonlinear finite element methods and the DNV/PULS method (2009).

METHOD

The stiffened plate structure shown in Fig. 1 is considered. This structure is subject to the combined

in-plane and lateral pressure load shown in Fig. 2.

2.1 Ultimate strength of plates

The membrane stress-based method (plastic edgeoriented plate hinge approach) is applied (Paik &

Thayamballi 2003, 2007; Hughes & Paik 2010).

The membrane stress inside a deflected or buckled plate is non-uniform. Figure 3 depicts a typical

example of the axial membrane stress distribution

inside a plate that is subject to uniaxial compressive loading before and after buckling occurs. For

simplicity, the case of a single bulge in the middle

of the plate is shown.

The membrane stress distribution in the loading (x) direction becomes non-uniform as the plate

starts to deflect (e.g., due to buckling). That in

the y direction also becomes non-uniform if the

unloaded plate edges remain straight, although no

membrane stresses will develop in this direction

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of the plate panel.

(b) After buckling, the unloaded edges move freely in plane.

b

tp

N.

tp

A.

hw

tw

N.

tp

A.

hw

N.

A.

hw

tw

tw

tf

bf

tf

bf

of the stiffeners.

subject to uniaxial compressive loads in the case of one

bulge in the middle of the plate.

and lateral pressure load.

move freely in plane. It should be noted that the

unloaded edges of a plate that is part of a stiffened

panel are likely to remain straight.

The maximum compressive membrane stresses

develop around the plate corners, and the minimum (tensile) membrane stresses occur in the

field is formed by the plate deflection because the

plate edges remain straight.

A similar nonlinear membrane stress distribution may appear inside a deflected plate that is

subject to combined axial compression and lateral

pressure loads. Edge shear loading may render the

membrane stress distribution pattern more complex than that under biaxial and lateral pressure

load conditions, but as long as the edge shear is

a secondary load component, the basic membrane

stress distribution pattern inside the plate is likely

to be similar to that in Fig. 4(c).

With an increase in plate deflection, the membrane stress is redistributed as in Fig. 4(c), but,

although the stress in the mid-width of the plate

remains lower, that in the upper and/or lower faces

in the mid-width will initially yield through bending action.

As long as it is possible to redistribute the

stress to the straight plate boundaries through

membrane action, however, the plate will not collapse. Collapse will occur when the most stressed

boundary locations yield because the plate can no

longer keep the boundaries straight, thus resulting in a rapid increase in lateral deflection, which

corresponds to the ultimate limit state or ultimate

strength (Paik & Thayamballi 2003).

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maximum or minimum membrane stresses are

defined, as shown schematically in Fig. 4.

a. Plasticity at plate corners:

eq1

eq 2

eq3

As the applied loads increase, the plate will collapse if any one of the three foregoing equivalent

stresses, namely, eq1, eq2, or eq3, reaches material

yield stress Y. The minimum value among all of

the applied load components that satisfy the three

equations must then be the real ultimate strength

of the plate.

The maximum and minimum membrane stresses

in equations (1) to (3) can be formulated as functions of the various parameters of influence (Paik &

Thayamballi 2003; Hughes & Paik 2010).

Figure 4. Three possible locations for the initial plastic

yield at plate edges subject to combined loads (: Expected

plasticity location; T: Tension; C: Compression) (Paik &

Thayamballi 2003).

Because of the nature of the combined membrane axial stresses in the x and y directions, there

are three possible locations for the initial yield at

the edges, namely, the plate corners, the longitudinal mid-edges, and the transverse mid-edges, as

shown in Fig. 4. The stress at the two mid-edge

locations, i.e., that at each longitudinal or transverse mid-edge, is expected to be the same as long

as the longitudinal or transverse axial stresses are

uniformly applied, i.e., without in-plane bending.

Depending on the predominant half-wave mode

in the length direction, the location of possible

plasticity may vary at the long edges because the

location of the minimum membrane stresses may

differ, whereas it is always at the mid-edges in

the short direction. In this regard, the membrane

stress-based method can also be called the plate

edge-oriented plastic hinge approach.

The occurrence of plasticity can be assessed

using the von Mises yield criterion. The three

following ultimate strength criteria for the most

The possible collapse modes for a stiffened panel

subject to a combined in-plane and lateral pressure

load, such as that shown in Figs. 1 and 2, can be

categorized into the following six types (Paik &

Thayamballi 2003, 2007; Hughes & Paik 2010).

Collapse mode I: Overall collapse of the plating

and stiffeners as a unit; see Fig. 5(a).

Collapse mode II: Plate-induced collapse without

distinct failure of the stiffeners; see Fig. 5(b).

Collapse mode III: Stiffener-induced collapse by

beam-column-type collapse; see Fig. 5(c).

Collapse mode IV: Stiffener-induced collapse by

local buckling of the stiffener web; see Fig. 5(d).

Collapse mode V: Stiffener-induced collapse by

flexural-torsional buckling or tripping of the

stiffeners; see Fig. 5(e).

Collapse mode VI: Gross yielding.

This classification of collapse modes is applicable to any load combinations, including uniaxial

compressive loads and combined in-plane loads

with or without lateral pressure loads.

Collapse mode I represents overall collapse after

overall buckling. In this mode, the stiffeners and

the plating buckle as a unit, and overall buckling

often occurs under an elastic regime. This collapse

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plating and stiffeners as a unit (shaded areas represent

yielded regions).

mode without distinct failure of the stiffeners (shaded

areas represent yielded regions).

Figure 5(c). Collapse mode III: Stiffener-induced collapse mode by beam-column-type failure (shaded areas

represent yielded regions).

collapse mode by local buckling of the stiffener web

(after the buckling collapse of the plating between the

stiffeners).

mode by flexural-torsional buckling of the stiffeners

(after the buckling collapse of the plating between the

stiffeners).

mode typically occurs when the stiffeners are relatively weak relative to the plating.

Collapse mode II occurs when the panel is subjected predominantly to biaxial compressive loads,

thereby causing it to collapse due to yielding along

the plate-stiffener intersection at the panel edges,

with no distinct stiffener failure. In contrast to collapse modes III, IV, and V, this mode assumes that

the stiffeners do not fail first.

When the stiffener dimensions are neither weak

nor strong, the stiffened panel is likely to behave

as a plate-stiffener combination that is representative of the entire panel, thus reaching its ultimate

strength via collapse mode III, beam-column-type

collapse.

When the height to thickness ratio of the stiffener web is large, local buckling is likely to take

place in the web. Collapse mode IV occurs when

the stiffener web buckles in conjunction with the

inception of failure in the plating between the

stiffeners.

When the stiffener flange is of a type that is

unable to remain straight, the stiffeners twist sideways, a phenomenon known as flexural-torsional

buckling or tripping. Collapse mode V constitutes

the pattern of failure in which the panel collapses

due to the lateral-torsional buckling or tripping of

the stiffeners.

The stiffened panel reaches its ultimate strength

in collapse mode VI when the panel is stocky or

subjected predominantly to axial tensile loading,

such that neither local nor overall buckling occurs

until the panel cross-section yields either entirely

or to a large extent.

Although these collapse modes are illustrated

separately here, some of them may interact and

occur simultaneously. For the sake of simplicity,

however, a stiffened panel is considered to reach

its ultimate strength via the first, and predominant, of the six collapse modes to occur. Hence,

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separately for each of these collapse patterns, with

the smallest value among those computed taken as

its real ultimate strength.

BENCHMARK STUDY

3.1

b/2

b/2

Long. stiffeners

Trans. frames

b

b/2

b/2

a/2

Study methods

comparison purposes in this benchmark study.

a/2

a/2

a/2

modellingextent of the analysis for the plate.

method

modellingmesh size.

method

ALPS/ULSAP method (2010)

DNV/PULS method (2009)

For the nonlinear finite element method analysis, which was considered to be the most refined

approach, ANSYS (2010), Abaqus (2010), and

MSC/MARC (2010) were employed.

3.2

considered in this study are as follows.

Plate breadth, b = 850 mm

Plate thickness, tp = 11, 16, 22, 33 mm

Yield stress, Yp = 313.6 MPa

Elastic modulus, E = 205800 MPa

Poissons ratio, v = 0.3

abb==2550

a

2550 850(mm)

850 (mm)

tp= 11

11mm

mm

0.8

yu/ Y

FEM

ALPS/ULSAP

DNV/PULS

0.4

0.0

Yp E .

where

p

The magnitude of the ANSYS and ALPS/

ULSAP method analyses differs from that of the

DNV/PULS because the latter implicitly considers the initial imperfections, whereas both of the

former deal with them as parameters of influence,

and the present benchmark study considers an

average level of plate initial deflection.

Figure 6 presents the nonlinear finite element

method modeling for the plate in terms of the

analysis extent and mesh size.

Figures 7 to 10 present the ultimate strength

interaction relationships between biaxial compressive loads for plates with tp of 11 mm, 16 mm,

22 mm, and 33 mm, respectively.

The comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP

method computations are in very good agreement

0.6

0.2

for DNV/PULS,

element

1.0

loads, and all edges are assumed to be simply supported. No welding residual stresses are considered, although the plates have initial deflection wopl,

which corresponds to the plate buckling mode, as

follows.

wopl = 0.1 2tp

wopl = b/200

finite

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

xu/ Y

between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with

tp = 11 mm.

tends to overestimate the plate ultimate strength.

3.3

The geometric and material properties of the stiffened panel (denoted by panel type C) considered in

this study are as follows.

Panel length, a = 4750 mm

Panel breadth, B = 8550 mm

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Number of stiffeners = 8

Plate breadth, b = 950 mm

Plate thickness, tp = 11, 12.5, 15, 18.5, 25

37 mm

Yield stress of plate, Yp = 313.6 MPa

Yield stress of stiffeners, Ys = 313.6 MPa

Elastic modulus, E = 205800 MPa

Poissons ratio, v = 0.3

1.0

a bb==2550

a

2550 850(mm)

850 (mm)

tp= 16

16mm

mm

0.8

yu/ Y

0.6

FEM

ALPS/ULSAP

DNV/PULS

0.4

following condition is applied for the plate initial

deflection.

0.2

wopl = b/200 for DNV/PULS,

0.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

xu/ Y

between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with

tp = 16 mm.

1.0

a bb==2550

a

2550 850(mm)

850 (mm)

22mm

mm

tp= 22

yu/ Y

0.6

0.4

FEM

ALPS/ULSAP

DNV/PULS

0.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

xu/ Y

between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with

tp = 22 mm.

1.2

tp = 33 mm

1.0

0.8

yu/ Y

the following condition is applied for all of the

methods.

Column-type initial distortion, woc = 0.0015a

Sideways initial distortion, wos = 0.0015a

0.8

0.2

where wopl = the plate initial deflection amplitude corresponding to the buckling mode,

Yp E .

p

Three types of stiffeners, namely, flat-bar, anglebar, and T-bar stiffeners, are considered. The four

stiffener sizes shown in Table 1 are considered for

each of the stiffener types. The size of transverse

frames and longitudinal girders is not addressed

herein, but it is considered to be large enough so that

neither lateral deformation nor failure occurs before

the stiffened panel reaches the ultimate strength.

Figure 11 represents the ANSYS nonlinear finite

element method modeling in terms of the analysis

extent and mesh size. A + 1 + span model in

the longitudinal (x) direction and + 1 + bay

model in the transverse (y) direction are applied.

A finer mesh is applied as the stiffener web height

increases, based on the results of a convergence

study. Table 2 indicates the boundary conditions

applied for the ANSYS nonlinear finite element

method analysis of the stiffened panel.

The present benchmark study was undertaken

in association with the activities of ISSC (International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress)

0.6

(panel C).

0.4

FEM

ALPS/ULSAP

DNV/PULS

0.2

0.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Y

0.8

1.0

Size

Flat-bar Angle-bar

(mm)

(mm)

hw bf tw/tf

hw tw

T-bar (mm)

hw bf tw/tf

Size 1

Size 2

Size 3

Size 4

150 17

250 25

350 35

550 35

138 90 9/12

235 90 10/15

383 100 12/17

580 150 15/20

1.2

between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with

tp = 33 mm.

138 90 9/12

235 90 10/15

383 100 12/17

580 150 15/20

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y

D'

Tran

s. fra

between the stiffeners are assigned, and three elements in the stiffener web height.

One element is used for the angle-type stiffener

flange, and two for the T-type, in all of the nonlinear finite element method analyses. No elements

are assigned for the longitudinal girders or transverse frames, although lateral deflections along

them are not allowed.

mes

D''

D'''

s

er

rd

gi

i.

g

n

Lo

C'

B

z

A

B'

A'

A''

A'''

Size 1

Size 2

Size 3

Size 4

Flat type

(hw tw)

150 17(mm)

13800 elements

250 25(mm)

13800 elements

350 35(mm)

25000 elements

550 35(mm)

41000 elements

Angle type

(hw bf tw /tf)

138 90 9/12(mm)

15400 elements

15400 elements

26600 elements

42600 elements

Tee type

(hw bf tw /tf)

138 90 9/12(mm)

15400 elements

15400 elements

26600 elements

42600 elements

modeling in terms of the analysis extent and mesh size.

Table 2. Boundary conditions applied for the ANSYS

nonlinear finite element method analysis.

Boundary

Description

Rx = Rz = 0 and uniform

displacement in the y direction

(Uy = uniform), coupled the

plate part

Symmetric condition with

Ry = Rz = 0 and uniform

displacement in the x direction

(Ux = uniform), coupled with

longitudinal stiffeners

Uz = 0

A-D, A-D,

B-B and C-C

compression

Figures 12 to 14 show the normalized panel ultimate strength under longitudinal compression as a

function of the slenderness coefficient of the plate

between the longitudinal stiffeners by comparison

with the nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA),

ALPS/ULSAP, and DNV/PULS for the flat-bar,

angle-bar, and T-bar stiffeners, respectively.

The figures show, and in line with expectations,

that the normalized panel ultimate strength characteristics are significantly dependent on the panel

geometry, among other factors. It is interesting to

note that the maximum value of the normalized

panel ultimate strength appears at a certain plate

slenderness coefficient with size 2 stiffeners.

Figure 15 shows the variation in panel ultimate

strength as a function of the column slenderness

ratio for a plate-stiffener combination with flat-,

angle- and T-bar stiffeners. This figure shows that

the panel ultimate strength clearly decreases as the

column slenderness ratio increases in the range of

moderate and small stiffeners representing relatively large column slenderness ratio. For stiffened

panels with small column slenderness ratios, however, no clear relationship between the panel ultimate strength and the column slenderness ratio

does exist.

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (ABAQUS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

0.8

xu/ Yeq

and some different FE codes with different FE

modeling techniques were considered. For the

MSC/MARC nonlinear finite element method

analysis, a + 1 + span model in the longitudinal (x) direction and 1 bay model in the transverse

(y) direction are taken as the extent of the analysis. Ten plate-shell elements in the plate breadth

between the stiffeners are assigned, and six plateshell elements are used in the stiffener web height

direction regardless of the stiffener web height.

For the Abaqus nonlinear finite element

method analysis, a + 1 + 1 + span model in the

longitudinal (x) direction and 1 bay model in the

transverse (y) direction are taken as the extent

0.6

0.4

Mode III

0.2

III

III

III

III

III

0.0

0

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 12(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under

longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 1).

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1.2

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (ABAQUS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

0.8

III

IV

xu/ Yeq

0.8

xu/ Yeq

IV

III

0.6

III

Mode III

0.6

III

III

Mode III

0.2

0.2

III

III

0.4

0.4

III

0.0

0.0

0

longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 2).

Figure 13(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 1).

1.2

1.2

(b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

1.0

xu/ Yeq

III

Mode III

xu/ Yeq

0.8

0.8

IV

IV

II

II

0.6

III

0.6

III

Mode III

0.4

0.4

0.2

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

0.0

0

0

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 12(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under

longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 3).

1.2

Figure 13(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 2).

1.2

1.0

1.0

Mode III

IV

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.8

xu/ Yeq

(b / t p ) Yp / E

IV

IV

0.6

IV

II

0.4

III

Mode III

V

V

0.6

0.4

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (ABAQUS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

(b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Figure 13(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 3).

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1.2

1.2

1.0

1.0

Mode III

0.8

0.8

xu/ Yeq

xu/ Yeq

II

II

II

0.6

Mode III

V

V

0.6

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (ABAQUS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

( b / t p ) Yp / E

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (ABAQUS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

Mode V

0.6

III

0.4

III

Mode III

0.2

III

V

II

II

0.4

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (ABAQUS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

1

longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 1).

1.2

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

xu/ Yeq

III

FEA (ANSYS)

Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

0.8

0.6

longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

1.0

( b / tp ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

1.2

II

0.6

III

III

0.0

0

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 3).

1.2

1.2

( b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 13(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 4).

xu/ Yeq

0.4

0.4

xu/ Yeq

III

0.6

0.4

Mode III

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

(a / r ) Yeq / E

( b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 14(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under

longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 2).

strength under longitudinal compression as a function of

the column slenderness ratio with flat-bar stiffeners.

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1.2

1.0

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

0.8

yu/ Yeq

xu/ Yeq

0.6

Mode I

0.6

III

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

III

III

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 1).

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

xu/ Yeq

( b / t p ) Yp / E

strength under longitudinal compression as a function of

the column slenderness ratio with angle-bar stiffeners.

1.0

III

0.0

2.5

(a / r ) Yeq / E

1.2

III

0.6

Mode III

0.6

III

0.4

0.4

III

III

IV

IV

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

( b / t p ) Yp / E

(a / r ) Yeq / E

strength under longitudinal compression as a function of

the column slenderness ratio with T-bar stiffeners.

transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 2).

1.2

comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP method

solutions are in very good agreement with those

of the nonlinear FEA, though slightly on the conservative side, whereas the ALPS/ULSAP method

tends to underestimate the ultimate strength of the

panels with large flat-bar stiffeners, as shown in

Figs. 12(c) and 12(d).

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

yu/ Yeq

0.8

Mode III

0.6

III

0.4

IV

IV

3.3.2

compression

Figures 16 to 18 show the normalized panel ultimate

strength under transverse compression as a function

of the slenderness coefficient of the plate between

the longitudinal stiffeners by comparison with

nonlinear FEA and ALPS/ULSAP for flat-bar,

angle-bar, and T-bar stiffeners, respectively.

IV

IV

0.2

0.0

0

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 16(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under

transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 3).

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1.2

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Mode III

0.6

IV

0.4

Mode III

0.6

V

0.4

IV

IV

IV

V

IV

IV

transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 4).

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 3).

1.2

1.2

( b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

IV

0.0

0.0

Mode III

0.6

III

Mode V

0.6

IV

0.4

0.4

IV

III

III

IV

III

III

IV

IV

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0

transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 1).

1.2

transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 4).

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

( b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

IV

0.2

0.2

Mode III

0.6

III

0.4

Mode III

0.6

III

0.4

III

V

III

III

III

III

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0

( b / t p ) Yp / E

( b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 17(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under

transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 2).

transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 1).

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1.2

panel ultimate strength under transverse compression as a function of the column slenderness

ratio of the longitudinal stiffeners with attached

plating. The panel ultimate transverse compressive strength tends to remain unchanged for the

column slenderness ratio of the longitudinal stiffeners as long as the plate is identical. It is interesting to note that a clear relationship between the

panel ultimate transverse compressive strength

and the column slenderness ratio of the longitudinal stiffeners exists, representing that the panel

ultimate transverse compressive strength increases

as the column slenderness ratio of the longitudinal

stiffeners with attached plating increases when the

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

yu/ Yeq

0.8

Mode III

0.6

III

0.4

III

V

0.2

0.0

0

( b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 18(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under

transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 2).

1.2

1.0

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Size 4 Size 3

0.8

yu/ Yeq

Size 2

0.8

xu/ Yeq

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Mode III

Size 1

0.6

0.4

0.6

V

0.4

0.2

V

IV

IV

IV

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

( a / r ) Yeq / E

0.0

0

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 18(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under

transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 3).

strength under transverse compression as a function of

the column slenderness ratio with flat-bar stiffeners.

1.2

1.2

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Size 4 Size 3

Size 2

Size 1

xu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

Mode V

0.6

0.4

IV

0.4

0.6

IV

IV

IV

0.2

IV

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

(a / r ) Yeq / E

( b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 18(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under

transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

strength under transverse compression as a function of

the column slenderness ratio with angle-bar stiffeners.

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1.2

1.0

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Panel C: tp=18.5 mm

hw tw = 150 17 (mm) (F)

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

Size 4 Size 3

Size 2

Size 1

yu/ Yeq

xu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

Mode III

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.0

2.5

0.0

( a / r ) Yeq / E

strength under transverse compression as a function of

the column slenderness ratio with T-bar stiffeners.

0.2

0.6

0.8

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

flat-bar stiffeners (size 1).

1.0

The comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP

method solutions for the panel ultimate strength

under transverse compression are in very good

agreement with those of the nonlinear FEA except

for the panels with a very thick plate and relatively

weak stiffeners. See Figs. 16(a) and 16(b) in which

the ALPS/ULSAP method overestimates the

panel ultimate strength due to the overestimation

of the load-carrying capacity of the longitudinal

stiffeners.

hw tw = 250 25 (mm) (F)

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4

Mode III

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

Figure 20(b). Ultimate strength interaction relationship between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm

and flat-bar stiffeners (size 2).

1.0

hw tw = 350 35 (mm) (F)

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

yu/ Yeq

Figures 20 to 22 show the panel ultimate strength

interaction relationships between biaxial compressive loads by comparison with nonlinear FEA and

ALPS/ULSAP for flat-bar, angle-bar, and T-bar

stiffeners, respectively.

Figure 23 shows the panel ultimate strength

interaction relationship between biaxial compressive loads by comparison with nonlinear FEA and

ALPS/ULSAP for size 4 T-bar stiffeners with different plate thicknesses.

The comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP

method computations are in very good agreement

with those of the nonlinear FEA for the wide

range of plate and stiffener dimensions with different types of stiffeners.

0.4

xu/ Yeq

0.6

0.4

Mode III

Mode II

0.2

Mode IV

3.3.4

longitudinal compression and lateral

pressure loads

The panel ultimate strength under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure loads

is now analyzed, as shown in Fig. 24. Two kinds

of lateral pressure loading, namely, the plate-sided

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

flat-bar stiffeners (size 3).

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1.0

1.0

hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (A)

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

FEA (ANSYS)

0.8

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

0.6

0.4

Mode III

Mode II

Mode II

Mode III

0.2

0.2

Mode V

Mode IV

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

0.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

flat-bar stiffeners (size 4).

0.8

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

FEA (ANSYS)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.6

0.8

0.4

xu/ Yeq

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

angle-bar stiffeners (size 3).

1.0

1.0

0.2

0.6

Mode III

0.4

0.2

0.6

Mode III

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

0.2

Mode IV

Mode V

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

0.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

angle-bar stiffeners (size 1).

1.0

0.2

1.0

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.8

FEA (ANSYS)

0.6

0.4

0.6

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

angle-bar stiffeners (size 4).

0.8

0.4

xu/ Yeq

Mode III

0.6

0.4

Mode III

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

0.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

angle-bar stiffeners (size 2).

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 1).

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1.0

1.0

Panel C: tp = 11mm

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.6

0.4

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.8

Mode III

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

0.2

0.2

Mode II

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.0

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 2).

1.0

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

0.2

0.2

Mode V

Mode II

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.0

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 3).

1.0

1.0

yu/ Yeq

Mode IV

0.6

0.8

1.0

Panel C: tp= 15 mm

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.4

xu/ Yeq

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

0.2

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 12.5 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

Mode III

0.6

0.8

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.4

0.4

xu/ Yeq

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 11 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Panel C: tp = 18.5 mm

hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (T)

0.8

0.2

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

Mode II

0.2

0.2

Mode V

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

0.0

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 15 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

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1.0

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

0.2

Mode V

Figure 24. A stiffened panel under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure loads.

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

xu/ Yeq

1.0

Figure 23(d). Ultimate strength interaction relationship between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm

and T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

1.0

Panel C: tp= 25 mm

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

Mode III

pressure loading (with an amplification factor of 20).

0.4

Mode II

0.2

Mode V

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 25 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

1.2

pressure loading in the plate-sided pressure loading (with

an amplification factor of 20).

Panel C: tp= 37 mm

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)

FEA (MSC/MARC)

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

Mode V

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

xu/ Yeq

Figure 23(f). Ultimate strength interaction relationship

between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 37 mm and

T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

pressure loading in the stiffener-sided pressure loading

(with an amplification factor of 20).

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considered.

In the FEA employed in this study, the lateral

pressure loads are applied first until the target

magnitude is achieved, and then the longitudinal

compressive loads are increased. This type of loading order changes the shape of the initial deflections before longitudinal compression is applied,

as shown in Fig. 25.

Figure 26 shows the deformed shapes of the

panel with T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and tp = 15 mm

at the ultimate limit state under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure loads,

where p = 0.25 MPa.

Figures 27 and 28 show the panel ultimate

strength interaction relationships between lon-

1.0

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

FEA (ANSYS) with Plate-sided Pressure

FEA (ANSYS) with Stiffener-sided Pressure

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.6

Plate-sided Pressure

0.4

0.2

Stiffener-sided Pressure

tp=18.5 mm

0.0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

p (MPa)

Figure 28. Ultimate strength interaction relationship

between longitudinal compression and lateral pressure

loads for the panel with T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and

tp = 18.5 mm.

Figure 26. Deformed shape of the panel under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure

loads for T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and P = 0.25 MPa at the

ultimate limit states (with an amplification factor of 10).

1.0

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

FEA (ANSYS) with Plate-sided Pressure

FEA (ANSYS) with Stiffener-sided Pressure

Mode V

Mode II Mode V

xu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4

Plate-sided Pressure

Mode III

0.2

Stiffener-sided Pressure

tp=15 mm

0.0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

with T-bar stiffeners (size 3), by comparison with

nonlinear FEA and ALPS/ULSAP, for tp = 15 mm

and tp = 18.5 mm, respectively. The nonlinear FEA

results for both the plate- and stiffener-sided pressure loading cases are compared.

It is observed that the panel collapse modes differ depending on both the loading ratio and the

pressure loading direction as well as the panel

dimensions. The comparisons show that the ALPS/

ULSAP method solutions are in very good agreement with the nonlinear finite element method

computations.

0.4

p (MPa)

Figure 27. Ultimate strength interaction relationship

between longitudinal compression and lateral pressure

loads for the panel with T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and

tp = 15 mm.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

this paper was to check the accuracy of the ALPS/

ULSAP methods use to determine plate and stiffened panel ultimate strength, compared with nonlinear FEA and the DNV/PULS method.

The dimensions and material properties of

a real ship panel were selected as the standard

panel for testing purposes, and a wider range of

plating and stiffener dimensions was considered

by varying the panels properties. Three types

of stiffeners, namely, flat-bar, angle-bar, and T-bar

stiffeners, were considered, and different loading

conditions, including longitudinal compression,

transverse compression, biaxial compression, and

combined longitudinal compression and lateral

pressure loads, were applied.

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found to be in very good agreement with the

nonlinear finite element method computations

through a wide range of panel dimensions and

different loading conditions. Because the ALPS/

ULSAP method is based on design formulations,

the computational time required is extremely short

compared to the nonlinear finite element method.

This will be of great advantage in the structural

design and safety assessment of ship structures

comprising a large number of plate panels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The present study was undertaken at The Lloyds

Register Educational Trust (The LRET) Research

Centre of Excellence at Pusan National University, Korea. This benchmark study was performed

in association with the activities of International

Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC)

Technical Committee III.1 Ultimate Strength. The

authors are pleased to acknowledge the financial

support of both The LRET and The National

Research Foundation of Korea.

PA, USA (www.ansys.com).

DNV/PULS. 2009. CSADirect analysis of ship structures. Classification Notes, No. 34.1, Det Norske Veritas, April.

Hughes, O.F. and Paik, J.K. 2010. Ship structural analysis and design, The Society of Naval Architects and

Marine Engineers, New Jersey, USA.

ISO. 2007. International standard ISO 18072-1, Ships and

marine technologyShip structures, Part 1: General

requirements for their limit state assessment, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.

MSC/MARC. 2010. MSC Software Corporation, Santa

Ana, CA, USA (www.mscsoftware.com).

Paik, J.K. and Melchers, R.E. 2008. Condition assessment

of aged structures, CRC Press, New York, USA.

Paik, J.K. and Thayamballi, A.K. 2003. Ultimate limit

state design of steel-plated structures. John Wiley &

Sons, Chichester, UK.

Paik, J.K. and Thayamballi, A.K. 2007. Ship-shaped offshore installations: Design, building, and operation.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

REFERENCES

Abaqus. 2010. SIMULIA, Providence, RI, USA

(www.simulia.com).

ALPS/ULSAP. 2010. A computer program for ultimate

limit state assessment of plate panels. Advanced Technology Center, DRS C3 Systems, Inc., MD, USA

(www.proteusengineering.com, www.maestromarine.

com).

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

calculations of ship hulls

J.K. Paik, D.K. Kim, D.H. Park & H.B. Kim

The Lloyds Register Educational Trust Research Centre of Excellence, Pusan National University,

Busan, Korea

A.E. Mansour

University of California, Berkeley, USA

J.B. Caldwell

Emeritus Professor, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to develop a modified Paik-Mansour formula for the

ultimate strength calculations of ship hulls subject to vertical bending moments. The method is based on

a credible bending stress distribution over the hull cross-section presumed at the ultimate limit state. The

accuracy of this method is demonstrated through comparison with computations obtained using more

refined methods, such as nonlinear finite element method, intelligent super-size finite element method,

and idealized structural unit method. Statistical analysis of the hull girder ultimate strength based on

comparisons among the various computations is carried out in terms of their mean values and coefficients

of variation. The original Paik-Mansour method is found to be inapplicable to the case of a pure vertical

bending moment depending on the ships hull type and/or vertical bending direction, but the modified

Paik-Mansour method is more general and is able to resolve this issue.

1

INTRODUCTION

is a much better basis for the design and strength

assessment of ship structures than allowable working stress (Paik & Thayamballi 2003, 2007; ISO

2007; Mansour & Liu 2008; Hughes & Paik 2010).

The same is also true for the condition assessment

of aged structures (Paik & Melchers 2008).

As applied hull girder loads increase, the most

highly stressed structural components of the ships

hull buckle in compression or yield in tension.

A ship can withstand further hull girder loading

even after the buckling or yielding of a few structural components. However, local failures result

in a decrease in the structural effectiveness of the

hull, and hence the overall hull structure eventually

reaches the ultimate limit state as the hulls redundancy becomes exhausted due to the progressive

structural failures that occur when hull girder

loads are applied.

The collapse of a ships hull constitutes the most

catastrophic failure event because it almost always

entails the complete loss of the ship. Such collapse

can occur when the hulls maximum load-carrying

capacity (or ultimate hull girder strength) is insufficient to sustain the corresponding hull girder

hull girder collapse is the breaking of the hull

into two parts due to the action of extreme vertical bending moments that exceed the ultimate hull

girder strength.

The prevention of hull collapse is thus the most

important task in the design and safety assessment

of ship structures, and an accurate and efficient

method of computing ultimate hull girder strength

is a prerequisite for robust ship structural design.

In this paper, the original Paik-Mansour formula method (Paik & Mansour 1995) is modified

to allow more accurate calculation of ultimate hull

girder strength. The accuracy of the method developed herein is demonstrated through comparison

with more refined method computations.

2

2.1

Caldwells original formula method

stress distribution-based method of calculating

the ultimate vertical bending moments of a ships

hull. As shown in Figure 1, he presumed a bending

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stress distribution at the ultimate limit state under a vertical bending moment for a simplified ship hull cross-section

subject to sagging or hogging (N.A. = neutral axis).

the ultimate limit state under vertical bending

moments, in which all of the materials in compression have reached their ultimate strength with

buckling and all of the materials in tension have

yielded. Caldwell then calculated the ultimate bending moments by integrating the presumed bending

stresses over the hull cross-section.

Such presumed stress distribution does not,

however, accurately represent the ultimate limit

states of modern ship structures, thereby resulting in overestimated calculations of ultimate hull

girder strength.

2.2

Experimental studies of large-scale ship hull models (e.g., Dow 1991) and numerical studies of fullscale ships (e.g., Rutherford and Caldwell 1990;

Paik et al., 1996) have demonstrated that the overall collapse of a ships hull under a vertical bending

moment is governed by the collapse of the compressed flange, although some degree of reserve

strength remains after the compressed flange has

collapsed.

This is the case because, after the buckling of

the compressed flange, the neutral axis (N.A.) of

the hull cross-section moves toward the tensioned

flange, and a further increase in the applied bending moment is sustained until this flange yields. At

later stages of this process, the vertical structures

around the compressed and tensioned flanges (e.g.,

the longitudinal bulkheads or side shell structures)

may also fail.

In the vicinity of the final N.A., however, the

vertical structures usually remain in a linear elastic

state until the overall collapse of the hull girder.

Depending on the geometrical and material properties of the hulls cross-section, these parts may

of course fail, which corresponds with Caldwells

(1965) presumption.

Figure 2 shows an example of typical bending stresses across the hull cross-section of a

across the cross-section of a ships hull at the ultimate limit

state under a hogging bending moment (+: tension: :

compression), obtained through numerical investigations

(Paik et al., 1996).

under a vertical hogging bending moment, as

obtained through numerical investigations (Paik

et al., 1996). It is evident from this figure that

the compressed flange (the bottom panel) collapses, and the tensioned flange (the deck panel)

yields, until the ultimate strength has been reached,

whereas the vertical structures in the vicinity of

the N.A. remain intact (linear elastic). Hence, the

approach based on Caldwells presumed bending stress distribution can result in the strength

of a ships hull against collapse being greatly

overestimated.

Paik and Mansour (1995) subsequently suggested

the bending stress distribution over the hull crosssection at the ultimate limit state that is shown in

Figure 3. In the sagging condition, regions 1 and 2

are under tension, and regions 3 and 4 are under

compression. Region 1 represents the outer bottom

Y

panels, which have yielded to reach yield stress x ,

and region 4 the upper deck panels and upper part

of the vertical structures, which have buckled and

collapsed to reach ultimate stress Ux . Regions

2 and 3, however, remain in a linear elastic or

unfailed state, reaching an elastic stress of xE .

In the hogging condition, regions 1 and 2 are

under compression, and regions 3 and 4 are under

tension. Region 1, which represents the outer

bottom panels and the lower part of the vertical

structures, has buckled and collapsed to reach ultimate stress Ux , and region 4, which represents the

upper deck panels, has yielded to reach yield stress

Yx . Regions 2 and 3 remain in the linear elastic

regime, reaching elastic stress Ex .

The height of region 4 (the upper part of the vertical structures) in the sagging condition, or that of

region 1 (the lower part of the vertical structures)

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xY

Ux

Mu

i =1

Tens.

Comp.

D-gus

E

x

xE

gus

xE

Tens.

Comp.

( zi

gu ),

(3)

where n = the total number of structural components, and gu is as defined in Equation (2). Mu is

denoted by Mus (negative value) for the sagging

condition and by Muh (positive value) for the hogging condition.

D-guh

xE

xi ai

guh

Ux

xY

(a) Sagging

(b) Hogging

Figure 3. Paik and Mansours (1995) original presumption of the bending stress distribution across the

cross-section of a ships hull at the ultimate limit state

under sagging or hogging conditions (+: tension; : compression) (the superscripts U, Y, E denote the ultimate

strength, yielding, and elastic region, respectively).

collapse is assigned on the basis of the geometrical

and material properties of the ships hull structure.

Under a vertical bending moment, the summation

of axial forces over the entire cross-section of the

hull becomes zero, as follows.

xdA = 0,

(1)

The height of region 4 in the sagging condition

or that of region 1 in the hogging condition can be

defined by solving Equation (1). The distance gu

from the ships baseline (reference position) to the

horizontal N.A. of the cross-section of the ships

hull at the ultimate limit state can then be obtained

as follows.

not allow the expansion of the yielded area to the

vertical members under tensile loads, although it

presumes that the tension flange, i.e., the deck panels in the hogging condition and the outer bottom

panels in the sagging condition, has yielded at the

ultimate limit state of the hull girders subject to

vertical bending moments.

However, depending on the geometric and/or

material properties of the hull cross-sections, the

vertical members close to the tension flange may

also have yielded until the hull girders reach the

ultimate limit state. Therefore, the bending stress

distribution at the ultimate limit state presumed in

the original Paik-Mansour method is now modified to that shown in Figure 4, where hY is the

height of the yielded area under axial tension and

hC is the height of the collapsed area under axial

compression.

In contrast to the original Paik-Mansour formula method, which involves only one unknown,

i.e., hC, in the bending stress distribution over the

hull cross-section, the modified method involves

two unknowns, i.e., hY and hC. Equation (1) is

insufficient to determine two unknowns, and thus

the following iteration process is required to determine hY and hC.

gu =

xxi ai zi

i =1

n

(2)

xxi ai

i =1

(reference position) to the horizontal N.A. of the

ith structural component; xi = the longitudinal

stress of the ith structural component following

the presumed stress distribution; ai = the crosssectional area of the ith structural component; and

n = the total number of structural components. gu

is denoted by gus in the sagging condition and by guh

in the hogging condition.

The ultimate vertical bending moment Mu is

then calculated as the first moment of the bending

stresses around the N.A. position, as follows.

Figure 4. Modification of the Paik-Mansour presumption of the bending stress distribution across the

cross-section of a ships hull at the ultimate limit state

under sagging or hogging conditions (+: tension; : compression) (the superscripts U, Y, E denote the ultimate

strength, yielding, and elastic region, respectively).

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i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

3.1

points for the hull cross-section using the

plate-stiffener combination elements and/or

plate elements.

Calculate the ultimate axial compressive

stresses of the individual elements.

Divide the ships depth into a number of segments (parts).

Keeping hY (the height of the yielded hull

part) at a constant value starting from hY = 0,

increase hC (the height of the collapsed hull

part) starting from hC = 0.

Assign the linear elastic stresses of the individual elements in regions 2 and 3 linearly between

the average values of the ultimate stresses in

the collapsed hull part (region 4 under sagging or region 1 under hogging) and the yield

stresses in the yielded hull part (region 1 under

sagging or region 4 under hogging).

Calculate the total axial forces (positive sign)

in tension and the total axial forces (negative

sign) in compression across the entire hull

cross-section.

Repeat steps (iv) to (vi) varying hC together with

hY until the difference between the numerical

values of these axial forces should be acceptably small.

developed for various types of ship structures. In

the present study, all types of ship hulls are modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener combination

models except for tanker hull structures, while

tanker hull structures under a sagging moment are

modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener separation models, and those under a hogging moment

are modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener combination models. The details of the ships, including

the geometric and material properties of their hull

cross-sections, are presented in Paik (2011).

3.2

elements under axial tension is considered to be

CROSS-SECTIONS AND INDIVIDUAL

ELEMENT ULTIMATE STRENGTH

Structural modeling

as an assembly of plate-stiffener combination models (beam-column elements with attached plating)

and/or plate-stiffener separation models (plate

elements + beam-column elements without attached

plating), as shown in Figure 5.

frigate test hull using plate-stiffener combination

models.

Figure 5(a). Plate-stiffener combination models (beamcolumn elements with attached plating) in a stiffened

plate structure.

elements + beam-column elements without attached plating) in a stiffened plate structure.

hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

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using both plate-stiffener combination models and platestiffener separation models.

double-hull tanker ship hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

double-hull tanker ship hull using plate-stiffener separation models.

hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

hull using plate-stiffener separation models.

VLCC hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

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corresponding nodal point for the plate-stiffener

combination element; and

t = plate thickness.

The foregoing equation implicitly takes into

account the effect of initial imperfections in terms

of plate initial deflection, column type initial

distortions of the stiffeners, sideways initial distortions of the stiffeners, and welding residual

stresses.

VLCC hull using plate-stiffener separation models.

ultimate strength of those under axial compression

is assumed to be as follows.

3.2.1 Plate-stiffener combination elements

The ultimate compressive strength of the platestiffener combination elements shown in Figure 6

are determined by the following Paik-Thayamballi

empirical formula (Paik & Thayamballi 2003).

Yeq

in xu1, 2 ,

xu

The ultimate compressive strength of plate elements is determined by the following equation

(Paik et al., 2004).

For plate elements with a/b 1, the ultimate axial

compressive strength with an average level of initial

imperfections should be determined as follows.

032 4

2 + 1.00 f

xu 0.03

= 1.274 /

Yp

2

1.248 / 0.283

where,

=

Yeq

=

0.995 + 0.936

a Yeq

;

r E

b Yp

;

t E

r=

2 2

b Yp

;

t E

b = spacing of the stiffeners or the plate breadth

between the stiffeners;

E = elastic modulus; and

t = plate thickness.

(4)

where

xu1

1.5

3.0 (5)

> 3.0

compressive strength with an average level of initial

imperfections should be determined as follows.

+ 0.188 0.067 4

xu a *xu 0.475 a

=

+

1 ,

Yp b Yp

2 b

(6)

where

4

2

= 1.

/

f

Yp

2

1

.

2

4

48

/

0

.

283

f

I

;

As

combination element;

Yp = the yield stress of the plating;

a = the length of the plate-stiffener combination

element;

As = the cross-sectional area of the plate-stiffener

combination element;

b = the spacing of the stiffeners or the plate breadth

between the stiffeners;

E = elastic modulus;

1.5

1.5 < 3.0 ;

> 3.0

a Yp

.

t E

APPLIED EXAMPLES

ship indicated in Section 3.1 are now calculated using

the proposed modified Paik-Mansour method, with

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4.1

12

more refined methods. As previously mentioned,

tanker hull structures under a sagging moment are

modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener separation models (plate elements + beam-column elements without attached plating, see Figure 5(b)),

while those under a hogging moment and other

types of ship hulls are modeled as an assembly of

plate-stiffener combination models.

The ANSYS (2010) nonlinear finite element

method, ALPS/HULL (2010) intelligent supersize finite element method, and CSR (Common

Structural Rules) (IACS 2006a, 2006b) idealized

structural unit method are employed for this

comparison. The test results for the Dows (1991)

frigate test hull model in the sagging condition are

also compared.

An average level of initial imperfections was

applied for the numerical computations, although

welding residual stresses were not considered.

Details of this ultimate strength comparison are

presented in Paik (2011).

10

8

6

Test result

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

2

0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Curvature (1/km)

frigate test hull under a sagging moment.

Table 1. Heights of the collapsed and yielded

parts of the Dows frigate test hull.

Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)

behavior comparison for the Dows frigate test hull

subject to a vertical bending moment.

Table 1 presents the heights of the collapsed and

yielded parts, as per Figure 4, with hY = 0 indicating that only the tension flange, i.e., the deck panel

in the hogging condition or the outer bottom panel

in the sagging condition, has yielded until the

ultimate strength is reached. It can be seen that the

original and modified Paik-Mansour methods

produce identical results for this case.

Method

hC

hY

hC

hY

Original P-M

Modified P-M

210.0

210.0

0.0

0.0

760.2

760.2

0.0

0.0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

2

1

0

4.2

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Curvature (1/km)

behavior comparison for the container ship hull

Figure 8(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the container ship hull under a hogging moment.

10

12

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Curvature (1/km)

Curvature (1/km)

frigate test hull under a hogging moment.

Figure 8(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the container ship hull under a sagging moment.

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parts of the container ship hull.

20

Method

hC

hY

Modified P-M 698.8 0.0

hC

hY

10330.8 0.0

10330.8 0.0

presents the heights of the collapsed and yielded

parts, as determined by the original and modified

Paik-Mansour methods, which produce identical

results for this case.

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 9(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the bulk carrier hull under a hogging moment.

16

12

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

Curvature (1/km)

carrier hull under a sagging moment.

Table 3. Heights of the collapsed and yielded

parts of the bulk carrier hull.

strength behavior comparison for the Suezmaxclass double-hull tanker hull subject to a vertical

bending moment.

Table 4 presents the heights of the collapsed and

yielded parts of the Suezmax double-hull tanker

hull. It can be seen that, in the hogging condition,

the height of the yielded part is larger than that of

the collapsed part because the double bottom structures are much heavier than the deck structures

in this type of ship. The modified Paik-Mansour

method is able to handle this aspect, whereas the

original such method is not suitable.

Method

hY

hC

hY

17935.0

17935.0

0.0

0.0

16

behavior comparison for the single-hull tanker

hull subject to a vertical bending moment. Table 5

presents the heights of the collapsed and yielded

parts determined by the original and modified

Paik-Mansour methods, which in this case produce identical results.

hC

Original P-M

4.5

0.00

behavior comparison for the bulk carrier hull subject to a vertical bending moment. Table 3 presents

the heights of the collapsed and yielded parts, as

determined by the original and modified PaikMansour methods.

It can be seen that the pure hogging bending

moment condition cannot be achieved for this case

with the original Paik-Mansour method, as it does

not permit the expansion of the yielded part except

for the tension flange. However, the modified PaikMansour method is able to achieve this condition

because the tension flange is allowed to expand,

with hY = 13.7 mm.

4.4

12

4.3

16

14

12

10

8

6

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

4

2

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

Suezmax-class double-hull tanker hull under a hogging

moment.

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12

parts of the single-hull tanker hull.

10

14

Method

hC

hY

hC

hY

Original P-M

Modified P-M

7035.2

7035.2

0.0

0.0

15225.5

15225.5

0.0

0.0

6

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

4

2

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

30

Suezmax-class double-hull tanker hull under a sagging

moment.

Table 4. Heights of the collapsed and yielded

parts of the Suezmax-class double-hull tanker

hull.

Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)

Method

hC

hY

Original P-M

hC

hY

16078.5

16078.5

0.0

0.0

25

20

15

10

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 12(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the doublehull tanker hull under a hogging moment.

18

30

15

21

12

9

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

6

3

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 11(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the singlehull tanker hull under a hogging moment.

25

20

15

10

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0

0.00

20

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

Curvature (1/km)

16

Figure 12(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the doublehull tanker hull under a sagging moment.

12

4.6

ANSYS

ALPS/HULL

CSR

Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 11(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the singlehull tanker hull under a sagging moment.

behavior comparison for the double-hull tanker

hull subject to a vertical bending moment.

Table 6 presents the heights of the collapsed and

yielded parts of the double-hull tanker hull, which

has similar characteristics to the Suezmax-class

double-hull tanker hull (see Table 4).

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

for the modified Paik-Mansour design formula

and the numerical methods are identified for all

six types of ship hull. In addition, the deviation

between the numerical methods is also provided as

a reference.

5.1

finite element method

of variations for the formula method versus the

ANSYS nonlinear finite element method for all six

types of ship hull. Figure 13 shows the trend of the

deviation in ultimate hull strength between these

two methods.

for all six types of ship hull. Figure 14 shows the

trend of the deviation in ultimate hull strength

between these two methods.

5.3

structural unit method

of variation for the formula method versus the

CSR idealized structural unit method for all six

types of ship hull. Figure 15 shows the trend of the

deviation in ultimate hull strength between these

two methods.

30

5.2

(Mu)Formula (GNm)

25

intelligent super-size finite element method

variation for the formula method versus the ALPS/

20

15

10

parts of the double-hull tanker hull.

Hog / Sag

:

:

:

:

:

:

0.0125

0

0

hC

Method

hY

Original P-M

Table 7.

hC

hY

20240.7

20240.7

0.0

0.0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ANSYS (GNm)

strength between the formula method and the ANSYS

nonlinear finite element method.

Comparison between developed formula method and ANSYS nonlinear finite element method.

Hogging

Sagging

Formula

Ship

Dows test

hull

Container

ship

Bulk carrier

D/H

Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

Mean

S-D

COV

Container ship

Bulk carrier

D/H Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

ANSYS

Formula

ANSYS

Mp

Muh

Muh

Formula/ Mus

Mus

Formula/

(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp ANSYS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ANSYS

0.013

0.010

0.772

0.011

0.840

0.920

0.009

0.697

0.011

0.793

0.879

9.220

6.400

0.694

6.969

0.756

0.918

7.077

0.768

6.951

0.754

1.018

20.394

17.677

16.576

13.965

0.813

0.790

17.500

14.066

0.858

0.796

0.947

0.993

14.798

12.213

0.726

0.691

15.800

11.151

0.775

0.631

0.937

1.095

22.578

32.667

18.701

25.667

0.828

0.786

17.355

27.335

0.769

0.837

1.078

0.939

17.825

22.390

0.789

0.685

16.179

22.495

0.717

0.689

1.102

0.995

0.966

0.061

0.063

1.004

0.088

0.087

Note: MP = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,

S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

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Table 8. Comparison between developed formula method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite element

method.

Hogging

Sagging

Formula

ALPS

Formula

Muh

Muh

Formula/ Mus

Mp

(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp ALPS

(GNm)

Ship

Dows test

hull

Container

ship

Bulk carrier

D/H

Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

ALPS

Mus

Formula/

Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ALPS

0.013

0.010

0.772

0.011

0.799

0.966

0.009

0.697

0.010

0.743

0.939

9.220

6.400

0.694

6.916

0.750

0.925

7.077

0.768

6.635

0.720

1.067

20.394

17.677

16.576

13.965

0.813

0.790

16.602

13.308

0.814

0.753

0.998

1.049

14.798

12.213

0.726

0.691

15.380

11.097

0.754

0.628

0.962

1.101

22.578

32.667

18.701

25.667

0.828

0.786

17.335

25.600

0.768

0.784

1.079

1.003

17.825

22.390

0.789

0.685

17.263

22.000

0.765

0.673

1.033

1.018

Mean

S-D

COV

1.003

0.055

0.055

1.020

0.061

0.060

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,

S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

5.5

30

Table 11 presents the mean values and coefficients of variation for the CSR idealized structural

unit method versus the ANSYS nonlinear finite

element method for all six types of ship hull.

Figure 17 shows the trend of the deviation in ultimate

hull strength between these two methods.

(Mu)Formula (GNm)

25

20

15

10

5.6

Hog / Sag

: Dows frigate test hull

: Container ship

: Bulk carrier

: D/H Suezmax

: S/H VLCC

: D/H VLCC

0.0125

0

0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ALPS/HULL (GNm)

strength between the formula method and the ALPS/

HULL intelligent super-size finite element method.

element method versus ANSYS nonlinear

finite element method

of variation for the ALPS/HULL intelligent supersize finite element method versus the ANSYS

nonlinear finite element method for all six types of

ship hull. Figure 16 shows the trend of the deviation in ultimate hull strength between these two

methods.

ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite

element method

Table 12 presents the mean values and coefficients of variation for the CSR idealized structural

unit method versus the ALPS/HULL intelligent

super-size finite element method for all six types of

ship hull. Figure 18 shows the trend of the deviation in ultimate hull strength between these two

methods.

5.7

5.4

ANSYS nonlinear finite element method

Table 13 summarizes the results of the comparison between the mean values and coefficients of

variation obtained with the various methods. It is

evident that the formula method developed herein

is in very good agreement with more refined methods such as the ANSYS nonlinear finite element

method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size

finite element method. It tends that the CSR idealized structural method overestimates the ultimate

hull strength.

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Table 9.

Comparison between developed formula method and CSR idealized structural unit method.

Hogging

Sagging

Formula

CSR

Formula

MP

Mus

Mus

(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp

Ship

Dows test

hull

Container

ship

Bulk carrier

D/H

Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

CSR

Formula/ Mus

Mus

Formula/

CSR

(GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp CSR

0.013

0.010

0.772

0.012

0.888

0.870

0.009

0.697

0.010

0.764

0.912

9.220

6.400

0.694

8.040

0.872

0.796

7.077

0.768

7.843

0.851

0.902

20.394

17.677

16.576

13.965

0.813

0.790

17.941

15.714

0.880

0.889

0.924

0.889

14.798

12.213

0.726

0.691

14.475

12.420

0.710

0.703

1.022

0.983

22.578

32.667

18.701

25.667

0.828

0.786

19.889

28.352

0.881

0.868

0.940

0.905

17.825

22.390

0.789

0.685

17.868

24.798

0.791

0.759

0.998

0.903

Mean

S-D

COV

0.887

0.051

0.058

0.953

0.054

0.056

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,

S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

30

(Mu)Formula (GNm)

25

20

15

10

Hog / Sag

: Dows frigate test hull

: Container ship

: Bulk carrier

: D/H Suezmax

: S/H VLCC

: D/H VLCC

0.0125

0

0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)CSR (GNm)

strength between the formula method and the CSR idealized structural unit method.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

modified Paik-Mansour formula method for the

ultimate strength calculations of ship hulls subject to vertical bending moments. The principles

of both the original and modified Paik-Mansour

formula methods have been presented.

The original Paik-Mansour method does not

allow the expansion of the yielded part in the vertical members, but limits this part to the tension

flange, i.e., the deck panel in the hogging condition and the outer bottom panel in the sagging

condition. Depending on the geometrical properties

of the ships hull cross-section and/or the direction

of the vertical bending moment, the original PaikMansour method is unable to accommodate the

pure vertical bending moment condition in which

the total axial forces over the hull cross-section

must be zero.

The modified Paik-Mansour method, in contrast, does permit the expansion of the yielded

part, thereby allowing the pure vertical bending

moment condition to be achieved regardless of the

geometrical properties of the hull cross-sections or

the vertical bending loading direction.

This benchmark study of the modified PaikMansour method was undertaken with more

refined methods, such as the ANSYS nonlinear

finite element method, ALPS/HULL intelligent

super-size finite element method, and CSR idealized structural unit method, by identifying the

mean values and coefficients of variation for the

modified method.

The comparisons showed that the modified

Paik-Mansour formula method is in very good

agreement with both the ANSYS nonlinear

finite element method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite element method, and will

prove very useful as a simple formula for ultimate

strength predictions of ship hulls.

The modified Paik-Mansour method presented

in this paper is a logical step in the development of

a formula-based method for predicting the longitudinal bending moment which will break the back

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Table 10. Comparison between ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite element method and ANSYS nonlinear

finite element method.

Hogging

Sagging

ANSYS

ALPS

ANSYS

Mp

Muh

Muh

(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp

Ship

Dows test

hull

Container

ship

Bulk carrier

D/H

Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

ALPS

ALPS/ Mus

Mus

ALPS/

ANSYS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ANSYS

0.013

0.011

0.840

0.011

0.799

0.952

0.011

0.793

0.010

0.743

0.936

9.220

6.969

0.756

6.916

0.750

0.992

6.951

0.754

6.635

0.720

0.955

20.394

17.677

17.500

14.066

0.858

0.796

16.602

13.308

0.814

0.753

0.949

0.946

15.800

11.151

0.775

0.631

15.380

11.097

0.754

0.628

0.973

0.995

22.578

32.667

17.355

27.335

0.769

0.837

17.335

25.600

0.768

0.784

0.999

0.937

16.179

22.495

0.717

0.689

17.263

22.000

0.765

0.673

1.067

0.978

Mean

S-D

COV

0.962

0.026

0.027

0.984

0.045

0.046

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,

S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

30

(Mu)ALPS/HULL (GNm)

25

20

15

10

Hog / Sag

: Dows frigate test hull

: Container ship

: Bulk carrier

: D/H Suezmax

: S/H VLCC

: D/H VLCC

0.0125

0

0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ANSYS (GNm)

strength between the ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size

finite element method and the ANSYS nonlinear finite

element method.

the concept of ultimate longitudinal strength, there

has been a general acceptance that this limit state is

approachedbut not necessarily reachedwhen

the compressed flange of the ships hull (i.e., the

horizontal material in the deck(s) or bottom structure) reaches its ultimate compressive resistance,

and the tension flange reaches the tensile yield

stress of the structural material.

The modelling of the contribution of the web

of the hull girder (i.e., the vertical elements including

ultimate hull bending strength was recognised in

the original paper as being less straightforward;

and the assumption of a modified strength

reduction factor in the compressed elements of

the web, together with the occurrence of yielding

throughout the tension side of the final neutral

axis, received much discussion at the time. It was

accepted that the latter assumption would be likely

to result in an overestimate of the ultimate bending strength of the hullthough probably only a

small one in view of the dominance of the contributions of the two flanges (decks and bottom

structures).

30 years later, these assumptions were challenged in the Paik-Mansour model of the stress

distribution across the hull girder at the ultimate

bending moment, as seen in Figure 3 of this paper.

By postulating a linear elastic stress distribution

over a large part of the web of the hull girder

and thus not calling on the full tensile strength of

the longitudinal material in this part of the structure, it seemed possible that this method would

underestimatebut again only slightlythe ultimate bending strength of the hull. Most importantly, the original Paik-Mansour method is unable

to accommodate a pure bending moment depending on the geometrical properties of ship hulls and/

or bending moment direction.

In the present paper, a scenario lying between

the above two extreme models is proposed, in

which some proportionto be found by an iterative procedureof the web of the hull girder,

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Table 11.

Comparison between CSR idealized structural unit method and ANSYS nonlinear finite element method.

Hogging

Sagging

ANSYS

Muh

Mp

(GNm) (GNm)

Ship

Dows test

hull

Container

ship

Bulk carrier

D/H

Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

CSR

ANSYS

CSR

Muh

Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp

CSR/

Mus

Mus

CSR/

ANSYS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ANSYS

0.013

0.011

0.840

0.012

0.888

1.058

0.011

0.793

0.010

0.764

0.963

9.220

6.969

0.756

8.040

0.872

1.154

6.951

0.754

7.843

0.851

1.128

20.394

17.677

17.500

14.066

0.858

0.796

17.941

15.714

0.880

0.889

1.025

1.117

15.800

11.151

0.775

0.631

14.475

12.420

0.710

0.703

0.916

1.114

22.578

32.667

17.355

27.335

0.769

0.837

19.889

28.352

0.881

0.868

1.146

1.037

16.179

22.495

0.717

0.689

17.868

24.798

0.791

0.759

1.104

1.102

Mean

S-D

COV

1.090

0.056

0.052

1.055

0.091

0.086

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,

S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

30

30

25

(Mu)CSR (GNm)

(Mu)CSR (GNm)

25

20

15

20

15

10

10

: Dows frigate test hull

: Container ship

: Bulk carrier

: D/H Suezmax

: S/H VLCC

: D/H VLCC

Hog / Sag

:

:

:

:

:

:

0.0125

Container ship

Bulk carrier

D/H Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

0.0125

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ALPS/HULL (GNm)

(Mu)ANSYS (GNm)

strength between the CSR idealized structural unit method

and the ANSYS nonlinear finite element method.

strength between the CSR idealized structural unit

method and the ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite

element method.

have reached the material yield stress (see Figure 4)

when the ultimate bending strength is reached. It

is noted that the modified Paik-Mansour method

presented in the paper covers both the above two

extreme models. Furthermore, the modified

Paik-Mansour method is more general and is able

to accommodate a pure bending moment regardless of the geometrical properties of ship hulls and/

or bending moment direction.

In the Applied Examples summarised in Section 4, it is evident that in certain cases this yielding

of the material in the webs of ship hull girders

might indeed extend for significant distances vertically from the yielding flange. The amount

of this contribution to the ultimate longitudinal

strength of a ship from the tensioned material in

the cross-section will, of course, depend on the

proportion and disposition of vertical material

in the hull cross-section.

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Table 12. Comparison between CSR idealized structural unit method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite

element method.

Hogging

Sagging

ALPS

Ship

Dows test

hull

Container

ship

Bulk carrier

D/H

Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

Mp

(GNm)

Muh

(GNm)

0.013

CSR

ALPS

CSR

Muh/Mp

Muh

(GNm) Muh/Mp

CSR/ Mus

Mus

CSR/

ALPS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ALPS

0.011

0.799

0.012

0.888

1.111

0.010

0.743

0.010

0.764

1.029

9.220

6.916

0.750

8.040

0.872

1.163

6.635

0.720

7.843

0.851

1.182

20.394

17.677

16.602

13.308

0.814

0.753

17.941

15.714

0.880

0.889

1.081

1.181

15.380

11.097

0.754

0.628

14.475

12.420

0.710

0.703

0.941

1.119

22.578

32.667

17.335

25.600

0.768

0.784

19.889

28.352

0.881

0.868

1.147

1.108

17.263

22.000

0.765

0.673

17.868

24.798

0.791

0.759

1.035

1.127

Mean

S-D

COV

1.132

0.038

0.034

1.072

0.087

0.081

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment, S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

Table 13.

Formula/ANSYS Formula/ ALPS Formula/ CSR

CSR/ ALPS

Ship

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Dows test

hull

Container

ship

Bulk carrier

D/H

Suezmax

S/H VLCC

D/H VLCC

0.920

0.879

0.966

0.939

0.870

0.912

0.952

0.936

1.058

0.963

1.111

1.029

0.918

1.018

0.925

1.067

0.796

0.902

0.992

0.955

1.154

1.128

1.163

1.182

0.947

0.993

0.937

1.095

0.998

1.049

0.962

1.101

0.924

0.889

1.022

0.983

0.949

0.946

0.973

0.995

1.025

1.117

0.916

1.114

1.081

1.181

0.941

1.119

1.078

0.939

1.102

0.995

1.079

1.003

1.033

1.018

0.940

0.905

0.998

0.903

0.999

0.937

1.067

0.978

1.146

1.037

1.104

1.102

1.147

1.108

1.035

1.127

Mean

S-D

COV

0.966

0.061

0.063

1.004

0.088

0.087

1.003

0.055

0.055

1.020

0.061

0.060

0.887

0.051

0.058

0.953

0.054

0.056

0.962

0.026

0.027

0.984

0.045

0.046

1.090

0.056

0.052

1.055

0.091

0.086

1.132

0.038

0.034

1.072

0.087

0.081

the literature, it is however emphasized that the

scarcity of full-scale data from experiments or ship

failures makes it difficult to judge which method

might provide the best basis for ship design or

approval calculations. Back-breaking hull failure

involves so much buckled and fractured metal, that

it must be doubted whether the reality can ever be

modelled with precision. It might therefore be prudent to take as the design critical limit state the

longitudinal bending moment at which the tension

flange of the hull structure first reaches the yield

stress after the compressed flange has reached its

bending moment provided by progressive yielding

of the remaining structure is likely to be small, and

can be seen as a small margin of safety reflecting

our uncertain knowledge of the anatomy of final

failure of ships hulls in bending.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The present study was undertaken at The Lloyds

Register Educational Trust (The LRET) Research

Centre of Excellence at Pusan National University,

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MARSTRUCT.indb 201

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International Ship and Offshore Structures

Congress (ISSC) Technical Committee III.1

Ultimate Strength. Thanks are due to Dr. C.H.

Huang, China Corporation Register of Shipping, Taiwan, for his CSR idealized structural unit

method computations. The authors are pleased to

acknowledge the financial support of The LRET

and The National Research Foundation (NRF) of

Korea. This paper is a sequel to Chapter 16: Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls in Ship Structural

Analysis and Design, co-authored by O.F. Hughes

and J.K. Paik.

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202

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

the buckling/ultimate strength of curved plates

Joo-Shin Park, Min-Sung Chun & Yong-Suk Suh

Department of Structure Research, Marine Research Institutes, Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd, Geoje,

Kyungnam, Korea

ABSTRACT: During the past decades a number of studies have been conducted in terms of evaluation

of the nonlinear buckling characteristics of curved plates. However any explicit expression or formula

for calculating buckling/ultimate strength of curved plates is not available yet. Therefore it is imperative to develop practical formulas for estimating buckling/ultimate strength of curved plates. The aim

of this study is to analyze nonlinear buckling characteristics of curved plates. A series of FEM analyses

are performed on curved plates varying several parameters such as flank angle (curvature), plate thickness, loading conditions, etc. According to the various conditions applied to the curved plates, buckling

strength and ultimate strength are calculated. And also the stress-strain curve is drawn for each set of

applied conditions from the numerical calculations. It is shown that buckling/ultimate strength formula

developed for a curved plate can give a reasonable estimate of strength for curved plate, when the newly

defined curvature correction parameter considering the increase of the buckling strength due to curvature

is applied. It is our hope that the obtained buckling/ultimate strength characteristics would be used as

practical design guide for estimating the nonlinear buckling strength of curved plates in the field of ships

and offshore structures.

1

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

ship structures. Curved plates such as deck plating with a camber, side shell plating at fore and aft

parts, bilge circle part are normally assembled. It

is believed that such curved plates can be modeled

fundamentally by a part of a cylinder subjected

to axial loading produced by hull girder bending.

From the estimations using cylinder models, it

is known that in general, curvature increases the

buckling strength of a curved plate subjected to

axial compression, and component of curvature

may cause an increase in the ultimate strength as

well as buckling strength [1]. However, in spite of

wide use of these structural members, the practical method for structural assessment on buckling/

ultimate strength of curved plate has not clearly

established yet. Some reference of finite element

analysis and class rules which deals with the buckling strength of curved plate as a part of ship

structures exist, but the result of FEA and related

rules indicate different design values. In addition

to this contradiction, the absence of validation by

relevant experimental investigations invokes the

need for an improved design procedure of curved

plates. Therefore, development of well predictable

and integrated rules for curved plate are required

structure as an urgent task in the shipbuilding

industries. In the present study, to clarify and

examine the fundamental buckling behaviours of

cylindrically curved plate under axial compression, combined compression with lateral pressure,

a series of elasto-plastic large deflection analyses are performed together with the comparisons

with the collapse behaviours including nonlinear

factors. On the basis of the calculated results, the

effects of curvature (R), initial deflection (w), slenderness ratio () and aspect ratio (a/b) on the characteristics of the buckling and ultimate strength

behavior of cylindrically curved plates subjected

to axial compressive loading and combined axial

compression and lateral pressure are discussed.

Based on the results of a series of the nonlinear

finite element calculations for all edges simply supporting plating, design formulae are derived in

empirical form in order to predict the buckling/

ultimate strength of curved plates. The predicted

results show a good accuracy comparing to the

results of finite element analysis.

1.1 Literature survey

At the beginning, a brief review is made on previous research works related to buckling and

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plates and stiffened plates.

Maeno et al. (2003, 2004) performed a series of

elasto-plastic large deflection analysis to investigate

the buckling/plastic collapse behaviour of ships

bilge strakes, typical in Tanker and Bulk Carrier,

which are unstiffened curved thick plates subjected to axial compression. Yumura et al. (2005)

investigated buckling/plastic collapse behaviour of

cylindrically curved plates under axial compression. Park, H.-J. et al. (2005) performed nonlinear

FE analyses on actual stiffened curved plates of a

container ship varying the curvature and spacing

of stiffeners. Kwen et al. (2003, 2004) performed

non-linear FE analyses for unstiffened curved

plates varying aspect ratio, slenderness ratio and

curvature under various loading conditions such

as longitudinal thrust, transverse thrust and

shear load.

Cho et al. (2007) performed both ultimate

strength tests on six curved stiffened plates and

nonlinear finite element analyses under axial compression. An analytical approach was proposed by

Levy (1943) by using large deflection theory for

simulating the elastic behaviour of initially curved

sheet. Buermann et al. (2006) presented a fast semianalytical model for the post-buckling analysis of

stiffened cylindrical panels. Kundu et al. (2007)

investigated the geometrically nonlinear postbuckling analysis of laminated composite doubly

curved shells using FEM. Applying the arc length

method, both snap-through and snap-back postbuckling behaviour were well captured. Park, J.-S.

et al. (20052010) performed non-linear FE analyses for unstiffened curved plates varying aspect

ratio, slenderness ratio and curvature under combined loading conditions as well as development

of analytical method. However, further studies are

needed for facilitating more rational guidelines of

buckling/ultimate strength considering engineering concept of curved plates.

2

The cylindrically curved plates have the dimensions of a in length, b in width, t in thickness and

in flank angle, where the length b is kept constant

as 1,000 mm throughout the present study. There

is a relationship between the width b and the flank

angle as b = R, where R is the radius of curvature as shown in the Figure.

2.1

Initial imperfections

capacity calculations of plating should be considered

0.5a

0.5a

R

b

TRANS.frame

Figure 1.

of influence [4]. The initial buckling mode obtained

by eigen-value analysis by using FEM is used as

initial deflection mode.

2.2 Material properties

The curved plates analyzed using the one bay

model had material properties as shown in Table 1.

The analysis models incorporated an idealized

elastic-perfectly plastic stress and strain curve, and

the strain hardening rate is set as zero. Isotropic

hardening law is assumed employing von Misess

yield condition.

2.3 Calculation method

The conventional Newton-Raphson method fails

because of the singularity of the stiffness matrix

and a diverging solution. In general, the Arc-length

methods avoid this situation and it is suitable for

nonlinear static equilibrium solutions of unstable problems such as snap-through or snap-back

behaviour. In the present study considered material and geometric nonlinear analysis should be

undertaken using commercial FEM code, MSC.

Nastran [5] which is a general purpose finite element method package. The Arc-length method

involves the tracing of a complex path in the

load-displacement response into the buckling/post

buckling regimes. For problems with sharp turns

in the load-displacement curve or path dependent materials, it is necessary to limit the arc-length

radius (arc-length load step size) using the initial arc-length radius. During the solution, the

Arc-length method will vary the arc-length radius

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Table 1.

plate.

Material

(AH32)

Poisson ratio (v)

Yield stress (Y)

206 GPa

0.3

315 MPa

of nonlinearities that is involved.

3

3.1

NUMERICAL SIMULATION

AND RESULTS

(a) Longi.compression

out to evaluate buckling strength and to examine

the significant buckling mode. The latter result is

used to produce initial deflection. Figure 2 shows

typical buckling modes varying flank angle and

slenderness ratio. When a flank angle is zero, that

is in case of a flat thinner plate, the plate buckles

into four half-waves in the longitudinal direction.

However, as the flank angle increases to 5 degrees,

the buckling mode changes so that the deflection

flattened out towards loading direction and deflection locally grow at the loading edges as shown in

Fig. 2(a)-flank angle 5 degrees, 10 mm. When a

flank angle is greater than these values, buckling

takes place in an irregular mode as indicated in

Fig. 2(a). For larger thickness of plate, five or four

half-waves mode appears in the loading direction

as shown in Fig. 2(a). In general, buckling mode of

plate under transverse compressive loading takes

place one half-wave, however, plate with curvature

appears in the circumferential direction at the local

parts as shown in Fig. 2(b)-flank angle 30 degrees,

20 mm. This is considered as a part of shell buckling of a cylinder wall in a so-called diamond buckling mode [2, 3].

3.2

(b) Trans.compression

eigen-value analysis.

Figure 3.

the outward deflection develops from the beginning of compressive loading because of Poissons

effect. It is noticed that the curved plates can have

a primary buckling mode that is different from the

buckling mode of flat plate and that the buckling

strength is generally larger than that of the flat

plate.

Figure 3 shows the corresponding elastic buckling modes varying flank angles. The solid red line

represents compressive load, and solid blue line is

tension. When the flank angle is less than or equal

to 2 degrees, the buckling takes place with three

longitudinal half-waves as in the case of a rectangular flat plate having the same aspect ratio. With

further increase in the flank angles, the buckling

mode changes in one longitudinal half wave with

additional swelled component of deflection near

the transverse edges. In the case of curved plates,

3.3

Benchmark study

strength for curved plate which represent comparison between class rule and finite element analysis using commercial code ABAQUS. As shown

in Fig. 4, a comparison of two results is made in

which the critical buckling strength from both

FEM and class rule calculation is relatively unanimous in case of thicker plate. But in case of thinner

plate, the result of critical buckling strength shows

significant errors because curvature reduction

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1

ABS

BV

DNV

GL

NK

RINA

KR

0.6

0.8

xu/y

0.8

Flat plate

Curved plate

5 degrees

Curved plate

45 degrees

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

A : Secondary Buckling

B : After 2nd Buckling

C : Ultimate Strength

FEA(ABAQUS, cr /y)

curved plate under axial compression.

xu / y

and average stain of plate with/without curvature under

longi.compression.

the reflected buckling phenomenon.

3.4

progressive collapse behaviour including occurrence of buckling/yielding of cylindrically curved

plates under axial compression. The thickness of

the plate varies from 7 mm to 35 mm. For each

case, calculated average stress-average strain relationships are summarised in Figure 5 including the

case of a flat plate.

Firstly, progressive collapse behaviour of a thin

plate subjected to compressive load is explained

Fig. 5. When the flank angle is 5 degrees, secondary

buckling takes place at the A point as shown Fig. 5.

Then, load-carrying capacity rapidly decreases due

to the occurrence of secondary buckling accompanied by snap-back unloading phenomenon. At

that time, the buckling mode abruptly changes

from one half wave to three half-waves for loading

direction. The final collapse mode further changes

from three to five half-waves against increase in the

compressive loading as shown in Figure 6.

This is because of the occurrence of the secondary buckling after the primary buckling. It is

known that secondary buckling strength of a simply supported plate is very high, but for the aspect

ratio at which buckling mode terminates; the secondary buckling strength is relatively low. Such

high-order buckling after the primary buckling

takes place because of the change in the in-plane

stress distribution due to large deflection.

This snap-back behaviour can be captured

using arc-length control with incremental force by

Non-symm.onehalf-wave mode

Non-symm.threehalf-waves mode

Non-symm.fivehalf-waves mode

Figure 6. Change of buckling mode of the curved plate

with a flank angle of 5 degrees.

of thin plate (t = 10 mm) is estimated lower than

that of flat plate due to the occurrence of secondary buckling [6]. In case of the ultimate strength of

the curved plate with small flank angle secondary

buckling behavior should be carefully considered.

With further increase in the curvature, buckling/

ultimate strength gradually increases and thus

buckling/yielding starts to take place and the ultimate strength is attained. Figure 7 shows average

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1

Flat plate

Curved plate

5 degrees

Curved plate

45degrees

0.8

0.6

0.6

XU/Y

yu/y

0.8

0.4

0.4

Longitudinal

Compression

0.2

5 Deg.

10 Deg.

20 Deg.

30 Deg.

0.2

0

0

yu /y

and average stain of plate with/without curvature under

trans.compression.

and slenderness ratio varying curvature under longi.

compression.

1

considering same thickness (t = 10 mm). When

transverse compression is applied on the curved

plate, buckling/yielding starts at the short-edges

and the ultimate strength is attained. In the postultimate strength, yielding is restricted only near

the end parts where buckling deflection is produced. This implies that the middle part of the

plate remains in the elastic range. Thus from the

results i.e. Fig. 7 the buckling/ultimate strength is

decreased with the increase in the curvature. However this characteristic is different for the loading

in the longitudinal direction.

A series of FEM analysis are performed by changing the slenderness ratio of the curved plate from

1.18 to 4.14. This slenderness ratio is obtained by

changing the thickness of the plate between 10 mm

and 35 mm whereas keeping the breadth and the

length of the plate as 1,000 mm and 3,700 mm,

respectively. The flank angle is taken as 5, 10, 20 and

30 degrees. The calculated ultimate strength is plotted against slenderness ratio as shown in Figure 8.

It is seen that ultimate strength of curved plate

with flank angle of 5 degrees gives too conservative estimation. This is because of the occurrence

of the secondary buckling. Figure 9 shows relationship between average stress and slenderness

ratio varying curvature under trans.compression.

The differences of ultimate strength according to

change in the thickness is small, over 20 degrees of

flank angle.

Figure 10 shows the Ultimate strength interaction relationship of a curved plate under combined biaxial compressive loads as a function of

5 Deg.

10 Deg.

20 Deg.

30 Deg.

YU/Y

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

and slenderness ratio varying curvature under trans.

compression.

1

Model1

BC

10t

12t

14t

16t

20t

24t

30t

35t

0.8

b = 1000 mm, a/b = 3.7, 0 = 0.052t

Frank Angle = 10 deg.

YU/Y

Transverse

Compression

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

XU/Y

Figure 10. Ultimate strength interaction relationship of

a curved plate under combined biaxial compressive loads

as a function of the plate thickness.

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compressive loading by transverse compressive

loading) is composed 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 3:7.

With the increase in the plate thickness, the loadcarrying capacity also increased for various combination of stress components.

4.1

y

0.8

DEVELOPMENT OF FORMULATION

Buckling strength formulation

Correlation : 0.979

Standard Deviation : 0.05

0.6

0.4

0.2

is plotted against the slenderness ratio, and compared with the empirical formula in Fig. 11. The

distribution of buckling strength by varying slenderness ratio almost remains same at the flank

angle over 10 degrees. However, in case of small

flank angle the tendency is different. This is mainly

affected due to the change the curvature. The scatter of the buckling strength between FE-Analysis

and empirical formula is shown in Figures 11

and 12. In the present formulation used classical

Euler buckling format and re-adopted the correction factor as namely, CB, CR and CJ by Eqs. (4.1)

(4.8). The coefficient of buckling strength (CB) is

assumed as function of curvature/slenderness ratio

of the curved plate and coefficient of reduction

(CR). This function of CB represents the effect of

curvature. The final coefficient (CJ) is assumed

as correction factor to represent the buckling

mechanism. This formulation follows calculation

of plasticity correction by Johnson-Ostenfeld. In

general, Euler buckling stress (E) is higher than

half the yield stress (y), the critical buckling stress

is given by J0 = [1(Y / 4E)] Y, assuming that

the proportional limit is 0.5Y. It is generally found

1

x

0.8

Correlation : 0.991

Standard Deviation : 0.163

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

buckling strength obtained by FEM of curved plate

under trans. compressive load.

predict the buckling strength that is in good agreement with the FEM results.

Buckling strength of curved plate under

longitudinal /transverse compressive loads

2

LC

2E t

CB

12(1 v 2 ) b

1 v2

CR

Y / E

=k

CB

R

CR = 0 0323

t

0

1.0

CJ =

1

.1

1

1.00

CJ =

88

0.88

(1)

(2)

0.751

CJ

(3)

< 2.0

= 10 ~ 30

2.0

(4)

< 2.0

= 0 10

2.0

(5)

0.6

0.4

CB

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2E t

CB

12(1 v 2 ) b

1 v2

CR

Y / E

=k

R

CR = 0.003

t

0

0

TC

(6)

(7)

1.514

(8)

buckling strength obtained by FEM of curved plate

under longi. compressive load.

Based on the insights noted above, the ultimate

strength of the cylindrically curved plate, for axial

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U LC

Y

CF =

0.8

fitting of the finite element results as follows; The

new expression of the Franklands formula [7]

used including new factors. It was also adopted by

the US Navy. This expression has the same general form as the one due to Faulkner to Guedes

Soares but the coefficients are different, leading

to a more conservative prediction. The coefficient

CF assumed as function of double slenderness ratio,

and correction factors (Ca, Cb and Cc) represents

effect of curvature with the change in the thickness

of plate. The accuracy of the present formula plotted against slenderness ratio is checked by a comparison with finite element solutions for a range of

flank angle between 5 and 30 degrees, as shown in

Figures 13 and 14. It is noted that correlation ratio

and standard deviation of the error in the empirical formula against FEA is 0.99 and 0.133, of the

curved plate subjected to longitudinal compression

respectively. Also, the empirical formula correlated

with 0.99 and standard deviation is 0.08 against

the ultimate strength obtained by FEA of curved

plate under transverse compression. The newly

developed ultimate strength formula for curved

plate can give a reasonable estimation comparing

FEM results.

Correlation : 0.999

Standard Deviation : 0.08

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate

under trans. compressive load.

R

R

Cb = 4.138 + 1.934 1.023

t

t

(12)

R

R

Cc = 1.001 0.181 + 1.382

t

t

(13)

2.25 1.25

=

2 CF

(9)

Ca Cb

+

+ Cc

2

R

R

Ca = 2.596 1.712 + 0.415

t

t

2

(10)

R

R

Cb = 2.095 + 0.929 0.136

t

t

(11)

R

R

Cc = 1.009 0.724 + 0.322

t

t

R

R

Ca = 3.434 1.989 + 0.646

t

t

(14)

(15)

(16)

Ultimate strength of curved plate under combined longitudinal compressive load and lateral

pressure

x

Empirical Formula (xcr / y )

0.8

U LCLP

Correlation : 0.998

Standard Deviation : 0.133

0.6

CF =

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate

under longi. compressive load.

2.25 1.25

=

2 CF

CP

Ca Cb

+

+ Cc

2

Range ( ) = 10 ~ 30

2

b

b

Ca = 3.434 1.989 + 0.646

R

R

2

b

b

C = 4.138

1 + 1.934

934 1.023

b

R

R

b

b

001 0.181 + 1.382

Cc = 1.001

R

R

(17)

(18)

(19)

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Range ( ) 10

Ca = 0.068

C = 0.181

b

Cc = 0.883

(20)

CP = 0.210 + 1.263

(21)

Formula (XU/Y)

0.8

combined-transverse compressive load and lateral pressure

U TCLP

Y

CF =

2.25 1.25

=

2 CF

(25)

Formula (XU/Y)

Model1

LC+LP

FEM-Formula

Linear

0.4

0.2

Correlation : 0.995

Standard Deviation : 0.271

0

0.8

0.6

0.8

by a comparison with finite element solutions as

shown in Figures 15 and 16. It is noted that correlation ratio and standard deviation of the error

in the empirical formula against FEA is 0.99 and

0.27, of the curved plate subjected to combined

longitudinal compression and lateral pressure,

respectively.

The normalized ultimate strength by FEA is

plotted against the normalized ultimate strength

by empirical formula of curved plate under combined transverse compression and lateral pressure

as shown in Figure 16. Good agreements are also

observed in both results.

CONCLUSION

examine the fundamental buckling/plastic collapse

behaviour and ultimate strength of cylindrically

curved plate under a variety of loading conditions

(compression and combined compression and lateral pressure).

On the basis of the calculated results, the effects

of curvature (R), slenderness ratio and loading

effect on the buckling and ultimate strength have

been discussed. A simple formulation is developed

as an efficient method to predict the critical buckling strength and ultimate strength. The following

points can be concluded:

0.6

0.6

0.4

FEA( XU/Y)

0 = 0.052 t, P = 0.2 MPa

0.4

0.2

ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate

under transverse compression and lateral pressure.

The coefficient CP assumed as function of slenderness ratio, and the other factors (Ca, Cb and Cc)

represents effect of curvature with the change in

the thickness of plate. The accuracy of the present

0.2

0.4

Correlation : 0.993

Standard Deviation : 0.105

(23)

(24)

0.6

0.2

b

b

Ca = 2.596 1.712 + 0.415

R

R

2

b

b

C = 2.096

+ 0.929

9 0.136

b

R

R

b

b

009 0.724 + 0.322

Cc = 1.009

R

R

0.8

0 = 0.052 t, P = 0.2 MPa

(22)

CP

Ca Cb

+

+ Cc

2

Model1

TC+LP

FEM-Formula

Linear

FEA( XU/Y)

Figure 15. Correlation of the empirical formula with

ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate

under longitudinal compression and lateral pressure.

compression takes place the buckling mode

with several half waves for loading direction

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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

from secondary buckling, local region near

loading edges only collapses.

The buckling of the curved plate with relatively large flank angle takes place in one-half

wave mode in loading direction with the local

swelled shape near the loading edges. After the

occurrence of primary buckling, the secondary

buckling takes place and deflection change to

the mode with the larger number of half-waves.

Also the in-plane rigidity is decreased.

The ultimate strength of curved plate is significantly reduced when the secondary bucking takes place. At that time, buckling mode

abruptly changed with redistribution of inplane stress.

The curved plate under trasversal compression underestimates the buckling and ultimate

strength with increase in the curvature. This is

mainly induced by collapse pattern.

A simple formula developed for a curved plate

can give a reasonable estimate of buckling/

ultimate strength of curved plate under a variety

of loading conditions (longitudinal/transverse

compressive load, combined biaxial compression and lateral pressure).

Good correlations are observed in the ultimate

strength including buckling strength by applying the proposed empirical formula.

REFERENCES

[1] Joo-Shin, Park., Masahiko, Fujikubo., Iijima,

Kazuhiro & Tetsuya Yao, Prediction of the secondary buckling strength and ultimate strength of cylindrically curved plate under axial compression, The

International Journal Society of Offshore and Polar

Engineers (IJSOPE-ASME), 2009. 07.

[2] Timoshenko, S.P. & Gere, J.M. Theory of elastic stability, McGraw-Hill Book, New York. (1961).

[3] Timoshenko, S.P. & Woinosky-Krieger, S. Theory

of plates and shells McGraw-Hill Book, New York,

1959.

[4] Paik, J.-K. & Thayamballi, A.K. Ultimate limit state

design of steel-plated structures, John Wiley & Sons,

U.K., 2003.

[5] MSC. Nastran implicit nonlinear (SOL 600) Users

Guide, Solution methods and strategies in nonlinear

analysis, (2005).

[6] Joo-Shin, Park., Iijima, Kazuhiro & Tetsuya Yao,

Characteristics of Buckling and Ultimate Strength

and Collapse Behaviour of Cylindrically Curved Plates

subjected to Axial Compression, Journal of Advanced

Material Research, 2008. 01. 30. pp. 11951200.

[7] Frankland, J.M. The strength of ship plating under

edge compression, US EMB Report 469, May, 1940.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The research study reported in this paper was

undertaken with Samsung Heavy Industry and

seven kinds of classification of societies (Lloyds

Register, ABS, Class NK, Korean Register, Bureau

Veritas, Germanischer Lloyds and RINA). The

authors are glad to acknowledge their continuous

technical and other supports.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

to random non-uniform corrosion wastage

J.E. Silva, Y. Garbatov & C. Guedes Soares

Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon,

Instituto Superior Tcnico, Lisboa, Portugal

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of non-linear randomly distributed

nonuniform corrosion on the ultimate strength of unstiffened rectangular plate subjected to axial

compressive loading. A series of 570 plate surface geometries are generated by Monte Carlo simulation

for different degree of corrosion, location and ages and nonlinear finite element analyses are carried out,

using a commercial finite element code. Based on a regression analysis, empirical formulae to predict

strength reduction because of corrosion have been derived demonstrating a good accuracy.

1

INTRODUCTION

problems in marine industry. Many catastrophic

situations have been caused by corrosion damage,

even when all the design requirements are satisfied

(Nakai et al., 2004, 2006).

Some studies from the last decades considered

simplified models of general corrosion wastage,

linearly increasing with time (Hart et al., 1986;

Guedes Soares 1988a and Shi 1993). More recent

studies demonstrated the nonlinear time dependent

corrosion models are more appropriate (Guedes

Soares et al., 2009) and that corroded surfaces

could be modelled by random fields (Teixeira and

Guedes Soares, C. 2008)

Many models and studies have been carried out

to predict the behaviour of structural elements

affected by corrosion degradation in a deterministic way, focusing their attention on pitting corrosion as one of the most hazardous forms.

Paik et al. (2003, 2004) investigated the ultimate

strength of plate elements with pit corrosion

wastage under axial loads and in-plane shear loads.

They derived a closed-form solution to estimate

the ultimate strength of pitted plates by idealizing

corrosion pits as a cylindrical shape and by varying the degree of pits and intensity in a systematic way.

Duo et al. (2007) idealized corrosion pits as cylindrical cones and investigated the influence of localized corrosion on the ultimate strength. Although

over 256 nonlinear finite element analyses were

conducted in a systematic way it was assumed that

corrosion was constrained to a rectangular area on

the plate.

Saad-Eldeen and Guedes Soares, (2009) focused

their attention on the influence of scattered pitted

plates on the collapse strength by using the mathematical model proposed by Daidola et al. (1997),

who developed a method to estimate the residual

thickness of pitted plates.

The study, presented here, instead of using any

idealization of special distribution of pitting corrosion, treats it as a quasi-random distribution of

plate thickness by applying the approach of corrosion wastage developed by Guedes Soares and

Garbatov (2009) and using Monte Carlo simulation. Using non-linear finite element analysis, the

ultimate strength of a steel plate has been evaluated. The scope of this work is to analyse the effect

of non-linear randomly distributed nonuniform

corrosion on the ultimate strength of unstiffened

rectangular plate subjected to axial compressive

loading.

2

CORROSION MODEL

corrosion deterioration modelling. The conventional approach is just to consider that corrosion

grows linearly with time but this is a crude model.

The second can be based on the results of experiments in specific conditions which suggest laws

of growth of corrosion as a function of specific

parameters. The corrosion model can be developed by considering all those laws derived from

experiments in specific conditions. This approach

involves one difficulty in generalizing results from

laboratory tests to full-scale conditions. The other

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t c

t

, t c

t < c

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

t, years

Figure 1.

tanks.

1

0.9

(1)

d (t) is the corrosion wastage at time t, c is the

time without corrosion which corresponds to the

start of failure of the corrosion protection coating

(when there is one), and t is the transition time

duration.

The long-term wastage d is defined as the

maximum value in the observed time interval

for ballast tanks and cargo tanks respectively.

The period without corrosion, or the time of initiation of corrosion c, and the transition time,

t are defined based on performing a least squares

fit to the data using a quasi-Newton algorithm,

which determines the direction to search used at

each iteration considering the mean value of corrosion depth.

The parameters of the regressed line of corrosion

depth as a function of time were determined under

the assumption that it is approximated by the

exponential function given in Eqn. (1) for ballast

tanks of tanker deck by Garbatov et al. (2007).

The long-term corrosion wastage for deck plates of

ballast tanks has been defined as d,ballast = 1.85 mm.

The time without corrosion is c,ballast = 10.54 years

and the transition period t,ballast = 11.14 years (see

Figure 1).

The standard deviation as a function of time

has been fit to StDev(t) = a Ln(t)b, which is

shown in Figure 2. Based on the analysis performed by Garbatov and Guedes Soares, (2008) the

Standard Deviation, mm

d

d (t ) =

0,

2.0

Corrosion depth, mm

the environmental conditions which affect corrosion in full-scale.

The third approach, which is the one that is

adopted here, is to consider that a model should

provide the trend that is derived from for the dominating mechanism and then it should be fit to the

field data. Guedes Soares and Garbatov, (1999) proposed a model for the non-linear time-dependent

function of general corrosion wastage. This timedependent model separates corrosion degradation into three phases. In the first one there is no

corrosion because the protection of the metal surface works properly. The second phase is initiated

when the corrosion protection is damaged and

corresponds really to the start of corrosion, which

decreases the thickness of the plate. The third

phase corresponds to a stop in the corrosion process and the corrosion rate becomes zero.

The model is based on the solution of a differential equation of the corrosion wastage:

0.8

0.7

a = 0.384

b= 0.710

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

12

16 20

24

28 32

36

t, years

Figure 2. Standard deviation of corrosion wastage of

deck plates of ballast tanks.

distribution.

The mean value and the variance of the

log-normal distribution for the corrosion wastage

of deck plates of ballast tanks are 0.544 and

0.919. The model just presented is used for deteriorated plate surface modelling.

3

OF THE CORRODED PLATE SURFACE

plate thickness that results in the random vertical

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equally spaced reference points positioned along

the x and y direction of the plate, as shown in

Figures 3 to 7. These reference points are defined

in a Monte Carlo simulation as being the nodes of

the finite element mesh on the p

plate.

The plate thickness, Zijcorroded, at any reference

point with coordinates x, y for the corroded plate

surface, is defined by the random thickness of the

act

intact plate surface, Zijint

affected by the random

j

vertical reduction resulting from the corrosion

depth, Zijcorrosion depth as:

Zcorroded

depth

simulated random thickness at the reference nodes

to adjust the plate thickness at the nodes according

to Eqn. 2, as displayed in Figures 3 to 7. Corrosion

plate reduction is applied symmetrically on both

sides of plate. 570 successful simulations of corroded plate surfaces are performed.

The mean value and the standard deviation of

the corrosion depth are considered as the ones

related to the deck plate of ballast tanks of tanker

ship. The mean value and the standard deviation of

the intact plate thickness are considered as 10 mm

and 1 mm respectively.

(2)

surface and corrosion depth.

This convention is used to derive the formulation

that describes the vertical position of the surface of

the non-linear corroded plate in the Monte Carlo

simulation resulting in randomly distributed

plate thicknesses for randomly defined reference

nodes at a specific year based on Eqn. (2) applying the corrosion degradation levels as defined by

Eqn. (1) and (2).

The vertical random coordinates (corrosion

depth) of the corroded and intact plate surfaces and

corrosion depths are modelled by a log-normal distribution. This probabilistic distribution is widely

known and can be found in the literature about

statistics. The intact plate surface coordinates and

corresponding corrosion depths are considered as

not correlated.

The modelling of the corroded plate surface in the finite element analysis model is made

Figure 4. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 9.6 mm at the 20th year.

Figure 3. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 9.8 mm at the 15th year.

Figure 5. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 9.2 mm at the 25th year.

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Table 1.

y=0

y=L

x=0

x=b

x = b/2 and y = 0

Figure 6. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 8.9 mm at the 30th year.

Ux

Uy

Uz

rotx

F

F

F

F

C

C

F

F

F

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

F

F

C

along the x-axis and h0 is the intact thickness.

The plate is supported in such a way that there

is no displacement along z-axis in all the edges,

the rotation along an axis parallel to x-axis in the

edges y = 0 and y = L is constrained, there is no

displacement along y axis in the edge y = 0 and

the point (x = b/2; y = 0) is clamped to ensure the

symmetry. Table 1 summarizes the boundary conditions, where C means constrained and F is

free displacement or rotation respectively.

4.2

Initial imperfections

presence of manufacture and welding defects, are

considered in this study as proposed by Smith

et al. (1987):

z

w0

x y

w0 sin sin

i

b L

h020

b

y

0 =

h E

0

Figure 7. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 8.4 mm at the 40th year.

ANALYSIS

steel plate subjected to compressive load, a nonlinear finite element analysis is performed using

ANSYS, (2009) commercial software. A large

deflection analysis with the arc length method has

been employed.

4.1

Plate geometry

with z being the perpendicular axis to plates plane.

(3)

(4)

(5)

w0 is the maximum amplitude of imperfection,

0 denotes the intact plate slenderness as proposed

by Faulkner (1975) and E and y are Young modulus and yield stress respectively.

It is beyond the scope of this study to evaluate the influence of these parameters on ultimate

strength and the only parameter that is varying

is the plate thickness as a function of corrosion

deterioration.

4.3

mesh with around 2520 rectangular elements and

2627 nodes accounting for some previously analyses

related to sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength,

as for example by Rigo et al. (2003). The defined

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Figure 9.

0.7

FEM mesh with initial imperfection.

Average Stress Ratio, ASR

Figure 8.

not too dense to avoid endless of calculations.

The plate is modelled by nonlinear shell elements

with four nodes, SHELL181. This element permits

to use nodal properties for introducing thickness

on every node. Figure 8 illustrates FEM mesh, initial imperfections and plate coordinates system.

5

Ry i

i =1

A

0

(6)

yield

l

reaction forces, in y direction, at the ith node, which

has the coordinates: (xi, 0, 0), k is the number of

nodes at y = 0, A0 = h0b is the sectional area of plate

at y = 0 and yield is the yield stress point of the

material.

0.4

0.3

0.2

(7)

Figure 10.

samples.

0.5

1

Strain/ Yield Strain

Deteriorated

plate

1.5

stress-strain

ratio

of material, Uyp is the displacement in y direction at

point p = (b/2, L, 0) and L is the plate length.

To evaluate the ultimate strength, the maximum

value of the stress strain curve of each plate is analysed. The ultimate strength ratio of intact plate

is defined as u,0/y = 0.6972 as can be seen from

Figure 5. The average stress strain ratio samples

for the deteriorated plate are shown in Figure 6.

6

y p

0.5

0.1

FE analysis is shown in Figure 9. The axial load is

applied on the edge y = L and the average stresses

it calculated based on the reaction forces in the

edge y = 0.

ASR =

0.6

time is shown in Figure 11, where the resulting

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of time.

ratio, u/y as a function of time.

values of the 570 nonlinear finite element computations are collected. The results clearly reveal

that a nonlinear curve is the best fitted one to the

collected data. Following this tendency an exponential equation is used to define to the ultimate

strength ratio as:

u ,0

, t C

u (t ) y

n

=

t

y

u,0 exp t C ,

y

t ,U

(8)

t C

coating life as discussed in Section 2, u,0 y

is the ultimate strength ratio when t = C, t,U is

the transition time to be adjusted and it has time

unit and n is a non dimensional parameter, which

represent the time decay capacity of the ultimate

strength of the plate.

However, the parameters t,U and nt depend of

plate ultimate strength. For the studied plate, the

parameters that best fit Eqn. (9) are t,U = 49.92

years and n = 1.42.

The R2 value has been evaluated to check the

accuracy of the regression analysis showing a good

agreement between the calculated and predicted

values of ultimate strength ratio, R2 = 0.9769.

The standard deviation as a function of time has

been defined as (see Figure 12):

(t ) 0, t C

StDev u =

y at Ln (t ) + bt ,

t C

(9)

of plate slenderness, .

analysis resulting in 0.0156 and 0.0411 respectively. The R2 value has been calculated as 0.871.

The ultimate strength ratio has been also analysed as a function of plate slenderness (see Eqn. 5),

where the mean value and standard deviation have

been modelled as:

n

u () u,0

C ,

E

exp

=

, C ,

y

y

,U

(10)

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()

(11)

StDev u

a Ln () b C ,

y

For the studied plate, the parameters that

best fit Eqn. (10) are ,U = 1.11, C, = 2.9 and

n = 1.09 respectively. For the standard deviation,

the parameters a and b are 0.0976 and 0.1030

respectively. The R2 coefficient for the mean value

and standard deviation of ultimate strength ratio

as a function of plate slenderness are 0.9885 and

0.8542 respectively.

It is considered that the ultimate strength ratio

can be described as a log-normal distribution function, truncated at u y , f U y with

TR

a mean value and standard deviation varying as

a function of time or plate slenderness, as:

u ,0

f U 0< U

=

y

y

y

TR

where

U f

g =

y 0

u ,0

,

y

, 0 < U 1

y

y

U

,

>1

y

g U

y

f U d U

y y

(12)

(13)

of the estimated ultimate strength ratio is given

in Figure 14. The probability density function as

plotted.

CONCLUSIONS

randomly distributed corrosion on the ultimate

strength of unstiffened rectangular plate subjected

to axial compressive loading. A series of 570 plate

surface geometries where generated by Monte Carlo

simulation for different degree of corrosion,

location and age and nonlinear finite element

analyses were carried out. The random surface

modelling, used in this study, allowed adequate

representation of the real corroded plate surface

accounting for the random origin of the location

and the form of corrosion depths. The plate slenderness varied from 2.9 to 3.45 as a function of

corrosion degradation. For 30 years service life,

without replacement of plate, the ultimate strength

has lost his capacity from 0.69 to 0.44 which results

in 37%. Based on a regression analysis empirical

formulae to predict strength reduction because of

corrosion have been derived demonstrating a good

accuracy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work has been made under the plurianual

funding of the Portuguese Foundation of Science

and Technology (Fundao para Cincia e Tecnologia) to the Centre for Marine Technology and

Engineering (CENTEC).

The work reported here is a contribution to

the activities of the MARSTRUCT VIRTUAL

INSTITUTE, (www.marstruct-vi.com) in particular its Technical Subcommittee 2.3 on Ultimate

Strength.

REFERENCES

strength ratio, u/y and a function of time.

Daidola, J., Parente, J. & Orisamolu, I. 1997. Residual

strength assessment of pitted plate panels. Report

SSC-394, Ship Structure Committee.

Duo, O.K., Yongchang, P.U. & Incecik, A. 2007. Computation of ultimate strength of locally corroded unstiffened plates under compression, Marine Structures,

Vol. 20, pp. 100114.

Faulkner, D. 1975. A review of effective plating for use in

the analysis of stiffened plating in bending and compression, J. Ship Research, Vol. 19, pp. 117.

Garbatov, Y. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008. Corrosion

Wastage Modeling of Deteriorated Ship Structures, International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 55,

pp. 109125.

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Non-linear Time Dependent Corrosion Wastage of

Deck Plates of Ballast and Cargo Tanks of Tankers,

Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering,

Vol. 129, No. 1, pp. 4855.

Guedes Soares, C. 1988. Uncertainty modelling in plate

buckling, Structural Safety, Vol. 5, pp. 1734.

Guedes Soares, C. & Garbatov, Y. 1999. Reliability of

Maintained Corrosion Protected Plate Subjected

to Non-Linear Corrosion and Compressive Loads,

Marine Structures, Vol. 12, No. 6, 425446.

Guedes Soares, C., Garbatov, Y., Zayed, A. & Wang, G.

2009. Influence of Environmental Factors on Corrosion of Ship Structures in Marine Atmosphere, Corrosion Science, Vol. 51, pp. 20142026.

Hart, D., Rutherford, S. & Wickham, A. 1986. Structural

reliability analysis of stiffened panels, Trans Roy Inst

Nav Architects (RINA), Vol. 128, pp. 293310.

Jiang, X. & Guedes Soares, C. 2009. Nonlinear FEM

analysis of ultimate compressive strength of pitted

mild steel square plate, Journal of Ship Mechanics,

Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 398405.

Jiang, X. & Guedes Soares, C. 2010. Ultimate Compressive Capacity of Rectangular Plates with Partial Depth

Pits, Proceedings of the OMAE, paper 2010-21050.

Jiang, X. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008. Nonlinear FEM

analysis of pitted mild steel square plates subjected

to in-plane compression, Proceedings IMAM Conference, A Ergin (Ed), Istanbul Technical University,

pp. 123130.

Nakai, T., Matsushita, H. & Yamamoto, N. 2006. Effect

of pitting corrosion on the ultimate strength of steel

plates subjected to in-plane compression and bending,

J Mar Sci Technol, pp. 5264.

assessment of corroded condition of plates with pitting

corrosion taking into account residual strengthin

the case of webs of hold frames of bulk carriers, Proceedings of the OMAE, paper OMAE2007-29159.

Paik, J., Lee, J. & Ko, M. 2004. Ultimate shear strength

of plate elements with pit corrosion wastage, ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 42, pp. 11611176.

Paik, J., Lee, J. & Ko, M. 2003. Ultimate compressive

strength of plate element with pit corrosion wastage,

J. Engineering for the Maritime Environment, Vol. 217,

pp. 185200.

Rigo, R., Sarghiuta, P., Estefen, S., Lehmann, E.,

Otelea, S., Pasqualino, I., Simonsen, Wan, Z. & Yao, T.

2003. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels, Marine Structures, Vol. 16,

pp. 437468.

Saad-Eldeen, S. & Guedes Soares, C. 2009. Effect of pitting corrosion on the collapse strength of rectangular

plates under axial compression. Analysis and Design

of Marine Structures, C. Guedes Soares and P.K. Das

(Eds), Taylor and Francis, pp. 231236.

Shi, W. 1993. In-service assessment of ship structures:

effects of general corrosion on ultimate strength. Trans

Roy Inst Nav Architects (RINA), Vol. 135, pp. 7791.

Smith, C., Davidson, P., Chapman, J. & Dowling, P.

1988. Strength and stiffness of ships plating under inplane compression and tension, Trans Roy Inst Nav

Architecs (RINA), Vol. 130, pp. 277296.

Teixeira, A.P. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008. Ultimate

Strength of Plates with Random Fields of Corrosion,

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pp. 363370.

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

strength of short stiffened panels

Mingcai Xu & C. Guedes Soares

Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Instituto Superior Tcnico,

Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

ABSTRACT: Short stiffened panels are simulated and compared with test results under axial compression

until collapse to investigate the influences of the stiffeners geometry. The stiffened panels with different

combinations of mechanical material properties and geometric configurations are considered. Four type

stiffeners are made of mild or high tensile steel for bar stiffeners and mild steel for L and U stiffeners.

To produce adequate boundary conditions at the loaded edges in the experiments, three bays stiffened

panel are used in the test and in the FEM analysis. The influence of the stiffeners geometry on the ultimate strength of the stiffened panels under compression is analyzed.

1

INTRODUCTION

capacity of stiffened panels from the viewpoints

of safety and economy. Non-conventional materials that allow having the same strength of the hull

with a lighter ship structure are used in marine

structures. For example, composites, aluminum

alloys and high strength steel are used in different

ships for that purpose. The strength to weight ratio

is an important index to design economical and

efficient ship. The adoption of very high strength

steels satisfies these requirements allowing the use

of thinner plates, with the corresponding weight

reduction which is very important for high speed

vessels. The application of very high tensile steel

is a good option, but it requires explicit consideration of the failure mechanisms, primarily fatigue

and buckling (Janssen 2000). However, it leads to

the use of thinner plate need to concerns about the

elasto-plastic buckling strength.

In order to reproduce adequate working conditions on a ship structure, the boundary conditions on the loaded top edges and unloaded lateral

edges should be considered carefully. Several ultimate strength tests have been conducted in the

past on simple stiffened panels under compression (Faulkner 1977); (Horne 1976); (Mathewson

and Vinner 1962); (Smith 1979). However, this

approach raises difficulties in reproducing adequate boundary conditions at the loaded edges in

the experiments.

To circumvent this problem, the tests of Gordo

and Guedes Soares (2008) used specimen with

three bays longitudinally. The use of three-bay

have more realistic results by avoiding boundary

conditions problems for the central plates related

to eccentricity of load and to include the interference between adjacent panels (Lus et al 2008a, b).

To prescribe appropriate boundary conditions

is a main challenge in modeling stiffened panels by experiment and finite elements. Because

the boundary of stiffened panels is supported by

strong members such as longitudinal girders and

transverse frames, the simply supported boundary condition is often adopted. But the degree of

rotational restraints at the panel boundary is not

equivalent to zero. It is important to model the

panel edge condition in a relevant way.

The objective of these FEM simulations is to

compare the different structural solutions for panels under compression adopted in the experimented

programmer. Comparison between the performances of S690, mild steel and hybrid solutions are

made. The base geometry is the one used on the

box girders tests of Gordo and Guedes Soares

(2007). In this regard, the results can be compared

with those of similar stiffened plates belonging to

much larger structures.

2

Figure 1 and Table 1 show the geometry of the different panels adopted in the experiment and in the

present study. The AB means different number

stiffener.

Four series of experiments and FEM analysis

were carried out using two different types of steel

as follows:

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steel on L stiffeners.

Hybrid U structure: S690, on plating and mild

steel on U stiffeners.

The S690 steel was supplied by Dillinger

Hutterwerke in the form of sheet of 4 mm thickness, and the mild steel was supplied by Lisnave

Shipyard. The stiffened plates were manufactured

at Lisnave Shipyard according to the standard

techniques of the shipyard (Gordo and Guedes

Soares 2008).

3

Figure 1.

panels.

Table 1.

Plate

FS3-A3

FS3-B3

BS3-A3

BS3-B3

LS3-A3

LS3-B3

US3-A3

US3-B3

Dim (mm)

300 900 4

600 900 4

300 900 4

600 900 4

300 900 4

600 900 4

300 900 4

600 900 4

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

EXPERIMENTAL WORK

for the numerical calculations have been conducted

by Gordo and Guedes Soares (2008) and a brief

account is given here for completeness.

A 300 ton hydraulic press was used to perform

the tests of the panels under uniaxial compression. Figure 2 shows the general arrangement of

the tests (left) and a detailed view of the support

for the framing systems which intends to reproduce simply supported boundary conditions. The

lateral edges of the panels are totally free to move

out-of-plane and to rotate. This means that large

panels (B series) should be less affected by the lack

of effectiveness at the lateral plating edges during

buckling. In fact, the percentage of the total crosssection area with reduced effectiveness due to

unsupported lateral edges is lower on the wide panels than in the narrow ones and thus, the expected

ultimate load is higher for the wide panels.

The transverse framing system is simply supported in a U bar in each side, allowing longitudinal displacement and rotation but avoiding

out-of-plane displacement from the initial plane

of load. The loaded top edges have full contact with the steel beds corresponding to nearly

clamped conditions, at least until collapse, due to

Stiffener

Dim (mm)

FS3-A3

FS3-B3

BS3-A3

BS3-B3

LS3-A3

LS3-B3

US3-A3

US3-B3

I 20 4

I 20 4

I 30 8

I 30 8

L38 19 4

L38 19 4

U (40 150 40) 2

U (40 150 40) 2

Y

690

690

343

343

296

296

200

200

stiffeners.

Hybrid bar structure: S690, on plating and mild

steel on bars.

Details of the lateral support of the frames in vertical

guides (right).

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of the panels. The hydraulic flow was controlled

manually due to limitations of the control device

which means that the shortening rate was not constant during the tests.

There are six stiffened panel in experiment,

including FS3-B3, BS3-A3, BS3-B3, LS3-A3,

LS3-B3 and US3-B3.

4

4.1

describe the model shape (also after deformation).

Therefore, a balance between required accuracy

and efforts is needed. It is considered that the

element size to thickness ratio (usually at least 5)

(ISSC 2009). Figure 3 only shows three bays stiffened panels which were used in the experiment.

4.2

ANALYSIS

Finite element model

both taken into account, including elastic-plastic

large deflection. The material property assumed

use the characteristic values of yield strength and

Youngs Modulus, where appropriate, a bi-linear

isotropic elastic-plastic material model excluding

strain rate effects is to be used. A plastic tangent

modulus of 1000 MPa is acceptable for normal

and higher strength steel (ABS 2006). The following are the material properties: Youngs modulus,

E = 200 GPa; Tangent modulus, ET = 10 GPa;

Poisons ratio, v = 0.3.

The FE code used for simulation is ANSYS/

Mechanical. This is a widely used finite element

code for nonlinear structural analyses. The shell

is a main challenge in modeling stiffened panel

by experiment and finite elements. Because the

boundary of stiffened panels is supported by

strong members such as longitudinal girders and

transverse frames, the simply supported boundary

condition is often adopted. But the degree of rotational restraint at the panel boundary is not equivalent to zero. It is important to model the panel

edge condition in a relevant way. Figure 2 shows

that the loaded top edges have full contact with

the steel beds corresponding to nearly clamped

conditions, at least until collapse, due to the

bi-dimensional geometry of the cross section of

the panels. The coordinate and model is show in

Figure 4. The following are the boundary condition of stiffened panel:

AA1 at the stiffener and plate: UX, UY, UZ, RX,

RY and RZ.

BB1 at the stiffener and plate: UY, UZ, RX, RY,

RZ and equal x-displacement by coupling UX

degree.

CC1 and DD1 at t transverse frame and plate

intersection: UZ.

The pressure in the z direction is applied on the

edge of the plate and stiffener. The pressure value

of the plate is Pp, and then the pressure value on

stiffener is Ps, Ps = Pp tw/tp, where tw is the thickness of web and tp is the thickness of plate.

Figure 3.

Figure 4.

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4.3

fabrication process and are subject to significant

uncertainty related to the magnitude and spatial

variation. These initial imperfections affect significantly the ultimate strength of stiffened panel

and should be accounted for. The buckling model

component of the deflected shape has the most

significant weakening effect (Guedes Soares and

Soreide 1983).

Kmiecik (1971) considered the initial deflection

as the superimposition of the Fourier components

for the first time. The behavior of plates subjected

to buckling loads depends to a considerable degree

on the shape of their initial deflection (Kmiecik

1995). The importance of their research is that

the buckling mode component can be isolated.

Three types of initial out-of-straightness should be

accounted for plate and stiffener imperfections, as

following (Paik 2009):

Hungry horse mode initial deflection of local

plate panels.

The transverse imperfect displacement field of

plates can be normally represented by a double

Fourier series as follows:

wopl =

b

x y

sin siin

200 a b

(1)

w0c =

a

x

sin

1000 a

(2)

angular rotation about panel-stiffener intersection line

w0 s =

a

x

sin

1000 a

(3)

To get the initial imperfection in FEM analysis,

the shapes of initial imperfections are divided into

plate initial deflection, column-type initial distortions of stiffeners and sideways initial distortions

of stiffeners. Firstly, linear buckling analysis is

performed for the target stiffened panel and find

out the related buckling modes of plating and stiffener. Then the geometry properties, for example

the thickness of plates and stiffener, are changed

to decouple those deformations of interest from

out-of-plane and stiffener out-of-plane deformations. The three types of initial distortions are

superimposed altogether FEM model.

EXPERIMENT AND FEM ANALYSIS

The strength of the panel was obtained by summing the reaction force on each node (Ri), on

the opposite boundary were the load is applied

and divided by the sectional area of the stiffened

panel (At):

N

Ri

R i =1

=

At

At

(4)

analysis and the test for three bays model. That

cause the value of dL/L between test and simulation is different. So the initial shortening at low

stresses should be moved in test data.

5.1

FS series results

shown in the tests is due to the rearrangement of

the test setup until every part of the panel, support

and hydraulic machine is in full contact and it was

partially removed from the graphics due to lack of

interest.

Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the average stress

and shortening between experiment and FEM

analysis for FS series. Average stress-shortening

curve shows a linear behavior until the ultimate

compressive stress was achieved. The ultimate

strength is similar between test and simulation, but

the stiffness in FEM analysis is bigger than in test.

Furthermore, the average stress-shortening curve

at unload phase are still different between them.

The ultimate strength of F series is the lowest

in the four stiffener series. The stiffeners experience

lateral buckling and then induce panel failure from

Figure 7. It can be seen that the plate and stiffener

as a unit collapses. This phenomenon explains that

the collapse was sudden resulting from the yielding

of the stiffeners. It needs to the stronger stiffeners to avoid the whole collapse when the spacing

of the panel is increased. The value of the 1three

bays model with different boundary condition are

all similar. It means that the support at the frame

z direction and the symmetric boundary condition on the lateral edge effect the ultimate strength

slightly for FS series.

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350

500

TEST

FEM

FS3-B3

BS3-A3

TEST

FEM

300

400

Stress (Mpa)

Stress (Mpa)

250

200

150

100

300

200

100

50

0

0

10

3

dL/L(10 )

dL/L(10 )

350

500

FS3-A3

300

TEST

FEM

400

200

Stress (Mpa)

Stress (Mpa)

250

BS3-B3

150

100

50

300

200

100

0

0

10

12

dL/L(10 )

Figure 6.

FS3-A3.

10

3

dL/L(10 )

limit state for FS.

of steel of 343 MPa yield stress and the associated plate is made of 690 MPa nominal yield stress

steel. There was a very great discharge of load after

the ultimate load was achieved during the development of large out of plane deformations of the

panel between frames. Once the panels collapse,

from Figure 8 and Figure 9, the values of ultimate

strength drop down very quickly in the test and

FEM analysis. The ultimate strength of BS series

specimen is bigger than the FS series. The collapse

of the BS3 panel is due to stiffener induced failure and generates large transverse loads on the

transverse frame supports, shows in Figure 10 and

Figure 11.

5.2

5.3

BS series results

shortening of test and FEM analysis for the BS

LS series results

average stress and shortening curve and the FEM

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LS3-B3

TEST

FEM

500

Stress (Mpa)

400

300

200

100

0

0

10

3

dL/L(10 )

limit state for BS3-A3.

Figure 13. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for LS3-B3.

limit state for BS3-B3.

Figure 14. Von Mises stress distributions at the ultimate

limit state for LS3-A3.

LS3-A3

TEST

FEM

500

Stress (Mpa)

400

in stiffened panel, and this aspect is not considered in FEM analysis. The ultimate strength of LS

series specimen is bigger than the BS series.

The buckling of plate occurs in the middle span

of the panels, and then induces stiffener failure

in the LS series specimen from Figure 14 and

Figure 15. The series of panels reinforced with L

stiffeners allowed obtaining results as expected

that the L series have good capability to avoid

buckling.

300

200

100

0

0

10

3

dL/L(10 )

Figure 12. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for LS3-A3.

average stress-shortening curve is different between

FEM analysis and the test. The stiffness of the

FEM analysis is bigger than the stiffness of the

5.4

US series results

and shortening curve of the test and the FEM

analysis for the US series specimen.

The slopes of the average stress-shortening

curve are also different between FEM analysis and

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limit state for LS3-B3.

limit state for US3-B3.

US3-B3

TEST

FEM

Stress (Mpa)

400

sudden in US series specimen.

300

200

100

0

0

dL/L(10 )

Figure 16. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for US3-B3.

400

US3-A3

Stress (Mpa)

300

200

100

0

0

10

CONCLUSIONS

are compared with the experimental results. Several

modes of collapse were observed in each panel in

the A and B series numerical results which are the

same as the experiments. Column-induced collapse

modes occur on FS and BS series. In the design,

the stiffener should be stronger to avoid columninduced collapse and the aspect ratio should be

considered. However, stiffener flange plate collapses first on US models. The collapse is related

with not only the aspect ratio but also the type

of stiffener. The best results in terms of ultimate

strength were obtained for LS panels. L series

stiffeners have good capability to avoid buckling

and they are worth of further research.

The ultimate strength of U series stiffeners

drops down very quickly in both test and FEM

analysis. The ultimate strength stress distribution

pictures of the U series show that buckling occur

in the flange occur very early. U series stiffeners

have high ultimate strength value, but its necessary

to further research to determine their suitable

dimension.

dL/L(10 )

Figure 17.

US3-A3.

thickness. Thus, the slenderness of the flange plating is higher than the slenderness of the associated

plating. The flange plate occurs buckling, showed

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work contributes to the activities of

MARSTRUCT VIRTUAL INSTITUTE, (www.

marstruct-vi.com) in particular its Technical Subcommitteee 2.3 on Ultimate Strength and 3.3

Experiments on Ultimate Strength.

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Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundao para a Cincia e Tecnologia), under

contract SFRH / BD / 65120/ 2009.

REFERENCES

ABS 2006. Rules for building and classing, steel vessels.

Faulkner, D. 1977. Compression tests on welded eccentrically stiffened plate panels. In: Dowling P.J., et al.,

editors. Steel Plated Structures. London: Crosby

Lockwood Staples; pp. 1309.

Gordo, J.M. & Guedes Soares, C. 2007. Experimental

evaluation of the behavior of a mild steel box girder

under bending moment. In: Guedes Soares, C., Das,

P.K., (Eds). Advancements in Marine Structures.

Taylor and Francis; pp. 377383.

Gordo, J.M. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008. Compressive

tests on short continuous panels, Marine Structures,

21, 113137.

Guedes Soares, C. & Soreide, T.H. 1983. Behaviour and

Design of Stiffened Plates under Predominantly Compressive Loads, International Ship building Progress,

Vol. 300-January 1983 No. 341.

Horne, M.R. & Narayanan, R. 1976. Ultimate capacity

of stiffened plates used in girders. Proc Inst Civil Eng

1976; 61:253280.

ISSC 2009, 17th International ship and offshore structures

congress 1621 August 2009, committee III.1 ultimate

strength.

application of high tensile steel in ships. In: Proceedings of the 7th international marine design conference,

Korea, 2000. pp. 317328.

Paik, J.K. 2009. Nonlinear finite element method models

for ultimate strength analysis of steel stiffened-plate

structures under combined biaxial compression and

lateral pressure actionsPart II: Stiffened panels,

Thin-Walled Structures 47, 9981007.

Kmiecik, M. 1971. Behaviour of axially loaded simply

supported long rectangular plates having initial deformations, Report No. R84, Ship Research Institute,

Trondheim.

Kmiecik, M., Jastrzebski, T. & Kuzniar, J. 1995. Statistics of Ship Plating Distortions, Marine Structures 8,

119132.

Lus, R.M., Guedes Soares, C. & Nikolov, P.I. 2008a.

Collapse Strength of Longitudinal Plate Assemblies

with Dimple Imperfections. Ships and Offshore Structures. 3(4):359370.

Lus, R.M., Witkowska, M. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008b.

Ultimate Strength of Transverse Plate Assemblies

Under Uniaxial Loads. Journal of Offshore Mechanics

and Arctic Engineering 130(2):021011-1-021011-7.

Mathewson, J. & Vinner, A. 1962. The strength and stiffener of plating stiffened by flat bars. Part 1: axial compressive loading tests. Report 392. UK: BSRA.

Smith, C. 1979. Compressive strength of welded steel

ship grillages. Trans RINA 117:32559.

228

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2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

conditions on the collapse behaviour of short stiffened panels

Mingcai Xu & C. Guedes Soares

Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Instituto Superior Tcnico,

Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

ABSTRACT: A numerical study is conducted to analyze the influences of the stiffeners geometry and

panel boundary conditions on the ultimate strength of stiffened panels under compression. The four types

of short stiffened panels analyzed are made of mild or high tensile steel and have bar, L and U stiffeners.

To understand the effect of finite element modeling on the ultimate strength of the stiffened panels, four

types of models with different geometry are investigated in the FE analysis. Moreover, different boundary

conditions for the same FE model are also investigated. From the results of the FE analysis, two of the

four models studied can produce adequate boundary conditions at the loaded edges. The stiffened panels

with different combinations of mechanical material properties and geometric configurations are considered. The initial geometric imperfection affects the collapse behaviour of stiffened panel and is analyzed

in FE simulation.

1

INTRODUCTION

marine structures and their load carrying capacity are important from the viewpoint of safety and

economy. The strength to weight ratio is an important index to design economical and efficient ship.

In order to reproduce adequate working conditions on a ship structure, the boundary conditions

on the loaded top edges and unloaded lateral edges

should be considered carefully.

FE codes have been used to analyze the stress

distributions and deformation of very complicated

structures with the accuracy demanded in engineering applications under all kind of loading conditions. They are also a suitable tool for assessing the

ultimate strength of ship structures. The advanced

buckling analysis method is to be based on nonlinear analysis techniques or equivalent, which predict

the complex behaviour of stiffened and unstiffened

panels (IACS_CSR 2006). Namely, the extent of

the model used in the buckling assessment is to be

sufficient to account for the structure that is surrounding the panel of interest, and to reduce the

uncertainties introduced through the boundary

conditions. In general, the model is to include more

than one stiffener span in the stiffener direction and

the portion between two primary support members

in the direction normal to the stiffeners. To prescribe appropriate boundary conditions is a main

challenge in modeling stiffened panels by experiment and finite elements. Because the boundary of

such as longitudinal girders and transverse frames,

the simply supported boundary condition is often

adopted. But the degree of rotational restraints at

the panel boundary is not equivalent to zero. It is

important to model the panel edge condition in a

relevant way.

To circumvent this problem, the tests of Gordo

and Guedes Soares (2008) used specimen with

three bays longitudinally. The use of three-bay

panels instead of one single-bay panels allows to

have more realistic results by avoiding boundary

conditions problems for the central plates related

to eccentricity of load and to include the interference between adjacent panels, which was found to

be significant by Lus et al. (2008a, b).

In this study two kinds of models are investigated which are 1 + 1 bays and 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays

in the longitudinal direction. The 1 + 1 bays model

consists of two full bays, while the 1/2 + 1 + 1/2

bays model consists of one full bay plus two half

bays.

A series of nonlinear finite element method

computations were carried out in ISSC (2009)

in two full bays (1 + 1 bays) model with various

parameters of influence to investigate the ultimate

strength characteristics of stiffened panels representative of ship hulls.

Zhang & Khan (2009) and Fujikubo (2005) analyzed the ultimate strength of plates using non-linear

FE software by one full bay plus two half bays

(1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays) model. Tanaka and Endo (1988)

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FE investigations on the ultimate compressive

strength characteristics of longitudinally stiffened

panels having three flat bar stiffeners with three

bays, which were intended to fail by local buckling

or tripping of longitudinal stiffeners.

To understand the influence of boundary conditions and model geometry, the ultimate strengths

of stiffened panels under axial compression are calculated for 120 specimens with different boundary

conditions and model geometry. These stiffened

panel models include 3 bays, 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays,

1 + 1 bays and 1 bay. The plate is always very high

strength steel (S690) but the stiffeners are made of

mild or high tensile steel for bar stiffeners and mild

steel for L and U stiffeners. The base geometry

is the one used on the box girders tests Gordo and

Guedes Soares (2007) (2008).

2

FOR THE ANALYSIS

Table 1 shows the geometry and material of

stiffened panels. The A-E means different number

of stiffener.

Figure 3.

Table 1.

Geometry of 1 bay.

Geometry and material of stiffened panels.

Plate

Sample

Dim (mm)

FS3-I3

FS3-I21

FS3-I22

FS3-I1

BS3-I3

BS3-I21

BS3-I22

BS3-I1

LS3-I3

LS3-I21

LS3-I22

LS3-I1

US3-I3

US3-I21

US3-I22

US3-I1

(300 i) (400 3) 4

(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4

(300 i) (400 + 400) 4

(300 i) 400 4

(300 i) (400 3) 4

(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4

(300 i) (400 + 400) 4

(300 i) 400 4

(300 i) (400 3) 4

(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4

(300 i) (400 + 400) 4

(300 i) 400 4

(300 i) (400 3) 4

(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4

(300 i) (400 + 400) 4

(300 i) 400 4

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

690

Stiffener

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

Geometry of 1 + 1 bays.

Dim (mm)

FS3-I3

FS3-I21

FS3-I22

FS3-I1

BS3-I3

BS3-I21

BS3-I22

BS3-I1

LS3-I3

LS3-I21

LS3-I22

LS3-I1

US3-I3

US3-I21

US3-I22

US3-I1

I 20 4

I 20 4

I 20 4

I 20 4

I 30 8

I 30 8

I 30 8

I 30 8

L38 19 4

L38 19 4

L38 19 4

L38 19 4

U (40 150 40) 2

U (40 150 40) 2

U (40 150 40) 2

U (40 150 40) 2

690

690

690

690

343

343

343

343

296

296

296

296

200

200

200

200

I = B, i = 3 when I = C, i = 4 when I = D, i = 5 when I = E;

Frame dimensionL50 20 6 (mm).

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using two different types of steel as follows:

Fully S690 structure: S690, on plating and bar

stiffeners.

Hybrid bar structure: S690, on plating and mild

steel on bars.

Hybrid L structure: S690, on plating and mild

steel on L stiffeners.

Hybrid U structure: S690, on plating and mild

steel on U stiffeners.

3

Figure 4 only shows three bays stiffened panels.

3.2

1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays, 1 + 1 bays and 1 bay, are simulated with different boundary conditions, as shown

in Table 2. To investigate the effect of model

geometry and boundary condition on the collapse behavior of stiffened panel, nine cases are

calculated in ANSYS.

ANALYSIS

1

ELEMENTS

boundary conditions, 3 bays, 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays,

1 + 1 bays and 1 bay stiffened panel are simulated

in FEM analysis.

The geometric and material nonlinearities are

both taken into account, including elastic-plastic

large deflection. The material properties assumed

use the characteristic values of yield strength and

Youngs Modulus. Where appropriate, a bi-linear

isotropic elastic-plastic material model excluding

strain rate effects is to be used. A plastic tangent

modulus of 1000 MPa is acceptable for normal

and higher strength steel (ABS 2006).

The following are the material properties:

Youngs modulus, E = 200 GPa; Tangent modulus, ET = 10 GPa; Poisons ratio, v = 0.3. The FE

code used for simulation is ANSYS/Mechanical.

This is a widely used finite element code for nonlinear structural analyses. The shell element mesh

should be fine enough to properly describe the

model shape (also after deformation). Therefore,

a balance between required accuracy and efforts

is needed. It is considered that the element size

Table 2.

ELEMENTS

FEB 4 2010

21:39:54

3.1

Y

Z

BS2-A

FEB 4 2010

21:41:12

BS2-B

1

ELEMENTS

ELEMENTS

FEB 4 2010

21:42:56

FEB 4 2010

21:44:18

Y

Z

LS2-B

LS2-A

1

ELEMENTS

FEB 4 2010

21:44:40

Y

Z

ELEMENTS

US2-A

FEB 4 2010

21:45:06

US2-A

Figure 4.

3 bays

2 bays

2 bays

(1 + 1)

1bay

Boundary condition

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

A-A1: UX, UY, UZ,

B-B1: UY, UZ, RX, RY, RZ and equal Ux

B-B1: UY, UZ, equal Ux

C, C1, D, and D1 on frame: UZ

C, C1 on frame: UZ

The intersection between frame and plate: UZ

AB, A1B1 edge: UY, RZ and RX

Note: Different model and boundary condition correspond to different location of stiffener.

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edge of the plate and stiffener. The pressure value

of the plate is Pp, and then the pressure value on

stiffener is Ps, Ps = Pp tw/tp, where tw is the thickness of web and tp is the thickness of plate. Table 2

shows all kinds of boundary conditions with

different models. The coordinate and model is

show in Figure 5.

in the longitudinal and transverse direction. The

transverse imperfect displacement field of plates

can be normally represented by a double Fourier

series as following:

3.3

It has generally been found that initial imperfections tend to decrease the rigidity and ultimate

strength of plates. These initial imperfections affect

significantly the ultimate strength of stiffened

panel and should be accounted for. The imperfections are caused during a complex fabrication

process and are subject to significant uncertainty

related to the magnitude and spatial variation. The

most accurate method is to use real measured data.

But its not always available.

Kmiecik (1971) considered the initial deflection

as the superimposition of the Fourier components

for the first time. The behavior of plates subjected

to buckling loads depends to a considerable degree

on the shape of their initial deflection (Kmiecik

1995). So the equivalent initial imperfection is

used. In most of the initial theoretical studies initial deflection assumed to have the same shape as

the buckling mode.

The following three types of initial deflection

are accounted for (Paik 2009):

Hungry horse mode initial deflection of local

plate panels

The adopted range of values for the plate outof-plane and stiffener lateral/flexural imperfection

magnitudes correspond to recommended values.

A statistical analysis of the initial distortions of the

ship plates shows that the majority of the plates,

(around 90%), particularity square plates, have

wopl =

w0c =

b

x y

sin siin

200 a b

a

x

sin

1000 a

(1)

(2)

angular rotation about panel-stiffener intersection line

w0 s =

a

x

sin

1000 a

(3)

To get the initial imperfection in FEM analysis,

the shapes of initial imperfections are divided into

plate initial deflection, column-type initial distortions of stiffeners and sideways initial distortions

of stiffeners. Firstly, linear buckling analysis is

performed for the target stiffened panel and find

out the related buckling modes of plating and stiffener. Then the geometry properties, for example

the thickness of plates and stiffener, are changed

to decouple those deformations of interest from

lower eigenmodes and get desired shapes for plate

out-of-plane and stiffener out-of-plane deformations. The three types of initial distortions are

superimposed altogether FE model.

4

determined by the following:

N

Ri

(4)

i =1

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