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ADVANCES IN MARINE STRUCTURES

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARINE STRUCTURES


MARSTRUCT 2011, HAMBURG, GERMANY, 2830 MARCH 2011

Advances in Marine Structures

Editors

C. Guedes Soares
Instituto Superior Tcnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

W. Fricke
Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany

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ISBN: 978-0-415-67771-4 (Hbk + CD-ROM)
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Table of contents

Preface

xi

Organisation

xiii

Methods and tools for loads and load effects


Influence of raised invar edges on sloshing impact pressuresnumerical investigations
S. Brizzolara, D. Villa, T. Gazzola, N. Tryaskin, N. Moirod, J. De Lauzon & L. Diebold

Modal approach to fluid structure interaction applied to a ship in waves


C. Cabos, B. Dilba, M. Krmer & A. Schwenkenberg

Sensors location and data processing algorithms of an optical fibers hull strength
monitoring system
A. Grasso, A. Vergine, D. Dimou, M. Samuelides, N. Tsouvalis & A. Ferrari

19

A hydroelastic investigation into the dynamic response characteristics


of bulk carriers
L. Kaydhan, B. Uurlu & A. Ergin

33

Numerical prediction of slamming loads on a rigid wedge subjected to water entry using
an explicit finite element method
H. Luo, S. Wang & C. Guedes Soares

41

On estimation of extreme ship response using upcrossing spectrum


W. Mao & I. Rychlik

49

Utilization of a whole ship finite element analysis from wave loads to structural strength
at real sea state
Y. Ogawa & M. Oka

59

Environmental and operational uncertainties in long-term prediction of slamming loads


of containerships
J. Parunov, M. orak & I. Senjanovi

67

Efficient calculation of fluid structure interaction in ship vibration


M. Wilken, A. Menk, H. Voss & C. Cabos

75

Methods and tools for strength assessment


Ultimate strength
Buckling analysis of composite delaminated ship plates under shearing
E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica

85

Shear buckling analysis of the composite plates with cut-outs


E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica

93

Robust ultimate strength formulation for stiffened plates subjected to combined loads
S.-R. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J.-B. Koo, H.-M. Doh & Y.-K. Chon

99

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Rapid analysis techniques for ultimate strength predictions of aluminum structures


M.D. Collette

109

A revisit on design and analysis of stiffened shell structures for offshore applications
P.K. Das, K.K. Subin & P.C. Pretheesh

119

Finite elements modeling of delaminations in composite laminates


M. Gaiotti, C.M. Rizzo, K. Branner & P. Berring

133

Shakedown of welding-induced residual stress and effect on stiffened plate strength and behaviour
L.G. Gannon, N.G. Pegg, M.J. Smith & Y. Liu

141

Geometrical effects on strength and deformability of corroded steel plates


M.R. Islam & Y. Sumi

151

Methods to cope with up heaval buckling of high temperature offshore pipelines


in Mexicos Bay of Campeche
J. Ochoa Z., J.E. Iturriaga F. & S. Melndez P.

161

Benchmark study on use of ALPS/ULSAP method to determine plate and stiffened


panel ultimate strength
J.K. Paik, S.J. Kim, D.H. Kim, D.C. Kim, P.A. Frieze, M. Abbattista, M. Vallascas & O.F. Hughes

169

Modified Paik-Mansour formula for ultimate strength calculations of ship hulls


J.K. Paik, D.K. Kim, D.H. Park, H.B. Kim, A.E. Mansour & J.B. Caldwell

187

Development of advanced designed formulation to estimate the buckling/ultimate strength


of curved plates
J.-S. Park, M.-S. Chun & Y.-S. Suh

203

Ultimate strength assessment of ageing steel plates subjected to random non-uniform


corrosion wastage
J.E. Silva, Y. Garbatov & C. Guedes Soares

213

Comparison of numerical results with experiments on ultimate strength of short stiffened panels
M. Xu & C. Guedes Soares
Numerical study of the effect of geometry and boundary conditions on the collapse
behaviour of short stiffened panels
M. Xu & C. Guedes Soares
Hydro-elastoplasticity approach to ships hull girder collapse behavior in waves
W. Xu, K. Iijima & M. Fujikubo
A study on the dynamic buckling strength of containerships bow structures subjected
to bow flare impact force
S.H. Yang, H.L. Chien, C.M. Chou, K.C. Tseng & Y.J. Lee
Ultimate strength of aluminum Y-stiffened panels
M.R. Zareei

221

229
239

249
257

Fatigue strength
Fatigue of high-speed aluminium ships: A master curve formulation
J.H. den Besten & R.H.M. Huijsmans

267

Stress and strain-based approaches for fatigue life evaluation of complex structural details
M. Biot & L. Moro

277

Different finite element refinement strategies for the computation of the strain energy density
in a welded joint
C. Fischer, A. Dster & W. Fricke

289

Round-robin on local stress determination and fatigue assessment of load-carrying


fillet-welded joints
W. Fricke, M. Codda, O. Feltz, Y. Garbatov, H. Remes, G. Risso, C. Rizzo & J. Romanoff

295

Fatigue estimation of a ship structural detail


S. Giuglea, A. Chirica, I. Chirica & E.F. Beznea

303

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Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of crack propagation using molecular-continuum


multiscale approach
H.-L. Jang, M.-G. Kim & S. Cho

311

A study of design loads for fatigue strength utilizing direct calculation under real
operational conditions
M. Oka, T. Takami, Y. Ogawa & K. Takagi

317

The estimation of stress range distribution due to wide banded random loading obtained
by rain-flow counting method
J.B. Park, K.S. Kim & J. Choung

325

Three-dimensional fracture mechanics analyses of surface cracks


at welded joints in ship structure
S. Tanaka, H. Okada & S. Okazawa

335

Collision and impact strength


Ship hull composite plates analysis under blast loads
I. Chirica, D. Boazu, E.F. Beznea & A. Chirica

343

An investigation of a Suezmax tanker grounding accident


S. Ehlers, D. Poli, A. Klanac & M. Schrder

351

Research on anti-collision capability for double-hull design for the column of semi-submersible
by numerical simulation
Z. Hu, G. Chen & J. Yang

357

Effect of crushable bow on the overall crashworthiness in ship collision


Y.T. Huang, K.P. Wu, H.L. Chien, C.M. Chou, K.C. Tseng, C.F. Hung & C.L. Chang

365

A study on dynamic grounding of ships


T.-H. Nguyen, J. Amdahl, L. Garr & B.J. Leira

373

Influence of bulbous bow structures on their collision behaviour


M. Schttelndreyer, I. Tautz, J.M. Kubiczek, W. Fricke & E. Lehmann

381

Influence of ship motions in the numerical prediction of ship collision damage


K. Tabri & J. Broekhuijsen

391

Numerical prediction of impact loads in rectangular panels


R. Villavicencio & C. Guedes Soares

399

Influence of the neutral axis displacement on the residual strength of a damaged


tanker double bottom structure
R. Villavicencio, C. Guedes Soares, Z. Liu & J. Amdahl
Numerical simulation of laterally impacted clamped circular steel plates
R. Villavicencio, L. Sutherland & C. Guedes Soares
Study on the residual ultimate longitudinal strength of hull girder of a bulk carrier
against a sagging moment after ship collision
Y. Yamada & Y. Ogawa

411
419

429

Comparison of resistance to penetration of stiffened panels with T- and Y-stiffeners


M.R. Zareei

437

Ultimate load calculation during stranding


B. Zipfel & E. Lehmann

447

Dynamic analysis
Methods for hull structure strength analysis and ships service life evaluation, under
extreme hydroelastic wave loads, for a large oil-tanker
L. Domnisoru & A. Chirica
Dynamic analysis in the marine environment considering FSIShip-like structure case
A. Martnez Cimadevilla

459
473

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Experimental analysis of structures


An experimental study on fatigue crack propagation life of T-joint fillet specimen considering
residual stress under storm loading
S.H. Kim, K.S. Kim, J.H. Lee, C.H. Yu & W.H. You

487

Experimental study on slamming load of the trimaran


S. Peng, H. Sun, J. Yue & W. Wu

495

Failures mode analysis of corroded steel structures subjected to compressive load


S. Saad-Eldeen, Y. Garbatov & C. Guedes Soares

503

Fatigue tests of butt welds and plates edges of 80 mm thick plates


H. von Selle, O. Doerk, J.K. Kang & J.H. Kim

511

Study on the ultimate strength test of high speed trimaran


W. Wu, S. Xu, W. Liu, X. Li & J. Yue

521

An experimental study on mechanical, fatigue and crack propagation properties


of IMO type B CCS materials at room and cryogenic temperatures
C.H. Yoo, K.S. Kim, J. Choung, C.S. Shim, J.K. Kang, D.H. Kim, Y.S. Suh, Y.L. Shim,
H.S. Urm, M.S. Kim & G.B. An

527

Materials and fabrication of structures


A study on laser assisted friction stir welding of C-Mn steel plates
P. Biswas & N.R. Mandal

539

Steel-concrete-steel sandwich structures in ship and offshore engineering


T.J. Grafton & J.R. Weitzenbck

549

Welding of large gaps of block joints in ships using different techniques


S. Zacke & W. Fricke

559

Methods and tools for structural design and optimisation


Scantling optimization of ship structures considering fatigue at the early design stage
A. Amrane & P. Rigo

569

Underwater noise emissions: Another challenge for ship design


M. Andr, T. Gaggero & E. Rizzuto

581

Normative framework for noise emissions from ships: Present situation and future trends
A. Badino, D. Borelli, T. Gaggero, E. Rizzuto & C. Schenone

593

Methods and criteria to manage airborne outdoor ship noise


M. Biot & L. Moro

603

Shape design optimization of fluid-structure interactions using SPH and geometrically


exact interfaces
H.-S. Kim, M.-G. Kim & S. Cho

611

Finite element-based shape optimization of an asymmetric steel sandwich panel joint


D. Poli, D. Frank, A. Klanac & S. Ehlers

619

Hull/superstructure-interaction in optimized passenger ships


H. Remes, J. Romanoff, P. Varsta, J. Jelovica, A. Klanac, A. Niemel, S. Bralic & H. Naar

625

Optimization of monopile offshore wind structures


A. Thiry, F. Bair, L. Buldgen, G. Raboni & P. Rigo

633

Isogeometric shape optimization of design-dependent structures


M. Yoon, B.-Y. Koo & S. Cho

643

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Structural reliability, safety and environmental protection


Combination of primary loading effects under various wave scatter diagrams
N.-Z. Chen, G. Wang, C. Guedes Soares & A.P. Teixeira

651

Uncertainty assessment of the ultimate strength of a stiffened panel


Y. Garbatov, M. Tekgoz & C. Guedes Soares

659

Safety analyses for bulk carriers using metamodels of still water loads
P. Georgiev

669

Reliability assessment of intact and damaged bulk carriers


A.W. Hussein & C. Guedes Soares

679

Structural optimization of the hold frame of a bulk carrier considering lifecycle risk
Y. Kawamura & M. Miyazaki

691

A study on long-term prediction of corrosion wastage


T. Matsukura, Y. Kawamura & E. Khoo

699

Optimization of composite maritime structureseffects of uncertainties on design


criteria and limits
L. Sanchez, J.W. Ringsberg & E. Johnson

707

Rule development for container stowage on deck


V. Wolf, I. Darie & H. Rathje

715

Reliability analysis of marine structural components using statistical data of steel strength
B. Yu & D.G. Karr

723

Author index

731

ix

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Preface

This book collects the papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Marine Structures,
MARSTRUCT 2011, which was held in Hamburg, Germany 28 to 30 March. This Conference follows
up from the initial ones that were held in Glasgow, Scotland and in Lisbon, Portugal, respectively in 2007
and 2009. These conferences aim at bringing together researchers and industrial participants specially
concerned with structural analysis and design of marine structures. Despite the availability of several conferences about ships and offshore structures, it was felt that there was still no conference series specially
dedicated to marine structures, which would be the niche for these conferences.
The initial impetus and support has been given by the Network of Excellence on Marine Structures
(MARSTRUCT), which was funded by the European Union from 2005 to 2010, bringing together
33 European research groups from Universities, research institutions, classification societies and industrial companies that are dedicated to research in the area of marine structures. With the end of this
EU project, a new organisation was created to maintain the cooperation ties among the groups that work
in this general area. The MARSTRUCT Virtual Institute was created in 2010, with the aim of being an
association of research groups interested in cooperating in the field of marine structures. It started with
the same members as the participants in the Network of Excellence but in the near future it is open to
accept the membership of other European groups that have the same aims.
The Virtual Institute is organised in the following Technical Committees:

Methods and tools for establishing loads and load effects


Methods and tools for strength assessment
Experimental analysis of structures
Materials and fabrication of structures
Methods and tools for structural design and optimisation
Structural reliability, safety and environmental protection

which in turn are divided in subcommittees. The aim is to promote the exchange of information and the
cooperation in these subject areas. This can take the form of promoting comparative or benchmark studies in various subjects, promoting joint research activities and joint research projects, organising short
specialised courses, workshops and conferences.
In particular the Virtual Institute will take the responsibility of organising the MARSTRUCT Conference biannually in different countries, starting from the present one that is already organised in a cooperation between the MARSTRUCT Virtual Institute and the Hamburg University of Technology in a
scheme that is planned to be continued in the future: the Virtual Institute will be responsible for the preparation of the technical programme and processing of the papers and the host country organization will be
responsible for the conference organization and management.
Despite being organised in Europe, this Conference is not meant to be restricted to European attendees
and a serious effort has been made to involve in the planning of the Conference participants from other
continents that could ensure a wider participation, which is slowly happening.
The conference reflects the advances that have been made in the last years within its domain including
the full range of methods and modelling procedures for the structural assessment of marine structures.
Various assessment methods are incorporated in the methods used to analyze and design efficient ship
structures, as well as in the methods of structural reliability to be used to ensure the safety and environmental behaviour of the ships. This book deals also with some aspects of fabrication of ship structures.
This book includes almost 80 papers, which are organised into the themes that correspond to the Virtual
Institute Technical Committees, as listed above. The papers were accepted after a review process, based on
the full text of the papers. Thanks are due to the Technical Programme Committee and to the Advisory

xi

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Committee who had most of the responsibility for reviewing the papers and to the additional anonymous
reviewers who helped the authors deliver better papers by providing them with constructive comments.
We hope that this process contributed to a consistently good level of the papers included in the book.
Carlos Guedes Soares,
Wolfgang Fricke

xii

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Organisation

Conference Chairmen
Prof. Wolfgang Fricke, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany
Prof. Carlos Guedes Soares, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Technical Programme Committee
Prof. N. Barltrop, University of Strathclyde, UK
Prof. I. Chirica, University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Romania
Dr. M. Codda, CETENA, Italy
Prof. P. Das, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
Prof. R. Dow, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, EnglandUK
Prof. Y. Garbatov, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Prof. J. M. Gordo, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Dr. B. Hayman, Det Norske Veritas, Norway
Prof. A. Incecik, University of Strathclyde, UK
Prof. T. Jastrzebski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Poland
Prof. B.J. Leira, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Dr. S. Malenica, Bureau Veritas, France
Prof. T. Moan, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Prof. U. Nielsen, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Prof. J. Ringsberg, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Prof. P. Rigo, University of Lige, Belgium
Prof. E. Rizzuto, University of Genova, Italy
Prof. J. Romanoff, Aalto University, Finland
Prof. M. Samuelidis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Prof. R.A. Shenoi, University of Southampton, EnglandUK
Prof. M. Taczala, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Poland
Prof. P. Temarel, University of Southampton, UK
Prof. P. Varsta, Aalto University, Finland
Dr. A. Vredeveldt, TNO, The Netherlands
Advisory Committee
Prof. F. Brennan, Cranfield University, UK
Prof. A. Campanile, University of Naples, Italy
Prof. G. Chen, Shanghai Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Dr. F. Cheng, Lloyds Register, UK
Prof. S.-R. Cho, University of Ulsan, Korea
Prof. Y.S. Choo, Nat. Univ. Singapore, Singapore
Prof. W.C. Cui, CSSRC, P.R. China
Prof. C. Daley, Memorial University, Canada
Dr. M. Dogliani, Registro Italiano Navale, Italy
Prof. A. Ergin, ITU, Turkey
Prof. S. Estefen, COPPE/UFRJ, Brazil
Prof. M. Fujikubo, Osaka University, Japan
Prof. T. Fukasawa, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
Prof. C.-F. Hung, National Taiwan University, Taiwan ROC

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Prof. D. Karr, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA


Prof. H.W. Leheta, Alexandria University, Egypt
Prof. J.K. Paik, Pusan National University, Korea
Dr. N.G. Pegg, DND, Canada
Prof. M. Salas, University Austral of Chile, Chile
Dr. I. Senjanovi, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Dr. R. Skjong, Det Norske Veritas, Norway
Prof. Y. Sumi, Yokohama National University, Japan
Dr. O. Valle Molina, Mexican Inst of Petroleum, Mexico
Dr. P. Videiro, Petrobras, Brazil
Dr. G. Wang, American Bureau of Shipping, USA
Dr. X. Wang, American Bureau of Shipping, USA
Prof. W. Wu, Wuhan University of Technology, P.R. China
Local Organizing Committee
Olav Feltz, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany
Sonja Zacke, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany
Technical Programme Secretariat
Maria de Ftima Pina, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

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Methods and tools for loads and load effects

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Influence of raised invar edges on sloshing impact pressures


numerical investigations
Stefano Brizzolara & Diego Villa
Marine CFD GroupFaculty of Engineering, University of Genova, Italy

Thomas Gazzola, Nikita Tryaskin, Nicolas Moirod, Jrme De Lauzon & Louis Diebold
Bureau Veritas, Marine Division, Research Department, Neuilly-Sur-Seine CdxFrance

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a numerical investigation of the influence of raised invar edges on
wet drop tests pressures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capabilities of the CFD software OpenFOAM ([6]) to deal with fluid structure impact problems in the context of sloshing inside membrane
tanks. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate OpenFOAM capabilities for water drop tests simulations
for a smooth wedge on one hand and a wedge equipped with invar edges (like these which equip the Cargo
Containment System NO96 produced by GTT) on the other hand, both falling into calm water without
inclination. The obtained numerical results are then compared to Wagners solution for the smooth wedge
and to experimental measurements for the wedge with edges presented in ([2]). Numerical simulations are
in very good agreement with Wagners solution and experimental results ([2]) showing the OpenFOAM
capability to deal with fluid structure impact problems in the context of sloshing inside membrane tanks.
The agreement between numerical and experimental results confirms also that raised invar edges tend to
enhance the magnitude of sloshing pressures. This confirmation emphasizes the importance of considering the physics of invar edge effects in defining the design pressure to be used in assessing the integrity of
membrane LNG tanks.
1

INTRODUCTION

In order to better understand the influence of


these raised elements on sloshing pressures, different studies have been carried out. Due to complexity of sloshing model tests using raised edges, most
of these studies consisted in performing wedge
drop tests widely used in the industry as a means
to investigate fluid impact problems. The main
conclusion of these studies was that corrugations
significantly reduced the magnitude of impact
pressures by factors at least 2 when compared to
pressures measured on smooth wedge. The main
explanation for such reduction was the trapped air
cushioning effect.
However, a recent study (0) based on drop tests
and 2D sloshing tests showed that raised elements
effect on sloshing pressures is complex and may
not lead necessarily to lower pressures when compared to the smooth cases.
The purpose of the present paper is first to
check/confirm the findings presented in (0) and
then to evaluate OpenFOAM capability to deal
with complex fluid structure impact problems by
comparing our numerical results to the experimental results (0) for the wet drop tests with &
without invar edges. The calculations presented
in this paper concern only drop tests for wedges
with invar edges like these which equip NO96 CCS

In order to manage the risk of failure due to sloshing, adequate assessment of sloshing loads and
structural capacities are required. Even if the state
of the art of sloshing model tests has improved a
lot these last few yearsby including more physics
such as reproduction of realistic irregular 6 degrees
of freedom motion for the tank, introduction of a
special ullage gas mixture in order to respect the
LNG gas/fluid ratio density in the model tank
some physical phenomena are still not reproduced
in actual sloshing model tests.
Indeed, sloshing model tests are carried out using
tanks with smooth walls. However at prototype
scale, the two widely-used Cargo Containment
Systems (CCS) both have raised elements, corrugations in the case of MarkIII and raised invar
edges in the case of NO96. The MarkIII primary
membrane includes a square pattern of corrugation cells formed by the crossing rows of larger
and smaller corrugations, both with spacings of
roughly 340 mm. In the case of NO96 system,
parallel rows of raised invar edges are present with
spacings of roughly 500 mm and contain the weld
used to join the sheets of invar that make up the
primary membrane.

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where UG represent the Velocity of the mesh.


Basically a new virtual flux is added to the equation to take in account the moving of the mesh.
That solver use a PISO loop at each time step
to ensure the pressure-velocity coupling. In particular, but an addition correction to the standard
PISO algorithm has been sued to better predict all
the no-linear terms of N-S equations. The time
marching is performed with a Eulerian implicit
approach, that increases the stability of the solution. The linearized system has been solved with
a GAMG (Generalized geometric-algebraic multigrid) for the Poisson equation and with a Smooth
solver (GaussSeidel as smoother) for the N-S equation. This solver use a VoF method to track the
interface between the two fluids, so it solves the
classical VoF equation, where alpha represents
the fraction of fluid present in each cell, and all
the physical quantities representing of the fluids
characteristics are weighted by this fraction.

but not with corrugations like those which equip


MarkIII CCS.
Present work is complementary to the long validation study performed on different CFD methods
(unsteady free surface commercial RANSE solvers and proprietary SPH method) with regards to
impact load of different ship like section shapes,
performed within MARSTRUCT activities and
already published in different occasions (0).
2

WEDGE DROP TESTS SETUP

2.1

Equations for the impact problem

The simulation of the impact of the falling wedge


in calm water is assumed uncoupled. The body is
rigid, and its position and velocity is prescribed
and imposed.
This impact problem can be solved in several
equivalent ways. It is possible to impose a flow at
a specific velocity that comes upward and hits a
static structure, or to let the structure go down in a
calm flow. The second method was chosen, because
it will offer more possibilities for structure motions
in future studies.
The solver used for this study is interDyMFoam
from OpenFOAM (0). The interDyMFoam is a
solver for two incompressible, isothermal immiscible fluids using a VOF (volume of fluid) phasefraction based interface capturing approach, in a
moving mesh domain. This solver solve the well
know Navier-Stokes equations, recombined for a
moving mesh. Following are presented the equation in the punctual versions and write for a moving control volume:
U = 0
U + U
t

Figure 1.

2.2

Setup of the numerical simulations

The wedges configurations are the same one as the


ones described in (0). For sake of simplicity, only
the scale 1:6 is here presented in this section. For
the 2 other scales, one should refer to (0).
The set-up of the numerical simulations is the
following:
length of the wedge = 1000 mm
height of the wedge = 100 mm

(2)

(3)

To solve the VoF equation, that is a standard


fully convective equation, the interDyFoam use
the MULES method (multidimensional universal
limited explicit solver), that is a new generic solver
for simply convective equations with a bounded
range of free variable values.

(1)

= p + U + f


= UG dV

+ U U dV

= ( +
+
) dV + (

+ = 0
t
= 1 + ( ) 2
= +
) 2
1 (

) dV

Drop test scheme.

Figure 2.

Wedge configuration for scale 1:6.

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width of the wedge = 278 mm (however 2D


simulations were carried out)
dead rise angle = 10 (to ensure validity of
Wagners solution)
drop height = 0.6 m
On the contrary to experiments presented in
(0) where one side of the wedge is smooth and the
other side equipped with raised edges, two configurations of the wedge were simulated. The first
one without invar edge (smooth case) and the second one with invar edges scaled at 1:6. For both
configurations, a symmetry plan was considered as
shown in Fig. 3 hereafter. In the case of the wedge
with invar edges, the first invar edge is located at
230 mm away from apex of the wedge and the
distance between the two invar edges is 83 mm
like in (0). The locations of the pressure sensors
are chosen accordingly to (0) and are reminded
below. The dimensions are given with respect to
the apex of the wedge.
Three prescribed constant velocities of the
wedge equal to 2.80, 3.43 & 3.96 m.s1 were simulated corresponding to the theoretical free fall
velocities obtained for the 3 drop heights of h = 0.4,
0.6 & 0.8 m. Thus variation of the wedge velocity
during impact is not taken into account.
For the two other scales (1:20 & 1:35), the 3 drop
heights were scaled from the scale 1:6.
Thus in our numerical simulations, the flow is
going from the pressure sensor n1 to the pressure
sensor n18.

3
3.1

WEDGE DROP TESTS RESULTS


Results for the smooth wedge (without invar
edge)

For sake of simplicity, only results at scale 1:6 are


here presented. Our numerical procedure displaces
the mesh at V = 2.80, 3.43 & 3.96 m.s1. The mesh
used for this simulation is figured out below. The
total number of cells used to define this mesh is
equal to 290,000 cells.
For the case of the wedge without invar edge at
scale 1:6 and drop height h = 0.8 m, the pressure
time histories calculated at pressure sensor location (1018) are presented in Figure 4.
In order to validate this CFD numerical solution
obtained with OpenFOAM, this one is compared
with the reference Wagners analytical solution
for the smooth wedge without inclination which
is valid for the studied configuration (0, 0 & 0).
Comparison with experiments presented in (0) is
not possible since no results for the smooth case
are provided in (0). Comparisons of the maximum
peak impact pressures for all the pressure sensors
from #10 to #18 are figured out below for scale 1:6
and the 3 dropping heights. There is an excellent
agreement between the Wagners analytical solution and the CFD solution for the maximum peak
impact pressures. The difference for the maximum
peak impact pressure between the CFD solution
(OpenFOAM) and the Wagners analytical solution does not exceed 3% for the pressure sensors
of interest #10#18. OpenFOAM and Wagner
pressure time histories for the pressure sensor #18
which presents the maximum error (of 3%) in comparison with Wagners solution is figured hereafter
on Fig. 5.
The difference between the CFD solution (blue)
and the Wagners analytical solution (red) arises
when the separation point reaches the end of the
wedge as figured below.

700000
p10
p11

600000

p12
p13

500000

p14

Table 1.
NSensor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

pressure (Pa)

Figure 3. Mesh used for the smooth wedge simulation


(290,000 cells), simulation scale 1:6.
Pressure sensors location.
Before 1st edge (mm) Between edges (mm)
151.611
234.611
160.833
243.833
170.056
253.056
179.278
262.278
188.500
271.500
197.722
280.722
206.944
289.944
216.167
299.167
225.389
308.389

NSensor
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

p15

400000

p16
p17

300000

p18

200000
100000
0
100000
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

time (s)

Figure 4. Pressure time histories calculated by OpenFOAM for the smooth wedge, pressure sensors 1018 for
scale 1:6 and h = 0.8 m.

MARSTRUCT.indb 5

2/18/2011 5:39:11 PM

3.2

Results for the wedge with invar edges

Wagner s18
OpenFOAM s18
600000

For the sake of simplicity, only results at scale 1:6


are here presented. Our numerical procedure displaces the mesh at V = 2.80, 3.43 & 3.96 m.s1. The
mesh used for this simulation is figured out below.
The total number of cells used to define this mesh
is equal to 290,000 cells.
For the case of the wedge without invar edge at
scale 1:6 and drop height h = 0.8 m, the pressure
time histories calculated at pressure sensor location (118) are represented in Figures 8.
One can notice that the time pressure histories
signals are noisy. This is the reason why it was
decided to apply a low-pass filter (2.5 kHz, 8th
order Butterworth low pass filter) to these signals.
However, to ensure that this low-pass filter does
not affect the impact peak pressure of interest, this
low-pass filter is applied on the time pressure histories obtained for the smooth wedge which was
validated in the previous section. For instance,

500000

400000

300000

200000

100000

0
0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

Figure 5. OpenFOAM calculations & Wagner pressure


time histories for pressure sensor 18 for scale 1:6 and
h = 0.8 m.

Table 2. Comparison of the maximum peak impact


pressures obtained by OpenFOAM calculations with the
Wagners solution.
1:6, h = 0.4 m

OpenFOAM

Wagner

(OF/Wagner)

Sensor 10
Sensor 11
Sensor 12
Sensor 13
Sensor 14
Sensor 15
Sensor 16
Sensor 17
Sensor 18

310608
311117
314067
315277
319110
319133
317646
318834
319689

311000
311000
311000
311000
311000
311000
311000
311000
311000

0.999
1.000
1.010
1.014
1.026
1.026
1.021
1.025
1.028

1:6, h = 0.6 m

OpenFOAM

Wagner

(OF/Wagner)

Sensor 10
Sensor 11
Sensor 12
Sensor 13
Sensor 14
Sensor 15
Sensor 16
Sensor 17
Sensor 18

466241
465773
470233
472968
480360
481153
478298
479665
480882

467000
467000
467000
467000
467000
467000
467000
467000
467000

0.998
0.997
1.007
1.013
1.029
1.030
1.024
1.027
1.030

1:6, h = 0.8 m

OpenFOAM

Wagner

(OF/Wagner)

Sensor 10
Sensor 11
Sensor 12
Sensor 13
Sensor 14
Sensor 15
Sensor 16
Sensor 17
Sensor 18

623481
623824
628800
632826
642751
643088
638552
640465
642697

622000
622000
622000
622000
622000
622000
622000
622000
622000

1.002
1.003
1.011
1.017
1.033
1.034
1.027
1.030
1.033

Figure 6. Classical Wagners analytical solution is no


more valid when the separation point reaches the end of
the wedge.

the difference between the raw and filtered time


pressure history for the pressure sensor #3 for scale
1:6 and h = 0.6 m is figured out below.
The low-pass filter has a limited influence
(experiments post-processing procedure is not
available) on the impact pressure time history for
the case of the smooth wedge (without invar edge).
Therefore, this low-pass filter was also applied to
time pressure histories for all the pressure sensors
for the drop test simulation of the wedge with
invar edges. These filtered time pressure histories
are figured out below.
The Figure 11 depicts the time pressure histories obtained in (0) for one case which is not specified (so the y-axis legend is not given). However, it
is possible to compare both results (Figure 10 &
Figure 11) qualitatively. Doing so, one can notice
that:
The first pressure sensors (before the first edge),
pressures are similar to these ones obtained for the
smooth wedge. This can be explained by the fact

MARSTRUCT.indb 6

2/18/2011 5:39:13 PM

Figure 9. Comparison between raw and filtered (lowpass filter 2.5 kHz) time pressure histories calculated
by OpenFOAM for pressure sensor #3 for the smooth
wedge.

1.2e+006

pressure (Pa)

1e+006

800000

600000

p1

p10

p2

p11

p3

p12

p4

p13

p5

p14

p6

p15

p7

p16

p8

p17

p9

p18

400000

200000

Figure 7. Mesh used for the drop test simulation of the


wedge with invar edges (290,000 cells).

0.005

1.4e+006

pressure (Pa)

1.2e+006
1e+006
800000

p1

p10

p2

p11

p3

p12

p4

p13

p5

p14

p6

p15

p7

p16

p8

p17

p9

p18

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.01

time (s)

Figure 10. Filtered pressure time histories calculated


by OpenFOAM for all pressure sensors. Drop test simulation of the wedge with invar edges for scale 1:6 and
h = 0.8 m.

1.8e+006
1.6e+006

0.006

600000
400000
200000
0
200000
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

time (s)

1.6e+006
1.4e+006

pressure (Pa)

1.2e+006
1e+006
800000

p1

p10

p2

p11

p3

p12

p4

p13

p5

p14

p6

p15

p7

p16

p8

p17

p9

p18

Figure 11.

that the first edge does not have any influence on


upstream pressure sensors.
OpenFOAM well predicts the over peak impact
pressure (in comparison with smooth wedge) before
the first edge (see sensor #8 & #9).
OpenFOAM well predicts the under peak impact
pressure (in comparison with smooth wedge) just
after the first edge (see sensor #10 & #11).
OpenFOAM well predicts the over peak impact
pressure (in comparison with smooth wedge)
before the second edge (see sensor #17 & #18).

600000
400000
200000
0
-200000
0.004

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.01

Experimental drop test with invar edges (0).

0.011

time (s)

Figure 8. Pressure time histories for all pressure sensors


calculated by OpenFOAM. Drop test simulation of the
wedge with invar edges (zoom for the right figure).

MARSTRUCT.indb 7

2/18/2011 5:39:15 PM

In section 3-2, the drop test simulation of the


wedge equipped with invar edges was performed
and the obtained time pressure histories were
analysed. As these time pressure histories signals
are noisy, it was decided to filter these signals with
a low-pass filter (2.5 kHz, 8th order Butterworth).
In order to quantify the influence of this low-pass
filtering on peak impact pressures of interest, this
filter was applied on the time pressure histories
obtained for the smooth wedge. It was then shown
that this low-pass filtering has a limited influence
on peak impact pressures of interest.
Then, the time pressure histories were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the
experimental ones obtained in (0). The agreement
is very good considering the complexity of such
simulation.
As a conclusion, it can be said that OpenFOAM
can be used to simulate drop tests simulations not
only for smooth wedge but also for wedge equipped
with invar edges which represent a much more
complicated case. The next step is to perform drop
tests simulations for wedges equipped with corrugations (like these which equip the Cargo Containment System MarkIII produced by GTT).

Ratio (invar/smooth)

2.5

1:6, 0.4m

1:6, 0.6m
1:6, 0.8m
1:20, 0.12m

1.5

1:20, 0.18m
1:20, 0.24m
1

1:35, 0.069m
1:35, 0.086m
1:35, 0.103m

0.5

Experimental

0
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Number of the Pressure Sensor

Figure 12. OpenFOAM calculations (symbols) and


experimental (0) (black line) maximum impact pressures ratios between wedge with invar edges and the
smooth one.

3.3

Results for the ratio (invar case/Wagner)

All these qualitative observations can be quantified by comparing the ratio between the filtered
maximum pressures for the wedge with invar edges
and the Wagners solution as it is done in (0).
The agreement between OpenFOAM and Exxon
experiments (0) curves is satisfactory. Furthermore,
precise information on the experimental procedure
and its post-processing lack to perform clearer
quantitative conclusions. Hence, we can conclude
that OpenFOAM well predicts qualitatively and
quantitatively the peak impact pressures for the
drop test simulation of a wedge equipped with
invar edges.
4

REFERENCES
Gazzola, T. Contribution au problme dimpact non
linaire: le problme de Wagner coupl, Ecole Centrale Paris 2007 (written in English).
He, H., Kuo, J.F., Rinehart, A. & Yung, T.W. Influence of Raised Invar Edges on Sloshing Impact
Pressures, 1st Sloshing Dynamics Symposium,
ISOPE 2009, Vol. 3, www.isope.org
Molin, B. Hydrodynamique des Structures Offshore,
Editions Technip.
OpenFOAM, v.1.7.1, www.openfoam.com
Viviani, M., Brizzolara, S. & Savio, L. Evaluation
of slamming loads using smoothed particle hydrodynamics and Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes
methods. Journal of engineering for the maritime
environment, 2009, 223:1731, ISSN: 1475-0902, doi:
10.1243/14750902 JEME131.
Wagner, H. ber Stoss und Gleitvorgnge an der Oberflche von Flssigkeite , ZAMM, Vol. 12, 193215.

CONCLUSIONS

The aim of this study was to check/confirm the


findings presented in (0) from one hand and to
evaluate the capabilities of the CFD software
OpenFOAM to deal with fluid structure impact
problems in the context of sloshing inside membrane tanks from the other hand.
More precisely, the objective was to evaluate
OpenFOAM capabilities for drop tests simulations
for a smooth wedge on one hand and a wedge
equipped with invar edges (like these which equip
the Cargo Containment System NO96 produced
by GTT) on the other hand, both falling into calm
water without inclination.
In section 3-1, the drop test simulation of the
smooth wedge was performed and the obtained
time pressure histories were then compared to the
Wagners analytical solution (valid for this studied
configuration). The agreement between the two
solutions is excellent and thus OpenFOAM drop
test simulation for smooth wedge is validated.

MARSTRUCT.indb 8

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Modal approach to fluid structure interaction applied


to a ship in waves
Christian Cabos, Boris Dilba, Matthias Krmer & Anne Schwenkenberg
Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg, Germany

ABSTRACT: We present a modal approach to the coupled computation of the fluid flow and the
motion and elastic deformation of a floating body. For the fluid part, i.e. the transient viscous free surface flow around the structure, the open souce code OpenFOAM is adopted. For the structure part, i.e.
the fully non-linear six degree of freedom rigid body motion and the linear elastic deformations due to
the forces exerted by the fluid on the structure, an in-house code has been developed and linked to the
OpenFOAM solver. An algorithm maps fluid forces to the finite element model nodes of the structure
and maps the structure motion/deformations to the vertices of the fluid grid. In our modal approach,
the structure deformation is represented by a linear combination of a small number of precomputed
modes (in the current study, the eigenmodes of the structure), resulting in an ODE for the modal coefficients. This approach proves to be computationally efficient: on the one hand, the size of the equation
system is much smaller than the full finite element equations, on the other hand, the restriction to lowfrequency eigenmodes suppresses high-frequency oscillations encountered in direct FE computations,
allowing for larger time step sizes and in general a more stable coupling. Also, suitable selection of the
modes allows for focussing on critical structure deformations e.g. for fatigue assessment. To this end,
deformations corresponding to the most relevant load cases according to classification rules can be used
as modes, too.
1

INTRODUCTION

global strength analysis can be chosen. Integrating


such a model can however lead to high numerical
effort on the one hand because of the large size of
the structural system of equations but on the other
hand since high mesh density can lead to unnecessarily small time steps in the time integration. For
the latter reasons, the elastic deformation of the
vessel is here approximated through a few deformation modes of the global finite element model
only. The structural equations are described in
chapter 2 of this paper.
For analysing slamming events for a ship in
waves, non-linearities in the computation of the
fluid flow should be considered. In particular
computation in the time domain has advantages in
this case. For this reason, in this paper the Finite
Volume method is applied to solve the Reynolds
Averaged Navier Stokes Equations, see chapter 3.
For the solution of the coupled equation systems, the partitioned approach is used, i.e. separate
solvers for the fluid and the structure are called in
an iterative fashion, (see (Matthies, Niekamp, and
Steindorf 2006) and the references therein for an
introduction).
Mesh densities of the water near the ship and
of the wet part of the shell need not agree. This
is due to the differing typical wave lengths in both

Hydroelastic effects, i.e. the consideration of the


elasticity of a ship when computing behaviour in
waves, are important in particular when analysing
slamming events. Here, dynamic amplification of
the lowest global elastic eigenmodes of the vessel
(whipping) can occur. Since in this case fluid flow
and elastic deformation of the ship significantly
influence each other, the governing equations need
to be solved in a coupled fashion.
Because the global whipping deformations are
small compared to the ship length, linear elasticity suffices to describe the deformation of the vessel. On the other hand, translations and rotations
of the rigid ship can be significant; the rigid body
motion of the ship is therefore handled non-linearly
in this paper.
The elastic deformation of a ship and its resulting stresses can be represented through a finite
element model of the vessel. Different approaches
are possible concerning the mesh density. On the
coarsest scale, the ship can be represented by a few
beam elements, see (Oberhagemann, el Moctar, and
Schellin 2008). In order to also assess the torsional
deformations and e.g. local stress concentrations,
a global finite element as commonly used for

MARSTRUCT.indb 9

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Since the ship will perform large rigid body


motions but only small elastic deformations, a
body fixed reference frame for solving the structural equations of motion will be chosen such that
the modal coefficients r1, , r6 for the rigid body
modes are zero in the body fixed system. Due to
the movement of the body fixed coordinate system, additional inertial forces will result. In the
following sections, the terms inertial, global
resp. body fixed, local, moving will be used
synonymously.
To derive the equation of motion in this moving coordinate system we first consider the inertia forces acting on a structure as a consequence
of the moving reference frame. For this, is the
translatory acceleration of the local coordinate
 represent
system in local coordinates and and
the angular velocity and acceleration of the coordinate system about its origin in local coordinates.
According to (Argyris and Mlejnek 1988) the inertial forces are then given by

media. For this reason the meshes of fluid and


structure will not be compatible at their interface
in general. As a result a procedure is introduced to
transfer pressures to the hull and displacements to
the water between differing meshes. The coupling
procedure and the employed mapping algorithm
are described in section 4.
2

STRUCTURAL PART

Assuming linear elasticity the 3D FEM discretization of the vessel leads to the well known equation
of motion
M + Cu + Ku = F(t)

(1)

in an inertial reference frame. Here M, C and K


represent the mass, damping and stiffness matrix,
F is the external load vector and u is the vector of
displacements. Its first and second derivative represent the velocity and acceleration, respectively.
In this paper, the structural displacements of the
hull will be approximated by a linear combination
of vectors i (called modes in the following)

R ( H + Z )r + Gr + M
Mr

(6)

in modal coordinates. Here the symbols R, H, Z,


G, and M denote

u( x t )

( x )i ri (t ) = ( x )r(t ).

(2)

i =1

 x ) + ( x ) dV ,
U + (

The first six modes i, i = 1, , 6 will be assumed


to represent the rigid body motion of the ship. The
time dependent modal coefficients ri, i = 1, , n are
assembled in the vector

the angular acceleration stiffness

r = [ri, , rn]T

the centripetal forces

(3)

(

)dV ,

(8)

(9)

(4)

the Coriolis forces


Gr = 2 T ( )dV r,

A good choice for representing the global deformation of the ship typically are the lowest eigenmodes which result from the modal decomposition
of the homogeneous, undamped and unsupported
system
M + Ku = 0.

Zr = T [ ( )]dV r,

and the modes into the matrix


= [1, , n].

(7)

(10)

and the mass matrix


M

(5)

dV .

(11)

All terms of the equation of motion in the moving coordinate system have been given above for
completeness. In ship applications, however, the
forces resulting from the terms containing G, H,
and Z are typically negligibly small whereas R
results in a significant contribution.
Now adding the stiffness

This leads to the dry free vibration mode


shapes i, i =1n and the corresponding circular
eigenfrequencies i, i = 1n. Note that since the
ship is assumed to be unsupported i = 0, i = 16
corresponding to six rigid body modes. While conceptually similar to generalized or principal
coodinates in classical mechanics, we prefer the
term modal coefficients in order to stress the
approximation by a small number of modes.

dV

(12)

10

MARSTRUCT.indb 10

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and damping C and decomposing the external


forces into modes leads to the equation of motion
in modal coordinates in the moving coordinate
system

The dry modes are computed from the


generalized eigenproblem

 ) Z ( )]r
Mr + [C G ()]
)]r [ K + H (
= T FdA
d
R( ,  , U ).

by requiring

(K 2M)

(13)

det (K 2M) = 0,

resulting in one rigid body eigenvalue/eigenvector

If the modes used for the projection are normalized and orthogonal with respect to the mass
matrix, M becomes the unit matrix. In case moreover global vibration eigenmodes are chosen, K is
the diagonal matrix of the squared circular eigenfrequencies i2. Damping is then typically chosen
as applied for a global ship vibration analysis, i.e.
as a percentage of critical damping applied to the
respective mode (see e.g. (Asmussen, Menzel, and
Mumm 2001)).
Introducing the abbreviations
C* () = C + G(),
*

( , )

( )

Z ( ) ,

 , U )
F (t )dA
d
R(,

22

 , U ).
Mr + C ( )r + K (  , ))r = R (t, ,
*

(1/ 2 )(1, 1)T

2k

= (1, 2 ) =

(1/ 2 )( 1, 1)T .

1 1 1
2 m 1 1

(15)

are ortho-normal with respect to the mass


matrix, i.e.

(16)

iT M j = iijj ,
where ij denotes the Kronecker delta. Substituting u = r and multiplying by T, the equation of
motion (1) becomes the modal equation of motion

(17)

Note that the projected matrices can be computed efficiently before the time integration, i.e. no
matrix vector products with the full system matrices are required during time integration.
Solution of equation (17) requires a nonlinear
solver, because of the constraints ri = 0, i = 1, , 6
 are unknown for
and the fact that , , and
the specific timestep. The solution procedure is
described in more detail in section 2.4.

T Mr + T Kr
= T F ,
with the modal mass matrix
M = TM = diag (1,1)
and the modal stiffness matrix
K = T K = diag (

2.1 Example: Two-mass oscillator

2
1,

2
2 ).

Considering the inertia force due to rigid body


acceleration , i.e. x = u + (1,1)TU, where u denotes
the nodal degrees of freedom of the finite element
model and U denotes the rigid body translation,
the nodal force vector becomes

As a very simple example, consider two nodes, each


of mass m, connected by a spring of stiffness k,
resulting in a two degree-of-freedom (each nodes
translation in the direction of the spring) system
represented by the mass matrix

F  F M( , )T U.

m 0
=
0 m

With r = (r1, r2)T etc., the final modal equations


of motion in the body fixed reference frame are:

and the stiffness matrix


k
K=
k

The modes

equation (13) reads


*

and one elastic eigenvalue/eigenvector

(14)


K +H

 , , U )
R* (t,

12

2m r1

k
.
k


r2 +

2k
r2 =
m

2mU
2 mU,

1
( F2
2m

F1 ).

(18)
(19)

11

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Because in the body fixed reference frame the


modal coefficient r1 referring to the rigid body
motion is zero at all times, according to eq. (18),
the rigid body acceleration is

elas rbm r 7..n


A
t

elas
R

rb
bm
elas rbm 7..n
 t
=
+

r t
Relas
Mela
l s

F F2
U = 1
,
2m

Time domain integration

7..n
Aelas rbm
= Rrbm Celas rbm r 7t ..nt
m rt

Newmarks integration scheme (implicit and of


second order accuracy by canonical choice of
parameters) is applied to (17). Introducing the
abbreviations
(

 )
t

0M

a1C (

t) K (

 ),
t

= a1rt

+ a4 rt

t + a5 rt t ,

(21)


rt

= a0rt

+ a2 rt

t + a3 rt t

(22)

Aelas rt7..n = Relas

 )r = R (
t
t t
+ M 
rt

 U )
t
t


t + C ( t )r t

t ,

(23)

where a0, , a5 are the Newmark parameters that


depend on the time step size t.
As a result taking the rigid body modes
into account equation (23) can be subdivided
according to rigid body motion and elastic
deformations
A
Aelas rbm
rbm

r
AT
Aelas t
elas rbm
R

M
Meelas rbm
rb
bm
rrbm

=
+ T


R
M
Meelas r t t
elas

elas rbm
C
Ceelas rbm
rbm

+ T
 .
Celas r t t
Celas rbm

(26)

7..n
rt 7..nt + Celas
e asrt t .

(27)

In order to solve these equations the kinetic vari and U have to be known. Furthermore
ables ,
the time-variant rotation matrix S transforming
local to global coordinates is required due to the
fact that the hydrodynamic forces are determined
in the global reference frame; hence there is the
need to transform into the body fixed coordinate
system. Determining the kinetic variables is a nonlinear problem which can be solved by exploiting equation (26). Here we take into account that
the rigid body motion is affected by the elastic
deformation represented by the coupling terms
denoted by subscript elasrbm in equation (26).
According to this, the solution procedure will be
nested.

leads to the temporal discretization of the equation


of motion
A(

(25)

and

(20)

rt

eelas
l rbm
b 7..n
 .
Ceelas r t t

Here matrices with subscript elasrbm


describe the influence of the elastic deformation
on the rigid body motion. Taking into account that
the mass matrix term Melasrbm is equal to zero and
Melas is the identity matrix due to the normalized
eigenmode vectors and time independence, integrating (13) with Newmarks method is equivalent
to solve

i.e. rigid body motion is driven by the sum of the


nodal forces. On the other hand, according to
eq. (19), the modal coefficient r2 referring to elastic
deformation is subject to a forced oscillation driven
by the difference of the nodal forces.
2.2

2.3 Determining the rotation matrix


A popular method to determine the rotation matrix
in body dynamics is the successive execution of
three elementary rotations where the rotation
matrix is described by three parameters. The most
popular parametrizations are the Euler-Angles
and the Cardan-Angles. Here, a three parameter
approach is applied with elementary rotations
about z, y' and x" axes corresponding to yaw, pitch
and roll motion. The primes denote the axes of the
one time rotated system and the two time rotated
system, respectively. Summarizing the three rotation angles in the vector of generalized coordinates
[ , , ]T the rotation matrix S reads

(24)

To enforce suppression of rigid body motion


in the local reference frame the modal coefficients
r1..6 corresponding to the rigid body modes have to
be 0. Dropping the first six columns of the matrices
reduces equation (24) to

S() = Sz(1)Sy'(2)Sx"(3).

(28)

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The generalized coordinates and the angular


 , are related by
velocity and acceleration
= JR ( ) ,

(29)

 = J ( )  + K ( ,  ) ,

R
R

(30)

3. solve (33) to build the start residuum


4. start newton iteration until convergence, i.e.

solve (33) for ,
5. integrate in order to determine U and U
 ,
 in order to determine a d
6. integrate
build new rotation matrix S

where JR() and K R (


) denote the Jacobian
matrix of rotation and the derivate of
 are the first and second time
( R ) and  ,
derivates of the generalized coordinate vector .
 are stated in global coordinates
Note that and
 in time with the trapat this point. Integrating
ezoidal rule leads to the velocity of the generalized
coordinate vector

 t =  t t +

t
(
t
2

t ).
t +

The open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver OpenFOAM, which is based
on the Finite Volume Method, is adopted for the
fluid part. OpenFOAM (www.openfoam.com) features the computation of the free surface between
two media (here, air and water) according to the
Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method. This method is
based on the solution of a transport equation for
the volume fraction of one medium, where the convective term is discretized in a manner that on the
one hand maintains a sharp interface between volume fraction one and zero and on the other hand
guarantees that the volume fraction is bounded
between one and zero. The remaining transport
equations (mass conservation, momentum conservation, etc.) are solved for an effective fluid whose
properties (density, viscosity) result from an volume fraction weighted average of the properties of
the individual media.
These transport equations are solved in a
sequentiell manner, i.e. each transport equation
is solved for the variable which is governed by the
particular equation while the other variables are
kept unchanged. These sequence is repeated in
each time step as outer iterations (in contrast to
the inner iterations denoting the iterative solution
of sparse linear equation systems that result from
spatial discretization of the transport equation)
until convergence is achieved.
Coupling between fluid flow and structure
motion/deformation can be explicit (once per
time step) or implicit (once per outer iteration).
Implicit coupling is achieved by simply solving for
the modal co-efficients and adjusting the boundary vertices of the CFD grid in each outer iteration
until convergence is achieved even considering the
boundary movement.
In order to generate waves, velocities at the corresponding inlet boundaries and the elevation of the
free surface is given according to Stokes wave theory of 2nd order. Whereas a hydrostatic pressure is
assumed at the outlet boundaries. Wave reflections
at the boundaries are avoided by introducing damping zones near to the corresponding boundaries. The
hydrodynamic forces acting at the interface between
fluid and structure are obtained by integrating pressure and shear stress over the common surface.

(31)

Finally integrating the velocity vector leads to


the generalized coordinate vector

t = t t +
2.4

t
( t
2

t + t ).

(32)

Solution procedure

The solution of (13) in a body fixed reference


frame leads to the time stepping scheme given by
 are substituted by
(26) and (27). When and
according to (29) and (30) and moreover (31) and
(32) are used in (26) and (27), the result of (26) is
a nonlinear system for the 6 unknown kinetic vari
ables and
F (U t

t) =

Rrbm (U t t ) + Celas
7..n
Aela
l s rbm ( t )rt
= 0.

rbm (

FLUID PART

7..n
t )r t t

(33)

To solve this nonlinear system of equations


Newtons method is applied in a classical way where
the Jacobian matrix is built up in every iteration
step. Damping (halve the correction) is applied if
the minimizing functional doesnt decrease. Due to
the use of the iterative solver the coupling terms can
be considered easily by embracing them when varying the variables to establish the Jacobian matrix.
This means that (27) can be treated as a common
linear system once the kinetic variables and

are known. Taking the last solution as initial guess,
quadratic convergence can be obtained. The nested
solution procedure can be summarized as follows:
1. set start values: Ut0 Utnt,
t0 =
tnt
2. solve (27) for rt0,7..n

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the Navier Stokes equations. In this work only


strong coupling with underrelaxation is applied
due to the permanent failure in the kinematic
consistency made when using weak coupling. In
order to exchange information at the interface the
circumstances of non-matching grids have to be
considered. Strategies to map variables between the
domains are described in the following subsection,
see (Eisen and Cabos 2007) for more detail.

Technically, OpenFOAM provides an extensive


class library, that is used to compose (in a very
high-level way) a main program that is tailored for
a specific flow situation and has to be compiled
and linked against the library in order to build the
solver executable. This software architecture allows
for easy embedding of the structure solver that has
been implemented as an in-house library.
Prior to the current implementation with OpenFOAM, the now discontinued commercial CFD
system COMET (www.cd-adapco.com), which is
in methology and features similar to OpenFOAM,
has been used for a prototype implementation of
the presented methodology. The numerical example in section 5 was computed with the COMET
implementation.
4

4.1 Mapping of hydrodynamic forces


and structural displacements
The CFD solver yields a pressure and velocity
field at the interface on the cell faces. Integrating
pressures and stresses over these faces results in a
force field where the forces are composed according to

COUPLING OF FLUID
AND STRUCTURE SOLVER

fi = piai + fi,shear.

Here, i is the normal vector of the cell face


scaled by its area and pi is the corresponding
pressure. pi as well as i are located at the face
center xi. The task is to determine FE nodes and
distribute the pressure forces onto those nodes
such that the sum of output forces equals the FE
input forces while conserving the pressure induced
moment acting on the FE model.
On the other hand fluid cells at the interface have
to be adapted according to the structure deformation. Due to the fact that the hydrodynamic forces
are mapped according to the face center, a direct
inversion of this mapping isnt applicable to determine the face defining node displacements at the
interface. Furthermore a fluid mesh smoothing
strategy is needed to maintain grid quality and
prevent cell deterioration.

The coupling of fluid and structure solver imposes


information exchange between the FVM and
FEM at the interface. To maintain kinematic and
dynamic consistency at the interface the Dirichlet
(

(t, )))

u( )

0 ,t [ 0

(34)

and Neumann

f (t )n S (t y )n y t [ 0 T ]

(36)

(35)

boundary conditions have to be fulfilled. Generally the Dirichlet boundary condition (34) will be
gained by determining the structural displacements
which will be derived and adopted in the CFD simulation. Whereas integrating the left hand side of
the Neumann boundary conditions (35) over the
fluid interface results in the hydrodynamic forces
acting on the structure. The organization of the
information exchange at the boundary influences
the accuracy of the results and affects the stability of the coupled simulation as well. Keeping in
mind the non-matching grids at the interface and
the need to interpolate variables from one domain
into the other these conditions cant be fulfilled
exactly.
In the partioned fluid structure interaction
approach two major coupling strategies are
applied namely the weak and strong coupling.
They differ in the information exchange frequency
per time step which influences the fulfillment of
kinematic and dynamic consistency at the interface (34) and (35). Weak (explict) coupling has
only one boundary condition exchange per time
step whereas strong (implicit) coupling has several
exchanges a time step depending on the number of
iteration steps per time step performed for solving

4.1.1 Mapping of hydrodynamic forces


Since typically the fluid mesh is finer than the FE
mesh, only single finite elements will receive forces
related to a particular force result point. The condition to conserve hydrodynamic force fi at location
xi when mapping on nodes xi,n of an FE element
reads as follows
fi

fi ,n

(37)

and for the moment

fi ,n

xi ,n xi ) = 0.

(38)

The task is to find appropriate weights wi,n that


fi,n = wi,n fi

(39)

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holds and equations (37) and (38) are fulfilled. These


weights are determined by the FE element shape
functions. All nodes of an FE element will receive
forces with the same direction parallel to fi.
4.1.2 Mapping of structural displacements
In order to adapt the interface according to the
structural deformation, displacements of FE
nodes have to be mapped onto corresponding fluid
cell nodes at the interface. For this the mapping
between hydrodynamic forces and structure loads
can be exploited. First determine the displacements of the force result points located at the face
center by using the weights wi,n
upres

wi ,nui ,n .

(40)

Figure 1.

Iterative loop.

Here n denotes the structure element which is


subject for the mapping of the force result point.
Every fluid node at the interface will be adjusted
according to the weighted adjoining pressure result
node displacements
ufluid = wj u j pres ,

The aforementioned procedure has been applied


to a large container vessel (L = 294 m) at Froude
number / gL = 0.17 in both head (180) and
oblique (140) second order stokes waves of 335 m
length and 8.3 m amplitude. The following figures
show some results. In Fig. 2, the fluid-structure
boundary regions of the CFD grid and the finite
element model at the bow area of the ship are displayed. Obivously, the grids do not match, e.g. at the
bow, quadrilateral cell faces in the CFD grid correspond to a somewhat coarser triangulation in the
FE model. For this reason, the mapping routines
described in section 4 have been applied in order to
transfer forces and deformations between the CFD
and FE representations of the vessel. In Fig. 3, the
elastic modes that are used to describe the linear
elastic deformation of the vessel are displayed.
These are the lowest elastic eigenmodes that correspond to torsion (mode 7), horizontal bending
(8), vertical bending (9), and a higher hull girder
vibration mode (10). The displayed graphs indicate
that for wave lengths not smaller than the vessels
length, these modes suffice to capture the global deformation in oblique seas, reducing the
number of degrees for the computation of the
elastic deformation from several thousands for
the full finite element equations to only four for
the modal approach. To verify this, a convergence
analysis comparing these results with an approximation using a higher number of eigenmodes,
could be performed. In Fig. 4, the vessels rigid
body motion due to head waves is displayed both
with and without the effect of structural elasticity. It is demonstrated, that (for head waves) the
influence of elasticity on rigid body motion is very
small. In Fig. 5, temporal variation of the elastic
modal coefficients and, for reference, the pitch
angle is displayed for head waves. It can be seen

(41)

where the factors w j are determined according to


the distance to the fluid node.
4.2

Fluid mesh smoothing

After the boundary vertices of the fluid grid have


been moved according to the structure motion/
deformation, the interior fluid grid has to be
smoothed in order to prevent cell deterioration
and to maintain grid quality. While this has been
a major task (both conceptually and computationally) in the past involving e.g. Finite Element computation of an auxiliary spring system representing
the fluid grid, OpenFOAM now provides a robust
and efficient grid smoothing algorithm.
4.3

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

The partitioned algorithm

Only strong (implicit) coupling is applied is the


presented method which leads to the loop in
Figure(1) when integrating the structure solver
in the iterative solution procedure of the Navier
Stokes equation. This loop is cycled as many times
as outer iterations per time step are performed
for the fluid solution. If the maximum number of
outer iterations is reached it is advanced to the next
time step by setting new boundary conditions for
wave generation. To stabilize the whole solution
process in case of implicit (strong) coupling under
relaxation is applied.

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Figure 2. Comparison of CFD boundary regions (left)


and finite element model (right) at the bow area of the
vessel. As resolution differs between grids, sophisticated
mapping for forces and displacements has to be applied.
Figure 5. Pitch angle (scaled) b and elastic modal coefficients r7, , r10 in head waves. Vertical bending (mode 9)
is clearly dominant.

Figure 3. Dry modes considered in simulation. The


lowest elastic eigenmodes refer to torsion, horizontal
bending, vertical bending, and finally a higher hull girder
vibration mode.
Figure 6. Elastic modal coefficients r7, , r10, velocities,
and accelerations in oblique waves. Besides vertical bending (mode 9), torsion (mode 7) and horizontal bending
(mode 8) are significantly excited, whereas higher hull
girder vibration (mode 10) is not significant.

displayed for oblique sea. Here, torsion and and


horizonzal bending are clearly present, whereas
higher hull girder vibration remains negligible.
6
Figure 4. Comparison of rigid body motion in head
waves with and without consideration of elastic deformation. Rigid body motion is hardly affected by elastic
deformation.

CONCLUSIONS

A method for the solution of the fluid structure


interaction problem in ship design has been presented. It is characterized by the approximation of
the structural deformation by a number of modes.
This serves three purposes,

that vertical bending is the only mode that is significantly excited. This is the expected behavior for
head waves. Also, this modal coefficient closely follows the pitch angle as the driving mechanism for
vertical bending. On the other hand, for oblique
waves, other modes become significant. In Fig. 6,
the modal coefficients for the elastic modes are

the significant reduction of the number of


degrees of freedom of the distretized structural
equation system,
the suppression of high frequency contents of
the structural deformation which might lead to
overly small limits on the time step size, and

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the possibility to precompute fluid mesh


deformations for each mode and therefore to
avoid solving artificial elastic problems for the
fluid mesh in each time step.

REFERENCES
Argyris, J. & Mlejnek, H.-P. (1988). Die Methode der
Finiten Elemente, Band III - Einfhrung in die Dynamik.
Braunschweig: Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn.
Asmussen, I., Menzel, W. & Mumm, H. (2001). GL
Technology, Ship Vibration. Technical report, Germanischer Lloyd.
Eisen, H. & Cabos, C. (2007). Efficient generation of cfdbased loads for the fem-analysis of ship structures. In
International Conference on Computer Applications in
Shipbuilding, Portsmouth.
Matthies, H.G., Niekamp, R. & Steindorf, J. (2006).
Algorithms for strong coupling procedures. Computer
Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
195(1718), 20282049.
Oberhagemann, J., el Moctar, O. & Schellin, T. (2008).
Fluid-structure coupling to assess whipping effects on
global loads of a large containership. In 27th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Seoul.

As a result of this modal approach, the equation


of motion for the ship must be solved in the moving
coordinate system. This leads to full system matrices which depend on the ship translational acceleration and rotational velocity and acceleration.
The additional computational effort for these small
nonlinear sets of equations is nevertheless small,
since only few modes are applied. The rigid body
motion is also a result of this set of equations.
Compared to earlier approaches relying on a
beam approximation of the ship, torsional elastic
deformations can be considered. This is important
especially for large container vessels due to their
comparatively low torsional stiffness.
To improve the proposed method, future work
should focus on practical procedures for choosing
those modes, which are sufficient to describe the
most important effects of the structural deformation. In particular, the choice of global modes has
the natural limit of neglecting stresses due to local
effects. For this purpose, local deformation modes
of the particular structural elements could be
added to the set of global analysis modes.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Sensors location and data processing algorithms of an optical fibers


hull strength monitoring system
A. Grasso & A. Vergine
RINA Services S.p.A., Genova, Italy

D. Dimou, M. Samuelides & N. Tsouvalis


National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

A. Ferrari
DAppolonia S.p.A., Genova, Italy

ABSTRACT: The paper presents the design of two prototypes of a hull monitoring system which
employs temperature compensated laser based optical sensors. The prototypes have been developed for
a double side bulk carrier and an ice class tug boat. A set of finite element calculations has been carried
out for defining the optimum sensors installation areas in each ship. Preliminary tests on the algorithms
developed for the software onboard and a first analysis of a set of data measured on the tug boat are
reported.
1

INTRODUCTION

The algorithms developed for the onboard


structural health assessment are described. Particularly, on the bulk carrier the software correlates measured strains with hull girder bending
moments, while on the tug it estimates maximum
stress levels on selected areas of the hull structure
when the tug operates as an icebreaker. FE analyses have been used for deriving the correlation
between the measured strains and the maximum
stress for the tug and for a preliminary test of the
algorithm employed on the bulk carrier.
The prototypes have been installed on the vessels and preliminary results related to the tug boat
are presented.

The paper presents the design of two prototypes of


a hull monitoring system that have been developed
within the MOSES project Innovative Continuum
Multiplex Optical Sensors hull stress monitoring
system, supporting shipping safety and Enhancing the control capability over structural Ship
integrity.
Two vessels, within the fleets of owners that
are partners of the project (Premuda and PKL
AS), have been selected for testing the prototypes:
a double side bulk carrier and an ice class tug boat.
Considering the characteristics of each vessel,
it has been decided to design the systems for monitoring primarily:

1.1 The MOSES project

Hull girder bending moments along the ship


length and local stresses in selected hot spots for
the bulk carrier;
Stresses in the bow area due to ice pressure loads
and stresses on the forward winch deck support
structure for the tug.

More than 4500 total ship losses were recorded


worldwide in the period from 1994 to 2002: a significant percentage of such incidents are caused by
structural problems. Hull stresses due to loading,
or stresses imparted by wave and adverse weather
conditions constitute primary source of risk to
all types of ships with a large hull. Bulk carriers,
large oil tankers (Eliopoulou & Papanikolaou
2007, Papanikolaou et al. 2007), container ships,
LNG carriers and RoRo are vessel types particularly subject to such type of risks. Due to concerns
about safety at sea, International Maritime Organization (IMO) has issued in 1994 a recommendation

A set of finite element calculations has been carried out for defining the optimum sensors installation areas in each ship and results are presented.
Stress distributions in these regions have been analyzed in order to identify the best locations for the
installation of strain measuring devices, as well as
their proper gage length.

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during cargo operations, the officer in charge


could have a complete understanding of the actual
values of still water bending moments, which could
be compared with the ones expected. Moreover,
fatigue cycles on selected structural details can
be monitored, gathering information about the
fatigue status of the vessel. Benefits are hence
associated with immediate increase in safety of the
ship, during loading as well as in shipping conditions, reduction of casualties, extended service life
of vessel, and targeted maintenance directed to
overcome the damages detected by the monitoring
system.

on bulk carriers more than 20,000 dwt to be fitted


with a hull stress monitoring system (IMO 1994).
The concept of MOSES projectInnovative
continuum Multiplex Optical SEnsors hull Stress
monitoring systemis to apply highly knowledgebased methods to achieve control of loads in the
whole extension of the ship hull, using temperature compensated laser based optical sensors.
The employment of optical-fibre based architectures in hull stress monitoring systems was still
considered beyond commercial state of the art for
conventional metal ships in 1997 (Slaughter et al.
1997). The first systems adopting this technology
have been installed in Europe at the beginning of
this decade (Sagvolden et al. 2002) and nowadays
their commercial employment is growing. The
advantages of this technology rely mainly on:

high mechanical, chemical and temperature resistance of optic sensors (ideal for ship structures
and long term permanent structural health
monitoring);
immunity of the system to electromagnetic and
radio frequency interference;
intrinsic safety in hazardous areas, as sensors do
not employ electrical components;
accuracy and quality of the signal;
capability of being employed on long distances.

2.1

MONITORING SYSTEM INSTALLED


ON THE BULK CARRIER
Expected features

Considering the characteristic of the vessel, it has


been decided to design the system for monitoring:
Hull girder bending moments along the ship
length;
Local stresses in selected hot spots.
Sensors for estimating hull girder shear forces
have been also installed in two sections.
This prototype of the system aims mainly at
monitoring and storing the global bending moments
and informing the ships Master if their values
exceed a predefined threshold. Actually, information on shear forces and hot spot stresses are to be
stored in order to be analyzed ashore for estimating
the condition of the structure under surveillance.
The monitoring software has been also linked
to the loading instrument, in order to provide,
if requested during loading and unloading, an
instantaneous comparison between the expected
and measured values of vertical bending moment.

Sensors had to meet the stringent requirements


of the working environment, in terms of ruggedness, reliability, response accuracy, resistance to
electromagnetic interference and multiplex connection capability. Their development, not described
in the present paper, has been based on laser signal
transmission with optical fibres, exploiting Fibre
Bragg Grating (FBG) or Fabry-Perot interferometer diffraction effect, a technology already applied
in other fields (Majumder et al. 2008), like civil
engineering (Li et al. 2004, Maaskant et al. 1997)
and composite materials structural monitoring
(Silva-Muoz & Lopez-Anido 2009, de Oliveira
et al. 2008).
The project objectives involved sensor development, FEM structural calculations and data conditioning, to grant the applicability to the widest
types of ships. The new system, developed for an
operational employment, aims at providing more
accurate and reliable data for assessing hull structural condition, identifying damages at early stage
through direct readings or through analysis which
correlates the reading to the most severely stressed
areas. The design should allow achieving this goal
minimizing the number of sensors installed.
In heavy weather, the information provided by
the system should help the ship Master taking decisions regarding the optimum speed, heading and
ballast condition to avoid excessive wave-induced
bending or, eventually, local overloads. Similarly,

2.2

Preliminary finite element analysis

A preliminary analysis has been carried out considering a set of load cases derived from four mutually exclusive load combinations referred to three
loading conditions, which are:
Full load (departure), with the holds fully filled;
Full load (departure), with Cargo = 3 t/m3;
Ballast (departure).
The combinations of loads are provided in
RINA Rules for structural analysis (RINA 2010)
and are generally employed for structural element
analyses which do not require complete ship models. These load cases take into account also wave
induced hull girder loads, inertial loads due to ship
accelerations and static pressures induced by an

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equivalent wave, supposing the ship in both upright


and inclined conditions.
Only three cargo holds have been modeled, with
the center one actually analyzed. The three dimensional model is assumed to be fixed at its aft end,
while at its fore end rigid constraint conditions
have been applied to all nodes located on longitudinal members, in such a way that the transverse
section remains plane after deformation. Hull
girder loads have been forced at a selected section
of the central hold, applying adjustment loads
to the fore section of the model. Particularly, the
total vertical bending moment has been forced, for
each loading condition, in the section experiencing
the maximum value of still water bending moment.
Figure 1 shows distributions of vertical bending
moments due to steel weight, local loads (which
include seawater pressure) and adjustment loads
for one of the cases analyzed. The plot also reports
the total bending moment distribution (both the
one estimated before the calculation and the one
actually obtained by FE analysis), which accomplish to the condition above mentioned, referred to
target in the figure.
The structure of the ship has been modeled
employing plate and beam elements. The principal
dimensions of the elements correspond transversally to the spacing of the longitudinal ordinary
stiffeners and longitudinally to the ordinary frame
spacing. Altogether, the model contains 50041
nodes, 33178 beam and 60544 plate elements.
Figure 2 shows the mesh of the model.
Linear static analyses have been performed
employing Leonardo Hull 3D, a pre and post
processor developed by RINA, and the solver
MSC-NASTRAN 2008.
As expected, the higher stresses appear to be
mainly related to global loads (vertical bending moments) and hence the deck and, less,

Figure 2.

the bottom result to be the most stressed parts.


Concentration effects are found at the hatch corners, which appear to be a very important zone to
be monitored. On the bottom, due to combination
of global and local loads, the part corresponding
to the center of the hold presents higher values of
stresses, compared both to the values found in the
surrounding elements and also predicted using an
hull girder section theory. Nevertheless, this zone
appears to be less critical.
The following hot spots have been also found to
be of interest for the monitoring system:
Connection of the inner bottom with the hopper
tank sloping plate;
Connection of the hopper tank sloping plate
with the inner side;
Connection of the inner bottom with the transverse bulkhead lower stool;
Connection of the transverse corrugated bulkheads with the topside tank;
Ends of longitudinal hatch coamings.

x 106

2.3
Vertical bending moment [kN m]

Model mesh.

Location of sensors

Considering the aims of the system and on the


basis of global loads distributions, FE analyses
and known issues, a preliminary list of points of
interest for measuring strains was defined, which
included sensors on deck and bottom for bending
moments, sensors on the side for shear stresses and
sensors at the hot spots reported in the previous
section. From this preliminary list, a subset of locations has been selected, with the aim of optimizing
the number of sensors considering the constraints
related to junction box specifications. Moreover,
there was the need for developing a system actually affordable in the market. The following layout
appeared to be a good balance of technical and
economical requirements.

Target

4
Steel weight
Local loads
Adjustment loads
VBM predicted
VBM calculated

8
90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

Longitudinal location [m]

Figure 1. Example of load distributions and comparison of the predicted total bending moment with the result
of FE analysis.

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Figure 3 shows the sensors locations for


measuring hull girder bending moments. Four
sensors, which evaluate longitudinal strains on the
deck and on the bottom, are provided in each of
the sections highlighted in Figure 4.
Figure 5 shows the sensors locations for measuring hull girder shear stresses. Two rosettes of
three sensors each, with relative orientation of 45,
are provided in each of the sections highlighted in
Figure 6.
Figures 7 to 10 show the sensors placement
for measuring local stresses; at each point of
measure, two sensors are mounted for measuring
longitudinal and transversal/vertical strains.
Temperature sensors are also provided for compensation.

Figure 6. Location of the sections in which shear


stresses are evaluated.

Figure 7. Location of sensors for monitoring local


stresses in cargo holds.

Figure 3. Location of sensors for evaluating hull girder


bending moments in the section.

Figure 8.
stresses.

Figure 4. Location of the sections in which bending


moments are evaluated.

2.4

Location of the holds monitored for local

Analysis of stress distributions near


the locations selected for measuring local
stresses

Detailed FE analyses have been performed for


evaluating stress distributions in the areas selected
for monitoring local stresses (Figures 7 to 10). This
kind of analysis can provide useful information
for identifying the best length of each sensor and
a guideline for their installation in order to measure picks of stress.
Fine meshes have been obtained refining the
coarse one near each hot spot and the solutions
of the previous calculations have been forced, in
terms of displacements, as boundary conditions
on the refined models.

Figure 5. Location of sensors for evaluating hull girder


shear stresses.

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Figure 11. Example of fine meshConnection of the


inner bottom with the transverse bulkhead lower stool.
Figure 9. Location of sensors for monitoring local
stresses at hatch corners.

Figure 10.
stresses.

The final decision on the dimensions of the sensors was taken however considering also technical
issues related to the sensors characteristics and
their capability to be properly protected from the
environment. Actually, small strain gauges resulted
to be less suitable for an employment in harsh environments and hence have been avoided.

Location of the hatches monitored for local

2.5 Calibration of the system


A calibration and zeroing procedure is required
prior to the employment of the system. The evaluation of the zero stress, necessary for referring
the measurements to their actual absolute values,
has to be done in calm water in a well known
(reference) loading condition, comparing the average strain measured by each sensor during a proper
time interval with expected values provided by
means of FE analyses. Ballast condition has been
preferred, in order to reduce uncertainties related
to the loading. Temperatures measured during this
procedure are also stored as reference values.

As described in Section 2.2, linear static analyses


have been performed employing Leonardo Hull 3D
and MSC-NASTRAN 2008. All the structures,
including stiffeners, have been described employing
quadrilateral and triangular plate elements. Shells
around each location have been modeled by elements of about 2 cm of edge, dimension which has
been progressively increased moving away from the
hot spot zone. In the outer region, elements with
edges of about 20 cm have been used. Welding has
not been taken into account.
Figure 11 shows an example of a refined mesh.
Two loading conditions have been analyzed:

2.6 Description of the algorithm for the software


onboard

Full load (departure);


Ballast (departure).

When the monitoring software, which evaluates


onboard vertical and horizontal bending moments,
is turned on, a set-up subroutine loads all the
relevant data and arranges the connection with the
output of the reading unit, in order to read strains
and temperatures at its proper sampling frequency.
After each reading, stresses are calculated and
referred to the zero value derived during the calibration procedure. Strains due to temperature variations are also estimated for each sensor and the
stresses are compensated consequently, in order to
discard the effects related to temperature gradients
in the evaluation of bending moments.

The combinations of loads are the same employed for the preliminary analysis (Section 2.2).
Results showed that gradients of stress may be
great in the locations analyzed, with the exception
of the hatch corners. Small strain gauges (of about
2 cm of length) appear hence to be the preferable
solution for most of these hot spots, even if sensors
up to 10 cm, if installed properly, can be generally
employed, providing equally useful information on
local stresses. For the hatch corners, stress distributions seem to allow the employment of strain
gauges with a length between 10 and 20 cm.

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Subsequently, the monitoring software calculates


vertical and horizontal bending moments (MV and
MH) applied to each cross-section as follows:
4

MV

KV i i

(1)

K H i i

(2)

i =1
4

MH

i =1

where i represents the compensated stress measured by the i-th sensor and KV and KH are coefficients depending on the characteristic of the
cross-section and on the position of the sensor
in the section. The two coefficients are derived in
order to average the results obtained from the sensors on the deck and on the bottom.
Results are also provided to the crew in terms of
a ratio between the measured bending moment and
the maximum allowed for the section considered.
Every time the monitoring task highlights a critical
situation (i.e. actual values exceed the allowed limit
values) the monitoring software raises an alarm,
both visual and sonorous, that could be of different
importance (e.g. one if a threshold is approached
but not reached, the other if a threshold is reached
or exceeded).
The Monitoring Software is governed through a
Graphical User Interface that allows an operator to
interact with the workstation and is also connected
to the Loading Instrument, allowing the comparison of the measured bending moments with the
expected values during loading and unloading
operations.
2.7

Figure 12.

Fine mesh for testing the algorithm.

Results appear to be in good agreement, with


errors related to maximum values of bending
moments satisfactory for the application.
The load cases employed for these preliminary
tests represent of course standard conditions for
structural checks of the ship and not simulations
of realistic situations. Nevertheless they should
give a satisfactory idea of the reliability of the procedure in severe weather conditions.
The tests have also shown that the order of magnitude of the errors appears to be generally constant and hence the percentage increases for small
values of bending moments. The system could
hence be employed satisfactorily for detecting hazardous situations due to extreme loads, but cannot
be used efficiently, for instance, for the evaluation
of fatigue accumulated due to global loads.
The effect on the prediction of bending moments
varying the longitudinal location of the sensors
between two frames has been also analyzed.
In order to check the stability of the algorithm,
further tests have been performed, introducing
systematically, one sensor per time, an error corresponding to 10% of the stress value. The results
have shown that the influence of this error in the
prediction of higher values of bending moments is
generally satisfactorily low (lower than 2% of the
maximum allowable vertical bending moment).

Preliminary tests of the algorithm


for the software onboard

A preliminary set of tests for ascertaining the reliability of the algorithm has been performed using
FE analyses. A transversal ring, including the relevant section in hold 5 (Figure 4), has been refined
and analyzed as already reported in Section 2.4.
The structures have been described employing
plate and beam elements. The reference dimension
of the elements was about 18 cm. Figure 12 shows
the mesh employed for this calculation.
For each combination of loads analyzed, stresses
predicted by FEM have been used as input of
the algorithm, for estimating the related bending
moments. These results have been then compared
with the bending moments obtained by FE analyses.
Figures 13 and 14 show the comparison of vertical
and horizontal bending moments respectively. In
the plots FL indicates full load condition, while
BL the ballast condition; the other letter represents
the load case, as reported in RINA rules.

3
3.1

MONITORING SYSTEM INSTALLED


ON THE TUG BOAT
Expected features

The main objective of the Tug boat hull sensor


monitoring system is to provide the master and
crew with accurate information about the stress
levels on selected areas of the hull structure when

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increased stress levels due to ice loading for the


positioning of strain measuring devices. For the
forward winch loading, a shell model of the main
deck between frames 36 and 55 was used, including all support and stiffening members of the deck.
Again, the aim of the analysis was to identify areas
with increased load levels during winch operation
for sensor placement.
Figure 15 presents the bow section area of the
vessel modeled for the ice-loading study. All hull
bottom and side plating including their respective
transverse and longitudinal reinforcing members
between frames 46 and 59 have been included in
the FE model, and the platform deck (at 3200 mm
from baseline) and bulkheads at frames 50 and 55
have been fully modeled as well (Figure 16). The
structures at the fore and aft ends (Fr. 46 & 59)
and the main deck itself have not been modeled
directly, but they were taken into account by using
appropriate boundary conditions (Figure 17).
The ice loading and seawater hydrostatic pressure
have been applied as normal and hydrostatic pressure respectively, on all hull plate surfaces that
are actually loaded in working conditions. Two
ice loading scenarios have been investigated, each
with a different width zone of application, extending from the waterline to a depth of about 50 and
90 cm respectively, while the pressure is uniform
with a nominal value of 0.3 MPa (Figures 18 and

6.0E+06
FEM
Estimated

5.0E+06
4.0E+06
3.0E+06
VBM [kN*m]

2.0E+06
1.0E+06
0.0E+00
1.0E+06
2.0E+06
3.0E+06
4.0E+06
5.0E+06
FL-A
Crest

Figure 13.

FL-A
Trough

FL-B

FL-C

FL-D

BL-A
Crest
Load Case

BL-A
Trough

BL-B

BL-C

BL-D

Comparison of vertical bending moments.

2.0E+06

FEM
Estimated

1.5E+06

HBM [kN*m]

1.0E+06
5.0E+05
0.0E+00
5.0E+05
1.0E+06
1.5E+06
2.0E+06
FL-A
FL-A
FL-B
Crest Trough

FL-C

FL-D
BL-A BL-A BL-B
Crest Trough
Load Case

BL-C

BL-D

Figure 14. Comparison of horizontal bending moments.

the tug operates as an icebreaker. The ratio between


the worst actual and maximum permissible stress
in the hull shell structure is to be continuously displayed, while appropriate warning and alarm triggers are implemented in the system.
Strains from each sensor and the worst stress
ratios are to be stored so that post-processing analysis may be performed at later times, if needed.
Sensors for monitoring deck structure winch
loading have also been installed in the winch support members.
3.2

Figure 15.

Modeled area, ice loading.

Figure 16.

Bottom and side plating elements.

Preliminary finite element analysis

A preliminary analysis has been carried out with


two separate studies, one to investigate the ice load
response of the hull shell and another for the forward winch deck support structure. The ice-load
study used a three-dimensional shell model of the
bow area below the main deck between frames
46 and 59, which is the area mainly affected by
ice pressure loads when the vessel acts as an icebreaker. The decision to limit the modeled part
of the vessel was based on the fact that longitudinal strength is more than adequate in this type
of ships, because of their short length and the
generally increased scantlings of their structures.
The aim of the analysis was to identify areas with

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Figure 17. Bow section model (Internal tank walls


omitted for clarity).

Figure 18. Load scenario 1, ice load zone 50 cm deep,


port side view.

19 respectively). The plate structures have been


modeled with 5-DOF shell elements, while the
HP hull side stiffeners and floor flanges have been
modeled using 3-D beam 6-DOF elements.
In the case of winch loading study, all main deck
transverse and longitudinal reinforcing members
between frames 36 and 55 have been included in
the FE model (Figures 20 and 21). The hull sides
and the structure at the models fore and aft ends
(Fr. 36 & 55) have not been modeled directly, but
they were taken into account by using appropriate
boundary conditions. The winch load of 65 tons
has been applied on the winch base positions on the
main deck while the model was fixed on the longitudinal and vertical axes at its aft end on frame 36.
Boundary conditions preventing both vertical displacement and rotation around the longitudinal
axis were applied on all nodes along the hull sides,
port and starboard. Along frame 55, only the vertical displacement was restrained. The structure has
been modeled with about 80000 5-DOF shell elements, whereas 3500 6-DOF beam elements were
used to model the bulbs of the HP stiffeners.
The analysis was performed with version 23.1
of the general purpose code Autodesk ALGOR,
using the linear elastic analysis sparse solver.
It is noted that the magnitude of the applied
ice loading, which equals 0.3 MPa, is a nominal
static load. This loading condition gives the stress
pattern expected rather than the absolute values of
stresses under ice conditions. Actual measurements
of ice loads vary significantly. In way of example
and in order to get a feeling of what a 0.3 MPa
uniform pressure represents, it is mentioned that
peak values of dynamic ice pressures according
to Kujala et al. (2007) were measured between
0.63 MPa and 0.84 MPa.
Bearing the above in mind it is observed that
for a static pressure of 0.3 MPa the side hull stress
levels are low and not critical, because of the
increased plating thickness and the reinforcing

Figure 19. Load scenario 2, ice load zone 90 cm deep,


port side view.

Figure 20.

Main Deck Fr. 36Fr. 55.

members, given the fact that the affected structural


part is made of high strength steel with a yield
point greater than 315 MPa. The winch support
structure stresses are also low, because of the
increased plating thickness and the strong reinforcing members.

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system includes sensors placed only longitudinally according to the reference system shown in
Figure 23. To overcome the lack of strains data
in the transverse direction which are required for
accurate stress calculations, a FE analysis has been
performed, the aim of which was to derive relations
and mathematical expressions, linking the existing

Figure 21.

3.3

Deck reinforcing members.

Location of sensors

The system installed on the tug boat performs


constant evaluation of strains in selected panels
and stiffeners of the bow structure, at the area just
below the water-line. The decision on sensor placement has been made based on the results of the
FE analysis: Figure 22 shows the planning for the
placement of sensors on the port side of the bow
between frames 51 and 53, while a second set of
sensors was similarly installed on starboard side.
In addition, sensors on the deck winch supporting
structure can provide information about the towing operational status of the vessel, as a function
of time.
Figure 23 shows the reference system for the
general case of sensors placement on panels:
aspect ratio a/b is to be taken with a on the
indicated transverse axis of each panel, and sensors are to be installed in any of the two positions
shown as middle and quarter. Both are on the
b/2 transverse line, at 50% and 75% of the transverse length a. Each sensor is to be positioned
along the indicated longitudinal axis (x) of the
respective panel.
Sensors placement on stiffeners is to follow the reference system shown in Figure 24. Sensors are to
be positioned on top of the stiffener flange and at
the middle of the stiffener span, along the stiffener
longitudinal axis.
Regarding the winch loading sensors, they are
placed on the flange and web of the main deck
support girders, under the winch base (Figure 25).
Temperature sensors are also provided for
compensation.
3.4

Figure 22.

Hull sensor installation, port side.

Figure 23.

Hull sensors installation on panels.

Figure 24.

Hull sensors installation on stiffeners.

Stress and strain calculations on panels

In the loading case under study, which is lateral pressure acting on the hull panels from the
ice, the developed stress state in the panels is
2-dimensional. Because of the limited number
of available channels/sensors for installation, the

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Figure 25. Location of sensors for evaluating winch


loading.
Figure 26. Test panel example, aspect ratio 2,
b = 600 mm.

longitudinal strains to the missing transverse ones


and, additionally, linking the longitudinal stresses
at the sensor location to the maximum von Mises
stress developed elsewhere on the panel. All calculations were carried out for flat plates with fixed ends
and having various aspect ratios and thicknesses.
Three separate lateral pressure load conditions due
to ice were taken into account:
The ice thickness is either equal to or greater
than the panel dimension , thus covering the
full span of the side panel in the transverse
direction of the vessel.
The ice thickness is approximately equal to 2/3
of the panel dimension , thus partly loading
the side panel, and
The ice thickness is approximately equal to 1/3
of the panel dimension , again partly loading
the side panel.

Figure 27. Strain ratio yy/xx, middle


Trend line for aspect ratio less than 2.5.

In all cases, ice loading was taken as uniformly


distributed. Taking in addition into account different locations of the partial ice lateral pressure,
six load cases were defined in total. The proposed
algorithm performs all calculations for every one
of the above load conditions and finally selects the
highest von Mises stress value to compare with the
permissible stress.
The FE analysis was performed in a series of
flat rectangular test panels (Figure 26), with the
following parameters:

position.

similar vessels. The magnitude of panel length b


is also based on typical frame spacing values of
similar vessels. The analysis performed was linear
static, with uniform pressure applying totally or
partially on panels with all four sides fixed. The
analysis was performed only for steel panels.
For each load case and panel geometry, the values of x-strain (xx), y-strain (yy) and x-stress (xx)
were calculated for both the middle and quarter positions, along with the maximum von Mises
stress VM of the whole panel. The results were
then tabulated and the following strain and stress
ratios were plotted against the aspect ratio values
for both middle and quarter positions:

Aspect ratio a/b (b is the longitudinal side, parallel to the sensor axis) ranging from 1 to 4. Actual
values examined were 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5,
3 and 4.
Plate thickness: Three values have been taken
into account: 12 mm, 15 mm and 18 mm.
Panel length b: Three values have been taken
into account: 500 mm, 600 mm and 700 mm.

yy / xx
xx / VM
The analysis showed that both ratios are unaffected by the thickness value and the value of the

The panel thickness values have been selected


based on actual thickness measurements found in

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3.5

Figure 28.

Strain ratio yy / xx, quarter position.

Figure 29.

Stress ratio xx / VMmax, middle position.

Figure 30.

Stress ratio xx / VMmax, quarter position.

Description of the algorithm for the software


onboard

During the setup phase, each sensor is to be


uniquely identified and correlated to a panel/
stiffener position, and also to the side of the hull it
is placed on (port or starboard). When setting up
the system, the user has to specify geometric and
material details as the panels aspect ratio and the
sensors position (middle or quarter, for panel
sensors only), the material Modulus of Elasticity,
Poissons ratio and thermal expansion coefficient,
and also the maximum permissible stress values for
each panel/stiffener.
The system must be calibrated and zeroed in the
harbor condition; this is the zero strain and temperature state for all calculations. The only external load acting on the hull in harbor conditions is
hydrostatic pressure, and for the panels where the
sensors are installed, expected ice load pressure
will be 5060 times greater than this hydrostatic
sea pressure. Strains due to hydrostatic pressure
are very low and thus can be safely ignored.
At the end of the setup phase all data is stored,
and in the sequence retrieved whenever the system
is turned on; the setup procedure will need to be
repeated only to modify the input data, for example the permissible stress values. The system reads
the setup data and then starts the measurement
phase, reading and storing the measured strains
from each sensor. In the sequence, a temperature
compensation calculation is carried out for the
strains measurements. Having the final value of
strains, a series of calculations provides the respective stress at each position, i, and, additionally,
the corresponding maximum expected stress in
each panel and stiffener.
In the sequence, the system passes into the display and evaluation of results phase. In this phase,
the system calculates the ratio between the calculated maximum stress and the permissible stress,
for each monitored panel and stiffener and the
worst value of this ratio is then displayed to the
crew and stored for post processing. A warning is
to be provided when the ratio is between 0.8 and 1.
Values greater than 1 shall trigger an alarm.
3.6

panel length b (frame spacing). As an example,


the plots for the fully pressured panel load case
are presented in Figures 27 to 30. For each plot,
an exponential or polynomial trend line has been
fitted and this equation is used to define the strain
or stress ratio (measured of strain or stress over the
anticipated maximum value) for any given aspect
ratio. The same procedure was followed for all load
cases in order to define a full set of mathematical
expressions for the strain and stress ratios.

Verification tests of the algorithm


for the software onboard

For verification purposes, the finite element model


of the Tug bow described in section 3.2 was used
to compare the numerical results of the ice loading
analysis with the stress values calculated using
the formulas derived from the analysis described
in section 3.4. Figure 31 shows one typical test
panel between the platform deck and the horizontal girder on the hull side. The aspect ratio for all

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Figure 32.
starboard.

Sample strain plot, plate sensors port &

stress level is low under the specific ice breaking


operational conditions.
Data measured on the bulk carrier are not yet
available.

Figure 31.

Tug bow FE model, typical test panel.

The paper describes a hull stress monitoring system which employs temperature compensated
laser based optical sensors, developed within the
MOSES project. The design of two prototypes are
described, one installed on a double side bulk carrier and the other on an ice class tug boat. The evaluation of hull girder bending moments along the
ship length and local stresses in selected hot spots
has been selected as main features for the system
on the bulk carrier. The measurement of stresses in
the bow area due to ice pressure loads and stresses
on the forward winch deck support structure have
been considered instead more important for the
tug boat.
The optimum sensors installation areas have
been selected by means of FE analyses, taking into
account also constraints related to junction box
specifications and looking for a good balance of
technical and economical requirements.
The paper describes also the algorithms for
the software provided onboard. Particularly, on
the bulk carrier the software correlates measured
strains with hull girder bending moments, while
on the tug it estimates maximum stress levels on
selected areas of the hull structure when the tug
operates as an icebreaker.
Preliminary tests on the software, performed
employing FE analyses, show that the two prototypes should be capable of providing results with
accuracy fully acceptable for the purposes of each
system.
At the present time, no measured data are available for the bulk carrier, while initial readings from
the tug boat operating in the gulf of Tallinn have
been obtained and currently investigated. The initial readings indicate that the structure of the tug
does not suffer high stresses under normal ice
breaking operating conditions. In any case, further
analyses for both the vessels are expected in the
future on a wider set of data.

neighboring panels is about 2.5, and two of section 3.4 analysis load cases were used to evaluate
the results.
The numerical strains calculated from the FE
model at the middle and quarter positions of
the panel shown in Figure 26 were used as input
in the corresponding mathematical expressions of
section 3.4, thus resulting in the analytical calculation of the maximum panel von Mises stress. This
value was then compared to the maximum von
Mises stress calculated by the FE analysis and the
difference was found to be between 2.5 and 6%.
This difference is very small and fully acceptable
for the purposes of the present study and may be
justified because of the curvature of the actual
bow panels and the hydrostatic sea pressure on the
hull sides, which were both not considered in the
flat rectangular panel analysis.
4

CONCLUSIONS

PRELIMINARY RESULTS

The system installed in the tug boat is currently


under test. At present, the ship operators have
provided for evaluation purposes only one set of
runs recorded during a week in the beginning of
February 2010, when the tug operated in 20 cm
thick floating ice.
Sample plots of strain data for some 24-hour
periods verified the presence of increased strain
levels for those time frames the Tug was actually
operational. Figure 32 shows a 3-hour strain plot
of two strain sensors (P1P is on a port side plate
and P1S is on the symmetric panel on starboard
side, see Figure 22) where the Tug was operational
between 09:35 am and 11:00 am. The scale between
two horizontal grid lines is 10 , which illustrates
that the structure is not heavily stressed and the

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Maaskant, R., Alavie, T., Measures, R.M., Tadros, G.,


Rizkalla, S.H. & Guha-Thakurta, A. 1997. Fiberoptic Bragg grating sensors for bridge monitoring.
Cement and Concrete Composites, Volume 19, Issue 1,
pp. 2133.
Majumder, M., Gangopadhyay, T.K., Chakraborty, A.K.,
Dasgupta, K. & Bhattacharya, D.K. 2008. Fibre Bragg
gratings in structural health monitoringPresent status and applications. Elsevier Sensors and Actuators A:
Physical, Volume 147, Issue 1, pp. 150164.
Papanikolaou, A., Eliopoulou, E., Alissafaki, A.,
Mikelis, N., Aksu, S. & Delautre, S. 2007. Casualty
Analysis of AFRAMAX Tankers. Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, Proceedings
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M,
Volume 221, pp. 4766.
RINA S.p.A. 2010. Rules for the Classification of Ships,
Part B, Vol. 2, pp. 3335.
Sagvolden, G., Pran, K., Vines, L., Torkildsen, H.E. &
Wang, G. 2002. Fiber Optic System for Ship Hull
Monitoring. 15th IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, 1, pp. 435438.
Silva-Muoz, R.A. & Lopez-Anido, R.A. 2009. Structural health monitoring of marine composite structural joints using embedded fiber Bragg grating strain
sensors. Composite Structures, Volume 89, Issue 2,
pp. 224234.
Slaughter, S.B., Cheung, M.C., Sucharski, D. &
Cowper, B. 1997. State of the art in hull response
monitoring systems. Report SSC-401, Ship Structure
Committee.

The research work for this paper has been partly


funded by the European Commission under the
Framework Programme 7, Grant Agreement 22083.
The partners of the consortium are DAppolonia
S.p.A., Italy; Smartec BV, Switzerland; Pegaso
Systems S.r.l., Italy; PKL AS, Estonia; HENER
Henryka Weber, Poland; Premuda, Italy; RINA
Services S.p.A., Italy; National Technical University
of Athens, Greece.
REFERENCES
De Oliveira, R., Ramos, C.A. & Marques, A.T. 2008.
Health monitoring of composite structures by embedded FBG and interferometric Fabry-Prot sensors.
Computers & Structures, Volume 86, Issues 35,
pp. 340346.
Eliopoulou, E. & Papanikolaou, A. 2007. Casualty Analysis of Large Tankers. Journal of Marine Science and
Technology 12: 240250.
International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1994.
Recommendations for the Fitting of Hull Stress Monitoring Systems.
Kujala et al. 2007. Maximum ice-induced loads on
ships in the Baltic Sea. Proceedings of PRADS 2007,
pp. 12781286.
Li, H.N., Li, D.S. & Song, G.B. 2004. Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

A hydroelastic investigation into the dynamic response


characteristics of bulk carriers
L. Kaydhan
Delta Marine, Istanbul, Turkey

B. Uurlu & A. Ergin


Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak,
Istanbul, Turkey

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a hydroelastic investigation into the dynamic response characteristics
of a group of bulkers with different load carrying capacities, e.g., two handysize vessels with carrying capacities of 20 000 and 32 000 dwt, respectively; one handymax vessel with a carrying capacity of
53 000 dwt; one panamax vessel with a carrying capacity of 76 000 dwt; two capesize type vessels with
carrying capacities of 140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively. For all the bulk carriers adopted in this study,
detailed three dimensional finite element structural models are prepared, separately, by using commercial
finite element software. The calculations are carried out for two different loading conditions, namely, fully
loaded and ballast conditions. The dry and wet frequencies are computed by using the finite element, and
they are compared with those calculated by using a higher-order 3-D hydroelasticity theory.
1

INTRODUCTION

forces in conjunction with 2D beam idealization of


the ship structure, and also 3D boundary element
method with a pulsating source distribution over the
mean wetted surface for 3D fluid-structure interaction effects. They reported differences between 2D
and 3D fluid-structure interaction models, for the
anti-symmetric case, and mostly on the evaluated
wave loads. These differences are attributed to the
inability of the employed Timoshenko beam theory to model the non-prismatic features of the bulk
carrier and open-deck structures realistically. Very
recently, Tian et al. (2009) used a three dimensional
hydroelasticity theory in the analysis of a large bulk
carrier of 180 000 dwt traveling at its design speed in
regular and irregular head waves. The analysis was
repeated without the forward speed effect, and it
was observed that the forward speed effect had certain influence on the springing induced bending
moment.
This paper presents a hydroelastic investigation
into the dynamic response characteristics of a group
of bulkers with different load carrying capacities,
e.g., two handysize vessels with carrying capacities
of 20 000 and 32 000 dwt, respectively; one handymax vessel with a carrying capacity of 53 000
dwt; one panamax vessel of 76 000 dwt carrying
capacity; two capesize type vessels with capacities
of 140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively. For all
the bulk carriers adopted in this study, detailed
three dimensional finite element structural models

Bulk carriers, container vessels and tankers are the


three largest groups of vessels within the merchant
fleet. However, bulk carriers comprise approximately 40% of the world merchant fleet. In 2006,
seven bulk carriers over 10 000 dwt were identified
as having suffered total loss together with the loss
of thirty seven lives, according to a report submitted to the maritime safety committee of IMO
by INTERCARGO (2007). One of those losses
was directly attributable to structural failure with
twenty six seafarers reported as lost from that one
incident. Once again the bulk carrier industry was
concerned by the heavy loss of life associated with
the total loss of a ship due to a catastrophic structural failure. Therefore, considerable effort has
been made to understand the wave induced structural response behavior of bulk carriers.
Bishop et al. (1985, 1991) used a two dimensional
hydroelasticity theory to investigate structural failures experienced by bulk carriers such as the Onomichi Maru and OBO MV Derbyshire, respectively.
In their studies, they investigated the steady-state
and transient response behaviors of the ship structures. Hirdaris et al. (2003, 2006) applied 2D and 3D
hydroelasticity theories to predict and compare the
dynamic behavior of a bulk carrier in waves based
on OBO MV Derbyshire. They employed strip theory for calculating 2D fluid-structure interaction

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are prepared, separately, by using the commercial


finite element software, i.e., Abaqus (2008).
The three dimensional structural models consist
entirely of the shell finite elements, representing
all major external and internal structural components. The surrounding fluid domain is discretized
by using three dimensional fluid finite elements
available in the commercial software. Both symmetric and antisymmetric response characteristics
are obtained in terms of the dry and wet frequencies with the associated mode shapes. The calculated dry and wet frequency values are presented as
a function of characteristic parameter of the bulk
carriers, in order to reflect overall response behaviors of the ship structure, for fully loaded and ballast conditions.
In a further study, a higher-order 3-D hydroelasticity method was employed for calculating the
fluid-structure interaction effect in terms of the
generalized added mass and hydrodynamic damping coefficients. The wet resonance frequency values were calculated and they are compared with
those obtained from the finite element analysis for
the bulk carrier of 140 000 dwt carrying capacity.
The response behaviors in terms of principal coordinates are also presented for the 32 000 dwt bulk
carrier excited by regular head waves. For the wet
resonance frequency calculations, an infinite frequency limit condition is assumed on the free surface. It is to say that the fluid-structure interaction
forces are associated with the inertia effect of the
fluid, independent of the frequency of vibration,
and that the hydrodynamic damping is zero.

2
2.1

By canceling the common factor eit one obtains


the equation
(2M + K)d = 0.

This equation describes the simple harmonic


oscillations of the free undamped structure, and
the in vacuo normal modes, d, and natural frequencies, , are obtained from this equation.
The distortions of the structure may be
expressed as the sum of the deflections in the
normal modes as
U = D p(t),

(4)

where D is the modal matrix whose columns are


the in vacuo, undamped mode vectors, d, of the
structure and p is the principal coordinates vector.
By substituting equation (4) into equation (1) and
pre-multiplying by DT, the following generalized
equation in terms of the principal coordinates of
the structure is obtained:
 + bp(
 t)
ap(t)

cp((t )

(5)

Q( )

Here a, b, c denote the generalized mass, damping and stiffness matrices, respectively, and are
defined as
a = DTMD, b = DTCVD, c = DTKD, Q = DTP (6)
It should be noted that the generalized mass,
a, and stiffness, c, matrices are diagonal. The
generalized force matrix Q(t) represents the fluid
structure interaction and all other external forces
(e.g., wave forces, etc.), and may be expressed as

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Q(t))

Generalized equation of motion


(Ap(t)

 ) + Cp( ))
Bp(

(7)

(t ),

where A, B and C are the generalized added mass,


fluid damping, and fluid stiffness matrices, respectively, and (t) denotes the generalized external
forces. Thus, equation (5) may be rewritten in the
form

The equation of motion describing the response of


a 3D discretized (finite element) structure to external excitation may be written as Ergin (1997)
.
M + CVU + KU = P
(1)
where M, CV, K denote the mass, structural damping .and stiffness matrices, respectively. The vectors
U, U and represent the structural displacements,
velocities and accelerations, respectively, and the
column vector P denotes the external forces.
In an in vacuo analysis, the structure is assumed
to vibrate in the absence of any structural damping and external forces reducing equation (1) to the
form
M + KU = 0.

(3)


A)p(t)

2.2

Formulation of fluid problem

(b

 t)
B)p(

(c

C)p( )

( )

(8)

The fluid is assumed ideal, i.e., inviscid and incompressible, and its motion is irrotational, so that the
fluid velocity vector associated with the unsteady
flow, v, can be defined as the gradient of a velocity potential function as v(x, t) = , where
x = (x, y, z)T and t denote the position vector and
time, respectively. In general, satisfies the Laplace
equation, 2 = 0, throughout the fluid domain,
an appropriate free surface boundary condition,
the kinematic boundary condition on the wetted

(2)

The trial solution is expressed in the form


of U = d eit and substituted in equation (2).

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() lying inside the potential domain of interest,


and G(x, ) stands for the Green function for timeharmonic flows without forward speed, which can
be given in the form

surface of the structure, and a far-field radiation


condition. For time-harmonic flows without forward speed, the linearized form of the free surface
boundary condition states g/z + 2/t2 = 0 on
the free surface, where g is the gravitational acceleration and z denotes the vertical axis.
For an elastic structure in contact with fluid
medium, the principal coordinates describing
the vibratory response of the structure may be
expressed as (Uurlu & Ergin, 2006, 2008)
p(t) = p0eit,

4 G

(9)

r(

) p0 r

i t

, r 1, 2,.., nm .

(10)

ne

N ej ej
j =1

Here, nm represents the number of modes of


interest, and p0r is the amplitude for the rth principal coordinate.
The kinematic boundary condition for the rth
modal vibration of a structure in contact with fluid
can be expressed as
r

u r n,
n =
t

where n is the unit normal vector on the wetted


surface pointing out of the fluid domain, and ur
denotes the displacement response of the structure in the rth principal coordinate that may be
written as
(12)

P = f ( / t),

{G(

, )q
) q( )
)

(16)

where f is the fluid density.


The kth generalized fluid structure interaction
force component due to rth modal vibration of
the elastic structure is defined as (Ergin et al, 2007;
Uurlu & Ergin, 2009)

The boundary value problem for the perturbation


potential can be expressed by the boundary integral equation

SW

(15)

j =1

Using the Bernoullis equation and neglecting the


second-order terms, the dynamic fluid pressure on
the elastic structure due to the oscillation of the
elastic structure can be written as

Numerical evaluation of perturbation


potential

c( ) ( )

ne

qe = N ej q ej .

2.4 Generalized fluid structure interaction


forces

Here, u is the modal displacement vector of the


median surface of the elastic structure obtained
from the in vacuo analysis.
2.3

(14)

Here, ne and N ej represent the number of nodal


points assigned to the eth element and the shape
function adopted for the distribution of the potential
function, respectively, and they together determine
the imposed approximation order for the potential
and flux distributions over the wetted surface.
In this study a higher order, linear, representation
is preferred by adopting four nodded quadrilateral
and triangular boundary elements.

(11)

ur(x, t) = ur(x)preit.

H.

Here, r and r denote the distance between the


field and source points, and the field point and free
surface image of the source point, respectively, and
H represents the contained free-surface effects.
For the solution of equation (13) with the boundary condition (11), the mean wetted surface can be
idealized by using boundary elements, over which
the variations of the potential function and its
flux are described in terms of shape functions and
nodal values as

where p0 represents the response amplitude vector.


The velocity potential function due to the vibration of the structure in the rth in vacuo vibrational
mode may also be written in terms of principal
coordinates as (Ergin & Temarel, 2002)
r ( , t)

1/ r + 1/ r

Zkr

(i )r dS.

(17)

SW

G n ( , ) ( )} dS
d .
(13)

For time-harmonic free-surface flows without


forward speed, the radiation potential is complex
in general, and Zkr may be expressed in terms of
the generalized added mass coefficient, Akr, and
hydrodynamic damping coefficient, Bkr, that are
in phase with the acceleration and velocity, respectively. Namely,

Here, = (, , ) and x respectively represent


the source and field points on the mean wetted
surface of the structure, Sw, q = /n refers to the
flux, the free term c() identifies the fraction of

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( f

Akr

[ (i

dS ],

ships are already built and they are in service. The


others are either under construction in Turkish
shipyards or at the final stage of their design. Six
bulkers with different load carrying capacities
were investigated: two handsize type (20 000 and
32 000 dwt), one handymax type (53 000 dwt),
one panamax type (76 000 dwt) and two capsize
type (140 000 and 180 000 dwt). The handsize and
handymax type bulkers under investigation have
double hull side constructions.
For the each bulk carrier adopted in this study, a
detailed three dimensional finite element structural
model was prepared by using a commercial finite
element software, i.e., Abaqus (2008). The three
dimensional structural model consists entirely of
the shell finite elements, representing all major
external and internal structural components. Shell
element S4 was selected for modeling the primary
and secondary members of the structural model.
The shell element adopted for the calculations can
carry bending, membrane and shear loads. This is a
general purpose shell element with four nodes, and
three nodes for triangle elements. The four nodded
shell element is mainly adopted for the structural
model, and the three nodded triangle shell element
is used when it becomes necessary. At each node
of the shell elements, six degrees of freedom are
assigned: three translations and three rotations.
The triangle elements were used in the areas of
large curvature, such as the bilge and side shells in
the vicinities of bow and stern. A limited number
of beam elements was also adopted for the calculations. Beam element B31 available in Abaqus
(2008) was used, and it is a Timoshenko beam and
allows for the transverse shear deformation. C3D
linear 3D solid elements were also used for modeling the main engine, etc. This element can have
eight or six nodes, and each node has three degrees
of freedom (three translations). The three dimensional models of the bulk carriers were generated
with sufficient detail to model the decks, inner and
outer bottom, machinery spaces, cargo spaces, etc.
All the primary structural members were modeled by using shell elements, and for the secondary structural members such as stiffeners, shell and
beam elements were adopted. In order to obtain
an accurate idealization of the dynamic behavior
of the vessels, a close agreement was obtained
between the finite element models and designed
vessels for the vertical and horizontal centers of
gravity and total weights.
The investigations were performed for two different loading conditions, i.e., fully loaded and
ballast conditions. Depending on the loading condition (fully loaded and ballast conditions), the
cargo loads, ballast loads, fuels, hatch covers, etc
are idealized by using the mass elements available
in the finite element program. The main engines,

(18a)

SW

( f

Bkr

[ (i

)I

dS ].

(18b)

SW

2.5

Wave excitation and resonance frequencies

For a floating structure the main excitation source


is the ambient waves, generally composed of
two components that are related to the incident
wave system and its disturbance due to the scattering effect of the body. The incident wave and
diffraction potential fields, respectively denoted
by i and d, are connected through the relation
(i + d)/n = 0 on the wetted surface of the
structure, which may invoke another boundary
integral equation in the form of equation (13) for
the diffraction potential distribution. Considering
a generalized excitation in the form of (t) = 0eit,
which may be caused by sinusoidal waves of frequency , the diffraction problem can be avoided
by using the Haskind relations, and the resulting
generalized wave forces for a stationary structure
may be defined as
0r

(i

r i ) u r n dS ,

(19)

SW

where 0r represents the force component associated with the rth modal vibration, and i is the
amplitude of the incident wave potential.
The equation of motion for a harmonically
excited elastic structure may be written as
Dp0 = 0,

(20)

where
D = 2(a + A) +(c + C) + i(b + B).

(21)

The solution of equation (20) can be obtained


from
p0 =

adj
dD
aadj
dj D (det
(d D)*
0 =
0 .
2
det D
det D

(22)

Here, the asterisk denotes a complex conjugate


expression. From the calculated principal coordinates, the resonance frequencies of the coupled
fluid-structure system can be deduced.

NUMERICAL STUDY

The bulkers adopted in this study were designed


by Delta Marine Turkey, and some of the adopted

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Table 1. Comparison of the dry natural and wet


resonance frequencies for the 140 000 dwt bulk in water
for fully loaded condition (Hz).

however, were idealized by using 3D solid finite


elements, whose length, weight and centers of gravity (vertical and horizontal) coincide, respectively,
with those provided by the engine manufacturer.
The shaft systems and propellers were modeled,
respectively, by using beam elements and mass
elements.
For the handysize bulkers with 20 000 dwt and
32 000 dwt load carrying capacities, respectively,
135 700 and 24 462 structural finite elements were
adopted for the structural analysis. 25 546 structural finite elements were used for the handymax
bulker of 53 000 dwt load carrying capacity, and
70 609 finite elements for the panamax type bulker
with the load carrying capacity of 76 000 dwt. On
the other, for the finite element models of the capsize bulkers with the load carrying capacities of
140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively, 64 810 and
78 370 structural finite elements were distributed.
It is believed that the finite element idealizations
used in the modeling are adequate to obtain the
dynamic response behavior of the bulk carriers in
vertical bending and coupled horizontal bending
and torsion. Figure 1 shows the finite element idealization of the 32 000 dwt bulk carrier.
The surrounding fluid domain is discretized by
using three dimensional acoustic fluid finite elements available in the commercial software. The
calculations are carried out for the fully loaded
and ballast conditions. The results of the finite element calculations are presented for the 140 000 dwt
bulker in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively for the
fully loaded and ballast conditions. The modes of
the ship hull are identified by the most dominant
vibrational shape.
The amplitudes of principal coordinates for
the first three mode shapes are presented for the
full loaded bulk carrier of 32 000 dwt capacity in
Figure 2 for the head waves. The dry natural and

Mode

FEM
(dry)

FEM
(wet)

BEM
(wet)

2 Node VB
2 Node HB
1 Node T
3 Node VB
3 Node HB
4 Node VB
4 Node HB
5 Node VB
2 Node T

0.923
1.312
2.339
1.789
2.590
2.540
3.634
3.183
5.598

0.656
1.142
1.797
1.295
2.245
1.886
3.249
2.420
3.837

0.674
1.148
1.793
1.330
2.266
1.935
3.093
2.486
3.681

Table 2. Comparison of the dry natural and wet resonance frequencies for the 140 000 dwt bulk carrier in
water for ballast condition (Hz).
Mode

FEM
(dry)

FEM
(wet)

BEM
(wet)

2 Node VB
2 Node HB
1 Node T
3 Node VB
3 Node HB
4 Node VB
4 Node HB
5 Node VB
2 Node T

1.260
1.857
2.413
2.543
3.710
3.750
5.322
4.716
5.893

0.848
1.699
1.875
1.629
3.391
2.348
5.064
2.985
3.881

0.827
1.600
1.873
1.639
3.389
2.398
5.180
3.042
3.704

Table 3. Comparison of the dry natural and wet resonance frequencies for the 32 000 dwt bulk carrier in water
for fully loaded condition (Hz).
Mode

FEM
(dry)

FEM
(wet)

BEM
(wet)

2 Node VB
2 Node HB
1 Node T
3 Node VB
3 Node HB
4 Node VB
4 Node HB
5 Node VB
2 Node T

1.285
1.553
1.833
2.919
3.263
4.539
5.539
6.576
6.214

0.875
1.337
1.510
1.960
2.832
3.055
4.687
4.135
5.117

0.903
1.343
1.547
2.018
2.833
3.211
4.777
4.391
5.115

wet resonance frequency values are presented in


Table 3 for the fully loaded case. It can be seen
from Table 3 that there is a very good agreement
between the finite element and boundary element
calculations. The principal coordinates presented
in the figures are associated with the excitation
by regular sinusoidal waves of 1 m amplitude.

Figure 1. 32 000 dwt capacity bulk carrier finite element model in ballast condition.

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Figures 34 and Figures 56 present the wet


resonance frequency curves, respectively, for
the fully loaded and ballast conditions. It should
be noted that these curves were drawn by using
the resonance frequency data obtained from the
finite element calculations of six bulk carriers
with different load carrying capacities. The figures
only show the vertical bending dominated modes
(Figures 34) and torsional vibration dominated
modes (Figures 56). The resonace frequency values are presented as a function of I / L3 , where
I is the second moment of area for the mid-ship
section, is the displacement and L overall length.
The parameter I / L3 represents the bending and
torsional mechanical properties of the midship of
bulk carriers and a similar representation was also
adopted by Todd (**). The freqeuncy curves shown
in these figures can be used to predict the resonance

The resonance frequencies can be estimated by


observing the major peaks in these figures.
For instance, the first wet resonance frequency
is 0.903 Hz (2-noded vertical bending mode) and
the major peak occurs at the vicinity of this frequency value. Due to the coupling of these modes
with other principal modes, each principal coordinate generally has humps occurring in the data set
near these frequencies. The effect of the irregular
frequencies is observed in the principal coordinate
data presented. It should be noted that the principal coordinates presented in Figure 2 represent the
first three elastic principal modes.

Figure 3. Wet resonance frequency curves of fully


loaded bulk carriers.
Key: X 2-node vertical bending; 3-node vertical
bending; 4-node vertical bending; 5-node vertical
bending.

Figure 4. Wet resonance frequency curves of bulk carriers in ballast condition.


Key: X 2-node vertical bending; 3-node vertical
bending; 4-node vertical bending; 5-node vertical
bending.

Figure 2. Amplitudes of the first three components


of the principal coordinate vector for elastic modes and
head waves.

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three dimensional finite element structural models


were prepared, separately, by using the commercial
finite element software. In a first group of calculations, the wet resonance frequencies and associated
mode shapes of the bulkers were calculated for
the fully loaded and ballast conditions by using
the finite element method. The surrounding fluid
domain was discretized by using three dimensional
fluid finite elements. Both symmetric and antisymmetric response characteristics were obtained in
terms of the dry and wet frequencies with the associated mode shapes, and they are presented for the
bulk carrier of 140 000 dwt capacity in Tables. The
calculated dry and wet frequency values for six different bulk carriers are also presented as a function
of the characteristic parameter, in order to reflect
overall response behaviors of the ship structures,
for fully loaded and ballast conditions. These
frequency curves could be used by the designers at
the preliminary design stage of the bulk carriers.
In a second group of calculations, a higherorder 3-D hydroelasticity method was employed
for calculating the fluid-structure interaction effect
in terms of the generalized added mass and hydrodynamic damping coefficients. The wet frequency
values were calculated and they are compared with
those obtained from the finite element analysis for
the bulk carrier of 140 000 dwt carrying capacity.
As can be seen from Tables 12, there is a very
good comparison with those obtained from the
finite element analysis.
The frequency dependent response behaviors in
terms of principal coordinates were calculated by
using the higher order boundary element method,
and presented for the 32 000 dwt bulk carrier
excited by regular head waves and beam waves.
The resonance behaviors might be observed from
the peaks of the principal coordinate response
amplitudes.

Figure 5. Wet resonance frequency curves of bulk carriers for fully loaded condition.
Key: 1-node torsion; 2-node torsion.

Figure 6. Wet resonance frequency curves of bulk carriers


in ballast condition.
Key: 1-node torsion; 2-node torsion.

frequencies of bulk carriers in preliminary design


stage. The frequency values increase with increasing parameter value, except for the 1-noded torsional mode shape.
4

REFERENCES
ABAQUS 2008. Theory Manual. SIMULIA, U.S.A.
Bishop, R.E.D., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P. 1985. A hypothesis concerning the disastrous failure of the OnomichiMaru, Transactions of RINA 127: 169186.
Bishop, R.E.D., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P. 1991. A theory
on the loss of MV Derbyshire. Transactions of RINA
133: 389453.
Ergin, A. 1997. The response behavior of a submerged
cylindrical shell using the doubly asymptotic approximation method (DAA). Computers and Structures
62: 10251034.
Ergin, A., Kaydihan, L. & Uurlu, B. 2007. Hydroelastic analysis of a 1900 TEU container ship using finite
element and boundary element methods. Proceedings
of the International Conference of Asian-Pacific
Technical Exchange and Advisory Meeting on Marine
Structures, Yokohama, Japan.

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, a hydroelastic investigation was carried out into the dynamic response characteristics
of a group of bulkers with different load carrying
capacities, e.g., two handysize vessels with carrying
capacities of 20 000 and 32 000 dwt, respectively;
one handymax vessel with a carrying capacity of
53 000 dwt; one panamax vessel of 76 000 dwt carrying capacity; two capesize type vessels with capacities of 140 000 and 180 000 dwt, respectively. For
all the bulk carriers adopted in this study, detailed

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Ergin, A. & Temarel, P. 2002. Free vibration of a partially


liquid-filled and submerged, horizontal cylindrical
shell. Journal of Sound and Vibration 254: 951965.
Hirdaris, S.E., Miao, S.H., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P.
2006. The influence of structural modelling on the
dynamic behaviour of a bulker in waves. Proceeding
of the 4th International Conference on Hydroelasticity
in Marine Technology, China, 2533.
Hirdaris, S.E., Price, W.G. & Temarel, P. 2003. Two- and
three-dimensional hydroelastic modelling of a bulker
in regular waves. Marine Structures 16: 627658.
INTERCARGO. 2007. Bulk carrier casualty report,
London.
Tian, C., Wu, Y.S. & Chen, Y.Q. 2009. Numerical predictions on the hydroelastic responses of a large bulk
carrier in waves. Proceedings of the 5th International
Conference on Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology,
England.

Uurlu, B. & Ergin, A. 2006. A hydroelasticity method


for vibrating structures containing and/or submerged
in flowing fluid. Journal of Sound and Vibration
290: 572596.
Uurlu, B. & Ergin, A. 2008. A hydroelastic investigation
of circular cylindrical shell containing flowing fluid
with different end conditions. Journal of Sound and
Vibration 318: 12911312.
Uurlu, B. & Ergin, A. 2009. Using higher-order boundary elements in hydroelasticity analysis of surface
piercing structures. Proceedings of the 5th International
Conference on Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology,
England.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Numerical prediction of slamming loads on a rigid wedge


subjected to water entry using an explicit finite element method
Hanbing Luo, Shan Wang & C. Guedes Soares
Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon,
Instituto Superior Tcnico, Lisboa, Portugal

ABSTRACT: An explicit finite element code is applied to study the impact loads on one two-dimensional
rigid wedge subjected to water entry. This wedge with deadrise angle 30 degree impacting the calm water
is modeled. The numerical results are compared and validated against published experimental slamming
force, pressure distributions at different time instances, and pressure histories at different points on the
wetted surface, obtaining very good comparisons. A convergence study for parameters, such as mesh
density and penalty factor, is carried out. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the results is
discussed.
1

INTRODUCTION

Wagner type of formulation eventually adjusted by


correction factors calibrated with experiments as
reviewed for example in Ramos and Guedes Soares
(1998). However, improvements are required on
this type of approach based on better predictions
of slam loads.
Most of earlier research work focused on 2D
and simple geometry section problems, e.g. Zhao
and Faltinsen (1993), Engle and Lewis (2003),
Wu, et al. (2004), Sun and Faltinsen (2009). Not
much research has been carried out on 3D slamming problems, except the hemisphere, or conical
shapes, e.g. Faltinsen et al. (2004), Peseux, et al.
(2005), Korobkin, et al. (2006).
Several good reviews have been published during past years. Faltinsen (2004) reviewed practical
slamming problems for ships and offshore structures, including water entry on an initially calm
free surface, wetdeck slamming, green water and
sloshing. Xu (2009) presented a review of theoretical and numerical simulation techniques on hydrodynamic impact of ships.
With the development of computing technology
and capability, codes based on explicit Finite Element Method (FEM) began to be applied to predict
local slamming loads. Bereznitzki (2001) analyzed
hydroelastic problems using the MS-Dytran code.
Stenius et al. (2006) studied modeling techniques for
rigid wedge impact problems using the LS-DYNA
code. Several parameters that influence the convergence of simulation, such as mesh density and contact stiffness were discussed. Aquelet et al. (2006)
discussed the influence of penalty factor on the
damping effect. Luo et al. (2010) used MS-Dytran
to study the impact of one stiffened panel, showing
that an explicit code has the potential to predict

When a ship travels in rough seas, it will impact


water because of large vertical relative motions
between the ship and the wave surface. This
hydrodynamic impact phenomenon is defined as
slamming. The impulsive pressure loads induced
by slamming will affect the ships structures both
locally and globally. In rough seas, this impact force
is so large that many ships have reported local structural damages due to the slamming loads, especially
in heading waves with high forward speed. For
example, the tragedy of MV Estonia in the Baltic
Sea on 28 September 1994, one of the deadliest
marine disasters of 20th century, was initialized by
the break of the bow door due to the severe slamming, which the Ro/Ro ferry experienced. In this
paper, the local slamming problem will be studied
and a numerical model will be developed to reproduce the conditions used in an early experimental
study with which results it will be compared.
There is a considerable amount of research
conducted on slamming by experimental, analytical, and numerical simulation methods since
Von Karman (1929) and Wagner (1932). Ship
slamming depends on the relative motion, body
geometry, water surface profile, air cushion,
hydroelasticity of structures, compressibility of
water, and others. This makes ship slamming such
a complicated physical process that it is difficult to
model in all aspects. To develop a model of ship
slamming, it is necessary to build upon accurate
predictions of slamming forces by arbitrary shapes
such as ship sections on water.
Much work has been done by modeling the
slamming forces in different ship sections by a

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simulation can be set by one scale factor based on


the critical one. Pressure sensors are located on the
center of each shell elements at the coupling surface to obtain the pressure signals.

water entry impact problems for both rigid and


elastic structures.
Alexandru, et al. (2007) carried out a comparison of simulation of 2D slamming problems, using
Boundary Element Methods (BEMs), Computational Fluid Dynamics (FLUENT and FLOW-3D
codes), Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH),
and Explicit FEM (LS-DYNA code). Fairly good
agreements were achieved. Some differences in time
domain after the peak value for slamming pressure on one wedge with dead rise angle 25 degree
were observed. There were even much differences
between the pressures predicted with each other on
an impacting rigid bow section. Nevertheless, the
results obtained are encouraging overall, but more
validation work still needs to be carried out on
tuning parameters in order to get better numerical
results.
In this paper, the explicit FEM code LS-DYNA
is applied to study the fundamental water entry
problem on initially calm free surface of 2D rigid
wedge. The predicted results are compared with the
experimental results Zhao, et al. (1996). The main
purpose of this paper is to carry out a convergence
study on the parameters that influence the simulation efficiency and accuracy of the results.
2

DESCRIPTION OF THE WATER ENTRY


PROBLEM

The drop test of one wedge section was carried out


in MARINTEK by Zhao et al. (1996) as shown
in Figure 1. Table 1 presents the main data for
the test section. Results of measured pressure and
slamming force will be adopted to compare with
predicted numerical results in this paper.
Figure 2 shows the wedge model setup
in LS-DYNA. There is one element along the z direction. All nodes are constrained for displacement in
y direction in order to simulate the two-dimensional
water entry in the plane x-y. Symmetry boundary
condition is applied on the surfaces where x = 0.
Only half of the wedge, water and air are needed
to be modeled. So the simulation CPU time will be
decreased dramatically. Nonreflecting boundary
conditions are added on the external surfaces of
air and water domain, except the symmetric surfaces. The size of air and water domain in x and y
direction is selected to try to eliminate the effects
of limited boundaries as much as possible. The size
of water domain is 1250 mm * 700 mm in plane
x-y which is about five times of the wedges size,
and that of air domain is 1250 mm * 200 mm.

EXPLICIT FEM CODE PROGRAM


SETUP

The commercial explicit FEM code LS-DYNA


(version 971, 2007) is used with double precision
for the numerical simulation. It is based on explicit
time integration. The Arbitrary Lagrangian
Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is chosen in this paper.
Water and air are modelled as Multi-material
Eulerian mesh. Then the free surface can be modeled by Volume of Fluid method. The structure
is modeled by the Lagrangian mesh with rigid
material.
The penalty coupling method is applied for the
interaction of Eulerian fluids and the Lagrangian
solid, which is different from the penalty based
contact coupling method used by Stenius et al.
(2006). The penalty factor used here is defined to
simulate the coupling effect between the fluids and
the structure. The coupling effect is limited to the
normal direction of the solid surface. So the sliding
is allowed in the tangent direction. Usually, compression coupling direction option is selected for
rigid body impact. By combining the ALE solver
and the Eulerian-Lagrangian penalty coupling
algorithm, LS-DYNA has the capability to simulate the slamming problems.
The critical time step size is the minimum time
value that the sound travels through all elements
(solid and shell mesh). The time step used in the

Figure 1. Locations of gauges in wedge section from


Zhao et al. (1996).
Table 1.

Main particulars of the test section.

Breadth of section
Length of measuring section
Length of each dummy section
Total length
Dead rise angle
Total weight
Weight of measuring section

0.50 m
0.20 m
0.40 m
1.00 m
30
241 kg
14.5 kg

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Table 2.

Figure 2.

2-D water entry model in LS-DYNA.

4.1

Parameters

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Mesh size

5 mm

2.5 mm

1.25 mm

Number
of elements
(Fluids +
Structures)

5725 +
118

29500 +
215

127000 +
430

Number of
elements on
impacting
wedge surface

58

115

230

CPU time *

56 m

9 h 49 m

96 h 54 m

*
Note: It was run on one PC with 2.4 GHz processor and
2 Gigabytes of memory.

Initial impact velocity above calm water surface


is 6.15 m/s in vertical y-direction. Gravity is not
considered.
From considerations of computational efficiency, it is not a good choice to mesh uniformly
the total fluids (air and water) domains. Only the
domain near the wedge and also where the wedge
will pass through are meshed uniformly with finer
meshes. This mesh density will be studied to obtain
a compromise between CPU time and simulation
results. The domain far away the wedge is moderately expanding toward the boundaries.
4

Three models with different mesh densities.

ANALYSIS OF PREDICTED RESULTS


FOR 2D RIGID WEDGE
Figure 3.
Model 2.

Slamming force

Different mesh densities are chosen to simulate


the water entry problem. The mesh size for air and
water is chosen as 5 mm, 2.5 mm, 1.25 mm respectively, and mesh size for wedge is set the same as
that for fluids. Table 2 lists the main parameters for
the three models. The predicted accelerations are
proportional to the slamming force on the measuring section in the test. The instant when the vertex
of 2D wedge touches the element on the water surface is set as 0.0s. Figure 3 shows part of meshes in
air and water domains near the vertex of the wedge
from model 2.
Figure 4. compares the predicted vertical slamming forces with experimental results. It shows
that:

Part of meshes in air and water domain of

Figure 4. Comparison of experimental slamming forces


and predicted results with different mesh sizes.

The predicted slamming forces agree satisfactorily with the experimental one in the time
domain, from the beginning of slamming, to the
flow separation on the knuckle at about time
0.0158s, and to the later stage of water entry in
the figure. The predicted results are about 5%
larger than the experimental ones in the middle
of water entry before flow separation. Maybe it
is mainly due to the three-dimensional effect on

the drop test. But this difference is not so large


as up to 20%, which was predicted by BEMs of
Zhao et al. (1996).
When the mesh size is 5 mm (Model 1), there are
some high frequent oscillations on the curve
because of numerical noise. Especially at
the beginning of impact, the peaks are very

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obvious. The difference between predicted and


experimental slamming force after flow separation is too big.
When the mesh size is 2.5 mm (Model 2), the
result is better except the small oscillations at the
beginning. Further it can simulate the separation very well at the knuckle. The slamming force
reduces quickly after flow separation, and then
decays slowly. The CPU time is also acceptable.
Finally, when the mesh size is 1.25 mm (Model 3),
no obvious oscillations are observed in the curve.
It shows best consistency in this case, but it will
take about 4 days to run even one simulation in
a normal personal computer.
4.2

(a) t1 = 0.00435s

Pressure distributions at different


time instances

Non dimensional pressure distributions on the


wetted surface of the wedge are presented at three
time instances, and are compared with experimental
results in Figure 5. V(t) is the drop velocity from
the test. The time instance in Figure 4 is the time in
the test. Y is the vertical coordinate on the wedge
surface, yk is vertical coordinate of the vertex, and
yD is the draft of the wedge.

(b) t2 = 0.0158s

The predicted pressure results agree well with


the measured pressures. The measured pressures
are smaller than the predicted ones in general,
especially after the initial stage as shown in
Figures 5 (b) and (c). It is mainly because of
three-dimensional effects in the test then.
When a much finer mesh is used, the predicted
results are much smoother. The pressures from
Model 3 are the best. It shows good consistency with experimental results. Only the value
of pressure P2 in Figure 5 (a) from the experiment is larger than the predicted results from
LS-DYNA. The reason for this difference is not
clear, maybe mesh density at the initial stage here
is not finer enough, or maybe due to experimental errors, because this value of pressure P2 from
the experiment is also larger than the predicted
results by BEMs in Zhao et al. (1996).
In the initial stage, Figure 5 (a) shows that results
from both Model 1 and 2 are not good, while in
Figures 5 (b) and (c), results from both Model 1
and 2 are better. It may be explained as that the
mesh density near the vertex of wedge in model
1 and 2 is not finer enough to describe the slamming pressure in this case.

(c) t3 = 0.0202s
Figure 5. Comparison of pressure distributions at
different time instances.

Model 2 near the vertex of wedge is set much finer,


for example, 1.25 mm, then the predicted results
at the initial stage in Figure 4 and Figure 5 (a) will
become better and acceptable comparing with
those from Model 3. Not so much CPU time is
needed as Model 3. It may be a good solution from
the view point of computational efficiency.

Comparing with slamming force results in


Figure 4, it may be concluded that the mesh density in the water and air domains near the vertex of wedge is most important. In other words,
if the mesh density in water and air domain of

4.3

Pressure histories at different points

Figure 6 shows a comparison of pressure histories


at different points on the wetted surface of the

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wedge from P1 to P5. Because the drop velocity


varies during water entry process, non dimensional
pressure is not applied here. The predicted pressure
results from model 2 and 3 are shown, but those
from model 1 are not included because the results
are not good due to too coarse meshes.
The predicted results show good agreement with
the experimental ones in general. Usually, they
are a little larger than the experimental ones,
except at point P2 in Figure 6 (b), the reason was
explained in 4.2 before.
The peak values of pressure histories from
model 3 with finer mesh 1.25 mm are larger
than those from model 2, while the pressure distributions after peak are almost same. There is
one obvious impulse in pressure curves before
the pressure peak from model 2 in Figures 6
(b), (c) and (d). Maybe these impulses are due
to numerical noise, because when finer mesh
1.25 mm is used, the phenomena disappear as
shown in Figure 6.
The peak value of pressure P1 is smaller than that
of P2, P3, and P4, and the shape of P1s peak is
not as good as others. Perhaps it is because the
mesh density near the vertex of wedge and also
P1 is still not fine enough in model 3.

(a) P1 depth = 12.5 mm

(b) P2 depth = 37.5 mm

In order to capture the pressure peak phenomena correctly and also to eliminate the numerical
noise in the curves, much finer mesh is needed in
this case, for example 1.25 mm. For the case of
slamming force, mesh size 2.5 mm maybe is enough
as shown in Figure 4 before.

(c) P3 depth = 62.5 mm

4.4

Water jet and pressure contour in water


at different time instances

Figure 7 presents both water jet and pressure contour phenomena from time 0.00435s, 0.0158s, to
0.0202s, corresponding to pressure distributions
described in Figure 5. Half of rigid wedge and part
of the water domain near the wedge is shown. The
vertex of the rigid wedge of model 3 will touch
the calm water at time 0.0036 s in the LS-DYNA
simulation, which corresponds to the time 0.0s in
the drop test. Three coupling points option is chosen for each coupled Lagrangian element, and no
fluid leakage is observed on the coupling wedge
surface.

(d) P4 depth = 87.5 mm

Before flow separation, as shown in Figures 7 (a)


and (b), the maximum pressure appears in the
inner domain, or the up-rise which was described
in Wagner (1932) theory. The slamming pressure
will decrease in the outer domain in the water,
or in the jet flow along the wedge surface. The
pressure in the jet flow is so small that it can

(e) P5 depth = 131.8 mm


Figure 6. Comparison of pressure histories at different
positions.

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on the knuckle. The pressure is almost the same


along the coupling wetted surface along wedge,
but it is much smaller comparing with that
before flow separation as shown in Figures 7 (a)
and (b). It is also observed from pressure distributions in Figure 5. That is the reason why the
slamming force will reduce very much comparing with that before flow separation. It is consistent with what is presented in slamming force
curve in Figure 4.
4.5

(a) t1 = 0.00435s

Penalty factor

The penalty factor (PFAC) is one parameter for


scaling the estimated stiffness of the interacting coupling system. It is applied to compute the coupling
force to be distributed on the structure and fluids.
Simulations are run for three cases when PFAC are
set as 0.5, 0.1, and 0.01 for model 3. Figures 8 and
9 shows comparison of slamming force and pressure distributions with different values of PFAC
respectively. Little difference is observed. In this
paper the default value 0.1 is used.

(b) t2 = 0.0158s

Figure 8. Comparison of slamming forces with different values of PFAC.

(c) t3 = 0.0202s
Figure 7. Predicted water jet flow and pressure contour
in water by LS-DYNA.

be ignored. Thats the reason why the Wagner


theory can explain the water impact almost correctly, and still be widely used today.
The position of maximum pressure on the wetted surface of wedge will move from the vertex
to the knuckle during the water entry process.
The peak value of slamming pressure does not
decrease much before flow separation comparing from Figures 7 (a) and (b), so slamming force
will increase gradually when the wetted surface
is increased as shown in Figure 4.
Figure 7 (c) shows the water jet and pressure
contour in the final stage after flow separation

Figure 9. Comparison of pressure distributions with


different values of PFAC at t2 = 0.0158s.

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4.6

with mesh size 1.25 mm and 2.5 mm can predict


pressure histories after the peak very well. However, the coarser mesh, such as 2.5 mm for this
case, is enough to predict the slamming force.
It is found that the mesh density is the most
important parameter influencing the predicted
accuracy. Small differences are observed when the
penalty factor is modified. One appropriate value
for time step scale should be set to reduce CPU
time and also to prevent the negative volume errors
during the simulation.
The water jet flow and pressure contours in
the water domain are presented during different
stages of the impact. It simulates the phenomena
correctly in general from model 3 with 1.25 mm
mesh size. The peak pressure appears in the inner
domain before the flow separation, while the pressure along wedge surface is very low after the flow
separation. The value of pressure predicted in the
jet flow is so small that it may be ignored.
The modelling techniques described here can be
adopted to model wedges of different types, and to
study other hydrodynamic impact problems.

Time step

The critical time step size is the minimum time value


that the sound travels through any elements in the
model. One scale factor TSSFAC can be adopted
to compute the time step used in simulations. The
time step calculated should not be larger than the
critical one, otherwise negative volume errors will
appear. But if the time step is set to one value that
is too small, then the simulation CPU time will
increase correspondently. The critical time step size
can be approximated firstly before the simulation,
in order to set one sale factor to obtain one appropriate time step.

CONCLUSIONS

Numerical simulation of slamming loads on a


two-dimensional rigid wedge with the deadrise
angle 30 degree is carried out by the explicit FEM
code LS-DYNA in order to validate experimental
results. The Arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian solver
and penalty coupling algorithm is used.
Slamming force, pressure distributions at different time instances, and also pressure histories
at different points on wetted surface of wedge are
predicted, and the results are compared with the
experimental ones published by Zhao et al. (1996).
It shows good agreement between each other.
The predicted 2D slamming force correctly
describes the impact process from the initial stage,
flow separation, to the final one, and the values
are a little larger than the 3D experimental ones.
So are the pressure values, especially after the initial stage of impact. This is mainly because of the
three-dimensional effects during water entry.
A convergence study is carried out. Different
mesh sizes, 1.25 mm, 2.5 mm and 5 mm, are compared. The finer the mesh size is, the better results
can be obtained. But the CPU time will increase
dramatically once the mesh density is increased.
The compromise between mesh density and CPU
time should depend on what will be predicted.
In order to capture the peak of slamming
pressure, much finer mesh is needed, for example, 1.25 mm in this case. The value of the pressure peak predicted by the coarser mesh model is
smaller than that by the finer mesh. For example,
the maximum non-dimensional pressure coefficient from model 3 at the time 0.0158s before the
flow separation is 7.32, while that from model 2
is only 6.65, which is about 9% smaller. The peak
value of pressure P1 predicted in model 3 is smaller
than that of P2, P3, and P4, and the shape of P1s
peak is not as good as others. Perhaps it is because
the mesh size 1.25 mm near the vertex of wedge
and also P1 is still not finer enough. Both models

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work has been performed in the scope of the
project EXTREME SEASDesign for Ship Safety
in Extreme Seas, (www.mar.ist.utl.pt/extremeseas),
which has been partially financed by the EU under
contract SCP8-GA-2009-234175.

REFERENCES
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Donner, R., Hermundstad, O., Kukkanen, T.,
Malenica, S. & Termarel, P. (2007). Comparison of
experimental and numerical impact loads on ship-like
sections. Advancements in Marine Structures, Guedes
Soares, C, and Das, P.K., (Eds), Taylor & Francis,
UK, 339349.
Aquelet, N., Souli, M. & Olovsson, L. 2006.
EulerLagrange coupling with damping effects:
Application to slamming problems. Computer Methods
in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 195, 110132.
Bereznitski, A. 2001. Slamming: the Role of Hydroelasticity. International Shipbuilding Progress. 48, 333351.
Engle, A. & Lewis, R. 2003. A comparison of hydrodynamic impacts prediction methods with twodimensional drop test data. Marine Structures. 16, 2,
175182.
Faltinsen, O.M. & Chen, Z.M. 2005. A generalized
Wagner method for three-dimensional slamming,
Journal of Ship Research, 49, 4, 279287.
Faltinsen, O.M., Landrini, M. & Greco, M. 2004.
Slamming in marine application. Journal of Engineering Mathematics. 48, 187217.

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Korobkin, A.A. & Scolan, Y.-M. 2006. Three-dimensional


theory of water impact. Part 2. Linearized Wagner
problem. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 549, 343373.
LS-DYNA, Keyword Users Manual, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Version 971, May
2007.
Luo, H.B., Hu, J.J. & Guedes Soares C. 2010. Numerical
simulation of hydroelastic response of flat stiffened
panels under slamming loads. Proceedings of the 29th
International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic
Engineering (OMAE10), 611 June, 2010, Shanghai,
China, ASME, Paper OMAE2010-20027.
Peseux, B., Gornet, L. & Donguy, B. 2005. Hydrodynamic impact: Numerical and experimental investigations. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 21, 277303.
Ramos, J. & Guedes Soares, C. (1998). Vibratory response
of ship hulls to wave impact loads. International Shipbuilding Progress. 45 (441): 7187.
Stenius, I., Rosn, A. & Kuttenkeuler, J. 2006. Explicit
FE-modeling of fluid-structure interaction in hullwater impacts. International Shipbuilding Progress.
53, 1031121.
Sun, H. & Faltinsen, O.M. 2009. Water entry of a bow
flare section with a roll angle. Journal of Marine
Science and Technology. 14, 6979.

Von Karman, T. 1929. The impact on seaplane floats


during landing. National Advisory Committee for
Aeronatics. Techinical note No. 321, 309313.
Wagner, H. 1932. Uber Stoss- und Gleitvergange an der
Oberflache von Flussigkeiten. Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 12, 193215.
Wu G.X., Sun H. & He Y.S. 2004. Numerical simulation
and experimental study of water entry of a wedge in
free fall motion. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 19,
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Xu, G.D. & Duan, W.Y. 2009. Review of prediction
techniques on hydrodynamic impact of ships. Journal
of Marine Science and Applications. 8, 204210.
Zhao, R. & Faltinsen, O.M. 1993. Water Entry of TwoDimensional Bodies. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 246,
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

On estimation of extreme ship response using upcrossing


spectrum
Wengang Mao & Igor Rychlik
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

ABSTRACT: In this paper a simple method is proposed to estimate extreme ship response, defined as
the return values of the responses. Real ship responses are often non-Gaussian, hence a transformation,
defined by the cubic Hermite polynomials, of a Gaussian process is employed to model the responses.
The transformation is a function of the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and zero up-crossing frequency of a response. The parameters vary with changing sea conditions and operation conditions and
are easily available from measured responses. In the case when measurements are not available the parameters are estimated by an empirical model from the significant wave height and operation conditions.
The model is derived from the measurements, but can be also estimated by means of a theoretical analysis.
The proposed method is compared with the typical engineering approach to estimate the return values of
a response. The full-scale measurements of a 2800TEU container ship during the first six months of 2008
are used in the comparisons.
1

xT could happen is very low, some importance


sampling methodology is often employed to limit
the computation effort. For example, the environmental contour line, see Winterstein et al. [3],
is a popular way to limit the number of sea states
needed to be considered.
In the engineering community method, described below, is often used. The methods is
originally derived for Gaussian responses but
can be used for non-Gaussian responses as well.
It employs the fact that the distribution of local
maxima Xm in a stationary Gaussian response X is
known, viz. the so-called Rices distribution characterized by few spectral moments. Then the long
term cumulative distribution function (cdf) of Xm
in one year is estimated and used to approximate
the distribution of yearly maximum M. Finally xT
is estimated by solving

INTRODUCTION

Let M be the maximum value of the response X,


say, during one year. The extreme response is often
characterized by the most probable value, i.e. the
location of a mode of M, or by the return value.
More precisely, let T = 10, 20 or 100 years, then the
return value of response xT is the 1/T quantile of
M, viz. a solution of the following equation,
P (M

xT ) =

1
T

(1)

If long records of ship responses are available,


assuming stationary shipping and ergodicity of
the responses, xT could be estimated by one of
standard statistical procedures. For example, the
Gumbel or Generalized Extreme Value distribution could be used to fit the distribution of the
observed maxima of blocks of recorded response.
Another popular method is the Peak Over Threshold (POT), for more details see Coles [1].
If there are no data available, then the distribution of M in Eq. (1) has to be estimated in other
ways, using the available information. Often, one
can assume that shipping is known, so that the long
term distribution of sea states can be determined.
Then response at a given sea state can be simulated
by means of dedicated numerical software. Next
suitable statistical method could be used to estimate
the distribution of M, see e.g. Naess et al. [2]. Since
frequency of sea states when responses exceeding

P (X m

xT ) =

1
,
n T

(2)

where n is the expected number of local maxima in


one year. The long term cdf of Xm is often approximated by a Weibull distribution, see DNV [4].
Here the approach to approximate the long term
cdf of Xm (even for non Gaussian responses) by
the Weibull distribution and then solving Eq. (2)
to estimate the return response xT will be called
Method 1.
This paper focuses on an alternative method for
extreme response prediction, the so called Rices

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as locally stationary processes (sea states). A sea


state (usually from 20 minutes to several hours) is
generated using, for example, a linear (Gaussian)
or a Stokes (quadratic) wave model. Most often, it
is defined by a vector of parameters; say W, whose
elements could be the significant wave height Hs,
wave period Tp, etc. The encountered wave environments are described by a sequence of sea states
Wi, i = 1, , K, where K is the average number of
sea states encountered during a long term period.
The distribution of W is called long term distribution of sea states. The probability density function
(pdf) of the distribution will be denoted by f(W).
However it is not obvious how to define (estimate)
the pdf f(W). Loosely speaking long term pdf of
sea state parameters describes the variability of
encountered sea state W, which depends on shipping routes. However it will also depend on the goal
for the computations. We will not discuss this subject deeply just point out nature of the problem.
In this paper, ship responses X are estimates
of structural stresses and clearly depend on the
encountered sea states. The mean value of stresses
is assumed to be a constant and without loss
of generality, is set to be zero, for simplicity of
expressions.

method, in which the distribution of M is bounded


as follows
P (M

x)

E ( N1+ ( x )) + P(
P (X (0)

x ),

(3)

where N1+ ( x ) denote the number of upcrossings


of level x by the response X in one year, while
E(N) is the expected value of N, see Cramer
and Leadbetter [5] for more detailed discussion.
Neglecting the term P(X(0) >x) and combining
Eq. (1) and Eq. (3) gives the Rices estimate of
the return response xT. In the following section
we shall slightly reformulate the Rices estimate of
xT to demonstrate its connection with the narrowband approximation of long term cdf of Xm. Here,
this method will be referred to as Method 2.
Method 2 requires the computation (estimation) of E(N
N1+ ( x )) . Typically, developing a model
for ship response variability involves: (a) using
some well established models for variability of
encountered waves; (b) mathematical description
of ship wave interaction to compute wave loading;
(c) a model for structure properties to compute
structural stresses. In the simplest case, this procedure leads to Gaussian model for the response,
under stationary sea conditions, and the expected
number of upcrossing during a sea state is given
by an analytical formula, see Rice [6]. Next, given
a shipping, the long term distribution of sea states
enables evaluation of E ( N1+ ( x )), see Eq. (11).
However, due to the complexity of interaction
between ship structure and encountered waves,
the real ship responses are non-Gaussian, particularly under large sea states. In such an eventuality,
the Gaussian model can lead to large prediction
errors, e.g., severe underestimation (50%) of xT
was reported in Mao et al. [7]. There are several
numerical approaches proposed in the literature
to numerically compute Rices formula for nonGaussian responses, see some recent references
Naess and Karlsen [8], Butler et al. [9] or Galtier
et al. [10]. In this paper, the 4 moments Hermite
transformation, proposed in Winterstein et al. [11],
is used to model the non-Gaussian ship responses.
The transformation requires only the knowledge
of variance, skewness, kurtosis and mean level
upcrossing frequency of the responsse. The advantage of the method is that the expected number of
crossings of any level x, during a sea state, is given
by an explicit analytical formula, see Eq. (16).

2.1 Review of method 1


The long term cdf of response local maxima Xm
is defined as the limiting value of the ratio of the
number of local maxima with height below x and
the total number of local maxima as the observation period tends to infinity. Since one has only
finite length measurements, the long term cdf of
Xm has to be estimated practically. Often, when
long records of measurements are available, the
Weibull distribution is used to estimate the long
term cdf of Xm, viz.
x k
FX m ( x ) 1 exp
.

(4)

Suppose that the observed number of local


maxima during t (unit: year) is n(t), then expected
number of local maxima during a year, n, is estimated by
n=

n(t )
,
t

(5)

while the return value xT is obtained by solving


Eq. (2) (T often equals to 20, 50 or 100 years).
However, the long term Weibull cdf in Eq. (4) is
very sensitive to the value of location parameter ,
which is hard to estimate when measuring campaign length t is not very long. Furthermore the

EXTREME ESTIMATION
BY METHOD 1 & 2

The variability of ship responses is mainly caused


by the encountered waves, which can be modeled

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effect of high frequency vibration of ship structures


also makes estimate of n, Eq. 5, very uncertain.
This makes practical use of the original version of
Method 1 somewhat difficult. In the following,
the upcrossing spectrums of ship responses will be
used to approximate the long term cdf.
2.2

estimated from the measured stresses. One can see


the typical behavior that the empirical cdf of Xm is
close to the bound in the tails defined in Eq. (6).
The bound is often known as the narrow-band
approximation.
However the narrow-band method is most useful when +(x|W) can be computed from a model
for the responses. For example when ship response
at W is Gaussian, then the upcrossing spectrum can
be analytically evaluated by Rices formula and one
derives that the cdf of Xm is bounded by Rayleigh
cdf. The long term cdf of Xm during period t, is
given by

Narrow-band approximation of FXm(x)

Let the long records of measured stresses be divided


into a series of stationary parts (sea states). For
each sea state W, expected number of upcrossing
of level x in unit time by the stationary response is
denoted by +(x|W). The short term cdf of Xm at
the sea state W can then be bounded by
1 FX m ( x | W )

+ (x |W )
,
+ (0 | W )

FX m ( x ) = FX m ( x | W f (W )dW
d ,

(6)

(7)

where f(W) is the pdf of the vector of parameters


defining the sea states encountered in the period t.
Further the fraction n(t)/t in Eq. (5) is approximated by

see Rychlik and Leadbetter [12] for a proof. The


upcrossing frequency +(x|W) need to be estimated
or computed from the model.
In Figure 1 (a), empirical cdf of Xm is compared
with the approximated bound when +(x|W) is

n(t)/t +(0|W)f(W)dW .

(8)

Combining Eqs. (68) gives the narrow-band


estimation of the return value.
2.3

Examples

In the following, ship response from half years


full-scale measurements of a 2800TEU container
vessel is taken to compare different estimates of
the long term cdf of Xm. For the region there are
well established models (Weibull) long term pdf of
encountered significant wave height f(W). However the measuring period is rather short and we
do not expect that the variability of the encountered significant wave heights is well described by
the model. Hence the empirical cdf of Xm could differ from that estimated by Eq. (7). The alternative
could be to use the encountered seas to estimate
the long term pdf of W. This would still require
numerical computations of the integral in Eq. (7).
Since in this section we only wish to compare different means to estimate the long term cdf of Xm,
a related method, not requiring the integration,
will be used instead in the following.
As before, let Nt+ ( x ) denote the number of upcrossings of level x by the response in a period of
length t, then the empirical distribution of encountered response maximums Xm satisfies
FX m ( x ) 1
Figure 1. (a): short term distribution FXm(x|W),
bounded by Eq. (6) (solid line) and empirical distribution
(dotted line) from full-scale measurements at a stationary
sea state; (b): long term (t = 1 month) empirical cdf FXm(x)
(dotted line) and the bound given in (9) (solid line).

Nt+ ( x )
.
Nt+ ( )

(9)

Again the bound is close to 1FXm(x) for high


values of x as can be seen in Figure 1(b) where one
presents the empirical cdf of encountered local

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that the bound given in Eq. (9) converges to the


empirical distribution at high levels.
If ship response at each sea state is assumed to
be Gaussian, the Gaussian response can be simulated using the response spectrum from measurements. Next the same comparisons, as presented
in Figure 2, were performed for the Gaussian
responses and presented in Figure 3. Now, one can
see a very good agreement between the empirical
distribution, fitted Weibull distribution and the
bound from Eq. (9).

maximums and the bound in Eq. (9) for measured


stresses in t = 1 month. It is shown that the bound
using upcrossing spectrums as Eq. (9) can well
model the empirical cdf of high levels (at the tail
area).
We turn next to comparisons with the Weibull
fit to the empirical cdf. In Figures 2 and 3, the
logarithmic scale on Y-axis is chosen to check
the agreement of the exceedance probability, i.e.
1FXm(x), at very high levels.
Figure 2 presents the exceedance probability
obtained from the full-scale measurements. In the
figure one can see that the fitted Weibull distribution slightly underestimate the extreme response
at the same probability level, while there is a trend

2.4

Comparison of methods 1, 2

As derived in the introduction Method 2 proposes


to estimate the return value of response xT, viz. as
a solution of the following equation
E ( N1+ ( xT )) =

1
,
T

(10)

+
where E ( N1 ( x )) is the expected number of
upcrossings of the level x by the responses in
one year. Obviously the expected value has to be
estimated.
Let assume that one can choose a minimal
length of the stationary periods (sea states) t,
e.g. 20 or 30 minutes. Furthermore, one estimate
that in average the ship will encounter K sea states
during a year, i.e. the sailing time is Kt. Then
the expected number of upcrossings at level x,
E ( N1+ ( x )), is given by

E ( N1+ ( x ))

Figure 2. Long term empirical cdf FXm(x) of measured


ship response (solid line); the bound proposed in Eq. (9)
(dashed line) and fitted Weibull distribution (dash-dotted
line).

K t + ( x | W f (W )dW
d ,

(11)

where +(x|W) is the upcrossing frequency of level


x at a sea state W, and t is the duration time of a
sea state and assumed to be 1800 seconds. Finally,
the return value of the response is a solution of the
equation
K t+(xT|W)f(W)dW = 1/T .

(12)

Next we shall compare the narrow-band estimate


xT of Eqs. (2, 68), with the Method 2 estimate,
i.e. solution to Eq. (12). It is easy to see that if the
zero-crossing frequency +(0|W) is independent of
sea state, then the two methods would give identical estimates. Since only severe sea states are essential for estimation and for those seas the heading
angle 0 thus approximately +(0|W) is constant.
Remark: Suppose sea states are characterized by
a single parameter, the significant wave height W,
say. Further let each sea state be experienced by a
ship for the same period of time t, e.g. 30 minutes.
If one plans to employ Method 2, i.e. Eq. (3), to
estimate the return response and use the standard

Figure 3. Long term empirical cdf FXm(x) of simulated


Gaussian response for each sea state, where the response
spectrums are obtained from measurements.

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where 0, 2 are the zero-order and second-order


spectral moments of responses X(t). The first two
terms on the right hand side of Eq. (13) are often
referred to as the zero up-crossing frequency

decoupling argument, leading to. Eq. (11), then


long term pdf f(W) of sea states is the limit, as sailing time increases, of the normalized histogram of
encountered significant wave height. In contrary, if
one plans to employ Method 1, i.e. Eq. (2), to estimate the return response and use the decoupling
argument, e.g. Eq. (7), then long term pdf f(W)
of significant wave height is biased by the intensity
of the maximums. More precisely, it is the limit, as
sailing time increases, of the normalized (to have
integral equal to one) histogram of encountered
significant wave height scaled by the intensity of
local maximums of the responses. Note that the
two long term pdf are equal if the intensity of local
maximums does not depend on the sea state.

fz

In order to use Method 2 as Eqs. (1112), upcrossing intensity +(x|W) has to be estimated for at
least severe sea state. Then the long term pdf of
sea states for the particular shipping needs also be
determined first. In this section we shortly review
computations of +(x|W) .
If the joint pdf of ship responses X(t) (zero
mean stresses) and its derivative X (t ) under a sea
state W is known, then the upcrossing frequencies
can be computed by Rices formula viz.

X ( ),

(t )

( x,, |W ) .

X(t) = G(u(t)) = m + X
[c1H1(u(t))] + c2H2(u(t)) + c3H3(u(t))],

x2
2
exp
,
0
0

(15)

where, Hi are Hermite polynomials and u(t) is a


standard Gaussian process (in what follows, the
mean stress m = 0). The coefficients of the Hermite
polynomials are chosen so that the first 4 moments
of X(t) could match that of the transformed
Gaussian process, more details see Winterstein
et al. [11].
Let G1 be the inverse function of G, and then
u(t ) = G 1(X (t )). Hence,
G 1( )2
,
+ ( |W ) = fz (W )exp
2

If ship response at a sea state W is Gaussian, the


up-crossing intensity is computed by Rices viz.
1
2

(14)

Wintersteins transformation is defined by cubic


Hermite polynomials with quadratic terms in
the Hermite model. Providing the stochastic
parameters of response X(t) at a sea state W,
denoted by = (m,x, X ,3,4) with skewness
3 E [ X (t )3 ] / X3 , and kurtosis 4 E [ X (t )4 ] / X4 ,
the transformed Gaussian process is defined by

Up-crossing intensity of Gaussian processes

+ ( |W ) =

2
.
0

1
2

3.2 Wintersteins transformed Gaussian


processes

However, the joint pdf f() is often not known


or hard to compute, e.g., for quadratic responses
see Butler et al. [9], Naess [13] . In our previous
work Mao et al. [14], the so-called Laplace Moving
Average (LMA) is shown to be able to model the
non-Gaussian ship responses. It requires knowledge of response power spectrums, skewness and
kurtosis of the stresses. A limitation of the Laplace
model, similar to the second order Stokes Waves, is
that the pdf fX (t ),X (t ) x, z |W ) is not available in an
analytical form (the pdf is defined in the frequency
domain by its characteristic function and has to be
computed using numerical methods).
We will next present cases when the crossing
intensity is given by an explicit analytical formula.
3.1

W)=

However, ship responses are often non-Gaussian


as the real environmental loads, e.g. ocean waves,
show considerable non-Gaussian features, such
as a skewed marginal distribution with heavy
tails. Further, the non-linear interaction between
ships and wave loads can no longer be neglected
for extremely large sea states. Gaussian assumption of ship responses largely underestimates the
extreme values based on the investigation of fullscale measurements. Hence, an alternative method
is needed to model the expected up-crossings for
the non-Gaussian responses.

THE UPCROSSING INTENSITY

+ ( |W ) =

fz W ) =

(13)

1 G
2 G

(X )

(X )

(16)

Note that fz(W) is defined for the Gaussian


process u(t).

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3.3

Estimation of parameters in transformed


Gaussian model

The parameters of in the transformed Gaussian


model are functions of the encountered sea
state W. The parameters of the non-Gaussian ship
responses were widely studied in Sikora [15] and
Mansour and Wasson [16], and more recently in
Jensen and Mansour [17]. The estimations presented in these papers are efficient for applications at ships conceptual design stage, since the
parameters can be derived from the ships main
dimensions, encountered waves, and operational
parameters.
As is known, wave environments are generally
described by the significant wave height Hs and
wave period Tp. Due to the difficulty in determining the strongly uncertain parameter Tp, its long
term conditional distribution given Hs, for example DNV [18], can be used to simplify the estimations. Hence, in the following, the sea conditions
are characterized by a single parameterthe
significant wave height Hs. In the previous work
by the present authors, Mao et al. [7], the standard
deviation of response, X(W), is estimated from Hs
by an explicit relation terms of ship speed U and
heading angles viz. X (W) = C(; U)Hs. The
zero up-crossing frequency, fz(W), is approximated
by the encountered wave frequency.
Finally, only the relation between skewness (and
kurtosis) and the encountered significant wave
height should be further established. Skewness and
kurtosis are measures of non-Gaussianity of the
responses. It is well known that the effects of nonlinear interactions between ship and waves are no
longer negligible for large sea states. Therefore, we
expect skewness and kurtosis to depend mostly on
the encountered significant wave height, see also
Jensen and Mansour [17].
The following investigation is based on the previously used full scale-measurements. The measurements contain both winter and spring voyages,
so that they can be used to represent the variability
of longer term wave environments. For the extreme
response prediction, only stresses under heavy seas
are of interest, here sea states with significant wave
height Hs above 4 meters are considered.
The values of kurtosis 4 for sea states with
H s 4 m, are presented in Figure 4. It shows that
there is no significant trend between kurtosis and
Hs. Similar conclusion is also derived in Mansour
and Wasson [16]. Here, the kurtosis is assumed to
be 3.4. For some pairs of parameters ( 3 , 4 ), the
cubic Hermite polynomials in Eqs. (1516) does
always remain monotone. One can resolve this
problem by using alternative values of kurtosis.
This approach is motivated by an observation
that the computed expected upcrossing spectrum

Figure 4. Kurtosis of measured responses for both


mid-section and after-section.

Figure 5. Skewness of wave induced responses and the


whole response inducing high frequency vibration such as
springing and whipping, computed from observations and
by the formula proposed in Jensen and Mansour [17].

E(Nt+(x)) was not very sensitive for small variations


of the kurtosis.
In order to compute the values of skewness of
responses at all different sea states Wi, the relation
between 3 and Hs should also be established. When
measurements of ship responses are available, the
relation can be easily regressed by, for example,
a least square method. Alternatively, a numerical
analysis is usually used to get the responses when
no measurements are available. As is known that
the high frequency responses, such as whipping
and springing, are very important for the extreme
response analysis, so that ship hull should be modeled as a flexible body for a numerical analysis.
However, this makes the computation extremely
time consuming and expensive. Based on the
investigation of full-scale measurements, Figure 5

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tells us that only using wave induced responses


are good enough to compute the skewness of real
ship repsonses, since the skewness of wave induced
responses is almost identical with that of the whole
responses. This conclusion is also consistent with
that reported in Jensen and Mansour [17]. Hence,
ship hull is then modeled as a rigid body and even
some commercial software is able to conveniently
compute the wave induced responses.
3.4

Equivalency of the methods 1 and 2

As we have mentioned above, if fz (W) is relatively


constant for severe sea states then the narrow band
estimation (Method 1) of the return response is
equivalent to the Rices approach (Method 2). This
is also what we assume in order to be able to compare the methods, see the Remark in Section 2.
In practice the long term cdf of response
maxima (or long term narrow band cdf) is often
approximated by means of Weibull distribution. If
the tails of the long term cdf are well approximated
by the Weibull tails then the Methods 1 and 2
would still be equivalent. In order to facilitate the
comparisons between the two methods we propose
to approximate the expected number of upcrossing
during one year of level x as follows
( N1+ ( x ))

xk
E(N
E(
E (N
( N1+ (0 ))exp
,

(17)
Figure 6. Upcrossing spectrum in time t = 0.5 year
estimated by Eqs. (1516) (referred to Method 2), by
fitted Weibull distribution as Eq. (17) (referred to as
Method 1), and computed by Eq. (9) assuming Gaussian
response, together with the observed upcrossing for both
after section (a) and mid section (b).

where E(N1+(0)) is estimated by means of Eq. (11)


or from the actual measured responses.
The methods will be compared using the time
history from the full-scale measurements at two
places of the 2800TEU container ship. The measured places are located at the 1/4 ship length forward of after perpendicular (denoted as after
section), and amidships (denoted by mid section),
respectively. The detailed information can be
referred to Storhaug et al. [19].
Firstly, assuming the ship response under each
sea state to be Gaussian processes, the corresponding upcrossing spectrums are computed by Rices
formula as Eq. (13). The upcrossing spectrum at all
sea states are then integrated as Eq. (11) to get the
long term upcrossing spectrum in time t. Secondly,
instead of Gaussian assumption, the upcrossing
spectrum at each sea states is estimated by the transformed Gaussian approach as Eqs. (1516) (also
refer to the Method 2 in this paper). In addition,
when the time history of ship responses is available, the fitted Weibull distribution is then used to
approximate the long term upcrossings as Eq. (17).
Figure 6 presents the upcrossings computed by the
above 3 approaches, together with the observed

upcrossings. It can be seen that the Gaussian


assumption of ship response largely underestimates the upcrossing spectrum at high levels x. For
the real non-Gaussian ship response, fitted Weibull
approach (Method 1) and transformed Gaussian
approach (Method 2) give almost identical results,
and both are close to the observed upcrossings.
Further, the upcrossing spectrums computed by
Method 1 and 2 converge when extrapolating to
even higher levels. Therefore, both methods are
able to estimate the extreme response for the given
set of data.
4

EXAMPLE OF EXTREME PREDICTION

In this section, the Method 2 will be applied for


the extreme response prediction using the fullscale measurements through an practical example.

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The relation between 3 and Hs is obtained from


the measurements by a linear regression analysis. Method 1 is also applied and its result is
taken as a validation for Method 2. Further, in
Method 2 the significant wave height is a very
important parameter in computing the upcrossing
spectrums, two different sources of encountered
waves are used for comparison.

the example. In order to make the transformation


remain montone at high levels, we have increase the
value of kurtosis in some cases with large skewness.
It is also checked that the increase will not affect the
computation of upcrossing spectrum.
Skewness of responses under large sea states
against the encountered significant wave height
Hs is plotted in Figure 7. It shows that the value
of skewness will increase with the encountered Hs.
The linear regression method gives the value of
skewness as a function of Hs for both after section,
3 _ aftf , and midsection, 3 _ mid , as follows

4.1 Estimation of parameters from measurements


The standard deviation of ship responses X,
is determined through its relation with Hs, i.e.,
X = C(; U)Hs. The values of C(; U) are computed by a linear strip theory. For the 2800TEU
container ship, its value in terms of heading angle
under service ship speed U = 10 m/s is given in Mao
et al. [20]. Zero upcrossing frequency of response,
fz, is approximated by the encountered wave frequency. Again, kurtosis is assumed to be 3.4 in

3 _

0 11

0 35 3 _ mid
id

0.063H s 0.39.
(18)

In the current study, the skewness models in


terms of other parameters, e.g., heading angle,
are also tested by a linear regression method. But
the more complex models do not explain the variability of the skewness any better than the simple
regression model as Eq. (18).
Note that for the midsection of the ship, a
semi-analytically closed formula in terms of significant wave height and operational profiles (ship
speed and heading angle) was proposed to estimate the skewness of ship responses in Jensen and
Mansour [17]. But as shown in Figure 7(b), there
is a big gap of skewness computed by these two
approaches. In particular for the full-scale measurements, there are a lot of sea states with negative
skewness, and some of them are Gaussian even for
very high sea states. However, in order to check if
the model can be applicable for extreme response
predictions, the skewness regressed from the fullscale measurements will be used for the following
study.
4.2

Encountered waves

For the computation of upcrossing spectrums,


besides the relation between the stochastic parameters and wave environments W (mainly characterized by significant wave height Hs), one also
needs to know the expected number of encountered
sea states K and the long term distribution of Hs.
The first quantity is related to the expected sailing time while the second depends on the shipping. Since the available stress data are measured
in North Atlantic, this region will be considered in
what follows.
The variability of sea environments, here Hs,
has been extensively studied and many databases
are available. (Note that it is not always clear that
the distribution is adequate for the studied problem; see the Remark in Section 2.) In the following,
the measurements of Hs from the onboard radar
installed on the above 2800TEU container ship

Figure 7 Linear regression of skewness as a function


of significant wave heights. (a): Results for After-section;
(b): Results for Mid-section, also including the skewness computed by the closed expression in Jensen and
Mansour [17].

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are used for the extreme estimation. Further, the


distribution of Hs recommended by DNV [18] is
also used as an input of Method 2, and compared
with the onboard measurements.
The distribution of Hs measured onboard contains much more moderate seas than DNV [18]
recommended, but the probability of high Hs from
DNV is larger than that from the onboard observations. For extreme analysis, large Hs are of more
interest to estimate the extreme values. Hence, we
expect that using DNV recommended Hs will give
larger values of extreme responses than that using
observed Hs.
The difference of Hs obtained from above
2 approaches could be a consequence of the routing plan system installed in the measured ship.
However, the difference may be just caused by statistical errors, since the distribution of observed
Hs is obtained from only half years measurements

while the DNV [18] recommended Hs is collected


over many years.
4.3 Results of extreme values
In the following, the so-called 100-year response xT
(T = 100 years) will be estimated by both Method
1 and 2 on the basis of six-month (t = 0.5 year)
full-scale measurements. In this case the expected
number of upcrossings by the level of 100-year
response is equal to t/T = 0.05. If the onboard
observed Hs are used as the input of Method 2, it
is denoted as Method 2(a). While if Method 2 uses
DNV [18] recommended Hs, it is then denoted as
Method 2(b).
Figure 8 presents the expected number of
up-crossings and the estimates of x100 for both after
section and mid section. The expected numbers of
up-crossings computed by Method 1 (Eq. (17))
and Method 2(a) are very close to each other and
converge fast to the observed upcrossings at high
levels. For the after section, the value of x100 is
about 210 Mpa and 230 Mpa estimated by Method
1 and Method 2(a), respectively. For the midsection, the two methods give almost identical results
of x100, 350 Mpa.
The expected number of upcrossings computed
by Method 2(b) significantly deviates from the
other two methods, in particular for the midsection.
Method 2(b) overestimates more than 40% of the
100-year than Method 1 and Method 2(a). It is due
to that the distribution of Hs used in Method 2(b)
is quite difference from the measurements. Hence,
for extreme prediction during ships design stage, it
is extremely important to describe the encountered
waves accurately along its operation period.
5

CONCLUSIONS

This paper presented a simple approach for the


prediction of extreme response, e.g. 100-year stress
x100. In the method, Wintersteins transformed
Gaussian approach is used to model the nonGaussian ship responses. The expected numbers
of upcrossings by the real ship responses are then
computed by Rices formula from the transformed
Gaussian processes. The computed upcrossings
are easily applied to estimate the values of extreme
responses. The accuracy of this method is validated by the typical Weibull fitting method, on the
basis of full-scale measurements of a 2800TEU
container ship.
Parameters of the transformed Gaussian model,
i.e., standard deviation and skewness of stationary
ship responses, are derived as a function of encountered significant wave height. The relation between
skewness and Hs can be directly computed using

Figure 8. Results of 100-year stress using the six


months full-scale measurements. The expected numbers of upcrossings are computed by Method 1 Eq. (17)
(dotted lines), and Method 2 with onboard measured
Hs (dashed lines) and Hs recommended by DNV [18]
(dash-dotted lines). Solid lines represent the observed
upcrossings. Horizontal dash-dotted lines represent the
expected number of upcrossings related to the 100-year
stress. (a): Results for After-section; (b): Results for
Mid-section.

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only wave induced responses. It can be achieved


through a simple nonlinear numerical analysis
assuming as a rigid ship body.
Finally, the proposed method is conveniently
applicable for extreme estimation with limited
information, mainly encountered significant wave
height Hs. However, due to the strongly relation
between the encountered Hs and estimates of
extreme responses, a correct distribution of
encountered Hs should always be initially determined for applications.

[8] Naess, A. & Karlsen, H. Numerical Calculation of


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors acknowledge the support from the EU
project SEAMOCS (Applied Stochastic Models for
Ocean Engineering, Climate and Safe Transportation) and Gothenburg Stochastic Center and the
Swedish foundation for Strategic Research through
GMMC, Gothenburg Mathematical Modeling
Center. Also many thanks to DNV, crews, management company and owner for providing data.
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Utilization of a whole ship finite element analysis from wave


loads to structural strength at real sea state
Yoshitaka Ogawa & Masayoshi Oka
National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT: The authors developed a whole ship finite element analysis system from wave loads to
structural strength at real sea state. In the present study, methodology for the rational analysis of structural strength by means of such a whole ship analysis particularly from the viewpoint of loads is discussed. Consequently, for the rational evaluation of strength in waves, the effect of operation particularly
on wave loads should be considered. It is verified that the evaluation without the effect of operation may
overestimate the stress induced by waves.
1

INTRODUCTION

clarified that adequate stress can be evaluated by


the computation with sufficient number of time
steps in an encounter period. It is also clarified that
high stress close to the yield stress can be evaluated
by the present computation although the present
method takes the nonlinear effect of wave loads
into account.
It is considered that there may be certain discrepancies between the computed wave loads and
real situation because such a computation basically
doesnt take the effect of operation into account.
For the further investigation, finally, the effect
of operation, that is the effects of speed reduction, change course and operational limitation
(limitation of wave height), on the fatigue strength
was examined. The sensitivity of such effects is
discussed for the rational analysis of structural
strength.

It is known that recent some kinds of ships get


longer and faster. As a result, it is difficult for such
ships to apply the empirical background for the
determination of design loads, structural requirements and so forth while those for conventional
ships are adjusted by means of the empirical background.
In addition to this, the transparency of technical
background of design loads and structural requirements will be strongly required owing to the adoption of IMO/GBS because such transparencies are
clearly drafted in the functional requirement of
the GBS.
Based on this background, authors developed
a whole ship finite element analysis system from
wave loads to structural strength at real sea state.
In the present study, methodology for the rational
analysis of structural strength by means of such a
whole ship analysis particularly from the viewpoint
of loads is discussed.
Firstly, the whole ship finite element analysis system is developed by the combination with
the computation of nonlinear wave loads. In this
system, time-domain nonlinear strip method is
used for the robust and rational computation of
dynamic pressure. A basic function of the present
system and verification of wave loads, which is one
of dominant factors for evaluation of structural
strength, is indicated.
Secondly, time-domain finite element analysis is
conducted. In this computation, statistic finite element analysis by means of the wave pressure distribution in each time step is carried out. An adequate
time steps in one wave encounter period is examined through the computation in regular wave. It is

2
2.1

WHOLE SHIP FINITE ELEMENT


ANALYSIS
Computation of wave pressure
on hull surface

Ship motions and wave pressure are computed by


means of the time domain simulation program,
developed by the National Maritime Research
Institute of Japan (Ogawa, 2005). The program,
namely NMRIW (Nonlinear Motion in Regular and Irregular Waves), is based on a nonlinear
strip method (Bishop et al., 1977; Jensen, 1979;
Yamamoto, 1980; Fujino, 1983; ISSC, 2000).
The NMRIW was developed reflecting the latest results of a seakeeping and manoeuvring
study (Hamamoto, 1993). Forces due to linear
and nonlinear potential flow are combined with

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manoeuvring forces and viscous drag forces. It is


well known that it is difficult to compute nonlinear
wave loads in bow and quartering seas by means
of the existing time domain computation method.
Using the present method, wave loads in bow and
quartering seas can be estimated rationally.
Ship motion components, Xj ( j = 1, 2 ..., 6), are
determined from a set of 6 differential equations of
motion with its origin at the centre of gravity. Here
j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 refer to surge, sway, heave, roll,
pitch and yaw modes, respectively. With respect to
rotations, a right-handed convention is used. The
equations of motion for a ship traveling with forward speed U are described as

(M


A ij X
j

ij

FW
j

FVj


Biijj X
j

= K P e + K I edt + K D
e =

(2)

where denotes the rudder angle. e denotes the


deviation of the ship course. and 0 denote the
instantaneous course and target course respectively. KP, KI and KD denote the proportional gain,
integral gain and differential gain, respectively.
NMRIW can compute the wave pressure in both
regular and irregular waves. The sea surface and
wave kinematics are described based on the linear
wave theory. The sea surface of irregular waves is
described by the linear superposition of regular
waves with random phase angles. Irregular wave
was realized by the sum of 200 components of
waves in accordance with the Jonswap spectrum.
To obtain the stable results, 10 times simulations
with the duration of 3600 seconds of ship scale were
carried out in each condition. The combination of
phase angle of each wave component was varied
in each simulation. Figure 1 shows the example of
the spectrum of incident wave. It is found that the
planed spectrum, which is shown as Base, is the
same as the computed spectrum, which is derived
from the time history of computed incident wave
and is shown as Cal.. It is found that present
computation method can adequately realize the
wave spectrum, which is the basis for the utilization of direct computation for the clarification of
statistical value of ship response in waves.
Figure 2 shows the example of the time history
of vertical bending moment at midship and S.S. 7.5.
It is also found that two-node vibration owing to
the whipping occurs with natural frequency of
the present container ship. It is clarified that the
present method can execute the robust computation of wave loads including whipping vibration.
Present computation method has been verified
through the comparison with experiments of many
kinds of ship (Ogawa, 2005 & 2007). In addition

Cij X j

i j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

de
dt

(1)

 and X
 denote motion acceleration and
where X
j
j
velocity, respectively. Mij and Aij denote mass and
added mass respectively. Bij denotes damping.
Cij denotes the restoring coefficient. The index,
i, denotes the direction of the fluid force. FWj denotes
the wave exciting force. FVj denotes the excitation
force due to viscous effects.
In terms of global flexible modes, the modal
superposition approach is applied in accordance
with formulation by Yamamoto et al. (Yamamoto,
1980). Equations of motion including flexible
modes are solved in the time domain by means
of a 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme. The FroudeKrylov force, which has considerable effect on the
nonlinearity of ship motions, is estimated by the
integration of the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic
wave pressure along the instantaneous wetted surface of the hull at each time step.
With respect to the sectional wave radiation force
and potential value at each time step, the integral
equation method is utilized. Source and doublet are
distributed at the origin of each section to avoid the
irregular frequency, in accordance with Ohmatsus
method (Ohmatsu, 1975). The sectional diffraction
force, in the present method, is computed by solving the Helmholtz equation at each time step.
Wave impact load due to slamming is computed by means of the displacement potential
approach (Takagi, 2007; Ogawa, 2009) in terms of
the instantaneous wetted surface at each time step.
The viscous effect of roll damping due to ship hull
and bilge keels is estimated using various empirical formulae. The propeller thrust is described by
means of the propeller characteristics. The hull
resistance is a function of the instantaneous speed
and draft. Lateral force and yaw moment due to
rudder is considered to keep a target course o for
the ship in the simulation. The rudder is controlled
by the PID control as follows:

Spectrum (T02 = 8sec., H = 5m)


7
Base
Cal.

S()

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Figure 1. The example of spectrum of incident


wave (significant wave height:5 m, mean wave period:
8.0 sec.).

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Wave torsional moment (wave height :6m)

Wave vertical bending moment (Head seas, Hw = 9m, Fn = 0.219)


0.0012

S.S. 5
S.S. 7.5

300000

Cal. (Fn = 0.11)


Cal. (Fn = 0.164)

0.001

Exp. (Fn = 0.11)

200000

Exp. (Fn = 0.164)

0.0008

100000

Tx/gL B

Wave vertical bending moment


(ton-m)

400000

0
300
-100000

320

340

360

380

400

0.0006
0.0004
0.0002

-200000
0
0

-300000
Time (sec.)

0.5

1.5

/L

Figure 2. Time history of the wave vertical bending moment of the post-panamax container ship at
S.S.7.5 and S.S.5 ( = 180 deg., Fn = 0.219, Hw = 9 m,
/L = 1.0).

Figure 4. The wave torsional moment response amplitude operator of the mega container ship at S.S.5.5
( = 150 deg., wave height: Hw = 6 m).

Wave vertical bending moment (wave height :6m)


Cal. (Head seas, Fn = 0.11)
Cal. (Head seas, Fn = 0.164)
Cal. (Bow seas, Fn = 0.164)
Exp. (Head seas, Fn = 0.11)
Exp. (Head seas, Fn = 0.164)
Exp. (Bow seas, Fn = 0.164)

0.03
0.025

MV/gL2B

0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0

0.5

1.5

/L

Figure 3. The wave vertical bending moment response


amplitude operator of the mega container ship at S.S.5.5
with various ship speed and headings (wave height:
Hw = 6 m).

Figure 5. Example of wave pressure distribution on


finite element model by means of the present computation (GUI of NMRIW).

to the previous results, present method is further


verified through the comparison with experiments
of the large container ship.
Details of the experiments have already been
published (Oka, 2009). Figure 3 shows example of
validation for the wave vertical bending moment in
head and bow seas, for the ship travelling at various
speeds. The fundamental frequency component,
Mv, is divided by gBL2. Here, and g describe
the density of fluid and acceleration of gravity,
respectively. , B and L describe wave amplitude,
ship breadth and ship length, respectively.
It is found that the computed wave bending
moment of the mega container ship is in ample
agreement with experiments. It is also found that
ship speed and wave encounter angle have effect on
the bending moment. It is clarified that the present
method can explain the effect of ship speed and
wave encounter angle on wave load quantitatively.
Figure 4 also shows example of validation for
the wave torsional moment in bow seas, at various ship speeds. The fundamental frequency component, Tx, is divided by gBL2. Based on both

experiments and computations, it is found that the


torsional moment in the stern quartering seas was
significant in the stern quartering seas compared
with that in bow quartering seas.
It is found that the present method can explain
the measured wave torsional moments, which were
measured accurately using the newly developed
backbone model (Oka, 2009). It is confirmed that
the present method, which can estimate roll motion
in the stern quartering seas adequately, estimates
not only the vertical bending moment but also the
wave torsional moment in various wave condition.
2.2 Whole ship finite element analysis
The present system computes a time history of
stress in regular and irregular waves. In this computation, static finite element analysis by inputting
the computed wave pressure distribution, which is
shown in Figure 5, in each time steps are carried
out. By means of the present system, outer shell
of a subject ship can be extracted automatically.

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Figure 6. Example of wave pressure distribution


on finite element model by means of the present
computation.
Figure 7. The whole ship finite element analysis in the
regular head seas (Stress distribution under the hogging
condition) (N = 12, Head seas, wave height:12 m, wave
length ratio to ship length:0.8.).

Figure 6 shows an example of the wave pressure


distribution on finite element model. It is found
that wave pressure is loaded only on the outer
shell.
The NASTRAN software is used for the present
finite element analysis. Prior to the computation, density of container was tuned to adjust the
weight, center of gravity and radius of inertia of a
finite element model. Dynamic forces and inertia
of a finite element model is adjusted by means of
the inertia relief function of the NASTRAN.
3
3.1

EXAMINATION OF RESULTS
OF FNITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
Examination of time step of time-domain
analysis

Firstly, an adequate time step in one wave encounter period is examined through the computation in
regular wave. In the present study, the computed
stress of the large container ship is examined to
clarify the adequate step with the variation of time
step N from 12 to 120. Figures 7 and 8 are examples of the stress distribution under the hogging
condition in the case of N = 12 and 40. It is confirmed that stress distribution in the case of N = 40
are same as that in the case of greater number of
step. It is clarified that stress distribution converges
at N = 40 in various wave period. It is found that
stress amplitude in waves is 10% different between
in the case of N = 12 and in the case of N = 40.
It is confirmed that the present analysis system
with sufficient number of time step can evaluate
the stress amplitude in waves adequately.
3.2

Figure 8. The whole ship finite element analysis in the


regular head seas (Stress distribution under the hogging
condition) (N = 40, Head seas, wave height:12 m, wave
length ratio to ship length:0.8.).

inputs of wave pressure should be clarified. It is


supposed that there is certain discrepancy between
computed wave loads and real situation.
Figure 9 shows the example of the long term
prediction of wave vertical bending moment of a
large container ship. Response amplitude operator,
which is basis for these long term values, is computed by means of the linear strip method. It is
well known that probability of occurrence of once
in 25 years correspond to 108. In the meanwhile,
probability of occurrence of the design wave load,
determined by the IACS UR-S11 (IACS, 2006), of
this container ship corresponds to 106. It is found
that there is certain discrepancy in wave loads
related to those two probabilities.
For the consideration of design wave loads for
existing ship, that discrepancy is adjusted based on

Consideration of the computed stress

In the meanwhile, it is also clarified that high


stress close to the yield stress can be evaluated
by the present computation although the present
method takes the nonlinear effect of wave loads
into account. It is considered that the validity of

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Long term prediction of vertical bending moment (S.S.5, Fn = 0.18)


(Post-panamax container ship)

Vertical Bending Moment (Fn = 0.182, T02 = 15sec. H1/3 = 10m)


0.002

0.06

0.0016

0.04

Midship
S.S. 7 1/2

? = 180deg
? = 90deg
? = 0deg
All Headings

0.02

Mv/gBL2

Mv/?gBL3

0.0012

0.0008

0
600

1100

1600

2100

2600

-0.02

0.0004

-0.04
-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-0.06

log10Q

t(sec.)
Vertical Bending Moment (Fn =0.182, T02 = 15sec. H1/3 = 10m)

Figure 9. Long term prediction of vertical bending


moment of a large container ship computed by means of
linear strip method.

0.06

Midship
S.S. 7 1/2

0.04

Mv/gBL2

0.02

the voyage records. However, it is considered that it


is difficult for new type of ship to compensate such
a discrepancy based on a voyage re-cord. Therefore, it is important to evaluate wave loads rationally and to assess the effect of operation on it by
means of a direct computation.
4
4.1

0
1400

1410

1420

1430

1440

1450

1460

1470

1480

-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
t(sec.)

Figure 10. The example of time history of wave vertical bending moment ( = 180 deg., significant wave
height:10 m, mean wave period:15.0 sec.) (Below: magnification of above time history of 2000 second within one
hour duration).

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT


OF OPERATION ON WAVE LOADS
The effect of the change of ship speed
on the short term probability of wave loads

Sagging (T02 = 15sec., H1/3 = 10m)

Figure 10 shows the example of the computed time


history of vertical bending moment. It is found
that the hull girder vibration owing to the whipping occurs frequently in such a severe sea state.
It is confirmed that two-node vibration occurs with
natural frequency of the present container ship.
It is also found that the large bending moment can
be induced due to whipping in the sever sea state.
Figure 11 shows the relation of speed reduction with the probability of wave vertical bending
moment. This probability is derived from the histogram of the computed sagging moment. The value
of horizontal axis denotes the non-dimensional
value divided by gBL2 (in this case, is the
significant wave amplitude). The solid line in
Fig. 11 shows the probability of occurrence without speed reduction. This means that computation
is carried out with constant ship speed. For the
evaluation of the effect of hull girder vibration,
wave loads taking only rigid motion into account
is computed in the same irregular waves. This computation derives the wave loads without hull girder
vibration. The probability of wave loads computed without hull girder vibration is also shown
in Fig. 11 as the small dotted line.
Although the number of peak value is different owing to the hull girder vibration, it is found
that hull girder vibration has a certain effect on

0
1

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

Without speed reduction (Fn = 0.182)


With speed reduction
Wave component only (without hull girder vibration)

0.1

0.01

0.001
Mv/gBL2

Figure 11. The relation of ship speed with the probability of occurrence of wave vertical bending moment
at midship ( = 180 deg., significant wave height:10 m,
mean wave period:15.0 sec.).

the probability of occurrence of wave loads. It is


clarified that it is important to consider the effect
hull girder vibration on the statistical characteristics of wave loads.
However, in the real navigation, ship speed
is reduced owing to the nominal speed loss and
deliberate speed loss. Particularly, those speed
loss become significant in rough seas because ship
motion and wave loads become large. In addition to this, in the real navigation, ship course are
changed to avoid severe condition particularly in

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large motion and acceleration. This implies that


the statistical characteristics of wave loads should
be also evaluated in various wave conditions that
hull girder vibration doesnt occur.
Based on the results in Figures 11 and 12, it is
verified that the setting of ship speed has much
effect on the probability. Therefore, it is important
to compute wave loads taking the effect of speed
reduction into account.

rough seas. In the meanwhile, usual computations


for the evaluation of statistical characteristics of
ship motion and wave loads have been generally
conducted under the assumption that ship speed
and course are constant. Therefore, it is inadequate
to assess the effect of hull girder vibration on wave
loads quantitatively based on the computation and
the model experiments with constant ship speed
and course. This implies that computation and
model experiments taking the effect of operation
should be conducted.
Using the present computation method, the
probability of occurrence with speed reduction is
computed. It is shown as the dotted line in Fig. 11.
In this computation, ship speed was reduced to
two third of initial ship speed when the pitching
motion becomes large in the computation.
It is found that the probability with speed reduction becomes smaller than that without speed
reduction because the whipping induced hull girder
vibration is significantly reduced owing to the
speed reduction. It is clarified that the evaluation
without the effect of operation may overestimate
the effect of hull girder vibration on statistical
characteristics of wave loads quantitatively.
Figure 12 shows the example of the computed
probability of occurrence of wave vertical bending
moment with various ship speeds. This probability is derived from the histogram of the computed
sagging and hogging moment separately. It is
found that the occurrence probability of sagging
moment is slightly different from that of hogging
moment because the effect of hull girder vibration
and nonlinearity of ship motion are not significant
in 5 m wave height. In the meanwhile, it is clarified that the effect of ship forward speed on the
probability is significant. In the real navigation,
criteria for the speed loss and the course change
are based on not only hull girder vibration but also

4.2

The effect of course change on the short


term probability of wave loads

Figure 13 shows the relation of course change


with the probability of wave vertical bending
moment. The solid line in Fig. 13 shows the probability of occurrence without course change. This
means that computation is carried out with constant headings. In the meanwhile, the dotted line
shows the probability of occurrence with course
change. In this computation, heading angle was
varied from head seas (180 deg.) to bow quartering
seas (170 deg.) when the pitching motion becomes
large in the computation. It is found that the probability with course change becomes smaller than
that without course change because the whipping
induced hull girder vibration is certainly reduced
owing to the course change. It is clarified that the
direct computation can explain the effect of course
change on the probability rationally.
In addition to them, probability of wave loads
at bow seas (170 deg.) computed without course
change is also computed. This is shown as the
small dotted line in Fig. 13. Although the resulting
heading is same as bow seas (170 deg.), it is found
that the probability at bow seas is different from
that with course change in head seas. It is clarified the evaluation of statistical characteristics of
wave loads with constant course may be different

V.B.M. (T02 = 15sec., H1/3 = 5m)

1
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.005

Sagging (T02 = 15sec., H1/3 = 10m)


0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025

0.03

0.035

Without Course change (Head seas only)


With Course change

Sagging(Fn = 0.182)
Hogging(Fn = 0.182)
Sagging(Fn = 0.12)
Hogging(Fn = 0.12)

Bow seas (170 deg. ) without course change


0.1
P

0.1

0.01

0.01

0.001

0.001

Mv/gBL^2

Mv/gBL2

Figure 13. The relation of wave encounter angle with


the probability of occurrence of wave vertical bending moment at midship ( = 180 deg., significant wave
height:10 m, mean wave period:15.0 sec.).

Figure 12. The effect of ship speed on the probability


of occurrence of wave vertical bending moment at midship ( = 180 deg., significant wave height:5 m, mean
wave period:15.0 sec.).

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from the real situation. Therefore, it is important


to compute wave loads taking the effect of course
change into account.
In the meanwhile, it is considered that further
quantitative examination of the degree of speed
reduction is required in the future study. Particularly, the relation of the criteria for the speed loss
and the course change with statistical characteristics of wave loads should be examined further
although it is clarified that the direct computation
can explain the effect of speed reduction on the
probability rationally.
5

Hamamoto, M. & Kim, Y.S. 1993. A New Coordinate


System and the Equations Describing Manoeuvring
Motion of Ship in Waves, J Soc Naval Arch of Japan,
Vol. 173, pp. 209220.
IACS, Longitudinal strength standard, 1993. IACS
S-11.
IACS, 2001. Standard Wave Data, IACS Recommendation No. 34.
ISSC, 2000. Extreme hull girder loading, special task
committee VI. 1, 14th international ship and offshore
structures congress, Nagasaki, Japan, pp. 263320.
Jensen, J.J. & Pedersen, P.T. 1979. Wave-induced bending moments in shipsa quadratic theory, Transaction of Royal Institute of Naval Architects, Vol. 121,
pp. 151165.
Ogawa, Y. et al., 2005. The effect of a bow flare shape
on the water impact pressure, International Journal
of Offshore and Polar Engineering (IJOPE), Vol. 16,
No. 2.
Ogawa, Y. 2007. A study on nonlinear wave loads of a
large container carrier in rough seas, 10th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and
other Floating Structures (PRADS), 1, pp. 132140.
Ogawa, Y. & Takagi, K. 2009. An evaluation of whipping vibration utilizing the displacement potential
method, Hydroelasticity 2009, pp. 213222.
Ohmatsu, S. 1975. On the Irregular Frequencies in
the Theory of Oscillating Bodies in a Free Surface,
Papers of Ship Res Inst, Tokyo, Vol. 48, pp. 113.
Oka, M., Oka, S. & Ogawa, Y. 2009. An experimental
study on wave loads of a large container ship and its
hydroelastic vibration, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology.
Takagi, K. & Ogawa, Y. 2007. Flow Models of the Flare
Slamming, Proceedings of International Conference
on Violent Flows (VF-2007).
Yamamoto, Y., Fujino, M. & Fukasawa, T. 1980. Motion
and longitudinal strength of a ship in head seas and the
effects of nonlinearities, Naval Architects and Ocean
Engineering, Journal of Society of Naval Architects of
Japan, Vol. 18.

CONCLUSIONS

Through the whole ship finite element analysis


from load to structural strength at real sea state,
the effect of operation on wave loads and strength
is examined. Conclusions are as follows:
1. The direct computation by means of the present
method can explain wave loads in various
wave height, wave period and wave direction,
rationally.
2. The present analysis system with sufficient
number of time step can evaluate the stress
amplitude in waves adequately.
3. In the meanwhile, for the rational evaluation of
the stress in waves, the effect of operation on
wave loads should be considered. It is verified
that the evaluation without the effect of operation may overestimate the stress induced by
waves.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A part of the present study was supported by a
Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research of the Japan
Society for Promotion of Science (No. 20360400).
REFERENCES
Bishop, R.E.D., Price, W.G. & Tam, P.K.Y. 1977.
A unified dynamic analysis of ship response to waves,
Transaction of Royal Institute of Naval Architects,
Vol. 119, pp. 36390.
Fujino, M. & Chiu, F. 1983. Vertical Motions of Highspeed Boats in Head Sea and Wave Load, J Soc
Naval Arch Japan, Vol. 154, pp. 151163.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Environmental and operational uncertainties in long-term


prediction of slamming loads of containerships
J. Parunov, M. orak & I. Senjanovi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the paper is to investigate long-term distribution of slamming loads of
containerships accounting for different types of environmental and operational uncertainties. Following
uncertainties are studied: the choice of the wave scatter diagram, the effect of the avoidance of heavy
weather, the effect of the maneuvering in heavy weather and the uncertainty of the method for prediction of the long-term extreme slamming pressure. Long term distributions of bottom slamming pressures are computed using different combinations of the aforementioned uncertainties. The purpose of
the study is the uncertainty assessment for the application in the reliability based design of ultra-large
containerships.
1

the lifetime weighted sea method,


the long-term prediction via Poisson outcrossing
method.

INTRODUCTION

In the design and operation of ultra-large containerships important hydroelastic effects appear
in addition to the rigid body response. The most
relevant hydroelastic phenomenon concerning the
longitudinal strength of large containership is whipping, the transient vibration of ship hull occurring
as a consequence of slamming. Such vibration may
considerably increase the extreme vertical wave
bending moments amidships and thus needs to be
considered in the ship structural design.
Estimation of design slamming parameters, as
the frequency of the slamming occurrence and
design slamming pressures is demanding task
depending on numerous uncertainties. The reason
for this is that slamming phenomenon is very sensitive to the environmental conditions, ship speed
and heading angle. These parameters depend on
assumed shipping route, the ship masters actions
to avoid heavy weather and on the maneuvering in
heavy weather. These assumptions can not be set
with large confidence that makes design slamming
loads quite uncertain.
This paper aims to quantify influence of mentioned uncertain parameters on the long-term
extreme slamming pressures. The effect of the following uncertainties is studied:

Two types of slamming loads appear in containerships: the bow flare slamming and the bottom
slamming. Although both types of the slamming
are important and can excite hull-girder vibration,
only the bottom slamming is considered in the
present study.
It is assumed that the bottom slamming pressure psl is proportional to the square of the relative
velocity v of the bottom and the wave surface:
psl

1
k
kv 2
2

(1)

Critical (threshold) value of the impact velocity


is assumed according to Ochi and Motter (1973).
v0

0 093 gL

(2)

It is worth mentioning that the threshold velocity given by Equation (2) is used by Jensen et al.
(2008) in recently published study of the wave
induced hull girder loads on containerships. The
associated threshold pressure takes the form:
p0

design wave environment,


avoidance of heavy weather,
maneuvering in heavy weather.

1
kv02
k
2

(3)

The formulation of the problem is set in such


a way to avoid assumption on the method for
calculating slamming pressure coefficient k. The
approach is elaborated in Section 2.

Furthermore, two methods for calculating longterm extreme slamming pressures are compared:

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Table 1.

where

Main particulars of containerships.

Ship particular

Flokstra

S175

Lpp
B
T
Tballast
CB
full
ballast
Vn

270
32.2
10.85

0.598
57499

24.5

175
25.4
9.5
7.0
0.572
24742
17157
22.15

m
m
m
m

tonnes
tonnes
knots

Flokstra containership,
S175 containership.
Results of model tests of two ships are well documented and available in the references Flokstra
(1974) and Wu et al. (2002). Main particulars of
the ships are specified in Table 1.
The hydrodynamic assessment is performed by
the linear strip theory. Although more sophisticated
3D hydrodynamic tools are available nowadays,
for the purpose of comparative study performed
herein, the linear strip theory is considered to be
a convenient tool. The hydrodynamic strip models
of the containerships and their validations are presented by Parunov & orak (2010).
The present paper is organized in such a way that
methods for long-term slamming pressure calculation are described firstly. After that, the effect of
different environmental and operational uncertainties on the long-term extreme slamming pressures
is studied. The number of slams in 20 years is also
estimated. Finally, paper ends with conclusions
summarizing obtained results.

Fp ( psl ) =

nH

psp

sl

p0

i j ,k

sl =

sl

Sj

Zk

) r (T ) p (H
Zk

Sj

ssl
ssl

(8)

1 V

Psslam
2 M

(9)

while the mean slamming frequency in all sea states


is given as:
n

2
i =1
nH nT

sl i j ,k HS j TZk , i p HS j TZk
jk

sl =
*

) (

(10)

Model tests and full-scale trials show that necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of
slam impact are the bottom emergence, i.e. relative bow motion being larger than local draught d,
and impact velocity being higher than the critical
velocity v0.

(4)

) f ( p) dp = 1 e ( p

F psl HS TZ , =

where sl is the slamming frequency in each individual short-term sea state, given as:

Impact pressure psl in the short-term sea state is a


random variable which follows the probability law
given as truncated probability density function in
the exponential form (Ochi and Motter 1973):
p0 psp

nT

r ( TZ , ) =

The lifetime weighted sea method for longterm distribution of slamming pressure

f ( psl ) = e

i =1

,TZk
jk

(7)
where p(HS,TZ) is the probability of occurrence
of sea state, while the relative number of slamming appearances in each short-term sea state is
given as:

CALCULATION METHODS OF LONGTERM EXTREME BOTTOM SLAMMING


PRESSURE

2.1

(6)

Slamming pressure may be calculated using


pressure coefficient k = 1. This is possible, as pressure as well as 1/ in the exponential part of the
Equation (5) is proportional to k and therefore k
can be cancelled. Actual extreme pressures can be
obtained by simply multiplying calculated unitary
pressure values by actual value of the pressure
coefficient k.
Long-term distribution of slamming pressure psl
can be modeled as series of short term sea states
where each heading angle have the same probability of occurrence. Probability distribution of slamming pressure in short term is given by Equation (5)
and the long-term distribution is given as:

Two well-known containerships are analyzed in


the present study:

1
k r2

p )

(5)

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Relative bow motion and velocity are statistically


independent random processes which follow
Rayleigh distribution (Senjanovi et al., 2003).
Based on that fact, probability of slamming can
be written as:

Pslam (M > d V > v

d2
v2
+ 02

2
2 M 2V

2.2

x ) d

(12)

p (

V2 = SV (

x ) d

(13)

After establishing long-term distribution in discrete form by applying Equation (7), the theoretical threeparameter Weibull distribution may be
fitted:
FWeibulll ( psl ) = 1 e

=e

b
a

1
1
=
N sl T *
C
sl

ext

( pext p )

) sll e

(14)

(18)

( ( p
p

eext
xt

HS TZ , tsea

(19)

By unconditioning extreme value distribution


in the short term conditional on sea state and
heading angle, one obtains extreme distribution
of slamming pressure for all sea states for the
assumed sea state duration tsea:
n

2
i =1

Fext ( pext ;tsea ) =


nH nT
Fi
jk

j ,k

( pext HS TZ , ;ttsea )

p HS j ,TZk

(20)
(15)

Finally, the extreme distribution of pext over


the long-term return period (e.g. TC = 20 years) is
obtained by the order statistics:

where a and b are parameters of the straight line


fitted. For the long-term return period (e.g. TC = 20
years), the probability of exceeding the most probable extreme slamming pressure is given as:
q=

(17)

Long-term extreme slamming pressure via


Poisson outcrossing method

Fext pext HS TZ , ;tsea

where , and = p0 are the Weibull scale


parameter, shape parameter and location
parameter respectively. Probability FWeibull given
by Equation (14) represents the probability that
the slamming pressure is less than psl in one, randomly chosen wave cycle. The Weibull 3P distribution may be presented in the linear scale, and then
Weibull parameters may be calculated by the least
square method as:

where sl is the slamming frequency in the short


term sea state calculated according to (9). Distribution of extreme slamming pressures pext over the
sea state duration is than given as:

p
sl

ln(- ln( q )
a

The extreme distribution Fext(pext|HS,TZ,;tsea), of


the slamming pressure over the stationary period
of time of a single sea state tsea, conditional on the
sea state defined by the three parameters (HS, TZ, )
is obtained via the Poisson outcrossing approximation. The appropriate value for tsea depends on the
geographical location and is considered to vary
between 1800 and 43200s. Here a value of 10800s
(3 hours) is assumed.
First step is evaluation of the mean outcrossing
rate p, for the value of the extreme slamming pressure pext, based on the exponential function:

(11)

2 and
where M
V2 are variances of the relative
motion and the relative velocity, respectively, in a
short term sea state. These are different for each
mean zero crossing period TZ, heading , ship
speed and loading condition. Short term sea states
are modeled by PiersonMoskowitz wave spec2 and 2 are given as:
trum, while M
V
2
M
= SM (

+e

pext

Fext ( pext ;T
TC )

(16)

Feext
xt ( pext tsea )

nsea

(21)

where the assumption is made that, in the long


term, the extremes reached in different sea states
are independent random variables and where the
number of stationary sea states in the period TC,
nsea, is given by TC /tsea.

The most probable extreme impact pressure for


given return period can then be calculated as:

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The course changes in heavy weather are mainly


to avoid the ship capsizing or excessive ship rolling amplitudes that may interfere with normal
working activities on board. Consequently, the
probability of head seas is much higher in heavy
weather than in normal sea conditions. However, this is valid only for smaller ships (less than
about 200 m in length). For large ships, the course
changes in heavy weather are not so frequent.
The explanation for this finding could be that the
masters of larwge ships feel safe even in rather
rough seas.
Another important maneuver in rough seas is the
speed reduction. This action is not dependent on
the ship size. Speed could be reduced due to technical reasons, such as the added resistance of wind
and waves, change of submerged part of the hull,
change of wake field and loss of thrust. Very large
motion amplitudes, velocities and accelerations,
slamming, green seas, overload of the main engine
could be the reason for voluntary speed reduction.
The effect of the speed reduction in heavy
weather is assessed by analyzing three different
ship speeds:

Extreme distribution obtained numerically by


described procedure may be fitted by the theoretical Gumbel distribution. Probability that the slamming pressure remains less than a given value pext
over a long time period TC, is then given as:

FGumbel ( pext ) = e

p p*

ext

(22)

where p*and are Gumbel distribution parameters.


If Gumbel distribution is presented in the linear
scale, then Gumbel parameters can be calculated
by the least square method as:
1
,
a

p*

(23)

where a and b are parameters of the fitted straight


line. Finally, the most probable extreme impact
pressure over the long-term return period is equal
to the Gumbel parameterp*, i.e. pext = p*.

Nominal ship speed (Vn)


Reduced speed 80% of the nominal speed
Zero speed.

RESULTS OF THE LONG-TERM


ASSESSMENT OF EXTREME BOTTOM
SLAMMING PRESSURE

Table 2. The most probable bottom slamming pressures


in 20 years according to the lifetime weighted sea
method (k = 1).

In order to assess the influence of the shipping


route on the extreme bottom slamming pressures,
long-term calculations are performed for following
scatter diagrams:

The most probable extreme slamming pressure

Standard IACS North Atlantic scatter diagram


(IACS)
North Pacific scatter diagram (N-P)
Scatter diagram for shipping route North
EuropeFar East through Suez Chanel (Suez).

Floxtra S175
Wave scatter
diagram

Ship speed

FL

FL

BL

IACS

vn
0.8 vn
zero

237
201
60

242
207
40

278
236
61

N-P

vn
0.8 vn
zero

179
152
49

223
191
37

275
236
64

Suez

vn
0.8 vn
zero

170
142
48

203
172
39

257
221
69

N-P modified

Modified N-P scatter diagram,


Modified Suez scatter diagram.

vn
0.8 vn
zero

170
145
56

214
185
47

267
230
79

Suez modified

Two main maneuver that master can undertake


when the ship is in heavy seas are course changing
from beam seas to head or following seas and voluntary speed reduction (Guedes Soares 1990).

vn
0.8 vn
zero

147
128
59

199
175
53

254
223
89

* FL full load condition


BL ballast condition

More details on the wave zones considered and


the resulting extreme slamming pressures are presented in Section 4.
The next issue covered in the paper is the effect
of the heavy weather avoidance. The problem is
approached by the truncating probability density
function of a significant wave height, as explained
in Section 5. The truncation of the scatter diagrams
results in two additional scatter diagrams for which
long-term calculations are performed:

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Table 3. The most probable bottom slamming pressures


in 20 years according to the Poisson outcrossing method
(k = 1, short-term duration of sea states 3 hours).

1.40

The most probable extreme slamming pressure

1.30

N-P/N-P modified (full load)

1.20

SUEZ/SUEZ modified (full load)

1.10

Floxtra S175

1.00

Wave scatter diagram

Ship speed

FL

FL

BL

0.90

IACS

vn
0.8 vn
zero

277
227
58

327
265
38

423
337
60

0.80

N-P

vn
0.8 vn
zero

181
167
48

248
208
36

333
273
64

Suez

vn
0.8 vn
zero

169
149
47

217
183
38

293
241
69

vn
0.8 vn
zero

173
155
54

241
204
45

330
275
79

vn
0.8 vn
zero

147
133
55

225
194
50

308
262
90

N-P modified

Suez modified

0.70

Figure 2. Influence of the avoidance of the heavy weather


on the slamming pressure for full load condition.

10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0

vn/zero (full load)

2.0

Figure 3. Influence of the ship speed on the slamming


pressure for full load condition.

1.80

1.60

1.10
1.40

1.05
1.00

1.20

0.95
0.90

1.00

IACS/N-P (full load)

0.85

IACS/SUEZ (full load)

0.80

0.80

0.75

Figure 1. Influence of the shipping route on the extreme


slamming pressure.

LongTerm/Poisson extreme - vn

0.70

LongTerm/Poisson extreme - 0.8 vn

0.65

LongTerm/Poisson extreme - zero

0.60

Results are elaborated in Section 6 of the paper.


Furthermore, for each scatter diagram, calculations are performed for two long-term calculation
methods:

Figure 4. Influence of the calculation method on the


slamming pressure (3 hours assumed duration of shortterm seas states in Poisson outcrossing methods).

The lifetime weighted sea method


Poisson outcrossing method.

and all load conditions respectively. In all cases,


unitary pressures (k = 1) are calculated at section at
the distance of 10% from the fore perpendicular.

Detailed results of that analysis are presented in


Section 7.
Summary results of the long-term slamming
pressure analysis for two ships are presented in
Tables 2 and 3 for the lifetime weighted sea method
and Poisson outcrossing method respectively.
Also, these results are graphically presented in
Figures 13 and Figure 4 for full load condition

CHOICE OF THE SHIPPING ROUTE

One of the main issues analyzed within the present


study is the influence of the shipping route on the
extreme slamming pressure. The North Atlantic
environment, proposed by IACS for calculation of

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extreme global wave loads, is certainly not the most


frequent trading route for containerships, although
some of containerships are sailing on that route as
well. However, the North Atlantic is considered as
the most severe environment and as such can cover
all situations that the ship may encounter during
her lifetime, including the situation that the ship
permanently sails in the North Atlantic (Guedes
Soares 1996).
The idea of the present research is to study
differences in the extreme slamming pressure if
some other shipping route is selected, aiming to
model more realistically the operational features of
containerships.
Two important containership routes considered
in the present study are the North Pacific route
between Yokohama and San Francisco, and the
Europe-Asia route connecting European ports
Hamburg and Rotterdam with Shangai through
the Suez Channel.
The scatter diagram for the North Pacific trading route is obtained by combining wave zones 13,
20, 22 & 29 from Global Wave Statistics (GWS)
(Hogben et al. 1986).
The scatter diagram for the EuropeAsia trading
route passing through Suez Channel is obtained by
combining wave zones 11, 16, 17, 25, 26, 27, 29, 40,
41, 50, 60, 61 & 62 from GWS.
For both mentioned scatter diagrams, it is
assumed that the ship spends equal time in each
of the zones, i.e. equal probability of occurrence is
attached to each of them.
The diagram showing the influence of the shipping route is presented in Figure 1. The figure
presents the most probable extreme pressures of
N-P and Suez scatter diagrams relative to IACS
diagram.
The results in Figure 1 indicate that extreme
slamming pressures for IACS design wave environment are considerably larger than slamming pressures calculated for other wave environments. Only
in the case of ships speed equal to zero, this effect
is less pronounced. This is seen as ratios approximately equal to 1 in the Figure 1. Maximum ratio
between extreme pressures for IACS and N-P
environment is about 1.5, while the maximum ratio
between extreme pressures for IACS and Suez
environment is about 1.6.
5

is described by Parunov & orak (2010) and it is


not repeated herein.
Ratios of the most probable extreme slamming
pressures between original and truncated scatter
diagrams are presented in Figure 2.
In the most cases the effect of truncation is to
reduce extreme pressures up to about 10% and 30%
for N-P and Suez wave environments respectively.
Values lower than one indicates that larger extreme
pressures are obtained for truncated than for the
original scatter diagram. Numerical inaccuracies in
fitting theoretical distributions used in calculation
of the most probable slamming pressures could
be the reason for these discrepancies within the
low values of pressures. These values are typically
achieved for zero speed, but since those pressures
are relatively low, such results may be disregarded.
6

INFLUENCE OF THE SHIP SPEED

The influence of the ship speed on the longterm extreme slamming pressures is presented
in Figure 3. The figure represents ratios of extreme
slamming pressures calculated for nominal ship
speed and extreme slamming pressures calculated
for zero speed case.
It may be seen from Figure 3 that the ship speed
has crucial effect on the bottom pressures. By
reducing speed from design speed to zero, extreme
bottom pressure is decreased several times. As
speed reduction in heavy weather is decision of
ship master, it is evident that such maneuvering
may be critical for extreme slamming loading of
containerships.
7

INFLUENCE OF THE METHOD


FOR CALCULATION OF THE MOST
PROBABLE EXTREME SLAMMING
PRESSURE

Two methods for calculation of long-term extreme


slamming pressure are similar, but not exactly
the same. The main difference is that in Poisson
outcrossing method, duration of individual short
term sea states needs to be specified, while that is
not required in the lifetime weighted sea method.
Physically, by modifying duration of individual
short-term sea states, one determines level of correlation between successive sea states. Therefore,
there is an additional uncertainty due to the type
of the long-term calculation method employed.
In Figure 4, comparison between two methods
is presented with assumed duration of short-term
sea states in Poisson outcrossing method equal
to 3 hours. For zero speed, the lifetime weighted
sea method is slightly conservative. However,

INFLUENCE OF THE AVOIDANCE


OF HEAVY WEATHER

Avoidance of heavy weather is assessed by comparing long-term extreme pressures calculated for
truncated and original Suez and N-P wave scatter
diagrams. Scatter diagrams are truncated at significant wave heights of 10.5 m. Truncation procedure

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Large dispersion of results is present when


assessing influence of the heavy weather avoidance. In average, the effect of truncation of the
scatter diagram is to reduce extreme pressures up
to about 30%.
As expected, there is a huge influence of the ship
speed on the extreme slamming pressures. Reduction of the ship speed from nominal speed to zero
speed causes decrease of slamming pressures in
average 45 times.
Method for calculating long-term extreme slamming pressure is also one potential source of uncertainty. For zero speed case, dispersion of results is
relatively low and both studied methods, i.e. the
lifetime weighted sea method and the Poisson
outcrossing method, lead to the similar extreme
values. Increased ship speed, however, causes that
the method of Poisson outcrossing predicts larger
extreme slamming pressures, but also uncertainty
of results increases considerably.
Impulsive forces acting on the ship bottom are
proportional to the pressures calculated in this
study. Furthermore, whipping bending moments
are also proportional to the impulsive forces.
Therefore, calculated uncertainties will have direct
consequence on uncertainties of whipping bending moments. Furthermore, whipping bending
moments are to be combined with rigid hull vertical wave bending moments for the assessment
of the hull-girder strength of the ultra-large containerships. Because of large uncertainties in both
wave-induced and whipping bending moments,
reliability-based methods are to be used in design
of these ships.

Table 4. Number of slams in 20 years.


Floxtra
Wave scatter
diagram

S175

Ship speed FL

FL

BL

IACS

vn
0.8 vn
Zero

25991
17492
360

58262
37471
136

371453
244470
2883

N-P

vn
0.8 vn
zero

7697
5678
178

28002
20052
144

203907
146297
3758

Suez

vn
0.8 vn
zero

3963
2964
111

15906
11793
117

128593
95839
3395

N-P modified

vn
0.8 vn
zero

7010
5104
172

27206
19387
177

211755
151425
4082

Suez modified

vn
0.8 vn
zero

2364
1828
125

12066
9207
190

108599
82106
3991

by increasing ship speed, the lifetime weighted


sea method tends to produce lower extreme values
comparing to Poisson outcrossing method.
8

NUMBER OF SLAMS

As a result of the present analysis, number of


slams in ships lifetime is calculated by Equation
(16) and presented in Table 4. These values can be
useful in design, for example, they can be used to
assess number of transient vibration loading processes reducing the hull-girder fatigue life of the
containership.
9

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The investigation is funded by EU FP7 Project
Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships (TULCS),
what is gratefully acknowledged.

CONCLUSIONS

The paper deals with environmental and operational


uncertainties in calculation of long-term extreme
slamming pressure. Uncertainty in calculation
of the pressure coefficient k is excluded from the
analysis in a way that k was taken as unity. Actual
extreme pressure may be calculated by multiplying
obtained results by actual value of k according to
some of available methods.
The influence of the choice of the shipping
route is analyzed in the paper firstly. In average,
adopting Suez route, extreme slamming pressures
are reduced by factor of 1.5 compared to the
North Atlantic IACS scatter diagram. If the North
Pacific shipping route is adopted instead of IACS
diagram, then average reduction of extreme slamming pressures would be 1.3.

NOMENCLATURE
psl

Slamming pressure

Sea density

Sllamming pressure coefficient

Relative bow velocity

v0

Critical (treshold) velocity

Gravity constant

Ship lenght

p0

Threshold pressure

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f psl )

F psl HS TZ ,
FP ( psl )

p( HS TZ )
r (TZ , )

sl
sl

Fext ( pext ;tsea )

Probability density function


n
of the impact pressuree

Short-term probability
distribution of the slamming
pressure

Fext ( pext ;TC )

Long-term probability
distribution of the slamming
pressure
Probabiility
l of occurrence of
sea
e state

2
M

Extreme distribution of the


slamming pressure forr TC

nsea

Number of stationary sea


states in TC

FGumbel

Gumbel distributio
u n

p ,

Parameters of the Gumbel


distribution

Relative number of slamming


a
apperances in sh
hort-term sea
state
Slamming ffrequency in each
short term sea state

Unconditional extreme
distribution of the
slamming pressure for tsea

REFERENCES
Flokstra, C. 1974. Comparison of Ship Motion Theories
with Experiments for a Container Ship, International
Shipbuilding Progress, 21, 168189.
Guedes Soares, C. 1990. Effect of Heavy Weather
Manoeuvring on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending
Moments in Ship Structures, Journal of Ship Research,
Vol. 34, No. 1, 6068.
Guedes Soares, C. 1996. On the Definition of Rule
Requirements for Wave Induced Vertical Bending
Moments. Marine Structures 9. 409425.
Hogben, N., Dacunha, N.M.C. & Olliver, G.F. 1986.
Global Wave Statistics. British Maritime Technology
Ltd. Felltham.
Juncher Jensen, J. et al. 2008. Wave induced extreme hull
girder loads on containerships. Transactions SNAME
116, 128152.
Ochi, M.K. & Motter, L.E. 1973. Prediction of slamming
characteristics and hull responses for ship design.
Transactions SNAME. Vol. 81.
Parunov, J. & orak, M. 2010. Influence of environmental and operational uncertainties on vertical wave
bending moments of containerships. Proceedings of:
The William Froude ConferenceAdvances in Theoretical and Applied Hydrodynamics, Past and Future,
Portsmouth, 2425 November 2010. UK., 201207.
Senjanovi, I., Tomaevi, S. & Parunov, J. 2003. Ship
Slamming and Whipping in Rough Sea. Brodogradnja
51, 4556.
Wu, M.K. & Hermundstad, O.E. 2002. Time-domain
Simulation of Wave-induced Nonlinear Motions and
Loads and its Applications in Ship Design, Marine
Structures 15, 56159.

Average slamming frequency


in all sea states
Variance of the relative
bow motion

V2

Variance of the relative


bow velocity

Pslam

Probability of slamming

SM ( , x )

Response spectrum of the


t
relative bow motion

SV ( , x )

Response
p
spectrum
p
of the
relative bow velocity

FWeibulll

Three-parameter Weibull
distribution

, ,

Parameters of the Weibull


distribution

P obability of exceeding
Pr
the most

N sl

Number of slams

TC

Long-term return period

pext

Random variable extreme

Fext

Probability distribution of the


extreme slamming pressure

p ( pext HS TZ , ) Mean outcrossing rate of the


slamming pressure in
short-term sea stateiod

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Efficient calculation of fluid structure interaction


in ship vibration
M. Wilken
Germanischer Lloyd SE, Hamburg, Germany

A. Menk
Robert Bosch GmbH, CR/APJ3, Stuttgart-Schwieberdingen, Germany

H. Voss
Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

C. Cabos
Germanischer Lloyd SE, Hamburg, Germany

ABSTRACT: Simulating global ship vibration can be split into three steps: firstly, the computation
of the dry elastic vibration of the ship structure, secondly determination of the hydrodynamic pressures
caused by a given time harmonic velocity distribution on the outer shell and thirdly, the solution of the
coupled vibration problem by considering the interaction of fluid and structure. In this paper various
approaches for the solution of the third problem for large models are compared and discussed. They are
based on reduction methods for the hydrodynamic mass matrix and make use of fast solution methods
for the exterior fluid problem for given velocity distributions of the shell. A numerical example is used to
assess the accuracy and the speed of the solution procedures.
1

INTRODUCTION

Forces induced by engines and propellers excite ship


vibrations which despite of their small amplitudes
can affect human comfort and may cause fatigue
damages. In order to predict ship vibrations it is
indispensable to account for the effect of the surrounding water because the hydrodynamic forces
acting on the ships hull can considerably reduce
the natural frequencies of the dry ship and therefore can significantly affect the vibration response.
1.1

Figure 1. Illustration of the effect of water on the


vibrating outer shell.

1.2

The effect of water on a vibrating structure

The hydrodynamic influence of the water on the


vibrations of a ship can be modeled as an additional mass distribution on the outer shell. The
acceleration of the structure causes the fluid near
the interface to accelerate which in turn exerts an
opposing force on the ships hull (see Figure 1). The
additional force which is needed to accelerate the
surrounding fluid can be interpreted by Newtons
law as an additional mass distributed on the ships
hull. That mass is often called hydrodynamic mass
or added mass.

Equations describing the hydrodynamic


mass effect

Since the structural displacements in ship vibration


are small compared to the dimensions of the ship,
the ship and the surrounding fluid can be modeled
by a set of linear PDEs. Moreover the flow of the
water around the ships hull is assumed to be inviscid and irrotational.
Hence, the velocity field of the fluid is the
gradient of a velocity potentialwhich due to
mass conservation satisfies the Laplace equation
p = 0

(1)

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An advantage of this method is the fact that the


discretization of the coupled fluid-solid problem
has the same dimension as the FE model of the
dry ship alone in case the free surface boundary
condition is handled using the method of images
(Wilken et al., 2009). However, as a drawback the
part of the mass matrix corresponding to the wet
hull of the ship is fully populated.
To determine the eigenfrequencies of the
coupled problem, the following eigenvalue problem must be solved:

outer shell

kk

Figure 2.

Problem description.

Assuming an infinitely wide and deep fluid


domain, boundary conditions have to be specified at the free water surface and at the submerged
ships hull (Figure 2). The exact boundary condition at the free surface is nonlinear (Newman
1977), but for frequencies above 1 Hz and small
displacements it can be linearized to yield a pressure release condition which takes the form p = 0
on f . At the submerged ship surface the fluid
velocity normal to this surface must be equal to the
normal velocity of the structure,

p
 
= 2u T n on k
n

2
K S u wet
wet (M S

2.1

(3)

where KS, MS are the stiffness and structural


mass matrix of a FE model of the ship which are
large-scaled and sparse. The hydrodynamic mass
matrix MH models the impact of the surrounding
water on the ship. Only rows and columns of MH
corresponding to wet degrees of freedom contain
entries which are different from zero. However, the
total number of non-zero entries in the coupled
system is still increased considerably. Computing
the complete hydrodynamic mass matrix in this
way leads to a cubic scaling of required computation time and a quadratic scaling of memory usage
with the number of fluid panels.

(2)

where p denotes the pressure at the outer shell,



the fluid density, the excitation frequency, u

the displacement of the structure and n is the outward normal.
2

MH ) u = 0

2.1.2 Lewis approach


Consideration of the effect of the surrounding
water for the computation of global ship vibrations dates back to the first half of the 20th century. Regarding a ship as a slender body, Lewis
(Lewis 1929) showed that the inertia of the water
can be approximately be accounted for by analyzing the two-dimensional flow around ship cross
sections.
The hydrodynamic mass of a cylindrical cross
section was generalized to more complex shapes
by introducing reduction coefficients. Assuming
that a ship is a slender body, Lewis succeeded in
determining the hydrodynamic mass affecting
vertical bending vibrations of a ship (Figure 3).
Since the hydrodynamic mass derived with this
method depends on the particular bending mode
of the ship, it is typically valid only for a specific
range of frequencies around the corresponding
eigenfrequency of this mode. Wendel (Wendel
1950) and Landweber (Landweber 1957) extended
Lewis work by considering also horizontal and
rotational acceleration of ship cross sections. Grim
(Grim 1953, 1960) examined the reduction coefficients for higher modes. The Lewis method is
most appropriate for a Finite Element analysis, if
the ship is modeled by several beam elements. For
the three dimensional analysis of ship vibrations
based on a Finite Element model, the use of the

CONSIDERATION OF
HYDRODYNAMIC MASS EFFECTS IN
GLOBAL SHIP VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Standard procedures

2.1.1 Full hydrodynamic mass matrix method


To account for the surrounding water, an FE
model of the ship can be complemented by an FE
discretization of the water to solve the Laplace
equation with coupling boundary condition (2)
(Arman et al., 1979). This causes considerable
additional cost since only a bounded region of the
fluid domain can be modeled this way and suitable
boundary conditions on the outer boundary have
to be specified or the remaining unbounded region
of the water has to be discretized by semi infinite
elements. If Boundary Element (BE) methods are
used in combination with a special fundamental
solution, an unbounded fluid domain can be modeled, but only the submerged ship hull has to be discretized. Thus the problems previously mentioned
are avoided. The mesh can simply be generated
from the FE mesh of the ships hull. Today this is a
standard approach if three dimensional effects have
to be included in the analysis (Cabos et al., 2003).

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application to vibrating ship structures as shown in


the next sections.

2.2.2 Projection approach


Neglecting the influence of the surrounding water
one obtains the so called dry eigenvalue problem
for the ship structure
K S u dry 2MS u = 0

that can be solved efficiently due to the sparse


structure of the matrices.
While the eigenvectors of (3) and (4) exhibit
similar characteristics, it is found that the eigenmodes of these problems are quite close to each
other. This observation suggests to project the
eigenproblem (3) onto a space spanned by a
selected subset of nsel eigenvectors Udry of (4).
This is done by assuming the wet eigenvectors as
linear combination of the dry eigenvectors and
multiplying the resulting equation from the left
side with UTdry yielding a new eigenvalue problem
of a smaller dimension nsel:

x
Figure 3. Lewis assumption of deformation of the ship
structure over the ship length.

so called Lewis Method leads to the problem that


only the total force onto a ship cross section (or
better its total hydrodynamic mass) can be computed. The actual distribution of the hydrodynamic
mass over the contour of the section is determined
with a heuristic approach. In a three dimensional
vibration analysis this can lead to hydrodynamic
forces having components tangential to the shell
surface. Despite these approximations and shortcomings, the Lewis approach has proven to yield
good results in the low frequency range having a
very good performance in terms of CPU time and
memory consumption.
2.2

(4)

T
2
U dr
ry K S wet
wet (M S

M H ) U drryw = 0

(5)

The required subset of dry eigenvectors may


be choosen as eigenvectors with eigenfrequencies
smaller than an appropriate multiple of the upper
frequency bound of interest. Instead of explicitly calculating the hydrodynamic mass matrix
it suffices to evaluate the matrix vector product.
This can be done by a standard boundary element method but also more efficiently by the fast
multipole boundary element method.
Solving this eigenvalue problem yields eigenvectors w defining linear combination factors to
be used for approximating the wet eigenvectors
from the dry eigenvectors. This approach can be
improved by projecting onto approximated wet
modes (semi wet modes) resulting from an eigenvalue problem with an approximate hydrodynamic
mass matrix:

Advanced approaches using fast BEM

2.2.1 Fast multipole method


The standard boundary element method computes the pressure on a fluid panel caused by
each other vibrating panel. This is done in an
exact manner with no restriction on the shape of
the immersed hull. The so called fast multipole
method takes advantage of the concrete hull shape
of the vibrating structure based on the following
advisement:
Solving the Laplace equation (1) for vibrating point sources close to each other, the far field
result is a pressure field that decreases with one to
the square of the distance to these points. It can
therefore be idealized in the far field as a pressure
field caused by a single vibrating point source. This
effect is exploited by the fast multipole method
yielding a fast and memory saving procedure for
computing the resulting pressure field of a vibrating structure (Wilken et al., 2009).
Considering a typical hull form, it is obvious
that the far field approximation above could be
applied for the majority of pairs of panels since
only a small fraction of them is close to each
other. For this reason the fast multipole boundary element method seems to be well suited for its

(K

semi

(MS + MH semi )) usemi = 0

(6)

Using these semi wet modes for projection


yields

T
2
U se
mi K S wet
wet (M S

M H ) U semi w = 0

(7)

respectively a new eigenvalue problem


2semi

2
wet
I

MH

T
Ussemi

M H semi U semi w = 0

(8)

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Having determined the approximation M
H
to MH, we have to solve the reduced eigenvalue
problem

Depending on the number of semi wet modes


used for projection, the precision of the wet modes
can be influenced.
In the present work the semi wet modes are
calculated using the Lewis approach described in
section 2.1.2. The solution of the forced vibration
problem is then easily obtained by modal superposition using the derived wet modes from (8).

 2 M
KS u =
wet
wet
S

Modal hydrodynamic mass matrix


approach
The eigenvalue problem (3) can be solved by the
shift-and invert Lanczos method (Bai et al., 2000).
Using this method requires the solution of the linear system

KS x

(9)

hH

i xi xiT

(10)

MH x

(13)

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

3.1 Model

of MH, where the eigenvalues i i nH are


ordered by magnitude. Then the best approximation to MH by a matrix of rank n with respect to
the spectral norm is the truncation of (10)

M
H

(M S

in every iteration step where is a preselected shift.


Since KS and MS are sparse the LU factorization
of KS MS can be determined efficiently and
 is quite small compared to
since the rank of M
H
the dimension of the problem it is inexpensive to
employ the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula
(Golub et al., 1996) for solving problem (13).With
this approach the shift-and-invert Lanczos method
for the reduced problem (12) essentially requires
the following work: To initialize one provides those
vectors and matrices which are independent of the
right hand side b when solving (13) by the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula. To this end a
slightly larger number than n solutions of the BE
system are necessary in a Lanczos process for com . Additionally n solutions of linear sysputing M
H
tems (Ks MS)wj = xj and n 2 scalar products of
length n are required in this preprocessing phase.
Thereafter, every iteration step requires one solve
of a linear system of dimension n, and n scalar
products of length n.

for x in every iteration step. This can be done by


a direct method which requires the explicit form
of the matrix MH (i.e., nH solves of the BE system) and which, due to the structure of the system matrix A: = KS (MS + MH), is very time and
memory consuming. Solving (9) by an iterative
solver like MINRES (Saad 2003), every Lanczos
step requires a suitable Krylov subspace. Hence,
one has to apply the system matrix A to a couple of
vectors, and each of these multiplications demands
the solution of one BE system. In the following we
derive a reduction method which is much more
efficient from a computational point of view. The
hydrodynamic mass matrix MH is symmetric and
positive definite. We take advantage of the spectral
decomposition
MH

(12)

Tackling it by the shift-and-invert Lanczos


method one has solve a linear system

2.2.3

KSx (MS + MH)x = b

MH u

An FE model of a typical container vessel of 250 m


length and 32 m breadth having 35262 degrees of
freedom was investigated to assess the accuracy and
the speed of the described techniques. This model
is capable to compute global vibration responses

n

i xi xiT

(11)

The Lanczos method is favorable for computing


 since it does not employ
an approximation to M
H
the explicit form of the matrix MH but only matrixvector products and according to the Kaniel-Paige
theorem (Golub et al., 1996) it converges first to
extreme eigenvalues and in particular to the largest
ones which are better separated than the smallest
ones. Notice that the Lanczos process for com can even be accelerated by replacing
puting M
H
the solution of the BE approximation by the fast
multipole approach (Wilken et al., 2009).

Figure 4.
breadth.

Container Ship of 252.2 m length and 32.2 m

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Figure 5.

BEM mesh with 1490 boundary elements.

to a frequency up to 20 Hz. A draft of 10.8 m was


used in the calculations leading to 1490 wetted
elements of the outer shell with 4554 degrees of
freedom.
3.2

Figure 6.

The FULL_HYM method yields 250 modes below


20 Hz.

Computations
3.3.1 Precision
For comparing the eigenvectors of the different
approaches the modal assurance criterion (MAC),
see e.g. Allemang (1980), will be used

For the assessment of the various methods, the


eigenvalues and the forced vibration response
caused by a typical propeller induced excitation
were calculated. The following approaches for the
solution of the vibrational fluid-structure interaction problem were performed

MAC
Cij =

1. Usage of the explicit hydrodynamic mass matrix


computed by a standard BEM method hereinafter referred as FULL_HYM method.
2. Usage of a diagonal hydrodynamic mass matrix
approximation hereinafter referred as LEWIS_
HYM approach.
3. Projection of vibration equation (3) onto a
set of semi wet modes hereinafter referred as
PROJECTION approach. The semi wet modes
were taken from an eigenvalue computation
approximating the hydrodynamic mass matrix
according to Lewis. This Lewis approximation
yields 338 eigenvectors below 20 Hz (88 modes
more than the reference FULL_HYM method)
which all were used for the projection.
4. Usage of a modal approximation of the hydrodynamic mass matrix hereinafter referred as
MODAL_HYM approach. Due to comparability reason with the PROJECTION
approach the same number of (Fast-) BEM
applications were performed leading to a modal
hydrodynamic mass matrix approximation of
rank 338.
3.3

Forced vibration configuration.

(v

2
T
i ref M H v j appr

viTref M H vi ref
e

)(

vTj ,appr M H v j ,appr

(14)

where vi,ref denotes the i-th eigenvector computed


by the FULL_HYM method, MH denotes the
full hydrodynamic mass matrix and vj,appr denotes
the j-th mode computed by the approaches
24. A MAC value near to 1 indicates that the
approached eigenvector vj,appr is quite similar to the
reference eigenvector vi,ref .
This criterion can be subsequently used to compare the eigenvalues of the most similar eigenvectors computed by the FULL_HYM method and
the particular approach:
relErr
E ri =

i ,appr
j ref

{j

M C )}
(MAC
i j

(15)

As it can seen from Figure 7 the eigenvectors


computed according to LEWIS matching the
reference eigenvectors only for the first 100 modes.
The differences in eigenfrequencies is below 5% in
the lower frequency range and goes up to 20%
in the higher frequency range to 20 Hz.
Relative differences in eigenvalues of the PROJECTION and MODAL_HYM approach are of
the same magnitude, i.e. below 5% over the total
frequency range from 0 Hz to 20 Hz. Also the
eigenvectors of these 2 different approaches are
of the same similarity compared to the reference
eigenvectors.

Comparison

In the following, the modes, i.e. the pairs of


eigenvalue and eigenvector, and forced vibration
results (i.e. velocity at dedicated locations) of the
FULL_HYM method serves as reference values
for the comparison of the various approaches.

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Figure 7. Similarity of LEWIS_HYM eigenvectors and


reference eigenvectors according to MAC.

Figure 10. Relative error of MODAL_HYM eigenvalues and reference eigenvalues ordered by MAC value.

Figure 8. Relative error of LEWIS_HYM eigenvalues


and reference eigenvalues ordered by MAC value.

Figure 11. Similarity of PROJECTION eigenvectors


and reference eigenvectors according to MAC.

Figure 12. Relative error of PROJECTION eigenvalues


and reference eigenvalues ordered by MAC value.

Figure 9. Similarity of MODAL_HYM eigenvectors


and reference eigenvectors according to MAC.

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computation time of the same order of magnitude


(15 min and 20 min) only the distribution
between pre computation time and mode computation differ considerably: The pre computation
time of the PROJECTION approach, i.e. the semi
wet mode computation time according to Lewis
is much less than the pre computation time of
the MODAL_HYM approach where the modal
approximation of the hydrodynamic mass matrix
has to be computed.

In Figure 13 typical frequency response curves


caused by the single and double propeller blade
passage excitations computed by the different
approaches are shown. The response curves computed according to LEWIS gives the qualitative
characteristics in the low frequency range but deviates in the higher frequency range considerable
from the reference curve. Application of the PROJECTION approach yields the best accordance
with the reference velocity whereupon the velocity
results of the MODAL_HYM approach are only a
little less inaccurate.

4
3.3.2 Run time
All computations were performed on a 64-bit linux
computer Quad-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2356 with 32 GB RAM and a clock rate of
2.3 GHz.
The FULL_HYM method as the most accurate procedure is also the most time consuming
method with a total computation time of 1.8 h
and the most inaccurate approach (LEWIS) is the
fasted with 2 min CPU time. The PROJECTION
and the MODAL_HYM approach having total

CONCLUSIONS

The presented PROJECTION approach combines the fast and robust LEWIS method with
an advanced fast boundary element technique
yielding very accurate eigenfrequencies and accurate forced vibration results within small computation times. The MODAL_HYM approach
exhibits only slightly worse characteristics in precision and run time. Both approaches require user
experience: the PROJECTION approach in case
of selecting the number of eigenvectors used for
projection and the MODAL_HYM approach in
case of number of modes needed for approximation the hydrodynamic mass matrix.
A particular advantage of the proposed methods is that they scale very well. The effort to compute the hydrodynamic mass effect is dominated
by evaluations of the hydrodynamic mass operator. Through application of the fast multipole
method, the cost for this application grows approximately like N log2(N) for large numbers N of wet
panels.
REFERENCES
Allemang, R.J. 1980. Investigation of Some Multiple
Input/Output Frequency Response Function Experimental Modal Analysis Techniques. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Department
of Mechanical Engineering, pp. 141214.
Armand, J.-L. & Orsero, P. 1979. A method for evaluating the hydrodynamic added mass in ship hull vibrations. SNAME Transactions, 87:99120.
Bai, Z., Demmel, J., Dongarra, J., Ruhe, A. & van der
Vorst, H.A. 2000. Templates for the Solution of Algebraic Eigenvalue Problems: A Practical Guide. SIAM,
Philadelphia.
Cabos, C. & Ihlenburg, F. 2003. Vibrational Analysis of
Ships with Coupled Finite and Boundary Elements.
Journal of Computational Acoustics, 11(1):91114.
Golub, G.H. & Van Loan, C.F. 1996. Matrix Computations. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
and London, 3rd edition.
Grim, O. 1953. Berechnung der durch Schwingungen
eines Schiffskrpers erzeugten hydrodynamischen
Krfte. STG Jahrbuch.

Figure 13. Typical response curves of the different


approaches.

Pre Computation

Mode Computation Total

Approach

Item

CPU Time [s] CPU Time [s]

CPU Time [s]

FULL_HYM

full hydro mass

6060

553

6613

LEWIS_HYM

Lewis hydro mass 2

126

128

MODAL_HYM

Modal hydro mass 787

409

1196

PROJECTION

Lewis modes

744

870

Figure 14.

126

Comparison of run time.

81

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Grim, O. 1960. Elastische Querschwingungen des


Schiffskrpers. Schiffstechnik, 7(35):13.
Landweber, L. 1957. Mass of Lewis Forms Oscillating in
a Free Surface. Proceedings: Symposium on the Behaviour of Ships in a Seaway, Wageningen.
Lewis, F.M. 1929. The Inertia of the Water Surrounding
a Vibrating Ship. Transactions of the SNAME, 37.
Newman, J.N. 1977. Marine Hydrodynamics. The MIT
Press, Cambridge, Mass.
Saad, Y. 2003. Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Systems. SIAM, Philadelphia, 2nd edition.

Wendel, K. 1950. Hydrodynamische Massen und


hydrodynamische Massentrgheitsmomente 14. Jahrbuch der STG, vol. 44, 207255.
Wilken, M., Of, G., Cabos, C. & Steinbach, O. 2009. Efficient calculation of the effect of water on ship vibration. C. Guedes Soares and P.K. Das, Analysis and
Design of Marine Structures, pages 93101, London,
Taylor & Francis.

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Methods and tools for strength assessment


Ultimate strength

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Buckling analysis of composite delaminated ship plates under


shearing
E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica
University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Romania

ABSTRACT: In this paper postbuckling behaviour and estimation of global buckling ultimate strength
of the delaminated rectangular plates are presented. The influence of the position and geometry of
elliptical delamination on the changes in the buckling behaviour of ship deck plates made of composite
materials is considering. The composite plates models were analyzed using COSMOS/M and database
is prepared for different diameter ratios and position of delamination. A delamination model, describing delaminating mode, by using COSMOS/M soft package, is applied, so that the damaged part of the
structures and the undamaged part have been represented by layered shell elements. The influence of the
position and the ellipses diameters ratio of delaminated zone on the critical buckling force is investigated.
The applied methods have been improved in the Marstruct Project.
1

INTRODUCTION

whole structure (collapse of the stiffeners and the


shell as one unit). Local plate buckling and stiffeners crippling on the other hand are localized failure
modes involving local failure of only the skin in
the first case and the stiffener in the second case.
A grid stiffened panel will fail in any of these failure
modes depending on the stiffeners, plate thickness,
shell winding angle and type of applied load.
Understanding delamination is essential for preventing catastrophic failures. Therefore, analysis
of delamination behavior from tests, modelling
delamination, analysis of structural performance
under delamination and preventing and mitigation
of delamination are the main aim of the research
team that performed the work.
In (Thurley & Marshall 2002) the buckling
behaviour of laminated panels with one stiffener,
subjected to compression by using a layer wise
finite element formulation, is presented.
In (Nemeth 1992; Nemeth 1997) Nemeth have
done some parametric studied based on orthotropic plate theory and produced generic buckling
design charts in terms of useful nondimensional
parameters for unstiffened composite panels subjected to different loadings.
In (Mallela & Upadhyay 2006) some parametric
studies on simply supported laminated composite
blade-stiffened planels subjected to in-plane shear
loading. Few important parameters influencing
the buckling behaviour are identified and guidelines are developed.
The aim of the work presented in this paper is
to analyze the influence of delamination on the
changes in the buckling behaviour of ship deck

Laminated composite panels, which are anisotropic, are gaining popularity in structural applications such as ship hulls, decks, ship and offshore
superstructures. These panels are becoming increasingly used in structural marine applications due
to their high specific stiffness and specific strength
(Altenbach, Altenbach & Kissing 2001). The use
of laminated composites provides flexibility to
tailor different properties of the structural elements to achieve the stiffness and strength characteristics. These panels, unfortunately, have one
important characteristic connected to big sensitivity on geometrical and mechanical imperfections
(different dimensions comparative with the design
ones). Another kind of imperfections is about
material (Adams, Carlsson & Pipes 2003; Jones
1999). Taking into account that fabrication technologies of composite materials are hand made
based, the probabilistic occurrence of defects is
quite too high.
These defects are of following types: directions
of fibers are different of the designed ones, variations in thickness, inclusions and initial transversal
deformations (Thurley & Marshall 1995).
Ship structure plates are subjected to any combination of in plane, out of plane and shear loads
during application. Due to the geometry and general load of the ship hull, buckling is one of the
most important failure criteria. Buckling failure
mode of a stiffened plate can further be subdivided
into global buckling, local skin buckling and stiffener crippling. Global buckling is collapse of the

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plates made of composite materials. This problem


has been solved by using the finite element method,
in (Beznea 2008). An orthotropic delamination
model, describing mixed mode delaminating, by
using COSMOS/M soft package, was applied. So,
the damaged part of the structures and the undamaged part have been represented by well-known
finite elements (layered shell elements). The influence of the position and the ellipses diameters
ratio of delaminated zone on the critical buckling
force was investigated.
If an initial delamination exists, this delamination may close under the applied load. To prevent
the two adjacent plies from penetrating, a numerical contact model is used.
2

and
k = k1 + tk/2.

In equation (2), the coefficients Qijk have the following forms


k
4
Q11
C11
c

2
xy w /
4
/
23

y +

13

y3 = 0

Dij

Qijk ( zk

k =1

zk

)3

k
Q13
k
Q23

(
(C
= (C

12

111 2C333 C12

11 2C33 C12

s = sin ; c = cos .

2C333
c 2 s 2 + C33
c4 + s4 ;

)c s + (
)cs + (
3

C12
C22
+ 2C33

C12
C222
+ 2C33

)cs ;
)c s.
3

For the orthotropic plane material


El
Et

; C22
=
;
1 lt tl
1 lt tl
lt Et
tl El

C12
=
=
= C21
;
1 lt tl 1 lt tl

C33
Gllt ; C13
C31
= C23
C32
= 0.

C11
=

where El, Et, Glt, lt and tl are the material


characteristics in the longitudinal (l ) and transversal (t) orthotropic directions, and is the angle
between the x axis and l direction.
The last two terms from equation (1) are the
measure of the orthotropic coupling, resulting
from the fact that the principal orthotropic axes
are not orthogonal with the plate geometry axes.
For a special orthotropic plate, D13 = D23 = 0.
This is a case which has received the most attention by the researchers.
The problem of the stability of orthotropic
plates due to shear was apparently first examined
by Bergmann and Reissner (Johns 1971), who
considered it an infinitely long in the x direction
and they also neglected the bending stiffness in that
direction. The governing differential equation
used was

y4

w / x 3y

2 D33 4w x 2y2 + D22 4w y 4


+ 2N
N xy 2w / xy 0

(1)

(5)

In (Smith 1946) approximate solutions are


obtained for the buckling of clamped edged
finite plates, using the Rayleigh-Ritz method.
The same approximate deflection functions are
assumed as

(2)

The thickness and position of every ply can be


calculated from the equation
tk = zkzk-1,

4C33
c 2 s 2 + C12
c4 + s4 ;

Q3k3 = C11
11 C222 2

where D11, D22, D33, D13, D23 are the orthotropic plate
stiffnesses, calculated according to the equation
N

4
2C33
c 2 s 2 C22
s ;

k
4

4
Q22
= C11
s + 2 C12
+ 2C33
c 2 s 2 + C22
c ;

When plates are subjected to the application large


in-plane loads either compressive or shear, they
buckle. The phenomenon of buckling is a nonlinear one which is characterized by disproportionate increase of the displacements associated
with the small increments of the loads. The methodology for determining and analyzing the buckling behaviour of laminated composite plates is in
essence identical to that applied to isotropic plates.
As in isotropic plates it involves the solution of
an eigen-value problem associated with a governing set of homogeneous differential equations
and a prescribed set of homogeneous boundary
conditions.
In the case of isotropic plates, of sizes axb,
exact buckling solutions are available only for
a few combinations of loading and boundary
conditions.
The theory and differential equation of bending
of anisotropic plates were established by Huber
and the governing differential equation for shear
buckling of a general orthotropic plate is

2 C12

C11
+ C22

k
Q12

SHEAR BUCKLING EQUATIONS


OF ORTHOTROPIC PLATES

D11 4w x 4 + 2 D33 4w / x 2y2 + D22 4w

(4)

(3)

AmnX mYn
m

(6)

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tically. The contact algorithm of COSMOS/M has


possibility to determine which node of the so-called
master surface is in contact with a given node on
the slave surface. Hence, the user can define the
interaction between the two surfaces.
In the analysis, the certain layers are intentionally not connected to each other in ellipse regions.
The condition is that the delaminated region does
not grow. In COSMOS/M these regions were
modeled by two layers of elements with coincident but separate nodes and section definitions to
model offsets from the common reference plane.
Thus their deformations are independent. At the
boundary of the delamination zones the nodes
of one row are connected to the corresponding
nodes of the regular region by master slave node
system.
The square plates (320 320 mm), clamped
on the all sides are made of 9 macro-layers having the charactersitics presented in Table 1. The
material is E-glass/polyester having the material
characteristics:

where
Xm
Yn

x 3 2x
x 2 + x + (
y 3 2yy 2 + y + (

)m (x

)n ( y

x
y

) m1 sin mx

) n1 sin nyy

In the upper equations x = x/a and y = y/b.


Analyses are made with m and n as variables and
it is shown that solutions only exist in two distinct
ranges, i.e. when (m + n) even and (m + n) odd.
The case when (m + n) is even gives the lower critical shear loads. That this may not necessarily be
true in general has been shown in isotropic panels
where m + n < 6.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS ON BUCKLING


OF IN-PLANE SHEARING LOAD
PLATES

The finite element delamination analysis was carried out using COSMOS/M finite element software. There are several ways in which the panel
can be modeled for the delamination analysis.
For the present study, a 3-D model with 3-node
SHELL3L composite element of COSMOS/M is
used. The panel is divided into two sub-laminates
by a hypothetical plane containing the delamination. For this reason, the present finite element
model would be referred to as two sub-laminate
model. The two sub-laminates are modeled separately using 3-node SHELL3L composite element,
and then joined face to face with appropriate
interfacial constraint conditions for the corresponding nodes on the sub-laminates, depending
on whether the nodes lie in the delaminated or
undelaminated region.
The delamination model has been developed
by using the surface-to-surface contact option
(Fig. 1). In case of surface-to-surface contact, the
FE meshes of adjacent plies do no need to be iden-

Ex = 46 GPa, Ey = 13 GPa, Ez = 13 GPa, Gxy =


5 GPa, Gxz = 5 GPa, Gyz = 4.6 GPa,
RTx = 1.062 GPa, RTy = 0.031 GPa, RCy = 0.118 GPa,
R xy = 0.72 GPa. xy = 0.3, yz = 0.42, xz = 0.3
The in-plane loading was applied as a uniform
shear pressure on the sides (Figure 2).
The ellipses diameters of the delamination area
placed in the middle of the plate are considered
from the condition of the same area for all cases.
In the parametric calculus, the following diameters
ratios were considered:
Case 1 (Dx/Dy = 0.5): transversal diameter Dy = 141 mm, longitudinal diameter
Dx = 70,5 mm;
Case 2 (Dx/Dy = 1): transversal diameter Dy = 100 mm; longitudinal diameter
Dx = 100 mm;
Case 3 (Dx/Dy = 2): transversal diameter Dy = 70.5 mm; longitudinal diameter
Dx = 141 mm.
The position of the delamination along the
thickness its been considered between two neighbors macrolayers i and i + 1, (i = 1, 9). We have
considered all cases. Taking into account the thickness symmetry of the plates, will be presented only
cases of position of delamination on one side of
symmetry axis.
For the material model two cases has been
considered:

Figure 1.

linear behaviour;
nonlinear behaviour (Tsai-Wu failure criterion).

Delamination model.

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Table 1.

Plate lay-up.

Nr. Macro layer

Nr. Layers angle 2 0 1 45 2 90 1 45 4 0 1 45 2 90 1 45 2 0


Thickness [mm]
0.62 0.31
0.62
0.31
1.24 0.31
0.62
0.31
0.62

The solution procedure takes the following


mathematical form
(K + KI)i-1 di = Q

(7)

where
K is the linear stiffness matrix,
KI is an incremental stiffness matrix based upon
displacements at load step i-1,
di is the increment of displacement due to the
i-th load increment,
Q is the increment of load applied.

Figure 2.

Shear loaded plate.

Table 2.
method.

Buckling load range obtained in graphical

The correct form of the incremental stiffness


matrix has been a point of some controversy.
The incremental approach is quite popular (this is
the procedure applied in this study), due to the ease
with which the procedure may be applied and the
almost guaranteed convergence if small enough
load increments are used.
In this paper, buckling and post-buckling analysis has been performed for all types of panels.
Since the plates have an initial imperfection, as it
is seen in the Figures 1 and 2, the increasing of the
transversal deformation is starting from the beginning, that is so named buckling is starting as the
in-plane load is starting to increase from 0.
The explanation is that due to the initial imperfection, the in-plane loading produces the shearing
in the plate and also bending in the area of imperfection. Therefore it is difficult to determine the
buckling load by numerical way.
This is why we have chosen the graphical method,
by drawing the asymptote to the curve in the area
where the slope is changing almost suddenly. The
intersection of the asymptote with the loading axis
can be considered as buckling load.
Anyway the asymptote is not an unique one and
we may determine the buckling loading in a range
of values.
So, as it is seen in the Figures 36, according
to the plotted asymptotes, for all cases of position
of delamination, the buckling loads of the plates
(having the diameters ratio presented above) are
placed in the domain

Buckling load [MPa]


Position of delamination

Min pcr

Max pcr

Macro-layer 1 Macro-layer 2
Macro-layer 2 Macro-layer 3
Macro-layer 3 Macro-layer 4
Macro-layer 4 Macro-layer 5

115.42
119.61
121.23
123.71

279.92
284.35
286.39
289.97

For perfect plate (without delaminations), the


value of the buckling load is:
linear calculus: pcr = 169.76 MPa;
nonlinear calculus: pcr = 334.71 MPa.
To solving geometrically and material nonlinear
problems, the load is applied as a sequence of sufficiently small increments so that the structure can be
assumed to respond linearly during each increment.
For each increment of load, increments of displacements and corresponding increments of stress and
strain are computed. These incremental quantities
are used to compute various corrective stiffness
matrices (variously termed geometric, initial stress,
and initial strain matrices) which serve to take into
account the deformed geometry of the structure.
A subsequent increment of load is applied and the
process is continued until the desired number of
load increments has been applied. The net effect is
to solve a sequence of linear problems wherein the
stiffness properties are recomputed based on the
current geometry prior to each load increment.

119 MPa < pcr < 290 MPa.


Also, according to these Figures, the buckling
load is decreasing since the diameters ratio of the
delamination is increasing.
In this paper, buckling and post-buckling analysis has been performed for all types of panels.

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Figure 3. Shear buckling and postbuckling behaviour


of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers 1 and 2.

Figure 4. Shear buckling and postbuckling behaviour


of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers 2 and 3.

The buckling load determination may use the


Tsai-Wu failure criterion in the case of the general
buckling does not occur till the first-ply failure
occurring. In this case, the buckling load is considered as the in-plane load corresponding to the
first-ply failure occurring.
The Tsai-Wu failure criterion provides the mathematical relation for strength under combined
stresses. Unlike the conventional isotropic materials where one constant will suffice for failure stress
level and location, laminated composite materials
require more elaborate methods to establish failure

stresses. The strength of the laminated composite


can be based on the strength of individual plies
within the laminate. In addition, the failure of plies
can be successive as the applied load increases.
There may be a first ply failure followed by other
ply failures until the last ply fails, denoting the ultimate failure of the laminate. Progressive failure
description is therefore quite complex for laminated composite structures. A simpler approach
for establishing failure consists of determining the
structural integrity which depends on the definition of an allowable stress field. This stress field is

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Figure 5. Shear buckling and postbuckling behaviour


of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers
3 and 4.

Figure 6. Shear buckling and postbuckling behaviour


of the plate having the delamination between macrolayers 4 and 5.

usually characterized by a set of allowable stresses


in the material principal directions.
The failure criterion is used to calculate a failure index (F.I.) from the computed stresses and
user-supplied material strengths. A failure index
of 1 denotes the onset of failure, and a value less
than 1 denotes no failure. The failure indices are
computed for all layers in each element of your
model. During post processing, it is possible to
plot failure indices of the mesh for any layer.
The Tsai-Wu failure criterion (also known
as the Tsai-Wu tensor polynomial theory) is

commonly used for orthotropic materials with unequal tensile and compressive strengths. The failure
index according to this theory is computed using
the following equation (Thurley & Marshall 1995)

F.I. = F1 1 F2 2 + F1111 12
+ F22 22 F66 62 + 2F
F1122 1 2
F1 =

(8)

1
1
1

; F11 = T C ;
R1T R1C
R1 R1

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Table 3.

F2 =

Ultimate stress for delaminated plates [MPa].

Position
of delamination

Type of
degradation

Dx/Dy = 0.5

Dx/Dy = 1

Dx/Dy = 2

Macro-layer 1
Macro-layer 2
Macro-layer 2
Macro-layer 3
Macro-layer 3
Macro-layer 4
Macro-layer 4
Macro-layer 5

Tension
Compression
Tension
Compression
Tension
Compression
Tension
Compression

25
90
25
90
25
90
25
90

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

1
1
1
C ; F22 = T C ;
T
R2 R2
R2 R2

1
F66 = 2 .
R12

Delamination is a phenomenon that is of critical


importance to the composite industry. It involves a
breakdown in the bond between the reinforcement
and the matrix material of the composite. Understanding delamination is essential for preventing
catastrophic failures. Due to the geometry and
general load of the ship deck, buckling is one of
the most important failure criteria.
The FEM based methodology was successfully developed for the investigation of buckling problems of composite plates having central
delamination.
Two hypotheses regarding the type of material
modeling were used (linear and nonlinear). The
FEM model is robust in that it can be used to predict
the global buckling loads of composite plates either
on one side or both sides. Finite-elements analysis
was carried out to assess the reliability of the methodology. The two-sublaminate model developed in
this work provides a convenient method to model
delaminated composite panels.
For the values of in-plane loads lower than
80 MPa, the displacement values are increasing
since the diameters ratio is decreasing. This trend is
due to the fact the transversal diameter is decreasing (since the delaminated area remains constant).
Smaller transversal diameter means increasing of
shear stiffness.
In the case of the in-plane loading values
bigger than 80 MPa, the displacement values are
increasing since the diameters ratio is increasing.
This trend is due to the contact pressure between
the layers in contact in the delamination, which is
increasing since the loading force is increasing.
For an in-plane loading of about 130300 MPa
in each case, a small instant jumping of transversal
displacement is observed.
This means that what is recover in plate stiffness
after the increasing of contact pression in the delamination area, is lost due to the lamina damage
occurring.

(9)

The coefficient F12 which represents the


parameter of interaction between 1 and 2 is to be
obtained by a mechanical biaxial test. In the equations (9), the parameters RCi , RTi are the compressive strength and tensile strength in the material in
longitudinal direction (i = 1) and trasversal direction (i = 2). The parameter R12 is in-plane shear
strength in the material 12 plane.
According to the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, the
failure of a lamina occurs if
F.I > 1

CONCLUSIONS

(10)

In COSMOS, nonlinear material is considered


as a material with nonlinear behaviour (the nonlinear material curve) or case of introducing the
material strength components for Failure criteria
using for composites. This latest case is the case
analyzed in the paper.
The failure index in calculated in each ply of each
element. In the ply where failure index is greater
than 1, the first-ply failure occurs, according to the
Tsai-Wu criterion. In the next steps, the tensile and
compressive properties of this element are reduced
by the failure index. If the buckling did not
appeared until the moment of the first-ply failure
occurring, the in-plane load corresponding to this
moment is considered as the buckling load.
In the nonlinear calculus, for the buckling load,
the graphical method and Tsai-Wu failure criterion
were used. The values obtained for buckling load
were placed in the range specified in each case.
In Table 3, the variations of the buckling load
corresponding to the fails in the tension and
compressive cases, versus diameters ratios are
presented.

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As it is seen in Figures 36 for the plates with


delamination having the diameter ratio less than 1,
the buckling load is almost double than the plates
with the delamination having diameters ratio bigger than 1.
The buckling load determination is too difficult
without applying a graphical method, or applying
the Tsai-Wu failure criterion in the case of the general buckling not occurred till the first-ply failure
occurring.
The first two failures occur in the material of the
plate at values of buckling load that is not depending on the position of delamination.
The first failure occurring in an element is based
on the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, which provides the
mathematical relation for strength under combined
stresses was used.
The failure index is calculated in each ply of
each element. In the ply where failure index is
greater than 1, the first-ply failure occurs, according to the Tsai-Wu criterion. In the next steps, the
tensile and compressive properties of this element
are reduced by the failure index. If the buckling
did not appeared until the moment of the first-ply
failure occurring, the in-plane load corresponding
to this moment is considered as the buckling load.

sium on Development in Experimental Mechanics,


1922 sept. 2007, Sibiu, Romania, pp. 213214.
Beznea, E.F., Chirica, I. & Chirica, R. Buckling behaviour of plates with central elliptical delamination,
Proceedings of MARSTRUCT 2009, The 2-nd International Conference on Marine Structures, Lisbon,
Portugal, 1618 March 2009, Analysis and Design of
Marine Structures - Guedes Soares & Das (eds), 2009
Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp. 429434.
Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F. & Chirica, R. Placi compozite,
Editura Fundatiei Universitare Dunarea de Jos,
Galati, 2006.
Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F., Chirica, R., Boazu, D. &
Chirica, A. Buckling Behavior of the Delaminated
Ship Hull Panels, Proceedings of The 12-th International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean
CongressIMAM, 26 sept. 2007, Varna, Bulgaria,
pp. 161166, vol. 1-Maritime Transportation, Ed.
Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-43725.
Huo, M.V., Harik, I.E. & Ren, W.X. Buckling behaviour of stiffened plates, Int. J. Solids Struct, 39, 30,
pp. 3955, 2002.
Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials, Ed.
Taylor & Francis Group, London, 1999.
Johns, D.J. Shear Buckling of Isotropic and Orthotropic
Plates, A Review, R. & M. No. 3677, 1971.
Mallela, K.U. & Upadhyay, A. Buckling of laminated
composite stiffened panels subjected to in-plane
shear: A parametric study, Thin-Walled Structures 44,
pp. 354361, 2006.
Nemeth, M.P. Buckling behaviour of long symmetrically
laminated plates subjected to combined loadings,
TP 3195, NASA, 1992.
Nemeth, M.P. Buckling behaviour of long symmetrically
laminated plates subjected to shear and linearly varying axial edge loads, TP 3659, NASA, 1997.
Smith, R.C.T. The buckling of plywood plates in shear,
Australian C.S.I.R. Aero. Res.Labs. (Melbourne) Rep.
SM 51, 1946.
Thurley, G.J. & Marshall, I.H. Buckling and Postbuckling of Composite Plates, Ed. Chapman & Hall,
London, 1995.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work has been performed in the scope of
the Romanian Project PN2IDEI, Code 512
(20092011).
REFERENCES
Adams, D.F., Carlsson, L.A. & Pipes, R.B. Experimental
Characterization of Advanced Composite materials,
Ed. Taylor & Francis Group, 2003.
Altenbach, H., Altenbach, J. & Kissing, W. Mechanics of
Composite Structural Elements, Ed. Springer, Berlin,
2001.
Beznea, E.F. Studies and researches on the buckling
behaviour of the composite panels, Doctoral Thesis,
University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, 2008.
Beznea, E.F., Chirica, I., Boazu, D., Chirica, R. &
Chirica, A. Buckling Analysis of Delaminated Ship
Deck Plates, Made of Composite Materials, Proceedings of the 24-th DAS-2007: Danubia-Adria Sympo-

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Shear buckling analysis of the composite plates with cut-outs


E.F. Beznea & I. Chirica
University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Romania

ABSTRACT: Shear buckling and postbuckling behaviour of the square plates, made of composite
materials, with central cut-outs is treated in this paper. In the analysis, finite element method (FEM) was
applied to perform parametric studies on various plates based on the shape and position of the elliptical hole. This study addressed the effects of an elliptical/circular cutout on the buckling load of square
composite plates. The laminated composite plates were arranged as symmetric cross-ply. The cutouts
are either circular holes or elliptical holes. The shear-buckling strengths of the plates could be increased
considerably only under aspect ratios. The plate-buckling mode can be symmetrical or anti-symmetrical,
depending on the plate boundary conditions, aspect ratio, and the hole size. In this paper, the analysis
has been performed only for the plate clamped on sides. The results and illustrations provide important
information for the efficient design of ship structural panels made of composite materials, having cutouts. The aim of the work presented in this paper is to analyze the influence of cut-out on the changes
in the buckling behaviour of ship deck plates made of composite materials. For each diameters ratio
there are plotted variation of the transversal displacement of the point placed in the middle of the plate,
according to the pressure that has been applied. Buckling load determination for the general buckling of
the plate has been made by graphical method. The post-buckling calculus has been performed to explain
the complete behaviour of the plate.
1

INTRODUCTION

The buckling of flat square plates with central


circular holes under in-plane edge shear has been
studied both theoretically and experimentally by
various authors. (Mallela & Upadhyay 2006) presented a parametric study on laminated composite
blade-stiffened panels subjected to in-plane shear.
They proposed some design charts that can be
used to selecting the optimum parameters for better stiffener propositions.
The methods of theoretical analysis used by
most of the past investigators were the RayleighRitz minimum energy method and the Timoshenko
method. However, except for Schlack (1964) and
Kawai and Ohtsubo (1968), the theoretical analysis methods used do not allow the boundary and
loading conditions to be precisely defined for
larger hole sizes because the stress distributions
of the infinite perforated plate are used as the prebuckling stress solution for the finite perforated
plate. Thus, most of the earlier buckling solutions
are limited to small hole sizes, and are not fit for
studying the effects of different plate boundary
conditions on the buckling strengths of the finite
plates with arbitrarily sized holes using those
approximate solutions.
The objective of this paper is to describe the
results of the research that has been conducted
on the buckling and postbuckling behaviour of

Laminated polymer composites are being used


in many advanced structural applications and in
the last decade are extensively used in ship hull
structure. Cut-outs are commonly used in ship
hull components as access ports for mechanical
and electrical systems, or simply to reduce weight.
Structural panels with cut-outs often experience
in-plane loads that are induced mechanically can
result in panel buckling. The buckling behavior of
the structural panels with cut-outs is interested by
naval architects in the structural design.
For an unperforated rectangular plate of finite
extent (i.e., with finite length and finite width)
under uniform shear loading on the sides, the
closed-form buckling solutions are easily obtained
because the prebuckling stress field is uniform
everywhere in the plate. When a finite rectangular plate is perforated with a central cutout (e.g.,
a circular or a square hole), however, the buckling
analysis becomes extremely cumbersome because
the cutout introduces a load-free boundary that
causes the stress field in the perforated plate to
be non-uniform. Hence, the closed-form buckling
solutions are practically unobtainable, and various
approximate methods had to be developed to analyze such perforated plates.

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Case 2 (Dx/Dy = 1): transversal diameter


Dy = 100 mm; longitudinal diameter
Dx = 100 mm;
Case 3 (Dx/Dy = 2): transversal diameter Dy = 70.5 mm; longitudinal diameter
Dx = 141 mm.

rectangular composite plates under shearing loads


that have a cutout.
2

PLATES CHARACTERISTICS

The square plates (320 320 mm), clamped on the


sides, are made of E-glass/epoxy having the material characteristics:

Ex = 46 [GPa], Ey = 13 [GPa], Ez = 13 [GPa],


Gxy = 5 [GPa], Gxz = 5 [GPa], Gyz = 4.6 [GPa].
xy = 0.3, yz = 0.42, xz = 0.3.

The analysis was carried out using COSMOS/M


finite element software. For the present study, a
3-D model with 4-node SHELL4L layered composite element of COSMOS/M is used.
For shear buckling analysis the uniform pressure on sides was incremental applied.

Strengths:
T
x
RTy

[GPa
Pa ], RCx
[GPa ], RCy

SHEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS

[GPa ] ,
[GPa ] ,

Rxy = 0.72 [Gpa].

3.1

FE linear buckling analysis

A mesh convergence study for numerical eigenvalue


buckling loads has been done.
The results of the study is presented in the
Figure 2. As it is seen, the optimum number of the
element on side is 16 for all plates with cut-out having the analized diameters ratio.
In Table 1, the results of linear buckling calculus
for each diameters ration are presented.
For the plate without cut-out, the load buckling
from linear buckling calculus is

The thickness of the plate is 4.96 mm. The thickness of a layer is 0.31 mm.
Topological code of the plate is [02/45/902/45/02]s.
For the material behaviour model two cases have
been considered:
linear behaviour;
nonlinear behaviour (Tsai-Wu failure criterion).
The in-plane loading was applied as a uniform
shear pressure on the sides (Figure 1).
The ellipses diameters of the cut-out area
placed in the middle of the plate are considered
from the condition of the same area for all cases.
In the parametric calculus, the following diameters
ratios are considered:

pcr = 176.73 [MPa].


In the Figures 3, 4 and 5, the deformed plate
after buckling is presented for all cases of diameters ratio.
As it is seen, due to the diametric symmetry of
the shear loading, the buckled shape plate in the
cases 1 and 3 are similar.

Case 1 (Dx/Dy = 0.5): transversal diameter


Dy = 141 mm, longitudinal diameter
Dx = 70.5 mm;

Table 1.
Dx/Dy
pcr [MPa]

Dx

Buckling load obtained in linear calculus.


0.5
154.52

1
158.87

2
160.159

x
Dy

y
Figure 1.

Shear loaded plate with cut-out.

Figure 2.

Results obtained in the convergence study.

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161
160
Pcr [MPa]

159
158
157
156
155
154
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Dx/Dy

Figure 3. The deformed plate after buckling, for


Dx/Dy = 0.5.

Figure 6. Variation of buckling load (linear calculus)


versus diameters ratio Dx/Dy.

3.2

FE buckling nonlinear calculus

To solving of geometrically and material nonlinear


problems, the load is applied as a sequence of sufficiently small increments so that the structure can
be assumed to respond linearly during each increment. For each increment of load, increments of
displacements and corresponding increments of
stress and strain are computed. These incremental
quantities are used to compute various corrective
stiffness matrices (variously termed geometric,
initial stress, and initial strain matrices) which
serve to take into account the deformed geometry of the structure. A subsequent increment of
load is applied and the process is continued until
the desired number of load increments has been
applied. The net effect is to solve a sequence of
linear problems wherein the stiffness properties are
recomputed based on the current geometry prior
to each load increment. The solution procedure
takes the following mathematical form

Figure 4. The deformed plate after buckling, for


Dx/Dy = 1.

(K + KI)i1di = Q

(1)

Figure 5. The deformed plate after buckling, for


Dx/Dy = 2.

where
K is the linear stiffness matrix,
KI is an incremental stiffness matrix based upon
displacements at load step i1,
di is the increment of displacement due to the
ith load increment,
Q is the increment of load applied.

The results of the linear analysis are presented


in Figure 6, where the variation of the buckling
load function of the ratio Dx/Dy is plotted.
As it is seen, the buckling load is increasing since
the ratio Dx/Dy is increasing.
Opposite, in the case of uniaxial compressive
buckling the variation is so as the buckling load
is decreasing since the ratio Dx/Dy is increasing
(Chirica, Beznea & Chirica 2009).

The correct form of the incremental stiffness


matrix has been a point of some controversy. The
incremental approach is quite popular (this is the
procedure applied in this study). This is due to
the ease with which the procedure may be applied
and the almost guaranteed convergence if small
enough load increments is used.
Buckling and post-buckling analysis has been
performed for all types of panels.
In certain cases, the general buckling does not
occur till the occurring of the first-ply failure.

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In these cases, for the buckling load calculus the


Tsai-Wu failure criterion may be used.
The Tsai-Wu failure criterion provides the
mathematical relation for strength under combined
stresses. Unlike the conventional isotropic materials
where one constant will suffice for failure stress
level and location, laminated composite materials
require more elaborate methods to establish failure
stresses. The strength of the laminated composite
can be based on the strength of individual plies
within the laminate. In addition, the failure of plies
can be successive as the applied load increases.
There may be a first ply failure followed by other
ply failures until the last ply fails, denoting the ultimate failure of the laminate. Progressive failure
description is therefore quite complex for laminated composite structures. A simpler approach
for establishing failure consists of determining the
structural integrity which depends on the definition of an allowable stress field. This stress field is
usually characterized by a set of allowable stresses
in the material principal directions.
The failure criterion is used to calculate a failure
index (F.I.) from the computed stresses and usersupplied material strengths. A failure index of 1
denotes the onset of failure, and a value less than
1 denotes no failure. The failure indices are computed for all layers in each element of your model.
During post processing, it is possible to plot failure
indices of the mesh for any layer.
The Tsai-Wu failure criterion (also known as the
Tsai-Wu tensor polynomial theory) is commonly
used for orthotropic materials with unequal tensile and compressive strengths. The failure index
according to this theory is computed using the following equation, (Altenbach & al, 2004).
F.I. F1 1 + F2 2 F1111 12
+ F22 22 F66 62 + 2F
F1122 1 2

According to the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, the


failure of a lamina occurs if
F.I. > 1.

(4)

In COSMOS, nonlinear material is considered


as a material having the behaviour according to the
Tsai-Wu Failure criteria.
The failure index is calculated in each ply of
each element. In the ply where failure index is
greater than 1, the first-ply failure occurs. In the
next steps, the tensile and compressive properties
of this element are reduced by the failure index.
If the buckling did not appeared until the moment
of the first-ply failure occurring, the in-plane load
corresponding to this moment is considered as
being the buckling load.
In the Figure 7, the variations of the buckling
load corresponding to the fails in the tension cases
(Fail 1) and compressive cases (Fail 2), versus
diameters ratio are presented.
As it is seen, the value of the buckling load corresponding to the fail 1 (tension) has the same
value for all diameters ratios.
For the panels with elliptical central cut-out the
values of the buckling load is placed in the range.
150 [MPa] < pcr < 190 [MPa]
Using graphical method, the buckling load may
be estimated by drawing an asymptote to the curve
in the point where the slope is changing suddenly.
The postbuckling behaviour of the plate may be
explained according to the curves in the Figure 8,
from region drawn after buckling occurring.

(2)

where
1
1
1

; F11 = T C ;
R1T R1C
R1 R1
1
1
1
1
F2 = T C ; F22 = T C ; F66 = 2 .
R2 R2
R2 R2
R12
1
F1 =

(3)

The coefficient F12 which represents the


parameter of interaction between 1 and 2 is
to be obtained by a mechanical biaxial test. In
the equations (3), the parameters RCi , RTi are
the compressive strength and tensile strength in
the material in longitudinal direction (i = 1) and
trasversal direction (i = 2). The parameter R12 is
in-plane shear strength in the material 12 plane.

Figure 7. Variation of buckling load, corresponding to


fail 1 and fail 2, versus diameters ratio.

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Figure 8.

Variation of maximum transversal displacement versus in-pane load for each diameters ratio.

as the ratio Dx/Dy is increasing, the value of


the buckling load corresponding to an element
failing which is damaged by compression is also
increasing.

In the nonlinear calculus, for the buckling load,


the graphical method and Tsai-Wu failure criterion
were used. The values obtained for buckling load
were placed in the range specified in each case in
Figure 7.
4

When the hole size becomes considerably large


relative to the plate width, most of the compressive load is carried by the narrow side strips of
material along the plate boundaries. As it is well
known, a stronger plate boundary condition (e.g.,
clampedrather than simply-supported boundaries) increases the buckling strength, while the
higher stress concentration decreases the buckling
strength.
Thus, which effects become dominant will
determine the increase or decrease of the buckling
strengths of the perforated plates.
For the circular-hole cases, the narrow shear
side strips are under stress concentration, which
reduces the buckling strengths.
The unusual buckling characteristics of the perforated plates offer important applications in ship
structural panel design. Namely, by opening holes
of proper sizes in ship structural panels for weight
saving, their buckling strengths can be boosted
simultaneously.
The buckling load determination is too difficult
without applying a graphical method. In certain
cases, the using of Tsai-Wu criterion may predict
so named buckling load, if general buckling of
the plate does not occurred before first-ply failure
occurring.
The first failure occurring in an element is based
on the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, which provides
the mathematical relation for strength under combined stresses may be used.
The lack of the criterion is referring to the anticipation of the real mode to occurring the cracking.

CONCLUSIONS

In the paper, the results of the FEM based methodology that was successfully developed for the
investigation of buckling problems of composite
plates with central elliptical cut-out is presented.
Two hypotheses regarding the type of material
modeling is used (linear and nonlinear).
The buckling behavior of plates with central holes as presented in figure 8 is quite peculiar because, under certain boundary conditions
(clamped edges) and cut-out aspect ratios, the
mechanical-buckling strengths of the perforated
plates, contrary to expectation, increase rather
than decrease as the hole sizes grow larger. The
conventional wisdom is that, as the hole sizes
increase, the plates lose more materials and
become weaker. Therefore, the buckling strengths
were expected to decrease as the hole sizes
increase. This was not the case. Such peculiar
buckling phenomenon of the perforated plates
may be explained as follows.
Certain conclusions after the shear buckling analysis of the perforated plates may be
performed:
the buckling load is increasing since the ratio
Dx/Dy is decreasing;
the buckling load corresponding to an element
failing which is damaged by tension, has the
same value that is not depending on the ratio
Dx/Dy;

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Hilburger, M.F. 2001. Nonlinear and Buckling Behavior


of Compression-loaded Composite Shells, Proceedings
of the 6th Annual Technical Conference of the
American Society for Composites, Virginia.
Kawai, T. & Ohtsubo, H. 1968. A Method of Solution for
the Complicated Buckling Problems of ElasticPlates
With Combined Use of Rayleigh-Ritzs Procedure in
the Finite Element Method, AFFDLTR-68-150.
Khamseh, A.R. & Waas, A.M. 1992. Compression Failure
Mechanisms of Uni-Ply Composite Plates with a Circular Cutout, AIAA-92-2276-CP.
Komur, M.A., Sen, F., Atas, A. & Arslan, N. 2010.
Buckling analysis of laminated composite plates with
an elliptical/circular cutout using FEM, Advances in
Engineering Software, 41/2: 161164.
Kremer, T. & Shurmann, H. 2007. Buckling of tensionloaded thin-walled composite plates with cut-outs,
Composite Science and Technology.
Liu, Y., Jin, F. & Li, Q. 2005. A strength-based multiple
cutout optimization in composite, plates using fixed grid
finite element method, Composite Structures 73 (2006)
403412.
Mallela, U. & Upadhyay, A. 2006. Buckling of laminated
composite stiffened panels subjected to in-plane
shear: a parametric study, Thin-Walled Structures,
(44), 354361.
Nemeth, M.P. 1996. Buckling and postbuckling behavior
of laminated composite plates with a cutout, NASA
Technical Paper 3587.
Qablan, H.A., Katkhuda, H. & Dwairi, H. 2009.
Assessment of the Buckling Behavior of Square
Composite Plates withCircular Cutout Subjected to
In-Plane Shear, Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering,
Volume 3, No. 2, 2009.
Rezaeepazhand, J. & Jafari, M. 2008. Stress Analysis
of Composite Plates with Non-circular Cutout,
Key Engineering Materials Vols. 385387 (2008)
pp. 365368.
Rezaeepazhand, J. & Jafari, M. Stress Analysis of
Composite Plates with a Quasi-Square Cutout
Subjected to Uniaxial Tension, Journal of Reinforced
Plastics and Composites July 2010 29: 20152026.
Schlack, A.L., Jr. 1964. Elastic Stability of Pierced Square
Plates. Experimental Mechanics, June 1964: 167172.
SRAC. 2001. Cosmos/M FEM program user guide.
Structural Research & Analysis Corporation.
(www.cosmosm.com)
Thurvey, G.J. & Marshall, I.H. 1995. Buckling and
Postbuckling of Composite Plates, Chapman & Hall,
London.
Yazici, M. 2009. Influence of Cut-Out Variables on
Buckling Behavior of Composite Plates, Journal of
Reinforced Plastics and Composites October 2009
Vol. 28 No. 19, 23252339.

Taking into account the mathematical


formulation, the Tsai-Wu failure criterion is easy
to be applied. Additionally, this criterion offers
advantages concerning the real prediction of the
strength at variable loadings. It is to remark that
by applying linear terms, it is possible to take into
account the differences between the tension and
compression strengths of the material.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work has been performed in the scope of
the Romanian Project PN2IDEI, Code 512
(20092011).
REFERENCES
Adams, D.F., Carlsson, L.A. & Pipes, R.B. 2003. Experimental Characterization of Advanced Composite materials, Ed. Taylor & Francis Group.
Altenbach, H., Altenbach, J. & Kissing, W. 2004.
Mechanics of Composite Structural Elements, Ed.
Springer, Berlin.
Ambarcumyan, S.A. 1991. Theory of Anisotropic Plates:
Strength, Stability, and Vibrations, Hemispher Publishing, Washington.
Baba, B.O. & Baltaci, A. 2007. Buckling Characteristics
of Symmetrically and Antisymmetrically Laminated
Composite Plates with Central Cutout, Appl Compos
Mater (2007) 14, 265276.
Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F. & Chirica, R. 2006. Placi compozite (in Romanian). Edit. Fund. Univ. Dunarea de
Jos, Galati, ISBN (10) 973-627-337-7; ISBN (13) 978973-627-337-7.
Chirica, I., Beznea, E.F. & Chirica, R. 2009. Buckling
behaviour of the ship deck composite plates with cutouts, Proceedings of MARSTRUCT 2009, The 2-nd
International Conference on Marine Structures,
Lisbon, Portugal, 1618 March 2009, Analysis and
Design of Marine Structures - Guedes Soares &
Das (eds), 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London,
pp. 423428, ISBN 978-0-415-54934-9.
Dash, S., Asha, A.V. & Sahu, S.K. 2004. Stability of
Laminated Composite Curved Panels with Cutout Using
Finite Element Method, International Conference on
Theoretical, Applied Computational and Experimental Mechanics (ICTACEM 2004) December 2831,
2004, IIT, Kharagpur.
Engelstad, S.P., Reddy, J.N. & Knight, N.F. Jr. 1992. Postbuckling Response and Failure Prediction of GraphiteEpoxy Plates Loaded in Compression, AIAA Journal,
30(8), 21062113.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Robust ultimate strength formulation for stiffened plates


subjected to combined loads
Sang-Rai Cho
University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea

Hyun-Soo Kim
Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan, Korea

Jeong-Bon Koo
Samsung Heavy Industries, Geoje, Korea

Hyung-Min Doh & Young-Kee Chon


Korean Register of Shipping, Daejon, Korea

ABSTRACT: A robust ultimate strength formulation is proposed for stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression, shear force and lateral pressure loadings. Before the
formulation was derived, a simplified numerical method was developed to trace the structural behavior
of stiffened plates under combined loadings. A rigorous parametric study was, then, performed using the
developed numerical method to predict the ultimate strength of various stiffened plates under various
combinations of loadings. The formulation was derived through a regression study using the parametric
study results. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed formulation were compared with those of a
commercial package, ABAQUA and DNV PULS and with the experimental results.
1

INTRODUCTION

The followings summarizes the factors that


should be considered in ultimate strength
predictions:

Most ship structures and topside decks of offshore


structures are composed of stiffened plates, which
are normally fabricated by welding. Welded plates
contain initial shape imperfections and residual
stresses. Furthermore, ship structures are subjected
to various combined loadings. Therefore, it is difficult to develop analytical methods or procedures
for predicting the ultimate strengths of marine
stiffened plates with reasonable accuracy.
Accurate ultimate strength analyses of ships
stiffened plates require nonlinear analyses using
commercial packages. Learning to operate and
perform the analyses with these packages is time
consuming. To overcome these shortcomings, Det
Norske Veritas (DNV) developed a simplified
analysis package called Panel Ultimate Limit State
(PULS) and requested the performance of ultimate strength analyses for all the stiffened plates.
Therefore, we developed our own simplified analysis program and developed design formulations
with which structural designers can easily predict
the ultimate strength of stiffened plates subjected
to combined loadings.

a. Interaction between yielding and elastic


buckling
b. Combined loading effects
c. Interaction between buckling modes
d. Initial shape and material imperfections
The ultimate strengths of marine structural
elements can be predicted using analytical methods, numerical methods, experimental methods,
simplified analytical or numerical methods and
design formulations. However, in most cases, analytical methods are not appropriate when the above
effects are considered in the procedures. Numerical predictions using commercial computer codes
are popular among researchers. Nonlinear analyses using commercial codes are necessary for ultimate strength predictions, but they are difficult to
operate and are time consuming. Among others,
experimental methods seem most reliable to structure owners, but they are still the most expensive
and require a relatively longer time to perform.
Any simplified analytical or numerical methods

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are welcomed by structural designers, but it is not


easy to develop simplified methods that provide
acceptable levels of accuracy. However, due to the
shortcomings and disadvantages of the aforementioned four methods, in structural design, the ultimate strengths of marine structural elements are
predicted using easy-to-use strength formulations.
Ultimate strength formulations can be derived
through direct regression analysis of test data if the
numbers of available test data is sufficiently large
and if the ranges of their geometric and material
parameters and reduced slenderness parameters
include those of the actual structural elements.
However, the strength formulations obtained via
direct regression analysis may not demonstrate
meanings related to the physical states of the structural elements. Therefore, it seems more sensible to
adopt a strength formula as the basis of the formulation and to perform regression analysis for
the modification factors in the formula. Test data
have their own uncertainties, which may obstruct
the collection of meaningful regression results for
certain parameters. This kind of difficulty can
be overcome by employing theoretical analysis
methods.
In this study, a simplified numerical method was
developed and the predictions using this method
were substantiated with those of ABAQUS (2009)
and PULS. Rigorous parametric study was conducted covering wide range of design parameters.
Adopting the generalized Merchant-Rankine formula as the basis a design formulation was developed using the results of the parametric study.

2
2.1

Figure 1.

Physical concept of the analysis method.

and the bending deformation is assumed to


be concentrated at the edges of triangles (see
Figure 1). In other words the triangular elements
remain flat throughout the analysis, and triangle
edges can be folded. The edge rotations between
the triangles are restrained by non-linear torsional
springs representing the actual bending stiffness of the flat element. Only three translational
degrees of freedom are contained in the analysis.
The component of the resultant displacement at
each node parallel to the element plane causes the
in-plane deformation and internal forces. Using the
displacement component normal to the element
plane the hinge folding angle is calculated and then
the bending moment is obtained. The out-of-plane
internal forces are derived to balance the bending
moment.
2.2 Formulation

SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS METHOD


General

For the ultimate strength analysis of stiffened plates


with initial shape and material imperfections, the
Finite Element method, Finite Difference method
and Dynamic Relaxation (DR) technique (Day
1965; Frieze et al., 1978) can be employed. In this
study, however, the DR technique is adopted as the
basis of the developed analysis method, for which
the procedure is straightforward and can also be
employed in dynamic problems.
In this study the stiffened plate is divided into
flat triangular elements and membrane and bending deformations of the element are decoupled.
This concept was originally proposed by Chan
and Davis (1983) and has been employed in plate
collision problems (Cho et al., 1996) and ultimate
strength analyses under hydrostatic pressure (Han
1999; Kim 2001).
The membrane deformation is represented
with finite triangular elements of constant strain

2.2.1 Equations of motion


In the ultimate strength analysis using the DR
technique, the applied loads or imposed displacements are increased step by step and the responses
of the structure are dynamically traced. When
the structural behavior is elastic the equations of
motion can be written as follows:
[

{ }n + [C ]{D }n + [K ]{D}n = {Rext }n


] D

(1)

where [M] = mass matrix; [C] = damping matrix;


[K] = stiffness matrix; {D}n = nodal displacement
vector at the nth time step: {  }n = nodal velocity
vector at the nth time step; { }n = nodal acceleration vector at the nth time step; and {Rext}n = nodal
external force vector at the nth time step.
For elasto-plastic dynamic analysis, however,
the second term on the left hand side of
Equation 1, [K]{D}n can be written as {Rint}n and
we write Equation 1 as follows:

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[M ]{D}n + [C ]{D}n + {R

} {R }
ext

(2)

where {Rint}n = nodal internal force vector at the


nth time step, which can be obtained by superposing {Reint}n for all of the corresponding elements.
The nodal internal force vectors, {Rint}n are
represented in the global coordinate, which are
transformed from the element local coordinate.
The nodal internal force vectors of each element in
the local coordinate are composed of those parallel or normal to the element plane. The in-plane
internal forces (which are parallel to the element
plane) can be obtained through volume integration of the in-plane stresses of the element. The
normal components of the internal forces can be
calculated using the folding angles of the element
edges. The details of the internal force calculation
are discussed later.
The temporal central difference method provides the equations for nodal velocity and acceleration as follows:

{D }n = 21 t ({D}

{D}

{D}n = 1t ({D}

{D}n + {D}

(3a)

(3b)

where t = calculation time interval.


By substituting Equations 3a and 3b into the
equations of motion, Equation 2 can be rewritten
as follows:
1
1
[C ] {D}n +1
2 [M ] +
2

t
t
1
= R
R
+ 2 [M ] 2 {D}n {D}
n
n
t
1
+
[ ]{ }n1
2t

{ } { }

) (4)

2.2.2 Internal forces


The nodal displacements at the (n + 1)th time step
can be calculated using Equation 4 together with
the nodal displacements at the (n 1)th and nth
time step and {Rint} and {Rext} of the nth time
step. Accordingly, the velocity and accelerations at
the (n + 1)th time step can then be obtained from
Equations 3a and 3b. We assume in this study
that the characteristics of the applied loading are
known. Therefore the problem to be solved is how
to calculate the internal force vectors, {Rint}n using
the nodal displacements at the nth time step.
For the simplicity of equations the subscript n
will be omitted when deriving the equations for the
internal forces, {Rint}n when the displacement vectors at the nth time step are provided. As mentioned

earlier the nodal internal forces in the global


coordinate, {Rint}n can be obtained by superposing
the internal forces of each element on the global
coordinate, {Reint}n. Actually, the internal forces of
each element are calculated in the local member
coordinate and then transformed into the global
coordinate. Therefore, we first explain how to calculate the internal forces in the local coordinate and
describe the transformation procedure later.
In elasto-plastic problems, the strain-stress relationship is nonlinear. Therefore, it is necessary
to express this relationship in incremental form.
The strain increments, {} are easily calculated
when the strains at the (n1)th and nth time steps
are known. The stress increments, {} can be
expressed using Hookes law as in Equation (5).

{ } [ ]({ } {

})

(5)

The plastic strain increments {p} can be


obtained using the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule, and
this study adopts the von Mises yield criterion.
1. In-plane internal forces
In developing the analysis method, the constant strain flat triangular element is employed
to analyze the in-plane deformation. The nodal
displacements in the local coordinate can be
obtained via transformation of those in the
global coordinate. Herein, we explain the procedure for calculating the in-plane nodal internal forces in the local coordinate from the nodal
displacements in the local coordinate. For this
purpose, the strain of each element should first
be calculated from the nodal displacements and
the stress components can then be calculated
using the elasto-plastic strain-stress relationship. Finally, the in-plane nodal forces can be
obtained through volume integration of the
stresses over the element as follows:
re

T
v )
[B ] { o } d (vol

(6)

vol

where [B] is the strain-displacement matrix.


2. Normal internal forces
In order to satisfy the moment equilibrium
conditions two adjacent element normal forces
are required at node i and l due to the torsional
moment at the common edge jk (see Figure 2).
These normal forces are then balanced by the
normal forces at node j and k. The first step in
deriving the relationship for the out-of-plane
internal force is to describe the folding angle in
terms of the nodal translational displacements.
The nodal internal forces for each element
should be calculated in the local coordinate and

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compression and shear force ultimate strength


analyses were also performed for two models provided by DNV and the results were also compared
with those of PULS and ABAQUS.

Figure 2. Bending between two elements with normal


internal forces.

the forces need to be transformed into the global


coordinate before summing for a node. The coordinate transformation is necessary not only for
this purpose but also when calculating the element
strain from the nodal displacements in the global
coordinates.
3. Development of computer program: SPUSA
Following the formulation of the developed
analysis method, a computer program, denoted
as Stiffened Plates Ultimate Strength Analysis
(SPUSA) was developed and its calculation procedure is as follows:
step 1: set-up boundary conditions
step 2: set-up displacement increments
step 3: calculate strain increments
step 4: calculate stress increments
step 5: calculate bending moments
step 6: calculate internal forces
step 7: calculate new nodal displacements
step 8: < repeat steps 37 >
After trying with different values for the displacement increment the value finally chosen was
105 times the models dimensions (a b), which
provided the calculation efficiency and consistency
of results.
2.3 Substantiation of the developed analysis
method
To substantiate the developed analysis method, ten
stiffened models were collected from the literature,
which were subjected to axial compression. The
models were analyzed and their ultimate strengths
were predicted using SPUSA. These predictions
were compared with the test results and those
of PULS. For combined loadings of transverse

2.3.1 For axial compression


The dimensions and material properties of the
ten axially compressed test models used for
the comparison study are summarized in Table 1.
The comparison results of the predictions not
only by SPUSA, but also by PULS are provided in
Table 2, along with the test data.
In Table 1, a, B and b are the length, whole
breadth and spacing of stiffeners of the model,
respectively; ns is the number of stiffeners; tp is
the thickness of the plate; hw and tw are the height
and thickness of the stiffener web, respectively;
wf : and tf : are the width and thickness of the stiffener flange, respectively; E and Y are the Youngs
modulus and the mean yield stress of the material,
respectively; and FB, AB and TB denote a flat-bar,
angle-bar and tee-bar, respectively.
As seen in Table 2, the theoretical predictions
of SPUSA and PULS agree relatively well with
the test results. However, the initial shape imperfection levels of the small-scale test models should
Table 1. Dimensions and material properties of test
models under axial compression (Unit: mm, MPa).
Model

ns

tp

Stiff.
type

S3F3
S5F3
S3A3
S5A3
S3A100
C-12
C-34

600
600
600
600
600
1434
1152

250
450
250
450
260
1197
960

100
100
100
100
100
239
192

3
5
3
5
3
4
4

2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
1.86
5.80
6.00

FB
FB
AB
AB
AB
FB
FB

R
FL1
FL2

1700
577
577

1168
635
635

457
136
136

3
5
5

9.95
4.93
4.93

TB
FB
FB

Model

hw

tw

wf

tf

S3F3
S5F3
S3A3
S5A3
S3A100
C-12
C-34
R
FL1
FL2

50
50
40
40
40
105.8
102
136.1
63.5
63.5

2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
1.99
5.70
8.00
7.36
3.02
3.02

15
15
15

28.6

2.13
2.13
2.13

15.9

248000
248000
235000
235000
220000
205000
205000
205000
190000
190000

332
332
330
330
316
271
269
377
321
247

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Table 2. Comparison of results of SPUSA with those


of PULS (Unit: MPa).
Model

Ref.

Cho &
Song
(2003)
S5F3
Cho &
Song
(2003)
S3A3
Cho &
Song
(2003)
S5A3
Cho &
Song
(2003)
S3A100 Cho &
Song
(2003)
C-12 Fukumoto
et al.
(1974)
C-34 Fukumoto
et al.
(1974)
R
Murray
(1975)
FL1
Faulkner
(1977)
FL2
Faulkner
(1977)

Exp. PULS SPUSA


(1) (2)
(3)
(1)/(2) (1)/(3)

S3F3

230

260

270

0.88

0.85

213

259

255

0.82

0.84

261

281

291

0.93

0.90

215

280

270

0.77

0.80

260

259

253

1.00

1.03

202

218

241

0.93

238

0.99

1.00

271

296

276

0.92

0.98

250.1 266

250

0.94

1.00

172.4 186

186

0.93

0.93

Stiffener
span

8800 mm

Plate
thickness

12.0 mm /
14.5 mm

Stiffener
spacing

890 mm

Stiffener
type

Tee-bar

No. of
stiffeners

Stiffener
height

700 mm

Youngs
modulus

208 GPa

Web
thickness

13 mm

Poisson ratio

0.3

Flange width

150 mm

Yield stress

355 MPa

Flange
thickness

18 mm

Table 4. Analyzed results of SPUSA, PULS and


ABAQUS (Unit: MPa).
Model

0.84

239.1 242

Table 3. Dimensions and material properties of


analyzed models.

Load
type

ABAQUS PULS SPUSA


(1)
(2)
(3)
(1)/(2) (1)/(3)

Model I Pure
shear 204
Pure
trans.
comp. 62.0
Model II Pure
shear 204
Pure
trans.
comp. 71.5

be higher than those assumed in the theoretical


analyses. Therefore, further study seems necessary
to investigate the effects of imperfection level on
the ultimate strength of stiffened plates.
2.3.2 Shear force and transverse compression
For the case of combined transverse compression
and shear force loadings the ultimate strengths of
two models provided by DNV (Byklum 2003) were
analyzed using SPUSA and the results were compared with those of PULS and ABAQUS. Table 3
provides the dimensions and material properties
of the two models. The models with thicknesses of
12.0 mm and 14.5 mm are denoted as Model-I and
Model-II, respectively.
The ultimate strength analysis results of the two
models subjected to pure shear force and pure
transverse compression are summarized in Table 4
together with those of ABAQUS and PULS. When
the pure transverse compression is applied to
Model-I, the SPUSA prediction is approximately
10% greater than that of PULS but is similar to
that of ABAQUS. Under shear force, the ultimate
strength predicted by SPUSA is approximately

200

184.3

1.02 1.10

55.0

61.5

1.13 1.01

200

186.7

1.02 1.09

69.0

76.0

1.04 0.94

10% less than those of both PULS and ABAQUS.


Similar to the trend of Model-I, the strength
predicted by SPUSA is 10% greater than that of
PULS for transverse compression, but is 10% less
for shear force.

3
3.1

PARAMETRIC STUDY
Stiffened plates for parametric study

Prior to deriving the ultimate strength formulation proposed in this study, a rigorous parametric
study was performed. The stiffened plates considered in the parametric study were similar to those
provided in ISSC 2000 committee VI.2 (Yao et al.,
2000). The size of the local panel between stiffeners was taken as:
a b = 2,400 800; 4,000 800 (mm)
tp = 10; 13; 15; 20; 25 (mm)
Three types of stiffeners were considered;
a flat-bar, an angle-bar and a tee-bar, and three

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Table 5.

Dimensions of stiffeners.

Type

Size 1

Size 2

Size 3

Flat-bar
Angle-bar
Tee-bar

150 17
150 90 9/12
138 9 + 90 12

250 19
250 90 10/15
235 10 + 90 15

350 35
400 100 12/17
383 12 + 100 17

Notes: flat-bar (h t); angle-bar (h bf tw/tf); tee-bar (h tw + bf tf)

Table 6.

Figure 3.
loading.

Imposed boundary conditions.

Location

Constraints

x=0
x = a/2, 3a/2
x = 2a
y = 0, 4b

Tx = 0, Ry = 0
Tz = 0
Ty = 0, Ry = 0
Tz = 0

Stiffened plate model for axial compression

sizes were assumed for each type of stiffener, as indicated in Table 5.


The initial shape imperfections assumed in the
study were determined using Equation 7 for plates
and Equation 8 for stiffeners.
w po = Ao si m x
a

sin y

b
wso

Bo sin x vso
,
a

+ Be sin

Co sin
i x
a

x
a

(7)
(8)

where Ao = tp/200, Bo = a/1000, Co = a/1000.


Instead of using m in Equation 7 as the aspect
ratio of the plate, we assumed m = 1 to better represent reality. The residual stresses due to welding
were assumed as those provided by ISSC2000 committee VI.2.
The stiffened plate model considered in the parametric study is depicted in Figure 3, which shows
one and two halves span model. The number of
stiffeners in the standard model was three as shown
in Figure 3.
The boundary conditions imposed for the
ultimate strength analyses are summarized in
Table 6 and the displacement loadings applied
in the analyses are depicted in Figure 4 for axial
compression, transverse compression and shear
force. The displacement loadings were linearly

Figure 4. Applied linearly varying displacement loadings along the boundaries.

varying along the boundaries as shown in the


figures.
In the analyses using ABAQUS, the element
size of the model was 100 mm 100 mm for the
plate and 100 mm 50 mm for the stiffener web.
The stiffener flange was divided into 2 elements at
one side. The finite element chosen for the analyses was S4R which is a 4-node, quadrilateral,
stress/displacement shell element with reduced
integrations and a large-strain formulation.

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3.2

Axial and transverse compression loadings

As a part of the parametric study, computations were first conducted for single loadings
including axial compression and transverse compression using PULS, ABAQUS, and SPUSA. The
results of these computations were utilized not
only for the further substantiation of the developed
analysis method but also as part of the raw data
with which the strength formulation was derived.
The computation results are summarized
in Table 6. The stiffened plates are denoted as
Xijklm, indicating that:
X = F for flat-bar, L for angle-bar, T for
tee-bar;
i = aspect ratio (a/b); jk = plate thickness; lm = 15
for a stiffener of size 1, 25 for a stiffener of size 2,
35 for a stiffener of size 3.
For example, F31015 represents a stiffened plate
with an aspect ratio and plate thickness of 3 and
10 mm, respectively, for which the stiffener is a flatbar of size 1.
As can be seen in the table, 45 cases were analyzed for axial compression, and the ratios of predictions are summarized. The prediction ratios
(Xm) of PULS/ABAQUS, PULS/SPUSA, and
ABAQUS/ SPUSA provide means of 0.989 (5.30%
COV), 0.985 (6.38% COV) and 0.996 (4.02%
COV), respectively. The results for the transverse
compression load are also presented in the table.
Comparing with the accuracy of the predictions
for axial compression larger uncertainties can be
found for transverse compression.
3.3

Combined loadings

The parametric study continued for combined


axial compression, transverse compression, shear
force and lateral pressure loadings using PULS,
ABAQUS and SPUSA. Some of the results
obtained using PULS are depicted in Figures 4(a)
and 4(b).
As shown in the figures, the effects of transverse
compression for the case of bi-axial loadings can be
negligible if the transverse compressive stress is less
than about 10% of the yield stress. If the transverse
compression is greater than that, however, the axial
capacity may decrease dramatically. When combined with shear force the reduction in axial compression capacity is negligible until the shear stress
is less than about 30% of the yield shear stress.
The effects of lateral pressure on the ultimate
strength of stiffened plates can be found by comparing Figures 4(a) and 4(b). When axial compression is dominant lateral pressure may strengthen
the ultimate capacity. However, when transverse
compression is dominant the opposite effects can
be expected.

Table 7. Comparison of predictions by PULS, ABAQUS


and SPUSA for axial and transverse compression
loadings. <axial compression>
(Xm)axial
Model

PULS/
ABAQUS

PULS/
SPUSA

ABAQUS/
SPUSA

F3 (1025)15
F3 (1025) 25
F3 (1025) 35
L3 (1025) 15
L3 (1025) 25
L3 (1025) 35
T3 (1025) 15
T3 (1025) 25
T3 (1025) 35
mean
COV

1.034
0.954
1.010
1.003
0.976
0.993
0.954
0.959
1.021
0.989
5.30%

0.959
0.945
1.024
1.037
0.970
0.989
0.988
0.955
0.998
0.985
6.38%

0.929
0.989
1.013
1.035
0.992
0.995
1.036
0.995
0.977
0.996
4.02%

<transverse compression>
(Xm)trans.
Model

PULS/
ABAQUS

PULS/
SPUSA

ABAQUS/
SPUSA

F3 (1025)15
F3 (1025) 25
F3 (1025) 35
L3 (1025) 15
L3 (1025) 25
L3 (1025) 35
T3 (1025) 15
T3 (1025) 25
T3 (1025) 35
mean
COV

0.912
1.014
1.292
0.967
1.012
1.069
0.948
1.008
1.026
1.028
12.01%

0.927
1.087
1.410
1.003
1.072
1.132
0.979
1.033
1.093
1.082
13.60%

1.017
1.076
1.090
1.042
1.061
1.059
1.037
1.032
1.068
1.054
6.85%

Further computations were performed in the


parametric study by changing the aspect ratio and
plate thicknesses of the stiffened plates.
4
4.1

DERIVATION OF STRENGTH
FORMULATION
Basis of the derived formulation

As mentioned earlier in this paper, in order to


derive a good ultimate strength formulation, we
must take into account not only the interaction
between yielding and elastic buckling but also
the interaction between different buckling modes.
Even under axial compression alone various buckling modes may be experienced depending on the
geometries and material properties of stiffened
plates. The axial compression becomes much more

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complicated when it is combined with transverse


compression and/or shear force.
In this study, the generalized Merchant-Rankine
formula (Odland & Faulkner 1981) is adopted as
the basis of the proposed ultimate strength formulation for stiffened plates. In the formula proposed
by Odland and Faulkner, the von Mises yield criterion is adopted to monitor the collapse of stocky
structures while the elastic buckling stress subjected to combined loading is estimated using the
linear sum of each component.
All the parametric study results obtained using
SPUSA, ABAQUS and PULS were utilized in
the regression analyses to derive the knock-down
factors.
4.2

Axial compression

The generalized Merchant-Rankine formula can be


written as Equation 9 for axial compression incorporated with lateral pressure (Cho et al., 1998).
2

Using the parametric study results for axial


compression and lateral pressure loadings, the
knock-down factors c and t were determined
through regression analysis as Equations 10(a)
and 10(b), respectively. The knock-down factor for
overall buckling, oa was assumed to be 1.0.

0.69 c1 63t 0.09

c
t

47
0.47
c

(10a)

t 1.14

3 51

(10b)

oa = 1.0

(10c)

Y E is the plate slenderness


p
where
Y ec is the slenderness ratio of the
ratio; c
stiffener for column buckling; and t
Y et is
the slenderness ratio of the stiffener for tripping.
4.3

Transverse compression alone

The proposed formulation for transverse compression alone can be written as follows:

xa
xa + xbs
xa xa + xb
+
+
+
= 1
oa eoax Y
c ec
t et
(9)
where xa = applied axial compressive stress;
xbs = bending stress at the stiffener flange
due to Meq; ec = Euler column buckling
stress of stiffener including associate plating;
Y = Yp Ap Ys As Apps , is the mean yield stress;
et 1 I o (G
GJJ 4 2 L2 ( ECw )), is the elastic
tripping stress of a stiffener; xb = Y M eq M p ,
is the equivalent bending stress due to the
end bending moment and lateral pressure;
M eq M e + pbl 2 16 ; J hsf tsf 3 hswtssww3 3 , is the
St. Venant torsion constant; I 0 I w + As es2 + I f , is
the moment of inertia of the stiffener; Iw = polar
moment of inertia of stiffener web; If is the polar
moment of inertia of the stiffener flange; es = distance between the stiffener centroid (plate excluded)
and its toe; Cw I f (h
( hw t f )2 , is the torsional
warping constant;
onst
eoax = n Dy ax B 2 [ Dx B 2 Dy L2 + 2 m 2 Dxxy n2
Dy m 4 L2 n 4 B 2 ], is the overall grillage buckling stress; L,B are overall length and breadth,
respectively; ax is the average cross-section area per
unit width of plating and longitudinal stiffeners; Dx,
Dy are effective flexural rigidity per unit width of
stiffeners with attached plating in the longitudinal
(x) and transverse (y) directions, respectively; Dxy is
the twisting rigidity per unit width
c is the knock-down factor for column buckling
of stiffener; t is the knock-down factor for tripping of stiffener; and oa is the knock-down factor
for overall buckling of stiffened plate under axial
compression.

2
2


y
y

=1
+
Y
yCbc ey

(11)

2
2
2
2
where ey E ( ) (b a ) t p b is
the, local plate buckling stress under transverse
compression; y
c1 34 } is the knockdown factor for local plate buckling under transverse compression;
03
Cbc
p{ .
1 65 (b a ) } is the strengthening coefficient of the boundary condition for local
plate buckling.

4.4

Shear force alone

When pure shear force is applied the mean ultimate


strength approaches the yield stress. The formulation for pure shear force derived through regression analysis of the parametric study results is as
follows:
2

2
3 xy
xy
+ = 1
Y
e

(12)

where e = { 806 + 3.. (b a )2 }E (tt p b )2 is the


elastic shear buckling stress of local plate; and
= 4.0 is the knock-down factor for plate shear
buckling
4.5

Combined loads

Finally, the formulation to predict the ultimate


strength of stiffened plates subjected to combined

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axial compression, transverse compression, shear


force and lateral pressure is obtained as follows:
xa
xa + xbs
xa
+
+
oa eoax
c ec
t et
2
y
xy

+
+

e
yCbc ey

( xa + xb )2 ( xa + xb ) y + y2 + 3 xy2

4.6

Accuracy of the proposed formulation

=1

(13)

The proposed strength formulation was derived


for single loadings via regression analyses using
the results of the parametric study. Therefore it is

Figure 5(b). Ultimate strength of stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression and shear force with lateral pressure loadings
(p = 0.10 MPa).

necessary to determine its accuracy for combined


loadings. Figure 5 compares the predictions for
combined axial compression and transverse loadings according to the proposed formulation with
those of PULS, ABAQUS and SPUSA. Fairly
good agreements were observed.
5

Figure 5(a). Ultimate strength of stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression and shear force without lateral pressure loadings.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study an ultimate strength analysis program called SPUSA, is developed for analysis of
stiffened plates subjected to combined axial compression, transverse compression, shear force and
lateral pressure. The developed method employs the
Dynamic Relaxation technique temporally and the
Finite Element method spatially. Relevant test data
and PULS and ABAQUS predictions are utilized
to substantiate the developed method. Good agreements were obtained between the predictions.

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compression, transverse compression, shear force


and lateral pressure loadings.
REFERENCES

Figure 6. Comparison of predictions by the proposed formulation with those of PULS, ABAQUS and
SPUSA.

A rigorous parametric study was conducted


using SPUSA, PULS and ABAQUS. Adopting
the generalized Merchant-Rankine formula as
the basis and using the parametric study results, a
robust ultimate strength formulation was derived
for stiffened plates subjected to combined axial

ABAQUS. 2009. Standard Users Manual, 6.9.2.


Byklum, E. 2003. ABAQUS analyses of stiffened panel
subjected to combination of shear load, transverse
compression and lateral pressure. Det Norske Veritas,
Report No. 2003-0285.
Chan, A.S.L. & Davis, G.A.O. 1983. A simplified finite
element model for the impact of thin shells. Structures under Shock and Impacts, Proc. 1st Intl Conf on
Structures under Shock and Impact, Bulson, P.S. (Ed),
Elsevier, Amsterdam: 361380.
Cho, S-R. & Song, I-C. 2003. Experimental investigations on the ultimate and post-ultimate strength of
Stiffened plates under axial compression. Jour. of Ship
and Ocean Technology (SOTECH), 7(1): 112.
Cho, S-R., Choi, B-W. & Frieze, P.A. 1998 Ultimate
strength formulation for ships grillages under combined loadings. Proc. 7th Intl Sym. Practical Design
of Ships and Mobile Units (PRADS), Oosterveld,
M.W.C. and Tan, S.G. (Eds), Elsvier, Amsterdam:
125132.
Cho, S-R., Lee, S-B. & Kim, I-W. 1996. Experimental
and theoretical investigations on the collision strength
of plates. Proc. 10th Asian Technical Exchange and
Advisory Meeting on Marine Structures (TEAM X),
Pusan National University, Pusan: 287305.
Day, A.S. 1965. An introduction to dynamic relaxation.
The Engineer, 219: 218221.
Faulkner, D. 1977. Compression tests on welded
eccentrically stiffened plates panels. Steel Plated
Structures, Dowling, P.J. Harding, J.E. and Frieze, P.A.
(Eds), Crosby Lockwood Staples, London: 581617.
Frieze, P.A., Hobbs, R.E. & Dowling, P.J. 1978. Application of dynamic relaxation to the large deflection elasto-plastic analysis of plates. Computers &
Structures, 63 (2): 301310.
Fukumoto, Y., Usami, T. & Okamoto, Y. 1974. Ultimate
compressive strength of stiffened plates. Proc. ASCE
Speciality Conf. on Metal Bridges, St Louis.
Han, D-W. 1999. A study on ultimate strength analysis
technique for ring-stiffened cylinders having initial
shape imperfections. M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. of Naval
Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Univ. of Ulsan
(in Korean).
Kim, S-M. 2001. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the ultimate strength of ring-stiffened cylinders having initial shape and material imperfections.
M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean
Engineering, Univ. of Ulsan (in Korean).
Murray, N.W. 1975. Analysis and design of stiffened
plates for collapse load. Structural Engineer, 53:
153158.
Odland, J. & Faulkner, D. 1981. Buckling of curved steel
structuresdesign formulations. Integrity of Offshore
Structures, Faulkner, D. Cowling, M.J. and Frieze, P.A.
(Eds), Applied Science Publishers, London: 419443.
Yao, T. et al. 2000. Report of ISCC committee VI.2
Ultimate hull girder strength. 2: 321391.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Rapid analysis techniques for ultimate strength predictions


of aluminum structures
M.D. Collette
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

ABSTRACT: A series of rapid semi-analytical methods for predicting the collapse of aluminum
structures is presented, including methods for tensile and compressive limit states. The methods presented
have been designed to be extensible to a wide range of structural topologies, including both conventional
stiffened-panel topologies and more advanced extrusion topologies. Unlike existing steel ultimate strength
methodologies, particular attention is paid to capturing aluminum-specific response features, such as
alloy-dependent material stress-strain curve shapes and the weakening effect of fusion welds. The methods
are validated against finite element analysis and previously published experimental results.
1

INTRODUCTION

The design of the current generation of aluminum


high-speed vessels for commercial and military
applications has created the need for improved
aluminum structural engineering tools. The
increased size of these vessels and their exposed
operating environments has resulted in a corresponding increase in the wave-induced loads on
these vessels. As these vessels become larger and
take on increasingly challenging military missions,
the safety implications of structural failure have
grown as well. To effectively optimize and approve
lightweight structures for such vessels, naval architects require rapid ultimate strength methods for
the 5xxx and 6xxx-series aluminum alloys suitable
for use in the design process.
The industry has developed mature rapid ultimate strength tools for steel vessel structures,
mostly based on Smith (1977) type approaches to
the ultimate collapse strength of hull girders under
global bending loads. In the Smith-type approach,
individual load-shortening and load-extension
curves are derived for the different plates and
stiffened panel elements in the structure, and then
these curves are used to approximate the momentcurvature relation for the hull girder. While there is
reason for concern that aluminum structures may
not fully satisfy the interframe collapse assumption inherent in the Smith method (Benson et al.,
2010), extending the Smith-type collapse approach
is a logical first step in developing ultimate strength
methods for the new generation of aluminum
vessels.
Although there are a large number of mature
rapid load-shortening prediction methods available

for steel, there are several reasons why existing


steel formulations are unlikely to be sufficient
to support the analysis of aluminum structures.
First among these reasons is the weakening effect
of fusion welding on marine aluminum alloys.
In the heat-affected zone (HAZ) near a weld bead,
the aluminum material is weakened compared to
surrounding material, with reductions in material
proof stress typically between 30% and 50%. This
material inhomogeneity significantly complicates
the structural response; when loaded in tension,
plastic strains tend to localize in the HAZ and final
failure often involve rupture in these HAZ at low
global strains. Likewise, the HAZ may also impact
the compressive strength of the panel.
Another key difference between aluminum and
steel is that aluminum has a much more rounded
stress-strain curve than steel with an elastic modulus only 1/3 that of steel. Furthermore, the degree
of rounding varies by alloy type. The rounded curve
removes a clear yield stress and thus aluminum
alloys are typically rated in terms of their 0.2%
offset proof stress. The 5xxx-series aluminum
alloys also show a marked softening before the
proof stress is reached which reduces the buckling
strength of these alloys as the tangent modulus has
been significantly reduced at stress values below
the proof stress.
A final important difference between aluminum
and steel is that aluminum is easy to extrude, especially in the 6xxx-series. This opens up many different geometric alternatives for stiffened panels
beyond rolled profiles welded to flat plates, such
as hat-shape stiffeners or double-sided extrusions, examples of which are shown in Figure 1.
The ability to employ custom extrusions means

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Figure 1. Extruded alternatives to conventional


stiffened panel arrangements in aluminum.

that the naval architect must now check local


buckling modes of the stiffening shapea check
traditionally performed by the material producer
when rolling compact steel profiles for ships.
This paper presents a series of new methods
for rapidly assessing the tensile and compressive
strength of aluminum structures. Key goals of the
methods are to include alloy specific stress-strain
curve in the formulation, be applicable to a wide
range of extrusion topologies, and to use only rapid
semi-analytical formulations so that the method is
suitable for early-stage design and optimization
approaches. The work performed on compressive
analysis is presented first, including analysis of unstiffened plates and stiffened extruded structures
and panels in compression. This is followed by an
examination of tensile limit states. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future work are
presented.
2

COMPRESSIVE ANALYSIS

The compressive analysis of stiffened panels and


extrusions is developed on a plate-separation
model approach, where the response of individual
un-stiffened plate elements is determined initially,
and then the combined properties of assemblies of
plate elements is addressed. In the work to date,
only formulations for uni-axial compression have
been validated and are presented here, although
potential extensions to shear and bi-axial compression are possible at the plate level using existing
interaction equations.
2.1

Plate element formulation

The basis for this theory is Hopperstad et al.,s


(1999) extension of Stowells (1948) unified buckling theory. Stowells theory proposes that the uniaxial buckling stress can be expressed as:
Buckle = Elastic

(1)

where elastic is the elastic buckling stress and is


used to correct for plastic effects in stocky sections.
The classical elastic buckling stress for plates is:

Elasti
l c =k

2E

12 1 2

t

b

where is the elastic Poissons ratio for the material,


taken as 0.3 for aluminum, t is the thickness of the
member, b is the breadth, E is the elastic modulus, and k is the buckling geometry coefficient. For
the flat plates simply-supported on all four edges
investigated in this report, k was taken as 4. The
factor also changes based on plate geometry.
Stowell (1948) proposed the following for simplysupported flat plates:
=

ESEC
E

1 1 1 3 ETAN
2 + 2 4 + 4 E

SEC

where ESEC and ETAN are the secant and tangent


modulus of the materials stress-strain curve, thus
capturing the alloy-dependent stress-strain curve.
As both the secant and tangent modulus depend
on the instantaneous stress level, an iterative
approach is required to calculate the buckling stress
via Equation 2 and Equation 3. This approach has
been shown to be reasonably accurate at predicting
the initial buckling stress in both the elastic and
plastic regions; however, it does not include any
post-buckling strength.
Hopperstad et al. (1999) extended Stowells theory so that the entire compressive load-shortening
curve of the plate in compression could be predicted, thus including any post-buckling strength
that may occur. The basis for the approach is
the effective width approach, where the nominal
width of the plate is reduced as buckling occurs to
account for the loss of stiffness and resisting force
associated with buckling. Thus, for any instantaneous average compressive stress, the effective width,
beff, can be found as:
befff

avg
e

(2)

(4)

where avg is the average axial compressive stress


across the plate and e is the current edge stress,
which is equal to the stress obtained from the
material compressive stress-strain curve at the current value of axial strain.
Hopperstad et al.,s approach fundamentally
assumes that the effective width of the plate once
the edge stress of the plate has surpassed the
initial buckling stress can be found by calculating
the width of the plate that would first buckle at the
current edge stress value. Thus, the stress after
the onset of buckling can be evaluated as:

= Elasti
l c e e

(3)

(5)

where the buckling coefficient is calculated now at


the current edge-stress value and the elastic bucking

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stress is the same one from Equation 2, calculated


with the original plate geometry. The inequality simply enforces an effective breath proportion
equal to or less than one. The ultimate strength of
the plate is now found numerically as the maximum
value on the stress-strain curve. Hopperstad et al.,
presented some promising results for outstands
where one long edge the plate was left free, and
noted that this approach also seems to work well
when compared to simply-supported data, using in
part the Mofflin (1983) plate test results, without
providing details.
The initial proposal by Hopperstad et al., does
not include the impact of initial out-of-plane
deformations (IOOPD), residual stresses, or HAZ
on plate strength. Extensions to include these were
formulated. For IOOPD, a simplified model was
developed to reduce the effective plate thickness
based on the assumptions that: the IOOPD will be
roughly equal to the plate thickness and can be represented by a single parameter and the reduction in
plate ultimate strength is related to the amount of
bending induced by the IOOPD. By investigating a
series of aluminum plates tested by Mofflin (1983)
with various levels of IOOPD, the following formula was developed which showed a good fit to
the Mofflin data:
tefff

M U ET 0.2
t
t 1 k
, with 2 < tefff
M
E

0.2
T U

Mu = utMAX
M 0.2 =

0.2t
6

t (6)
(7)

(8)

where k is a scaling factor found to be roughly


0.2 for the Mofflin plate dataset, ET is the tangent
modulus of the material stress-strain curve calculated at that 0.2% proof stress or the ultimate stress
of the plate without considering IOOPD. The
moment from Equation 7 is the moment induced
at the maximum IOOPD by the ultimate stress
u, calculated by Equation 5 without considering
IOOPD, and the moment from Equation 8 is that
required to reach the yield stress at the extreme
fiber of the plate.
With the effective thickness determined from
Equation 8, the load-shortening curve determined
for the un-deformed plates is then corrected by the
ultimate strength of the plate with reduced effective thickness:

IOOP

PERFECT

U _ IOOP
U _ PERFECT

(9)

This correction includes the slight reduction in


stiffness observed in plates with large IOOPD.

Additionally, the impact of HAZ in the direction


of the applied loading was included, as were residual stress effects. Residual stresses were modeled
with the familiar tension-block assumption along
the plates edges parallel to the applied load, with
a balancing compressive stress in the mid-region
of the plate. Three different corrections were made
to the load-shortening curve to account for these
impacts. First, the load-shortening curve for the
central part of the plate that was loaded in compression was adjusted at each strain value by adding the elastic strain resulting from the residual
stress and then subtracting off the residual stress
from the resulting stress value:

PLATE _ R ( a ) = PLATE ( a + R ) R

(10)

where a is the applied stress, R is the locked-in


compressive residual strain, and R is the compressive residual stress. The outer edges of the plate
were then modified in the subsequent two steps.
The tension block was assumed to unloaded elastically at first, and then re-load along the HAZ
material stress-strain curve. The HAZ that extends
outside of the tension block was assumed to follow the HAZ stress-strain curve in compression.
The overall resisting force in the plate was then
assembled by adding the contributions from the
central region, tension block region, and HAZ
region. This approach is only valid for welds parallel to the direction of applied stress. Transverse
welds are also important, however, a simplified
model for these types of welds has not yet been
developed.
Interaction between compressive residual
stresses and IOOPD has been observed in steel
plates, and simply combining the strength reduction from these sources is usually overly conservative (Guedes Soares 1988). A similar situation
was observed in aluminum, and a method for correcting the observed IOOPD in the presence of
residual stresses for a reduced IOOPD for use in
Equation 6 was defined:

IOOP _ REDUCED

l c R
IOOP Elasti

Elasti

l c

(11)

where Elastic is the elastic buckling stress from


Equation 2, and R is the compressive residual
stress.
2.2

Plate element verification

Three different sources of experimental validation


data are available for simply-supported aluminum
plates. The total available database consisted of

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+ 0.002
E
0.2

(12)

Each of the test programs noted here used


measured compressive stress-strain properties.
Using compressive stress-strain properties in place
of tensile stress-strain properties is important for
aluminum, especially for the 5xxx-series alloys in a
work-hardened condition as there may be large differences between the tensile and compressive proof
stress, often exceeding 10%.
The first test program is that of Mofflin
(1983) which tested 76 aluminum plates in uniaxial compression at the University of Cambridge.
The plates were made from 5083 and 6082 alloys.
The 6082 plates were in a TF temper, which
is roughly equivalent to a modern T6 temper,
while the 5083 were in a mill finish condition; a
loose specification used at the time with considerable variability in proof stress. All of the plates were
nominally 6 mm thick, tested at a single aspect
ratio of four to one, and tested with simple supports on the unloaded edges that did not constrain
the plate from pulling in. Initial imperfections were
intentionally induced, although not in the plates
lowest buckling mode, and welds were simulated
along the longitudinal edges by making TIG passes
without depositing weld metal.
The second test program was a series of 6061
and 5456 plates tested under uni-axial compression at the David Taylor Model Basin in the 1960s
(Conley et al., 1963). The 6061 plates were in the T6
temper, while the 5456 plates were tested in the H24
and H321 tempers. Eight un-welded 6061 plates and
16 un-welded 5456 plates were used in the current
comparison. The plates were all 914 mm long, with
widths of 305 mm and 457 mm. The compressive
proof stress of the plates was measured, but the knee
exponent, n, in the Ramberg-Osgood relation was
not measured. For the purposes of the current validation study, it was assumed that the 6061-T6 alloys
had a knee exponent, n, of 25 while both tempers of
the 5456 alloy had an exponent of 16. The experimental program addressed quite slender plates, with
b/t ranging from 48 to 144. IOOPD were noted to
be as-supplied, and believed to be typical of what is
present in the shipyard, but were not measured.
The third and final test program is a series of
aerospace alloy plates tested by NACA (Anderson
and Anderson 1956). While the plates were tested
over a wide range of slenderness, including very
stocky plates, the base material was normally quite

Predicted Failure Stess/0.2% Proof Stress

thin (1.6 mm) so the initial imperfections and


manufacturing residual stresses in these plates may
be different from thicker marine plates. 58 different plate tests are included in the current validation
effort. The plates were primarily of the 7075-T6
alloy, although a smaller number of 2024-T3 and
2014-T6 plates were also included. A compressive
stress strain curve was presented for each alloy. The
plates covered b/t ranges from 15 to 60. The plate
length is not specified, but was selected so at least
five buckles could form in the direction of applied
load. IOOPD are thought to be small.
Initially, only Hopperstad et al.,s extension to
the Stowell theory was compared to the unwelded
plates in the dataset, without corrections for
IOOPD. The results are shown in Figure 2.
Defining the bias of the prediction as the
predicted strength divided by the experimental
strength, the mean bias for the predicted ultimate
strength was 1.03 with a Coefficient Of Variation
(COV) of the bias of 8%. The initial buckling
stress, measured only in the DTMB and NACA
data sets was predicted with a mean bias of 1.03
and COV of 12%. Notably, the bias in the formula
was independent of the alloy type, indicating that
the effect of alloy-dependent material stress-strain
curve has been adequately captured.
IOOPD, residual stresses, and HAZ corrections
were applied progressively to Mofflin plates that
1.5

Perfect Prediction
Mofflin Plates with large IOOP
Mofflin Plates with small IOOP
DTMB Plate-All Alloys
NACA Plates - All Alloys

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Experimental Failure Stess/0.2% Proof Stress

Figure 2. Comparison of ultimate strengths from


Equation 5 against all unwelded plate data.
1.5

Predicted Failure Stess/0.2% Proof Stress

130 different plate specimens. For this comparison


study, the well-known Ramberg-Osgood curve
was used to represent the stress-strain curve of the
aluminum alloy:

Perfect Prediction
Stowell, No OOP
Stowell, With OOP
Stowell, With OOP and Weld
1

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

Experimental Failure Stess/0.2% Proof Stress

Figure 3. Corrections for IOOPD and residual stress


from welding on Mofflin plate test data.

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had both measured IOOPD and simulated welds.


The results are shown in Figure 3, indicating that
the proposed corrections largely remove the error
arising from these sources.
2.3

where E is the Euler column buckling stress that is


distinct from the edge stress, e, used above with a
lower-case e subscript. E is found as:
E =

Panels and extrusions formulation

Load-shortening response is required at the panel


level, as well as the plate level, so that grillage and
hull-girder collapse modes can be investigated.
Typically, stiffeners and attached plate or extrusion section can be idealized as a column supported by the transverse frames on each end of the
panel. Using this column idealization, an elastic
column buckling parameter, , can be defined for
the stiffened panel roughly analogous to the plate
slenderness parameter depends on the length
of column, l, and the cross-sectional area, A, and
area moment of inertia, I.
b 0.2
t
E
l 0.2
=
,
r E

r=

I
A

(13)

An approximate load-shortening methodology


is presented in this section. This is based upon the
classical panel column buckling approach developed and presented by Faulkner et al. (1973) for
steel panels, which was further extended to predict the entire load-shortening curve by Gordo
and Guedes Soares (1993). In this approach, the
strength of a steel plate and stiffener combination
in compression can be determined as:
C CB AS bet
=
Y
Y AS bt

(14)

where C is the column failure stress, Y is the


yield stress of the steel, CB is the column buckling
stress, b is the plate width, be is the effective plate
width at failure, t is the plate thickness, and AS is
the stiffener cross-sectional area. The second term
in this expression assumes that the plate between
stiffeners will buckle before the overall panel fails,
and thus an area reduction factor for this must be
included. In this approach, the column buckling
stress is calculated using the Johnson-Ostenfeld
interaction approach to transition from elastic
buckling to in-elastic buckling as:

CB
1 Y
= 1
, E 0 5Y
Y
4 E
CB E
=
, E < 0 5Y
Y
Y

2
I F
E EEFF
2
AS bet
a

(16)

where a is the panel length between support, and


IEFF is a tangent effective moment of inertia, calculated assuming the plate between stiffeners has a
tangent effective width, be, related to the instantaneous compressive modulus of the plate accounting for its buckling failure. This is different than the
effective width, be, discussed previously. Faulkner
et al., gives formulations so effective width and
tangent effective width can be predicted for plates
within the edge stress range of 75% to 100% of
the plate yield stress. These are determined using
and effective plate slenderness, e that replaces the
proof or yield stress definition in the plate slenderness, , from Equation 13 by the current edge
stress. This approach is conceptually similar to the
Stowell buckling approach presented previously for
plates, except in the Faulkner et al., approach, the
maximum strength obtained by the plate is deterministic, and given when the edge stress reaches
the yield stress of the material.
This approach forms the basis of Gordo and
Guedes Soares (1993) extension to the method over
a wider range of edge stresses. Gordo and Guedes
Soares also extended this method to predict the
entire load-shortening curve of a column in compression by assuming that the approach can be generalized to any strain level. This in turn assumed that
Faulkner et al.,s equations for effective breadth and
tangent effective breadth are valid outside of the
range initially proposed, however the resulting loadshortening curves have proven to be quite accurate.
The conceptual approach taken by Faulkner
et al., and the modifications by Gordo and Guedes
Soares for predicting the entire load-shortening
curve were used as the basis of a load-shortening
curve methodology in the present work. In this
approach, the load-shortening curve accounting
for both plate and column buckling failure modes
was computed as follows.
First, the edge strain at which column failure
occurs was computed using Equation 14. In this
equation, the area term was adjusted for the general extrusion cross-section case where multiple
plating elements may buckle by replacing the area
term at the end of the expression by:

(15)

AEfff ( )
ATotal

, AEfff =

Efff i ( ) Ai
i

M ( ) Ai

(17)

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where Eff is the average compressive stress for each


plate element, 1..i in the cross section calculated by
the plate strength approach given previously, M is
the fully-effective edge stress based on the material stress-strain curve in compression, and A is
the cross-sectional area of each plate element in
the overall cross section. The dependence on the
applied edge strain, , indicates that the area ratio
changes with applied strain. The effective width
and tangent effective width for Equations 1416
are calculated directly from the theoretical definitions of each quantity and the load-shortening
curve determined for each plate element as outlined previously.
This method is then extended to predict the
entire load-shortening curve, following the general
approach of Gordo and Guedes Soares. At strains
below the column failure strain, COL, the net resisting force in the column is calculated by summing
the individual plate load-shortening curves for
each plate element in the panel cross-section.
At strains above the column failure strain, COL,
the net resisting force in the column is determined
by applying Equation 14 at the instantaneous
value of edge strain. This approach gives a rapid
method of determining the load-shortening curve
of aluminum panels and complex extrusions in
compression.

( )
be
( ) = Efff i
b
M ( )
Efff i ( )

M ( )
be
( ) =
b
( )
2.4

(18)

Panels and extrusions verification

The proposed panel method was verified against


three different experimental programs. The first
was a recent large-scale test program of 5083,
5383 and 6082 alloy panels conducted by Professor Paik and published as Ship Structure Committee report SSC-451 (Paik et al., 2008). These
were conventionally-stiffened panels, with fusion
welded stiffeners. The second test program was a
group of 4 extruded panels in 6082 alloy, tested
at NTNU (Aalberg et al., 2001). These stiffeners were hat shaped hollow extrusions joined
together by friction stir welding to form a 3 or
5-stiffener wide panel, two replicates were tested
at two different overall panel lengths. The final
group consisted of three tee-stiffened panels and
one flat bar panel constructed in the 5083 alloy
and tested in mid 1980s in the United Kingdom (Clarke and Swan 1985) by the Admiralty
Research Establishment (A.R.E.).

Table 1.
method.

Performance of simplified panel strength


Ultimate strengh

Ultimate strain

Experiment

Mean

Cov

Mean

Cov

SSC-451
NTNU Hat
A.R.E.

1.12
1.05
0.97

0.13
0.04
0.20

1.04
0.90
0.81

0.28
0.14
0.20

Figure 4. Comparison of prediction and experimental


load-shortening curve, NTNU panel P.

The results of the panel method are shown in


Table 1 below, using the same definition of bias
and covariance as for the plate equations above.
The initially proposed method is slightly optimistic
for the panel ultimate strength, and slightly conservative for the panel ultimate strain. An example
load-shortening curve is given in Figure 4.
In general, it appears that updating the effective width and tangent effective width of plates
post-failure by Equation 17 is overly conservative,
and was causing the reduction in ultimate strain
shown in Table 1 and load-shortening curves that
were too steep in the post ultimate strength region.
Equation 17 reduces the effective properties of the
panel much more quickly than Gordo and Guedes
Soares extension of the Faulkner method.
While the current method does not include stiffener tripping, and should not be used on panels
where stiffener tripping could occur, with further
improvements to Equation 17, it does appear to be a
promising method of predicting the load-shortening
curve of complex extrusions that cannot be idealized as plate-stiffener combinations.
3

TENSILE RESPONSE

A key component of any progressive collapse


approach is the prediction of the response of the

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tension flange of the hull girder. For steel vessels,


this is normally assumed to follow the material
stress-strain curve in tension. However, an aluminum vessel will have regular HAZ transverse to the
longitudinal bending stress, from unit and block
joints as well as HAZ from fillet welds joining web
frames to the shell plate. Thus, the tensile stiffness
of an aluminum hull girder depends upon the base
material properties as well as the size and distribution of these HAZ. Previous work has examined
a range of simplified models and compared them
to limited experimental tests with mixed results
(Collette 2007), as well as examining the risk of
fracture in the HAZ as a collapse mode that could
induce hull girder collapse (Collette 2005).
In this work, non-linear finite element analysis
of idealized HAZ in a butt weld, ignoring any
weld metal reinforcement was made as a way of
exploring the distribution of strain under uniform
tensile extension. From such analysis, the required
features of a simplified model were determined.
A picture of the idealization of the weld is shown
in Figure 5. A key to understanding how the HAZ
responds in tension is the concept of constraint.
When loaded in tension, weaker HAZ material
will deform plastically before the surrounding
base material. In isolation the plastic HAZ material would shrink both through the thickness of
the plate and along the length of the weld, but is
prevented from doing so by being fused to the stillelastic base metal. Thus, the base metal constrains
the HAZ and induces a hydrostatic stress state in
the HAZ material which can retard yielding of the
HAZ. The HAZ joint therefore appears stronger
and stiffer than the HAZ material properties determined from small weld or coupon tests without
adequate surrounding material.
The initial study concentrated on 2-D planestrain FEA models built with the ABAQUS
finite-element code. The plane-strain assumption
represents complete constraint along the length of
the weld and addresses constraint in the throughthickness direction only. In ABAQUS, eight-node
CPE8R quadratic elements were used along with
the deformation plasticity model for material
properties. All models used a symmetry boundary
condition at the weld centerline with enforced displacement at the free edge of the weld. Square elements were used with a minimum of eight elements
through the thickness of the plate. The plate was
assumed to be 8 mm thick with an overall width of
125 mm. Within this 125 mm overall width, the relative width of the HAZ, strength of the HAZ, and
shape of the material stress-strain curve were varied parametrically. A sketch of the 2-D FEA model
and boundary conditions is shown in Figure 6.
To evaluate the effect of through-thickness constraint forces, the load-extension curve for 125 mm

Figure 5.

Idealized HAZ model for tensile response.

Figure 6. 2-D FEA model with centerline symmetry for


tensile response.

Figure 7. HAZ width influence on through-thickness


constraint.

wide 6082 alloy butt weld models was computed


allowing the weld HAZ width to vary from 40 mm
to 2 mm (5 times the plate thickness to 0.25 times
the plate thickness). The results from this study are
shown in Figure 7. The HAZ proof strength was
kept as 50% of the base material proof strength
in this study. It appears that the through-thickness
constraint becomes significant only for HAZ
whose width is less than the plate thickness. For
very narrow HAZ, the HAZ strength approaches
that of the base material as the constraint stresses
become quite large. For most fusion welds, the
HAZ width is assumed to be roughly three times
the thickness; based on these result the throughthickness constraint does not need to be included
in the simplified tensile response model.

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The effect of constraint along the direction


of the weld was studied next by removing the
plane-strain assumption of the 2-D model. In a
large stiffened panel, this constraint can likely be
approximated by a plane strain condition on the
HAZ alone, as differential deformations between
the HAZ and base material along the length of
the weld cannot develop. However, such constraint
forces are likely to be missing in small-scale tensile
test specimens typically used to develop material
properties for structural modeling. Thus, a method
of moving from the small-scale measured properties to the response of a larger structure is needed.
To study this effect, the 2-D FEA model shown
in Figure 6 was replaced by a series of 3-D models where the depth of the model out of the plane
Figure 6 was progressively increased. For this
model, 20-node quadratic elements were used with
the same boundary conditions as Figure 6. Based
on this study, it appears that a simple correction
factor, c, accounting for the constraint stresses in
the transverse direction applied to both the uniaxial proof stress and elastic modulus of the HAZ
used in Equation 12 would be adequate to approximate the behavior:
c=

1
1 + 2

1.13

(19)

With this correction factor applied to the


HAZ material properties, a very simple series
model (Collette 2007) can be proposed for the
load-extension of the HAZ, where the strain,
, in the HAZ material and base material are found
separately by requiring equal stress (and hence net
force) in each material, using Equation 12 with
proof stress and elastic modulus modified by the
c factor computed from Equation 18. These strains
are then combined in proportion to their lengths,
L, to give the overall strain of the joint:

LHAZ + BASE LBBASE


= HAZ H
LHA
HAZ
H
Z + LB
BASE
S

(20)

A comparison between this simplified model


and the plane-strain 2-D FEA analysis for a 6082
HAZ joint with a HAZ width three times the plate
thickness and varying levels of proof strength in
the HAZ from 50% to 90% of the base strength is
shown in Figure 8. As can be seen from the figure,
the simplified model performs remarkably well
until through-thickness deformations reduce the
cross-sectional area in the HAZ thus reducing the
strength predicted by the FEA model. This simplified model can be used to determine the loadextension curve of the hull girder in the presence
of transverse HAZ.

Figure 8. Load-extension curves for 6082 butt weld,


HAZ width three times plate thickness, HAZ strength
varies from 50% to 90% of base plate strength.

CONCLUSIONS

A series of simplified ultimate strength models


have been presented for the compressive and tensile response of aluminum welds, plates, and stiffened panels. These models are designed to allow
Smith-type progressive collapse approaches to be
implemented for aluminum vessels. These models
take into account important differences between
aluminum and steel, such as alloy-dependent stressstrain curve shape, weaker material near fusion
welds, and the ability to extrude aluminum into
complex extrusions. In limited comparison of the
results to FEA studies and published experiments
the methods generally perform encouragingly, and
represent a rapid, aluminum-specific approach to
ultimate strength calculations.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author would like to acknowledge support of
Dr. Paul Hess at the U.S. Office of Naval Research,
Code 331, who has supported this work through
several different projects and grants, and encouraged its development.
REFERENCES
Aalberg, A., Langseth, M. & Larsen, P. 2001. Stiffened
aluminium panels subjected to axial compression.
Thin-Walled Structures 39:861885.
Anderson, R. & Anderson, M. 1956. Correlation of crippling strength of plate structures with material properties. NACA Technical Note 3600. Washington, DC:
NACA.
Benson, S., Downes, J. & Dow, R. 2010. A semi-analytical
method to predict the ultimate strength and

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collapse behavior of orthogonally stiffened panels.


In Proceedings 11th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures,
PRADS 2010, Rio de Janeiro: 10911101.
Clarke, J. & Swan, J. 1985. Interframe buckling of aluminium alloy stiffened plating. Admiralty Research
Establishment Dunfermline Report AMTE(S) R85104.
Dunfermline: ARE.
Collette, M. 2005. Strength and reliability of aluminium
stiffened panels. PhD Thesis, School of Marine Science
and Technology. Newcastle: University of Newcastle
upon Tyne.
Collette, M. 2007. Impact of fusion welds on the ultimate
strength of aluminum structures. In Proceedings 10th
International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships
and Other Floating Structures, PRADS 2007, Houston,
Texas: 944952.
Conley, W., Becker, L. & Allnutt, R. 1963. Buckling and
ultimate strength of plating loaded in edge compression progress report 2unstiffened panels. David
Taylor Model Base, Structural Mechanics Laboratory,
R&D Report 1682. West Bethesda, MD: DTMB.
Faulkner, D., Adamchak, J., Snyder, G. & Vetter, M.
1973. Synthesis of welded grillages to withstand compression and normal loads. Computers & Structures 3:
221246.
Gordo, J. & Guedes Soares, C. 1993. Approximate load
shortening curves for stiffened plate under uni-axial
compression. In Proceedings of the 5th International
Conference on the Structural Integrity of Offshore
Structures, Glasgow, UK: 189211.

Guedes Soares, C. 1988. Design equation for the


compressive strength of unstiffened plate elements
with initial imperfections. J. Construct. Steel Research
9: 287310.
Hopperstad, O., Langseth, M. & Tryland, T. 1999. Ultimate strength of aluminum alloy outstands in compression, Thin-Walled Structures 43: 279295.
Mofflin, D. 1983. Plate buckling in steel and aluminum.
PhD Thesis, Trinity College. Cambridge: University of
Cambridge.
Paik, J., Thayamballi, A., Ryu, J., Jang, J., Seo, J.
Park, S., Soe, S., Renaud, C. & Kim, N. 2008.
Mechanical collapse testing on aluminum stiffened
panels for marine applications. Ship Structure Committee Report SSC-451. Washington, DC: Ship Structure Committee.
Smith, C.S. 1977. Influence of local compressive failure
on ultimate longitudinal strength of a ships hull.
In Proceedings International Symposium on Practical
Design in Shipbuilding, PRADS 77, Tokyo: 7379.
Stowell, E.Z. 1948. A unified theory of plastic buckling
of columns and plates, NACA Technical Note 1556.
Washington, DC: NACA.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

A revisit on design and analysis of stiffened shell structures


for offshore applications
Purnendu K. Das, K.K. Subin & Paul C. Pretheesh
Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde,
Glasgow, UK

ABSTRACT: Advanced design methods and procedures are getting published every now and then from
all corners of the world. But the practicing codes could not always append all the refined or essential
recommendations timely. Stiffened cylinders are one among those structural components. Most of the
offshore floating platform components are made as stiffened cylinders and an improved model in the
design process can affect the total construction cost and schedule to a great extent. Reliability based
design approach is now seems to be advantageous over the deterministic type of structural designing
process as it addresses uncertainties in the design variables and leads to consistent level of safety. The Reliability based approach still needs a robust strength model to predict the capacity with respect to random
design variables. Numerical analysis methods are suitable for this purpose but the time and effort involved
are quite high and hence a robust analytical approach is preferred for reliability analysis. DNV and API
are the most widely used design codes which offer strength models for stiffened cylindrical shell under
different loading conditions. This paper establishes a strength model for ring, stringer and orthogonally
stiffened cylindrical shells which is actually a modified version of a strength model proposed earlier. The
proposed model shows better agreement with the experimental results compared to the practicing DNV
and API design codes. The model uncertainty factor and the strength model can be utilised for the reliability analysis of similar structures.
1

INTRODUCTION

Cylindrical shells are one of the major structural


components in offshore engineering world.
Researchers from the last century (Thimoshenko
and Gere (1961), Windenburg and Trilling (1934),
Von Mises (1929) etc.) rigorously investigated
the underlying mechanisms of this category of
structures and predicted the structural behaviour
under various loading conditions. Many of these
closed form relations in terms of the basic geometrical and material design parameters predicts
the behaviour reasonably accurate. The revolutionary developments in the computing realm within
the last century increased the power of numerical
analysis to a great extent that it can predict results
so close to the reality. It has the capability to analyse
the structures with all its geometrical and material
complexities under static or dynamic loading situation with prevailing environmental conditions.
It can even perform coupled type of analysis to
combine various physical phenomenons such as
mechanical, thermal, electrical etc.
The modern design approaches consider structural reliability as one of the essential criteria to
be satisfied for structural integrity. The design
optimisation with reliability based approaches need

a tool to predict the structural capacity very accurately. Hence the strength analysis of structures
with a higher degree of accuracy is quite important
and crucial in the overall design process. Numerical analysis tools calibrated with reasonable model
uncertainty factor are absolutely suitable for this
purpose.
The structural reliability analysis needs to do
the capacity assessment of the structure numerous
times with variations in the design parameters
to evaluate the structural reliability. Although
the numerical methods can be used for reliability
analysis, the time and expense involved is quite
high. It further demands great effort and expertise for acceptable results. Considering the above
facts, an analytical approach in terms of basic
structural design parameters to predict the structural capacity is more suitable for the reliability
analysis. Moreover, a component level reliability
assessment for a huge structure with number of
local structural parts at a preliminary design stage
cannot afford much time and expense. The necessity of a good analytical strength model for initial design process is hence very important at this
instance.
There are various rule based design codes
available for the assessment of structural capac-

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ity of stiffened cylindrical structures under different loading conditions. DNV-RP-C202 and API
BUL 2U are two of the major industry recommended codes in practice. This paper proposes a
formulation for the strength assessment of ring
stiffened and ring-stringer stiffened cylinders. The
codes and the proposed formulation are compared
statistically with respect to mean and COV of a
large population of screened test data collected
over the years.
2

BUCKLING OF STIFFENED
CYLINDERS

The stiffened cylinders are one of the most


important structural components in buoyant
semi-submersible and Tension leg type offshore
platforms. The legs of these structures are generally and most likely made of stiffened cylinders
because of its inherent capability to resist high
axial loads and bending moments with lateral pressure loads.
The stiffened cylinders are classified as ring stiffened, stringer stiffened and ring-stringer stiffened
cylinders which is also known as orthogonally stiffened cylinders. Ring stiffened cylinders are made
of fabricated cylinder with ring frames welded
externally or internally at wide spacing. Stringer
stiffened cylinders will have equally spaced longitudinal stiffeners known as stringers welded internally or externally around the fabricated cylinder
throughout the length. Orthogonally stiffened cylinders will have both of these stiffeners. The stiffeners can be of many types like flat bar, angle bar
and T bar etc. The structure is fabricated by butt
welding process from cold or hot-formed plates so
that the structural continuity of the stiffeners and
the cylinder is established. The welding introduces
geometrical distortion and residual stresses in the
structure in addition to the pre-fabrication and
mechanical handling imperfections. The strength of
the structure is mainly dependent on the basic geometrical and material structural design parameters.
At certain ideal conditions, the strength prediction
considering the basic structural parameters could
be reasonably accurate. But this approach never
can represent any real life situation. It involves a
lot of known and unknown parameters which
potentially governs the structural behaviour. Some
of them are the effect of geometrical imperfections,
residual stresses, type and direction of stiffeners
(whether internal or external) etc. The contribution of these parameters on the structural behaviour at different loading and support conditions
will be surprisingly different.
Basically the stiffened cylinder structure
can buckle and eventually fail in two ways.

Figure 1. Modes of local and overall buckling in stiffened


cylinders.

Snap-through buckling occurs by a sudden reverse


of the curvature locally at certain combination of
axial loads and the successive bending moments
and results in a total failure as there is no chance
of moment redistribution. Other failure type is
the classical type of bifurcation buckling. Various
local and overall buckling modes of stiffened cylinders are shown in Figure 1.
3

ANALYTICAL STRENGTH
MODELLING

In the simplest way, a good analytical strength


model should predict the strength of the structure
accurately under the imposed loading and support
conditions. As mentioned earlier, because of the
assumptions and approximations considered in
the analytical relations along with the unaccounted
factors, there always remain a certain percentage
of error in the structural strength prediction. So
a strength model can be rated based on the deviation from the experimental results. The best way
to quantify this uncertainty is with the modelling
parameter i.e., ratio of experimental value and
the theoretically predicted value. This modelling

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parameter is also known as the model uncertainty


factor Xm. In structural reliability analysis, the
model uncertainty factor is incorporated in the
failure surface equation as follows

1; Zl 2.85

C = 1.425 + 0.175
75; Zl < 2.85
Zl

Z = XmRS

04
0 003Zl 1
;
0.75 0.142(Zl 1)
300t

n = 1 Zl < 20

R
0
; Zl 20
0.35 0.0003
t

Xm is the model uncertainty factor associated


with strength R S is the load and Z is the g(.)
function in the first order Second order reliability analysis. Z represents the safety margin in the
structural component.
Xm can be calculated for various theoretical
strength models comparing with the experimental
data. A good analytical strength model will have
mean of Xm tends to unity and the coefficient of
variation will be small. The strength models can be
compared based on these values for different loading cases as axial, radial and combined.

The design strength of the ring stiffened cylinders under axial, radial and combined loading are
computed based on the limit state approach. This
formulation focuses on the shell collapse between
ring stiffeners. The recommended formulation is
similar the one suggested earlier, Das et al. (2003)
with some modification on the knockdown factors
so that the experimental results are getting closer
to the prediction.
Under axial compression

The limit state approach estimate the elastic buckling strength of a ring stiffened cylinder subjected
to axial compression as,

where

Zl =

n =

1
(1 + e4 )

e =

Now the Model uncertainty factor for the axial


load,
Xm =

4.2

Under hydrostatic pressure

For hydrostatic pressure, the proposed formulation, Faulkner et al. (1983) is identical with the
approach in BS5500. The inelastic hydrostatic collapse pressure is estimated as,
0.5 phm ; py phm

py
phc =
py 1 0.5 p ; py < phm
hm

where

Von Mises, (1929) propose the solution for


elastic hydrostatic buckling pressure of an unsupported cylinder is as follows.

Et
Et
= 0.605 ,
2 R
R
3(1 )

Classical elastic axial


Timoshenko & Gere, (1961)

1.3
1 + 0.3 n n 1

A quadratic interaction of y and e can be


used to predict the inelastic collapse stress.
c = y

e = BnCcr

cr =

STRENGTH MODELLING OF RING


STIFFENED SHELLS

4.1

B=

buckling

stress,
phm

L2
1 2
Rt

Et
R
=
2
1 R
n2 1 +
2 L

2
2

2
1
t2
R

+
n 1 +

2
2
2
L
2 L 2 12R 1

n + 1

nC cr

C is a Length dependent coefficient,

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Windenburg and Trilling, (1934) proposed a


simplified expression as follows.
1

( )( +

phhm =

phm

t
R

4.3

t
R

prm =

L
0.636
Rt

The above expression does not provide satisfactory results for too small or too large values
of L / Rt . The above expression assumes pinned
boundary condition at the supported cylinder end.
Even though more advanced analytical expressions
are available, the above expression is widely used
because of the simplicity and the parameter Phm
has low influence in the prediction of inelastic collapse pressure.
Wilson (1966), proposed relatively simple linear
equation for the circumferential yield stress of the
cylindrical shell.
t
y
R
py =
1 G

R
Ar
Rcr

The Model uncertainty factor for the radial


pressure load,

4.4

G=

Under combined axial compression


and radial pressure

p
+ p = 1
c
rc

cosh ( L ) cos ( L )
N=
,
sinh ( L ) sii ( L )

p
prc

Most of the design codes handle the combined loading based on an interaction approach. The general
interaction expression is in the following form.

1.285
Rt

2 sinh

R
t
1 0.5 phm
e

0.5 prm ; py prm

py
prc =
py 1 0.5 p ; py < prm
rm

Xm =


J 1
2
=
2 Nt
J + trht +

phm

Now the inelastic collapse pressure under radial


pressure load is computed similar to the hydrostatic case as below.

where,

Under radial pressure

Assuming a linear interaction between axial load


and radial pressure load, the proposed model predicts the elastic radial collapse pressure as follows.

L
0.636
Rt

0.919E
=

p
phc

Xm =

L
L
L L
cos
+ cosh
siin
2
2
2 2
sinh (

si ( )
) + sin

G and N are transcendental functions of


L, i.e., which cannot be expressed in terms of
algebraic operations or satisfy a polynomial
equation.
The Model uncertainty factor for the hydrostatic
pressure load,

The above expression demonstrates the limiting


criteria for the structure stability under combined
loading. Hence, there exist a number of loading combinations which can cause the collapse
of the structure. Eventually, the above expression
provides the model uncertainty factor for combined loads at which a structural collapse occurs.
The best results with the available data is noticed
with m = 1 and n = 2.
Therefore,
p
Xm = +
c prc

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STRENGTH MODELLING OF RING


AND STRINGER STIFFENED SHELLS

5.1

Under axial compression

Das et al. (1992) proposed the design strength


of the ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under
axial, radial and combined loading. It is basically
RCC formulation with a revised value for the bias
of knockdown factor.
The steps to calculate the axial strength are as
follows.
i. The elastic buckling stress for perfect shell under
curved panel formulation,

cr

2
1
s

Kr =
2 (
t
1; r < 0.53

) (

; r 0.53

vii. Effective width (minimum)


Shell effective width,
1.05 0.28
sem
2 K r ; r 0.53
= r
r
s
1; < 0.53
r
Shell reduced effective width,

3Z 2
t
0.904 E 4 + 4s ; Zs 11.4
s


=
0.605E t ; Z > 11.4
s

0.53

sem

K ; 0.53
= r r r
s
1; < 0.53
r
viii. MI of stringer and the reduced effective width
of the shell

s2
1 2
Rt

Zs =

3
As dcs + .5t )2 sem
t
+
As
12
1+
semt

ii. The lower bound knockdown factor,

I e

1 25
0 0024Zs 1
;
1 0.919Zs
300t

Z 11.4
n = s
1.5 27
R

0.27 +
+
+ 0.008 Zs 1
;
300t
Zs Zs2

11.4
70
s

ix. Elastic stress for stringer stiffened cylinder is


the sum of column elastic stress considering
the effective shell width and product of critical stress for smeared un-stiffened shell and
shell knock down factor. The shell knockdown
factor is assumed to be 0.75

t
0.605E R

2 EI e
e = 2

+ s
L ( As + semt )
1 + As


st

iii. Bias for knockdown factor,


B=

n =

1.6; n > 1
1 + 0.6 n n 1

x. Imperfect elastic buckling parameter

n cr
=

iv. Elastic buckling stress for imperfect shell,

e
y

xi. Ostenfeld-Bleich tangent modulus approach


to find inelastic stress.

es = Bncr
v. Shell reduced slenderness parameter,

r =

Is +

ps ( ps )
1
y ps
c =

<
p
y
s

y
es

vi. The weld induced residual stress is incorporated


using the width of the tension block . For
continuous structural fillet welds, = 4.5. For
light fillets or for significant shake down situation,
= 3. For stress relieved structures, = 0.

ps =

pps

y
The structural proportional limit ps is 0.75
for stress relieved structures and 0.5 for all other
cases.

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xii. Revised shell reduced slenderness parameter


and revised effective shell width

where
Effective pressure correction factor,

c
es
= r
es
y

re =

0.85

0.25 + 500 g g 500


Kp =
0.12
0.98 +
g 500 < g < 2500
500

1.05 0.28
se
2 K r ; re
re 0.53
=
re
s re
1; re < 0.53

g=

xiii. Average ultimate collapse stress

A
c s
A

5.2

K L =

L
Ht
, Cp =
R
Rt

1; M x 3.42
1 ; M x < 3.42

Let
1 +

< 3.42

N
N
N
2 R

R
Ar
Rcr

1 56 Rtt

twr L

The Model uncertainty factor for the radial


pressure load,

H = Mx 1.17 + 1.068k1 (k1 = 0 for radial pressure and 0.5 for hydrostatic pressure)
ii. Plastic collapse pressure of stiffener shell
combination

pcB = (peL + pcs)Kp

K L

N = p(R + 0.5t)

Le

iii. Bay instability pressure

t)
t

N =

where

16
pcs = 2 As dcs y
sL
L

k2 =

1.27 t 2
1.18
E ; M x 1.5; H < 2.5
+ 0.5 R
H
0.92 t 2
R
E ; 2.5 < H < 0.208

R
t
A
=
3
t
0.836C 11.061E ; 0.208 < C < 2.85
p
p

3
0.275E t ;C > 2.85
p

(R

1; x 1.26

= 1.58 0.46M x ;1.266 <


0; x 3.42

Under radial pressure

Mx =

=p

where

The proposed strength formulation for radial pressure is according to API Bul 2U with some changes
in the effective pressure correction factor.
The steps to calculate the axial strength are as
follows.
i. Local buckling pressure of un-stiffened shell

peL

s
Rt

iv. Bay instability stress

set
st

The Model uncertainty factor for the axial


load,
Xm =

M x M LtAs
, M =
Is

Xm =
5.3

p
pcB

Under combined axial compression


and radial pressure

The proposed interaction equation for the combined axial and radial loads is similar to the
API Bul 2U with a different definition for the
factor Cc.

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R/t (15529),
s/t (29132),
Zs (434),
Zl (1.51550),
L/R (0.075.82)

Rx
R
+ Cc Rx R + = 1
x

In which,
Cc =

)2 (

)2

where
Rx =

R =

p (R +
t y

x =

u
y

cB
y

t)

Since the above expression for combined loading


characterises the limiting structural stability criteria, it represents the model uncertainty factor of
the structure for the combined loading condition.
The model uncertainty factor for combined
loading is,
2

R
R
X m = x + Cc Rx R +
x

6

EXPERIMENTAL DATA

The experimental test results are collected from a


wide literature survey over the last century. It is
observed that majority of the experimental works
on stiffened cylinders are being undertaken during
1960s to 1980s and there is not much experimental works available recently as the researches are
comfortable with the numerical results with the
increased capabilities and accuracy. In this paper,
only the valid experimental data collected from
the documentation mentioned in the references
are considered. The data collected from various
technical documents mentioned in the reference
are subjected to critical examination to avoid any
unreliable data. The data collected can be classified
based on various factors like geometrical properties, material properties, Method of production,
Test conditions etc. The proposed formulation
considered here is applicable to structures with
parameters of the following range.

STRENGTH ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

The data collected are carefully arranged and tabulated with all the necessary inputs for the code
based design. The data is then pushed through the
analytical relations of DNV, API and the Recommended Models for stiffened cylinders. The strength
predicted by each of the models is then compared
with the experimental results to evaluate the model
uncertainty factor for each set of data. The mean
and COV of the model uncertainty factor is then
computed for each codes for ring stiffened and ringstringer stiffened cases based on three loading conditions, axial, radial and combined. The predicted
and experimental strength are then represented in
a graphical form which is normalised in terms of
yield strength. For combined loading cases, the
model uncertainty is plotted against L/R ratio as it
is not straight forward to represent the strength.
7.1

Ring stiffened cylinders

The ring stiffened cylinders are basically checked


against the local shell buckling which is the dominant failure mode in this type of structures. Other
modes of failure and its interactions also have been
taken into account.
7.1.1 Under axial compression
Table 1 shows the statistical results of the ring stiffened cylinders under axial compression for a population of 40 for DNV, API and the recommended
strength model. Figure 2 to Figure 4 shows the
comparison of predicted and experimental data
for the different approaches. The strength prediction of the recommended model is more accurate
compared to the other two approaches in terms of
its statistical measures. Figure 4 shows the spread
of the results about its mean line which is having
a better bias to the unity with low COV and it is
evident visually also.
Table 1. Statistical results of ring stiffened cylinder
under axial loading.

Mean
COV
Population 40

DNV

API

Recommended
model

1.28
17.94%

1.15
11.84%

1.05
10.01%

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7.1.2 Under radial pressure


Table 2 shows the statistical results of the ring stiffened cylinders under Radial pressure for a population of 65 for DNV, API and the recommended
strength model. Figure 5 to Figure 7 shows the

1.00

- Test

0.80

0.60

Table 2. Statistical results of ring stiffened cylinder


under radial loading.

0.40
Mean - 1.28
COV - 17.94%
0.20

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

Mean
COV
Population 65

1.00

- Predicted

DNV

API

Recommended
model

0.98
19.43%

1.35
19.09%

1.01
17.51%

Figure 2. DNV prediction and test results of ring


stiffened cylinders under axial compression.
1.50

1.25

1.00

1.00

- Test

- Test

0.80

0.60

0.75

0.50

0.40
Mean - 1.15
COV - 11.84%

0.25

0.20

Mean - 0.98
COV - 19.43%

0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

0.50

1.00

1.50

- Predicted

1.00

- Predicted

Figure 3. API prediction and test results of ring stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

Figure 5. DNV prediction and test results of ring stiffened


cylinders under radial pressure.

1.50

1.00
1.25

1.00

- Test

- Test

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.50

Mean - 1.05
COV - 10.01%

0.25

0.20

0.00
0.00

0.75

Mean - 1.35
COV - 19.09%

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

0.00

1.00

- Predicted

0.50

1.00

1.50

- Predicted

Figure 4. Prediction of recommended model and test


results of ring stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

Figure 6. API prediction and test results of ring stiffened


cylinders under radial pressure.

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Table 3. Statistical results of ring stiffened cylinder


under combined loading.

1.50

1.25

- Test

1.00

Mean
COV
Population 25

0.75

DNV

API

Recommended
model

1.45
20.79%

1.10
21.86%

1.16
17.02%

0.50
2.50

0.25

Mean - 1.01
COV - 17.51%

2.00

0.00
0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

- Predicted
Xm

1.50

Figure 7. Prediction of recommended model and test


results of ring stiffened cylinders under radial pressure.

1.00

0.50

comparison of predicted and experimental data


for the different approaches. The average and
spread of the population is much better for the
recommended model. The recommended model
shows better central tendency compared to the
other two approaches.
Under combined axial compression
and radial pressure
Table 3 shows the statistical results of the ring
stiffened cylinders under combined axial compression and Radial pressure for a population of
25 for DNV, API and the recommended strength
model. Figure 8 to Figure 10 shows the comparison of predicted and experimental data for the
different approaches. Here the mean of the modelling parameter for the recommended model
is slightly high compared to API model, but the
COV is pretty low compared to that approach.
It confirms that the recommended approach is
more stable in the prediction of strength than the
other models.

0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

5.00

Figure 8. DNV prediction and test results of ring


stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
Mean - 1.10
COV - 21.86%

0.20

7.2

4.00

L/R

Xm

7.1.3

Mean - 1.45
COV - 20.79%

0.00

Ring and stringer stiffened cylinders

The stringer stiffened cylinders and orthogonally


stiffened cylinders are considered in one category
as the analysis is considering the effect of ring stiffeners with the ring stiffener spacing and its geometrical and material parameters.
7.2.1 Under axial compression
Table 4 shows the statistical results of the ring and
stringer stiffened cylinders under Axial compression for a population of 32 for DNV, API and
the recommended strength model. Figure 11 to

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

L/R

Figure 9. API prediction and test results of ring


stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

Figure 13 shows the comparison of predicted and


experimental data for the different approaches.
The recommended model predicts the strength
almost similar to that of the API model and which
is better when compared to DNV model.

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1.80

1.40

1.60

1.20
1.40

1.00

1.00

- Test

Xm

1.20

0.80

0.80
0.60

0.60

0.40

0.40
Mean - 1.16
COV - 17.02%

0.20

Mean - 1.06
COV- 14.92%

0.20

0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

0.00

L/R

0.00

Figure 10. Prediction of recommended model and


test results of ring stiffened cylinders under combined
loading.

Recommended
model

1.00
23.18%

1.06
14.92%

1.00
14.99%

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

Figure 12. API prediction and test results of ring and


stringer stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

1.40
1.20
1.00

- Test

Mean
COV
Population 32

API

0.40

- Predicted

Table 4. Statistical results of ring and stringer


stiffened cylinder under axial loading.
DNV

0.20

1.40

0.80
0.60
0.40

1.20

Mean - 1.00
COV - 14.99%

0.20

1.00

- Test

0.00
0.00

0.80

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

- Predicted

0.60

Figure 13. Prediction of recommended model and test


results of ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under axial
compression.

0.40
Mean - 1.00
COV - 23.18%

0.20

Table 5. statistical results of ring and stringer


stiffened cylinder under radial pressure.

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

- Predicted

Figure 11. DNV prediction and test results of ring and


stringer stiffened cylinders under axial compression.

7.2.2 Under radial pressure


Table 5 shows the statistical results of the ring
and stringer stiffened cylinders under Radial
pressure for a population of 9 for DNV, API and
the recommended strength model. Figure 14 to
Figure 16 shows the comparison of predicted and

Mean
COV
Population 9

DNV

API

Recommended
model

1.33
47.38%

1.12
21.54%

1.06
18.38%

experimental data for the different approaches. The


recommended model has low bias and low COV
compared to the other two models.

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7.2.3 Under combined axial compression and


radial pressure
Table 6 shows the statistical results of the ring and
stringer stiffened cylinders under combined Axial
compression and Radial pressure for a population of 25 for DNV, API and the recommended
strength model. Figure 17 to Figure 19 shows the

1.00

- Test

0.75

0.50
Mean - 1.33
COV - 47.38%

0.25

Table 6. Statistical results of ring and stringer


stiffened cylinder under combined loading.

0.00
0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

DNV

API

Recommended
model

1.84
43.82%

1.33
22.19%

1.26
20.12%

1.00

Mean
COV
Population 25

- Predicted

Figure 14. DNV prediction and test results of ring and


stringer stiffened cylinders under radial pressure.

4.00

1.00

Mean - 1.84

3.50

COV - 43.82%
3.00

0.75

Xm

- Test

2.50

0.50

1.50

Mean - 1.12
COV - 21.54%

0.25

2.00

1.00
0.50

0.00
0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

0.00

1.00

0.00

- Predicted

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

L/R

Figure 15. API prediction and test results of ring and


stringer stiffened cylinders under radial pressure.

Figure 17. DNV prediction and test results of ring and


stringer stiffened cylinders under combined loading.
1.80

1.00
1.60
1.40
1.20

Xm

- Test

0.75

0.50

1.00
0.80

Mean - 1.06
COV - 18.38%

0.25

0.60

Mean - 1.33
COV - 22.19%

0.40
0.20

0.00
0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

0.00

- Predicted

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

L/R

Figure 16. Prediction of recommended model and test


results of ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under
radial pressure.

Figure 18. API prediction and test results of ring and


stringer stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

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1.80
1.60
1.40

Xm

1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60

Mean - 1.26
COV - 20.12%

0.40
0.20
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

L/R

Figure 19. Prediction of recommended model and test


results of ring and stringer stiffened cylinders under combined loading.

comparison of predicted and experimental data for


the different approaches. The recommended model
is showing low bias and COV compared to DNV
and API models.
8

CONCLUSIONS

The analyses with the experimental results illustrate


the fact that the recommended model predicts the
structural capacity more accurately in most of
the individual cases compared to API and DNV
codes.
The statistical parameters of the analysis show
that the recommended model is more stable in
predicting the strength of the stiffened cylinders
compared to the DNV and API codes.
The experimental data available for the radial
pressure load cases for ring-stringer stiffened cylinders are very low and it is required to do further
investigation to acquire more data.
The design equations and the model uncertainty
factors derived in this paper is suitable for reliability analysis and evaluating the partial safety factors
for similar structures.
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Design of Cylindrical Shells, 1st ed., (ANSI/API/Bull
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B.S.I., Section 3.
Carl, T.F., Ross, J.R. & Sadler. (2000), Inelastic shell
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Das, P.K., Zanic, V. & Faulkner, D. (May 1993),
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Finite elements modeling of delaminations in composite


laminates
M. Gaiotti & C.M. Rizzo
DINAEL, Faculty of Engineering, University of Genova, Italy

K. Branner & P. Berring


Ris National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

ABSTRACT: The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem
to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i.e., delaminations, which may affect the stiffness and stability of structural components. Especially deep delaminations
in the mid surface of laminates are expected to reduce the effective flexural stiffness and lead to collapse,
often due to buckling behaviour. This paper deals with the numerical modelling of the buckling strength
of composite laminates containing delaminations. Namely, non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses are carried out to predict the critical buckling load of elementary composite laminates affected by
rectangular delaminations of different sizes and locations, which are modelled by finite elements using
different techniques. Results obtained with different finite element models are compared and discussed.
1
1.1

INTRODUCTION
Delaminations in multilayer laminates

In a multilayer composite, the delamination can be


defined as an area with lack of bonding between
two adjacent layers. This can originates either in
the manufacturing process or from damage during
production, transport or service. Typical damage
that gives origin to delamination is impact, but also
stresses concentrations around structural discontinuities and three dimensional stress conditions on
free edges may cause the initiation and growth of
the delaminations. Delaminations may also be generated in the composite laminating process due to
lack of impregnability of the fibers, or to thermal
and chemical shrinkage of composite components
during the matrix polymerization (Bolotin 1996).
Delamination is usually the most critical type
of damage that composite and sandwich structure
experience under compressive loads (Abrate 1991,
Pavier & Clarke 1995).
When a delaminated panel is subjected to a
compressive in plane load then, depending on
delamination size and position, different behavior
can be observed; as expected, after a critical load
limit is reached, the panel starts buckling but the
mode in which the panel buckles has an important
influence onto the panel failure load. Typically
two different conditions are expected: global mode

buckling, where the sub laminates on both sides


of the delamination moves to the same side, and
local mode buckling where the sub laminates move
towards opposite direction. As observed by Peck &
Springer (1991) and by Pavier & Clarke (1995),
when local buckling occurs, it introduces bending
in the plies on the other side of the delamination so
that they are subjected to both bending and compressive stress resulting in a reduced failure load.
Much numerical and experimental work has
already been carried out to define the ultimate
strength of delaminated panel; in particular
Srensen et al. (2009) and Srensen et al. (2010)
from Ris DTU have conducted a sensitivity analysis using a 3D solid element model to evaluate
the critical non linear buckling load of flat panels
made of unidirectional layers.
1.2

Aim of the present paper

This paper focuses on two different modeling


approaches of delaminated multilayer composite
laminates: the former one, applied in Ris DTU,
adopts 3D 20-node orthotropic solid elements
with 3 Degrees Of Freedom (DOF) per node and
uses two or three elements through the thickness,
depending on the through thickness position of the
delamination, and the latter one, developed by the
University of Genoa, adopts shell elements with

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6 DOF per node and simulates the delamination


by off-setting two shells in the delaminated area
and by connecting them to the non delaminated
region (modeled by one shell only) through rigid
links, as better described in the following.
Results are in both cases presented as a map of
the deduction factor on the critical load that the
delamination introduces in the panel with respect
to a non delaminated plate, depending on delamination size and depth.
2
2.1

DIFFERENT MODELLING
APPROACHES
Material properties and specimen geometry

Mechanical properties representative of unidirectional fiber glass laminates produced in the


laboratory is used in this work, see Hansen et al.
(2009):
E11 = 46.5 GPa
E22 = 13.4 GPa

G12 = 4.1 GPa


G23 = 2.6 GPa

12 = 0.25
23 = 0.25

The plate taken into account for the numerical analysis is rectangular with an aspect ratio
A/B = 1.36 where A is the length of the edge along
the load direction, having the same orientation
of the fibers, i.e., direction 1. See Fig. 1 for size
definitions.
The selected aspect ratio is obtained considering
the critical buckling load evaluated according to
the analytical formulation proposed by Bisagni &
Vescovini (2008):
N0 ( m,11) = F A, B, Dij

m
= 2 D11 + 2 ( D12
A

2
1 A
+ D22 4
B m

2 D66 )

1
B2
(1)

where Dij are elements of the bending stiffness


matrix obtained by the Classic Laminate Theory
(CLT). First buckling mode (n = 1) is considered
since it always gives the minimum value.
In facts, by calculating the first derivative with
respect to m and equaling the right side of Eq. 1
to 0 gives:
D m
dN
N0 ( m,1)
= 2 2 112
dm
A
1

D22 A2
=0
B 4 m3
1

A D 4
A D 4
m = 22 ; if
i m = 1 => = 11
B D11
B D22

(2)

t
Figure 1.
geometry.

Definition of panel and delamination

Also the delaminated area has the same aspect


ratio of the panel a/b = 1.36; where a, b are the edges
of the rectangular delaminated area (Fig. 1).
2.2

3D solid elements model

The 3D solid finite-element models were modeled


with 20-node orthotropic elements. Two or three
elements were used through the thickness depending on the through thickness position of the delamination in the Abaqus finite element software
(SIMULIA, 2009).
A small out-of-plane displacement corresponding
to the first buckling mode shape was appropriately
applied as an initial imperfection of the delaminated
sub-laminate. The amplitude of the initial imperfections was approximately 0.5% of the panel thickness for the flat panels and approximately 0.5% of
the panel thickness for the curved panels.
The elements were all joined in the interfaces,
except for the delaminated area where quadratic
contact conditions were applied to prevent penetration. The average number of degrees of freedom
(DOFs) was approximately 150.000. Nonlinear
geometric analyses were conducted with minimum
100 increments to ensure that a well described and
smooth graph could be made for in-plane force vs.
out-of-plane displacement. An explicit solution algorithm was adopted to avoid convergence problems.
2.3

6 DOF shell elements model

The shell element model presented in the paper is


defined by a single shell surface for the intact path

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Figure 3. Particular of the rigid link coupling between


intact and delaminated path.

Figure 2. Shell model with offset translation of the


delaminated layers.

and by two surfaces for the delaminated area, each


surface representing one side of the delamination,
as shown in Fig. 2.
The middle plane of the model is defined
at the half thickness of the physical plate, and on
this plane shell elements are meshed to describe
the intact part of the model. The two sides of the
delamination are modeled onto two surfaces, offset
above and below the middle plane.
The offset h1 and h2 are defined as:
h1

1
t
T
2
2

h2

1
(T t )
4

(3)

where T is the intact laminate thickness; t sub laminates thicknesses in the delaminated area as shown
in Fig. 1.
The nodes along the edge of the delamination
are coupled to the nodes on the main surface by a
rigid link constraint, where the master node is the
node lying on the edge of the intact middle plane
and the nodes on both sub laminates edges are its
slave.
A 9-nodes shell elements mesh has been generated on the surfaces, for a total number of about
4800 elements; the element type is the MITC9 as
suggested by Buncalem & Bathe (1993), and Bathe
et al. (2000), to prevent element locking problems
for thin laminates.
Element locking is, as widely discussed in related
literature, the phenomenon of an element being
much too stiff compared with reality: in essence,
the phenomenon arises because the interpolation
functions used for an element are not able to represent zero (or very small) shearing or membrane
strains. If the element cannot represent zero shearing strains, but the physical situation corresponds
to zero (or very small) shearing strains, then the
element becomes very stiff as its thickness over
length ratio decreases. (see e.g., ADINA, 2008).
In the considered problem the MITC9 use is
justified when modeling delaminations very close

to the surface, where the thickness of one of the


sub-laminates is very small if compared to other
dimensions.
To prevent penetrations between the surfaces
defining the sub laminates in the delaminated area,
a contact algorithm has been taken into account.
Similarly to the solid models, small out-of-plane
displacement field derived from a preliminary linear buckling analysis was appropriately applied to
trigger buckling in the non-linear analysis, as suggested in ADINA (2008).
The panel is considered simply supported on
all its edges; a distributed compressive line load is
applied on the short edges.
The analysis is performed applying a fixed inplane displacement, in 120 identical load steps to
ensure a resulting smooth curve, then plotting the
corresponding in plane force reactions.
3

A ROBUST METHOD TO DEFINE


THE BUCKLING LOAD

The robust method proposed by Srensen et al.


(2009, 2010) has been adopted to define the buckling critical load in both modeling approaches: this
method consists in the analysis of the in-plane displacements vs. in-plane load curve obtained from a
non linear static finite element model having the initial imperfections obtained by a preliminary linear
eigenvalue analysis performed on the same model.
The first part of the curve (in the criterion up to
the 30% of critical load) is linear: the criterion consists in the prolongation of the linear curve along
the in-plane displacements axis; the new curve
is then shifted down by a quantity equal to 2.5%
of the linearized critical load; eventually, the point
where the down-shifted linear curve meet the nonlinear curve defines the non linear buckling load
(Fig. 4).
Due to the weak non linearity observed in the
early loading history, in particular for cases where
local buckling occurs, instead of considering the
2.5% of the linearized buckling load of each model,
the offset calculated for the non delaminated case
has been taken into account and used for all the
other models considered.

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Figure 6. Typical local buckling behavior for a 3D solid


element finite element model.
Figure 4. Robust method to define buckling load in
non linear analysis.

Figure 5. Buckling load offset dependency for close to


surface delaminated models.

Other definitions of the criterion would result in


underestimating the critical load for those models
with delaminations very close to the surface of the
panel, see Fig. 5.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR 3D SOLID
MODELS

Buckling Mode Map, panel aspect ratio A/B=1.36, UD, (flat)


1

A panel with a delamination subjected to uni-axial


compression can buckle in local or global modes as
described in the introduction. A typical local buckling mode is shown in Fig. 6 for solid models.
However, results from the 3D solid models also
show that combinations of the global and local
modes can appear as so-called combined modes
or sub-modes. The sub-modes are found to appear
for special combination of delamination size and
through thickness position. In these studies five
different mode types have been observed.
These modes are illustrated in Fig. 7, where the
relation between the out-of-plane displacement at
the centre of the two delaminated sub-laminates
are plotted.
The different modes can be shown in a buckling mode map in a similar manner as reported
by Short et al. (2001) where only local and global
modes were considered.
The buckling map shown in Fig. 8 is divided
into the following 3 areas:

Non dimensional delamination size, b/B

Figure 7. Delamination modes shown with the corresponding central out-of-plane displacement for the two
delaminated sub-laminates.

FE Global
FE Local
FE Global/Local I
FE Global/Local II
Global limit
Submode limit

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Non dimensional through thickness position, t/T

0.5

Figure 8. Buckling mode map for a 100% unidirectional


fiber composite laminate from solid model FE analyses.

Local buckling, occurring for large delaminations close to the surface,


Global buckling, occurring for small and deep
delaminations,
Sub-mode, occurring for large and deep
delaminations.

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5
5.1

5.2

COMMENTS ON SHELL MODELS


RESULTS
Buckling modes for deep delaminations

In the first series of analyses, the delamination is


placed in the mid thickness of the laminate, i.e.,
t/T = 0.5.
Under these condition, relatively small delaminations evolve into a mode 1 buckling shape; as
soon as the delamination size grows, a progressive transition from mode 1 to mode 2 is observed
when increasing the in-plane load; thereafter a pure
buckling mode 2 occurs when the delamination is
relatively larger. Fig. 9 shows an example.
This fact is rather unexpected since the model
has been designed, in agreement with the analytical formulation proposed by Bisagni & Vescovini
(2008), having an aspect ratio supposed to induce a
mode 1 buckling shape, i.e., a single half wave onto
the plate length. However, the above mentioned
analytical formulation applies to perfect rectangular plates and does not account for the effects
introduced by the delamination.
The different buckling mode does not affect the
load displacements curve, which appear smooth
for any considered delamination size.
The critical buckling load dependency on the
delamination size is easily observed from Fig. 10,
where it is also evident, as expected, that the delamination does not have any effect on the panel
stiffness until the panel starts buckling, thus introducing non linearities in the problem at this point.

Figure 9. Different mode shapes (mode 1 left, mode 2


right) obtained increasing the delamination size in shell
models.

Figure 10. Load displacements curves for panels presenting deep delaminations, for different delamination
sizes.

Unstable behavior moving the delamination


towards the surface

Considering the panel having t/T = 0.4, an unexpected behavior was observed: when the delamination size is b/B = 0.5, a drop in the in-plane
load is observed when increasing the in-plane
displacement.
Such behavior is attributed to the instability of
the model, see Fig. 11. The physical reason seems
to lie in the buckling mode suddenly shifting from
local to global, with an abrupt out of plane displacement of the thickest laminate, after remaining plane in the first part of the loading history.
This behaviour could explain some instant collapses observed during experimental tests being
conducted in Ris DTU National Laboratories.
5.3

Local buckling mode for delaminations


close to the laminate surface

When the delamination is very close to the surface of the laminate, the thinnest sub-laminates
buckles in a very early stage of the loading history,
introducing a rather weak non linearity in the system. The obtained curves therefore differ from the
intact plate curve in practice since the beginning of
the calculation, and do not show a sudden steepness change when buckling begins.
This fact makes a buckling criterion definition
quite hard since the used offset-based robust criterion does not fit very well with a weak non linear
behavior of the curve without sudden changes in
the first derivative, as shown in Fig. 5. For this reason the same offset distance of the intact model
has been taken into account for all the geometrical
conditions considered.
In Fig. 12 the typical behavior of panels buckling in local mode is presented; it is also worth noting that local modes start from a delamination size
b/B > 0.4: the mode is still global with a rapid change
in steepness if delamination is at 40% of the thickness; the difference can be appreciated in the plot.
It is interesting to plot on the same chart
the curves obtained from the deep delaminated

Figure 11. Mode transition with instability observed


for panels having t/T = 0.4; b/B = 0.5.

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Table 1. Compressive strength function of delamination size and through-thickness position.


Delamination depth
0.00 0.10
Delam. 0.00 1.00 1.00
Size
0.10 1.00 0.86
0.20 1.00 0.79
b/B
0.30 1.00 0.72
0.40 1.00 0.62
0.50 1.00 0.42
* Buckling mode 2.
Local/Global buckling limit.

Figure 12. Load displacements curves for panels local


modes.

Figure 13. Comparison of load-displacements curves


for deep and surface delaminated models.

model (t/T = 0.5) and the ones from the surface


delaminated model (t/T = 0.9) as shown in Fig. 13.
Deep delaminated models buckle at higher
loads, but in the post buckling phase they show a
lower derivative with respect to the in-plane disU x ) in
placement of the in-plane load (i.e. x U
comparison to the surface delaminated models.
This fact implies that the curves relevant to the
surface delaminated models overlap the ones corresponding to the deep delaminated models at high
loads.
At this stage of the work it is deemed impossible
to predict if in reality panels with delaminations
closer to the surface could show a better resistance
to post-buckling collapse or if the collapse happens suddenly once the critical load is reached.
5.4

Compressive strength

Applying the previously described robust method


to determine the critical load, the buckling strength
normalized with respect to the critical load for the
intact panel is presented as function of the delamination size and its through-thickness position.
Table 1 shows the limit between global modes,
typical for deep delaminations, and local modes,
involving deeper delaminations when extending
the delamination size.
From Table 1 it is possible to plot the linearized
residual strength map obtained through numerical

t/T
0.20
1.00
0.92
0.82
0.70
0.58
0.44

0.30
1.00
0.98
0.93
0.92
0.77
0.51

0.40
1.00
0.99
0.91
0.83
0.77
0.69

0.50
1.00
0.99
0.90*
0.79*
0.68*
0.55*

Figure 14. Reduced compressive strength map function


of delamination size and position.

interpolations (Fig. 14), similarly to what reported


by Srensen et al. (2010).
When looking at the map, it is interesting to note
that there is an increase of the residual strength
when the delamination position through the thickness assumes the value t/T = 0.4. At first this fact
could suggest a safer situation, but, accounting for
the previous considerations, this is also the condition of instable buckling, where the in-plane load
suddenly drops after buckling when increasing the
in-plane displacement.
6

MODEL COMPARISON

The residual strength map, obtained from both


the models considered, is plotted in the same
mirrored chart in Fig. 15. The center of the chart
corresponds to a mid-thickness delamination: on
the left side is presented the 3D solid model while
on the right side the shell model.
On the x axis it is possible the residual strength
for a delamination getting closer to the surface of
the panel is defined proceeding left and right from
centre, while on the y axis the normalized delamination size is plotted.
From the results presented in Fig. 15 the following considerations arise:
The shell model is more sensitive to small delaminations: the residual strength, function of b/B,
starts reducing earlier than for the 3D model,

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Figure 15. Reduced compressive strength map for both


the models presented in the paper.

Both models show a minimum for t/T 0.1 and a


maximum for t/T 0.4, whose amplitude is anyway much greater if shell model is considered,
Deep delaminations have greater influence on
shell models,
Wide and shallow delaminations effects
(t/T < 0.25; b/B > 0.5) are predicted almost identically in both models.
For the time being, it is not possible to establish
which numerical model better describes the physical problem, since very little comparison have been
made with experimental results.
As far as the computation costs is concerned,
a non linear analysis performed in 100 time steps
as above described takes up to 45 minutes when
running a shell element finite element model on a
4 processors and 16 GB RAM memory workstation, being less than one half of the 2 hours needed
to run the same calculation of 3D 20 nodes solid
element model on a workstation having the same
capabilities.
The computational effort for the 3D solid model
is basically due to the need of using at least 3 layers
of elements through the panel thickness, in order
to catch bending effects, whose influence is basic
in the problem.
7

CONCLUSIONS

In the present paper various sizes and depths of the


delamination were assessed by two sets of finite elements calculations: at first a more intuitive modelling strategy was employed using 20 nodes solid
elements to model each layer of the laminate and
thus requiring rather large computation efforts; then
a different modelling approach adopting multilayer
shell elements to model the laminate was applied,
requiring more limited computational efforts.
In both cases plots summarizing the influence
of the geometrical parameters of the panel and of
the delamination onto the collapse buckling behavior were produced.

Both the applied models were able to produce


a residual strength chart depending on the geometrical parameters of the delaminations taken
into account.
The residual strength prediction is the same
considering shallow and wide delaminations, while
the shell model looks more sensitive to small or
deep delaminations. The trend of the curves is
similar for both approaches and show maximum
(t/T 0.4) and minimum (t/T 0.1) values of residual strength function of delamination depth.
These results seem to indicate that shallow delaminations result in more dangerous conditions, but
this is true only if no post-buckling life of the panel
is considered, as clearly shown in section 5.3.
The results provided by the shell model analysis
appear rather remarkable, especially considering
the lower computational efforts, and suggest to
proceed to a step forward in the work, involving
deeper experimental comparison.
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Bisagni, C. & Vescovini, R. 2008. Analytical formulation
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laminated panels. Thin-Walled Structures 47:318334.
Hansen, A.L., Lund, E., Pinho, S.T. & Branner, K. 2009.
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structures. Composites 2009, 2nd ECCOMAS thematic
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Srensen, B.F., Branner, K., Lund, E., Wedel-Heinen, J. &
Garm, J.H. 2009. Improved Design of large wind turbine blade of fibre composites (phase 3). Summary
Report, Ris-R-1699(EN), Ris National Laboratory
for Sustainable Energy, Denmark.
Srensen, B.F., Toftegaard, H., Goutanos, S., Branner, K.,
Berring, P., Lund, E., Wedel-Heinen, J. & Garm, J.H.
2010. Improved Design of large wind Turbine Blade
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Energy, Denmark.
Short, G.J., Guild, F.J. & Pavier, M.J. 2001. The effect of
delamination geometry on the compressive failure of
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Shakedown of welding-induced residual stress and effect


on stiffened plate strength and behaviour
L.G. Gannon, N.G. Pegg & M.J. Smith
Defence Research and Development Canada Atlantic

Y. Liu
Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

ABSTRACT: Numerical simulation is used to study the influence of welding-induced residual stress
in welded, tee-stiffened plates focusing on the effect of shakedown. Residual stresses are simulated using
3D thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis. The influence of strain hardening and number of load
cycles on residual stress shakedown is then investigated. Load versus end-shortening curves are used to
characterize the strength and behaviour of stiffened plates under axial compression both before and after
shakedown. Results show that the reduction in residual stress due to shakedown occurs entirely during the
first load cycle provided that the magnitude of that load is not subsequently exceeded. Both the tensile
and compressive welding residual stresses are reduced by as much as 40% when the applied load causes an
average stress equal to 50% of the yield stress. This level of shakedown increased the ultimate strength of
tee-stiffened plates by as much as 6%.
1

INTRODUCTION

The primary load for which ship hull girders are


designed is wave-induced longitudinal bending.
The bending stresses are resisted by longitudinally stiffened plates that that also contain residual
stresses caused by welding during fabrication of the
structure. Several studies (Faulkner 1975; Guedes
Soares 1988; Gordo & Guedes Soares 1993) have
shown that residual stresses can have a detrimental
effect on the ultimate strength of stiffened plates
and consequently on the strength of a hull.
Welding-induced residual stresses may be relieved
to some degree by stretching of stiffened plates
under cyclic loads during service. This process is
commonly referred to as shakedown. Abdel-Karim
(2005) identifies three types of shakedown that
occur when the magnitude of the cyclic load lies
between the first yield and plastic collapse loads.
Elastic shakedown occurs when a finite amount of
plastic deformation occurs during the first few load
cycles, after which any further deformation is purely
elastic. In plastic shakedown, the structure experiences equal and alternating plastic strains during
each load cycle and continues to experience shakedown in the form of non-cumulative cyclic plastic
straining which eventually leads to failure by lowcycle fatigue. If the alternating plastic strains are

asymmetric and the structure accumulates plastic


strain with each load cycle, incremental plastic collapse of the structure will occur. This incremental
accumulation of plastic strain during cyclic loading is called ratcheting.
Shakedown in ship structures has been investigated both experimentally and numerically; however most research has focused on the effects of
shakedown on fatigue behavior in welded structures. Latrou et al. (2005) studied the behavior of
welded joints accounting for residual stress and
shakedown using numerical models. A rectangular plate was modelled assuming plane stress and
residual stresses were simulated by application of a
non-uniform displacement on one side of the plate.
They found that after a low number of load cycles,
the behavior of the joint became elastic. Similar
results were reported by Liang et al. (2007). They
also studied the effect of residual stress relaxation
on the fatigue behavior of welded joints and found
that under constant amplitude cyclic loads, residual
stress relaxation was limited to the first load cycle.
In an experimental study of shakedown in
butt-welded aluminum plates subjected to 3-point
bending, Paik et al. (2005) found that measured
longitudinal residual stresses were reduced by 36%
and 21% in tension and compression respectively.
The load in that experiment was applied for three

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cycles, producing an extreme fiber stresses equal to


88% of the yield stress.
In the analysis of stiffened plates, simplified
residual stress distributions are sometimes assumed
based on measurements available in literature.
In design, fabrication related imperfections are
typically accounted for using an empirical method
such as the Johnson-Ostenfeld correction for plasticity in beam columns. In some cases however,
residual stresses are neglected under the assumption that they are relieved by shakedown.
A welding-induced residual stress distribution
commonly used in stiffened plate analysis assumes
that residual stress is constant along the length of
the stiffened plate. Based on experimental data
and assuming that the residual stresses acting over
the cross-section of the plate in a welded stiffened
plate are in equilibrium, Faulkner (1975) proposed
the idealized longitudinal residual stress distribution shown in Figure 1, where b is the plate width,
y is the yield stress, t is the plate thickness and
is a parameter describing the width of the tensile stress block at the weld in the middle of the
plate. Faulkner (1975) suggested initial values for
in the range of 4.56 and values ranging from
34.5 to allow for shakedown. From equilibrium
requirements, the compressive residual stress c is
given by:
c =

2 t y
b 2

(1)

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of residual stress shakedown on
the strength and behaviour of longitudinally stiffened plates typical of ship hull girders. The finite
element modelling technique used for the analyses
allows the complex three-dimensional distribution
of welding-induced residual stress and distortion
to be accounted for in assessing shakedown and
ultimate strength of stiffened plates.
Welding-induced residual stress and distortion in the stiffened plates were determined using
sequential 3D, nonlinear thermal and mechanical

finite element analyses. Assuming that the stiffened


plates are not subjected to any type of stress relief
such as annealing, a cyclic axial load was then
applied, causing shakedown of the residual stress.
An ultimate strength analysis was then conducted
and load-shortening curves that characterize the
behaviour of the stiffened plates under axial load
were obtained. The finite element method was also
used to determine the effect that strain hardening
of the material and variable amplitudes of loading have on the shakedown of welding-induced
residual stresses.
2

FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING

2.1

Welding simulation

A finite element simulation was used to predict


welding-induced residual stress and distortion in
tee-stiffened plates. The simulation consisted of
sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal and structural analyses. The model made use of two element
types; 8-node, linearly interpolated hexahedrons to
mesh the solid volume, and 2-node nonlinear springs
to model contact between the stiffener base and
the plate. The material used for the stiffened plates
was AH-36 shipbuilding steel with a nominal yield
stress of 360 MPa and elastic modulus of 210 GPA.
An elastic, perfectly plastic material model was used
with temperature dependent properties adopted
from Michaleris and DeBiccari (1997).
Twelve elements were required through the
thickness of the plate in the vicinity of the weld
in order to accurately characterize the severe thermal gradient in that region. The mesh density was
decreased in regions further away from the weld
where the thermal gradient was small so that the
analysis could be run in a reasonable amount of
time with the computational resources available.
Figure 2 shows a finite element mesh typical of
those used for the tee-stiffened plates in this study.
A nonlinear thermal analysis was used to predict
the transient temperature field produced by the
moving heat source. A circular heat source with a
Gaussian energy distribution representing the heat

Y
X

Figure 1. Idealized longitudinal residual stress distribution in a welded plate.

Figure 2.

Finite element mesh of tee-stiffened plate.

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numerical modelling was adopted from Deng et al.


(2008). Figure 4 shows that the vertical deflection
of the plate predicted by the welding simulation
method is in good agreement with experimental measurements provided by Deng et al. (2006).
Figure 5 shows the longitudinal residual stress distribution at the mid-length, mid-plane of the plate.
Although residual stress measurements from the
experiment were not available, the residual stress

Figure 3. Test specimen used by Deng et al. (2006).


Dimensions in mm.
1

Vertical deflection of plate (mm)

Position (mm)
0
-1

100

200

300

400

500

-2

Plate centerline
(stiffener location)

-3
-4
-5
-6
-7

Experimental (Deng et al., 2006)


FEM

-8

Figure 4. Comparison of vertical deflection of plate


with measured values.
350

Longitudinal residual stress (MPa)

from a welding torch, was moved along the weld


path in 10 mm increments. After the continuous
fillet weld on one side was finished, the model was
allowed to cool for 30 minutes before the weld on
the other side of the stiffener web was started. The
thermal analysis considered temperature dependent material properties including thermal conductivity, specific heat and density. Heat loss due to
convection and radiation was accounted for using
a film coefficient given by Goldak et al. (1984) to
account for heat loss by both mechanisms. Latent
heats of melting and fusion were also accounted for.
User-defined subroutines were created using the
ANSYS parametric design language to model the
moving heat source and to control the activation
of weld elements as the heat source progressed.
For the second stage of the analysis, the transient temperature field from the thermal analysis
was used as a series of load steps in a structural
analysis. Each load step consisted of an incremental
progression of the heat source along the weld path.
As the heat source advanced along the weld path,
the ANSYS element birth and death feature was
used to activate the weld elements behind the heat
source once their temperature fell below the solidification temperature, taken as 1450C. This enabled the model to simulate the dynamic coupling
of the stiffener to the plate as the weld progressed.
The application of sequential thermal loads, and
the element activation scheme were controlled via
user-defined subroutines.
Boundary conditions in the structural analysis
were representative of the level of restraint in stiffened panels in ship hull girders where a panel with
multiple evenly spaced stiffeners can be divided into
several individually stiffened plates. Longitudinal
edges were constrained to remain straight, but free
to move in the plane of the plating. This produced
a level of restraint similar to that provided by adjacent panels in ship hulls (Dow et al., 1981). Simple
supports were applied at the end cross-sections by
constraining displacements along all three coordinate axes at the centroid of one end and the vertical and transverse displacements at the centroid of
the opposite end. An elastic-plastic material model
was used with von Mises failure criteria and associated flow rule. Nonlinearities due to large strain
and displacement were considered.
The accuracy of the simulation was verified
using the methods described above to simulate
a welding experiment carried out by Deng et al.
(2006). In the experiment, a steel flat-bar stiffener
was connected to a steel plate by sequential, 6 mm
fillet welds. Figure 3 shows the weld sequence and
direction along with the test specimen dimensions.
The material used in the experiment was SM400A
shipbuilding steel with a yield stress of 300 MPa.
Temperature dependent material data necessary for

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

-50
-100
-150

Position (mm)

Figure 5. Longitudinal residual stress at mid-span from


welding simulation.

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distribution determined by finite element analysis


is consistent with measured values available in literature (Michaleris & DeBiccari, 1997; Nagaraja
Rao & Tall, 1961; Kenno et al., 2010). For a more
comprehensive description of the welding simulation method, the reader is referred to Gannon et al.
(2010).
2.2

Shakedown analysis

At the end cross-sections of the stiffened plate,


every node in the section was connected to a single
node at the cross-section centroid using stiff beam
elements. These beam elements were deactivated
during the welding simulation using the ANSYS
element birth and death feature. For the subsequent
shakedown analysis, the beam elements were reactivated so that they forced the end cross-section
nodes to remain planar during the shakedown and
ultimate strength analyses. This constraint represents the support that would be provided by transverse frames added after the stiffeners are welded
to the plate. For the shakedown analysis, an axial
load was applied to the centroidal node of one end
cross-section while the other remained pin supported at its centroid.
3

Table 1.

Stiffened plate dimensions.

Model

tw

tf

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7

350
550
750
950
550
550
550

12
12
12
12
12
12
12

180
180
180
180
100
140
220

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

10
10
10
10
10
10
10

12
12
12
12
12
12
12

1.21
1.90
2.59
3.28
1.90
1.90
1.90

0.34
0.37
0.40
0.43
0.64
0.47
0.31

* All dimensions in mm

Figure 6.

Stiffened plate dimensions.

Table 2.

Maximum distortions in FE models.

PARAMETRIC STUDY

3.1

The study considered tee-stiffened plates with


geometries chosen to cover a range of values of
two non-dimensional parameters commonly used
to characterize stiffened plate geometry. These are
the plate slenderness , and column slenderness ,
given by:
b y
E
t

(2)

a y
=
E
r

(3)

where b is the plate width, t is the plate thickness,


y is the yield stress, E is the elastic modulus, a is
the plate length and r is the radius of gyration.
A summary of the stiffened plate geometries is
given in Table 1 with dimensions defined as shown
in Figure 6. All stiffened plates were 2000 mm long
with 7 mm, continuous fillet welds on each side of
the stiffener base, connecting it to the plate. Welds
were deposited in the sequence shown in Figure 3.
3.2

Plate (mm)

Stiffener (mm)

Model

Vertical

Vertical

Horizontal

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7

2.5
3.3
4.5
5.9
3.0
3.2
3.5

0.86
0.29
0.24
0.24
0.30
0.24
0.42

0.27
0.22
0.14
0.22
0.38
0.30
0.12

Geometry

Geometric imperfection

Welding-induced distortions in the stiffened plates


produced the familiar hungry horse shape seen

in ship structures, where the plating between


stiffeners deflects in a single half-wave towards the
stiffener side of the plate. The welding simulation
also produced column-type vertical, and lateral
distortion of the stiffeners. While maximum outof-plane distortions of the plate fell between the
slight and average levels defined by Smith et al.
(1992), vertical distortions of the stiffeners along
the length of the stiffened plates were slight in all
models except T1. A summary of maximum distortions in the stiffened plates is given in Table 2
where the direction of distortions is consistent
with the orientation shown in Figure 2. It should
be noted that distortions from hot-rolling were not
considered, nor were distortions due to any other
fabrication steps following welding of the stiffener
to the plate.

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Shakedown

0.25 y

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7

0.20
0.14
0.10
0.08
0.13
0.14
0.13

0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79

0.17
0.12
0.08
0.07
0.11
0.11
0.11

0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.56
0.56

0.13
0.09
0.06
0.05
0.08
0.08
0.09

1.00
1.01
1.02
1.02
1.01
1.02
1.01

* Normalized with respect to yield stress of 360 MPa

1 cycle at 25% of yield stress

250

1 cycle at 50% of yield stress

200
150
100
50
0
-300

-200

-100

-50

100

200

300

-100

Figure 7. Longitudinal residual stress in plate of


model T2.
200

After welding

180
160

1 cycle at 25% of yield stress

140

1 cycle at 50% of yield stress

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

-100

100

200

300

400

Longitudinal residual stress (MPa)

Figure 8.
model T2.

Longitudinal residual stress in web of

0
-60

0.5 y

Model t

300

Distance from centerline (mm)

Table 3. Normalized maximum longitudinal residual stresses.


Initial

After welding

350

Distance from top of plate (mm)

Shakedown of residual stress in the tee-stiffened


plates was facilitated by application of a single
cycle of axial load at the centroid of the simply
supported stiffened plates. For each model, two
load amplitudes were considered; one producing
an average stress in the stiffened plate equal to
0.25 y, and the other producing an average stress
of 0.5 y. The load cycles began with a linearly
increasing compressive load. This was followed by
a linear transition to the same load in tension, after
which the load was reduced linearly back to zero.
Table 3 contains a summary of normalized
maximum tensile t , and compressive c , residual
stresses in the plates of the finite element models before and after shakedown. To exemplify
the change in the longitudinal residual stress distribution due to shakedown, Figure 7, Figure 8
and Figure 9 show the residual stress distributions in the plate, web and flange respectively, of
model T2. The results indicate that residual stresses
are reduced significantly by shakedown. Where the
applied load produced a stress equal to 0.25 y, tensile and compressive residual stresses were reduced
by approximately 20% and 15%, respectively. When
the applied load produced a stress equal to 0.5 y,
welding-induced residual stresses were reduced by
around 43% in tension and 40% in compression.
It is evident from the results in Table 3 that the
geometry of the stiffened plates had little influence
on the effects of shakedown. It is also noted that
due to the low magnitude of compressive residual
stress and the amplitude of the applied load, no
plastic straining occurred during the compressive
portion of the load cycle. Shakedown in this case
occurred only during the tensile part of the load.
The residual stress distribution in the plate of
model T2 before shakedown is shown in Figure 7.
The plate has a tensile stress zone approximately
66 mm wide, so that the tensile stress block
parameter (Figure 1) is equal to 2.75. After

Longitudinal residual stress (MPa)

400

Longitudinal residual stress (MPa)

3.3

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

60

-1

-2

-3

-4

After welding
1 cycle at 25% of yield stress
1 cycle at 50% of yield stress

Distance from centerline (mm)

Figure 9. Longitudinal residual stress in flange of


model T2.

welding, the width of the equivalent tensile stress


block decreased so that = 2.17 and = 1.57 for
shakedown stresses of 0.25 y and 0.5 y, respectively. This is consistent with Faulkners (1975)
statement that the range of decreases from 4.56

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to 34.5 after shakedown, however in this case


values were lower than Faulkner's suggestion.
Distortion in stiffened plates was also affected by
shakedown. Figure 10 and Figure 11 show changes
in distortion in model T2 following one load cycle
at 0.5 y. These changes in distortions, along
with the reduced state of residual stress shown in
Figures 7 through 9 indicate that there are significant changes in fabrication-related imperfections
once a hull girder has been in subjected to longitudinal bending moments during service.
3.4

Ultimate strength

The strength and behaviour of the stiffened plates


is characterized by plots of average axial strain versus average axial stress, known as load-shortening
curves. An axial displacement was applied at the
centroidal node of one end cross-section while the
opposite end remained pin-supported at its centroid, producing a compressive load on the stiffened plate that was uniformly distributed over the
cross-section through stiff beam elements connecting the nodes of each end cross-section. An applied

Vertical deflection of plate (mm)

3.5

displacement was used in order to allow the


post-ultimate portion of the load-shortening curve
to be calculated.
Load-shortening curves were also calculated for
each stiffened plate considering welding-induced
distortions, but no residual stresses. This was done
to evaluate the ultimate strength when it is assumed
that residual stresses have been completely relieved
by shakedown. The ultimate strength analyses
considered large strains and displacements and
used the same material properties as the welding simulation and shakedown analysis described
previously.
Table 4 provides a summary of normalized ultimate stress values for the stiffened plates calculated
by finite element analysis. Ultimate stress values are
given before shakedown ( u,0 ), after one load cycle
at 0.25 y ( u,25 ), after one load cycle at 0.5 y ( u,50 )
and with no residual stress ( 0RS ). An example of
load-shortening curves before and after shakedown is given in Figure 12 for model T5, and the
deformed shape of the model in the post-ultimate
stage is shown in Figure 13. This overall column
type of buckling failure is typical of the stiffened
plates considered in this study where the effective
width of the plate is reduced until the cross-section
can no longer sustain the applied load.

3
2.5

Table 4.

Normalized ultimate strengths.

2
1.5
1
After welding

0.5

1 cycle at 50% of yield stress


0
-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

Distance from centerline (mm)

Figure 10.

Vertical distortion of plate at mid-span.

Model

u,0

u,25

u,50

0RS

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7

1.00
0.87
0.65
0.58
0.86
0.86
0.86

0.99
0.89
0.67
0.59
0.89
0.89
0.88

0.99
0.92
0.68
0.61
0.92
0.92
0.91

1.00
1.00
0.73
0.63
1.00
1.00
1.00

Normalized axial stress, /y

Vertical distortion of plate at


mid-plane (mm)

0.3
0.25
0.2
After welding

0.15

1 cycle at 50% of yield stress


0.1
0.05
0
0
-0.05

Figure 11.
stiffener.

500

1000

1500

2000

(3)

0.9

No shakedown (1)
(2)

1 cycle at 25% of yield stress (3)

(1)

0.8

1 cycle at 50% of yield stress (2)

0.7

No Residual Stress

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

Distance along axis of stiffener (mm)

Normalized axial strain, /y

Vertical distortion of plate along axis of


Figure 12.

Load-shortening curves for model T5.

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Shakedown of residual stress increased the ultimate strength of the stiffened plates by a maximum
of 3.4% for an applied stress of 0.25 y and 6.5%
for an applied stress of 0.5 y (models T5 and T6).
Results of the ultimate strength analyses indicate
that the percentage change in ultimate strength due
to shakedown does not vary significantly with the
geometry of the stiffened plate. Figure 12 shows
that although shakedown increased the ultimate
load of model T5, it had little influence on the
shape of the load-shortening curve. The shape of
load-shortening curves calculated for the other
stiffened plates were also similar before and after
shakedown.
A comparison of ultimate strengths after shakedown at a stress of 0.5 y against values calculated
without considering residual stress reveals that the
remaining residual stresses may still decrease the
ultimate strength by as much as 10%. This shows
that a potentially unsafe design may result if it
is assumed that residual stresses are completely
relieved by shakedown in order to simplify an ultimate strength analysis.
4

Figure 14.

Location of nodes for results comparison.


400
1

3,5, 7

300
2

Stress (MPa)

Deformed shape of Model T5 after ultimate

Node 1

4,6

Node 2

200
100

3, 5, 7
0
-500

-300

-100

100

-100
2

300

1 8

4, 6
-200

Strain ()

Figure 15. Stress-strain history during shakedown with


kinematic hardening.

EFFECT OF HARDENING
AND NUMBER OF LOAD CYCLES

400
1

The shakedown analyses in Section 3 assumed an


elastic perfectly plastic material so that it would be
consistent with the material behaviour used in the
welding simulation. In order to understand how
those results might differ from those of a shakedown analysis where kinematic strain hardening
is considered, shakedown analyses of a stiffened
plate with no strain hardening and with a kinematic hardening material were run and results are
compared below.
Model T5 (Table 1) was chosen for the analysis
and the initial residual stress was similar to that
show in Figures 7 through 9. A notional hardening modulus of 5 GPa (Andersen 2000) was

3,5,7
300
2

Stress (MPa)

Figure 13.
load.

used, which is typical of mild steels used in ship


structures. The difference in shakedown behaviour between the two analyses with different plastic material properties is shown by comparing the
strain histories at two nodes located at the midplane and at the mid-length of the model. Node 1
is located at the mid-width of the plate in the tensile stress zone, and node 2 is located near the edge
of the plate where the residual stress is compressive. The node locations are shown in Figure 14.
Figure 15 shows the strain history at these points
over 3 load cycles represented by 8 steps with a
stress amplitude of 0.25 y. Figure 16 shows the
same for the case where the material is perfectly
plastic. A summary of residual stresses at node 1
and node 2 at the points indicated in Figure 15 and
Figure 16, is provided in Table 5.

8
Node 1
Node 2

200

4,6

100
3,5,7
0

-400
2

-300

-200

-100

1
-100

100

200

300

400

4,6
-200

Strain ()

Figure 16. Stress-strain history during shakedown with


no hardening.

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The results in Table 5. indicate that there is little


difference (0.7%) in the tensile residual stress after
shakedown between the two models considering
perfectly plastic and kinematic hardening materials. The change in compressive residual stress due
to shakedown was virtually the same for both models. Furthermore, examination of Figure 16 and
Figure 17 reveals that for both the perfectly plastic
Table 5. Stress history comparison considering
perfect plasticity and kinematic hardening.
Kinematic hardening

Perfectly plastic

Step

Node 1

Node 2

Node 1 Node 2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

350
269
365
204
365
204
365
285

50
132
38
126
38
126
38
44

350
269
363
202
363
202
363
283

50
132
38
126
38
126
38
44

*All values in MPa

Applied stress, /y

0.15

0.05
1
8

-0.05
-0.1
-0.15

-0.2
-0.25

Figure 17.

Variable amplitude load history.


400

1
2

300

Stress (MPa)

8
6

200

Node 1
Node 2

100

-200
2 6

-100

0
-100

3 7

0
-300

CONCLUSIONS

0.1

VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOAD CYCLES

In order to determine whether residual stress relief


by elastic shakedown is controlled only by the
maximum applied load and not by the load history, model T5 was subjected to 3 variable amplitude load cycles. The complete load history is
illustrated in Figure 17 and the strain histories at
nodes 1 and 2 (Figure 14) are plotted in Figure 18.
The maximum applied stress was 0.25 y and the
material model used for the analysis assumed perfectly plastic behaviour.
After application of the variable amplitude
cyclic load, the tensile stress at node 1 and the
compressive stress at node 2 were reduced to
283 MPa and 44 MPa, respectively. Referring to
Table 5, where shakedown occurred entirely during the first cycle at a stress of 0.25 y, it is evident
that the maximum applied stress governs the final
magnitude of residual stress and that the sequence
of loads is not relevant.
6

0.2

-400

0.25

and kinematic hardening models, all plastic straining and thus, residual stress shakedown occurred
entirely during the first load cycle.

100

200

300

400

1 8

-200

Strain ()

Figure 18. Stress-strain history for variable amplitude


loading.

Welding-induced three-dimensional residual stress


and distortion fields in tee-stiffened plates were
simulated using finite element analysis. Cyclic axial
loads were applied to the stiffened plates and the
resulting reduction in residual stress due to elastic
shakedown was studied. Following the shakedown
analysis, a compressive axial load was applied to
the stiffened plates and their strength and behavior
was characterized by load-shortening curves. The
effects of strain hardening and variable amplitude
load cycles on shakedown were also investigated.
The following summarizes key conclusions drawn
from this study.
Welding-induced residual stresses in stiffened
plates typical of ship hull girders may be significantly reduced when subjected to axial loads while
in service. For applied axial stresses of 0.25 y and
0.5 y, longitudinal residual stresses were decreased
by around 20% and 40%, respectively. Residual
stresses are relieved entirely during the first load
cycle of a constant amplitude cyclic load. When
the load amplitude is varied, the magnitude of the
highest load is the primary factor controlling the
amount of residual stress shakedown achieved.
After partial stress relief by shakedown under
average axial stresses of 0.25 y and 0.5 y, the
ultimate strengths of tee-stiffened plates increased
by 1.53.5% and 4.57%, respectively. When

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welding-induced residual stresses were neglected


and only distortions included, the ultimate strengths of the stiffened plates increased by 816%.
This suggests that although residual stress relief
by shakedown in stiffened panels is beneficial, it
should not be assumed in a hull girder analysis
that residual stresses are entirely removed due to
shakedown while in service, as this may lead to
overly optimistic estimates of hull girder ultimate
strength.
A comparison of strain hardening models demonstrated that for hardening moduli typical of
shipbuilding steels, kinematic hardening has little
influence on shakedown of welding-induced residual stress.
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427548.
Andersen, L.F. 2000. Residual stresses and deformations
in steel structures. PhD. thesis, Technical University of
Denmark, Department of Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering.
Deng, D., Liang, W. & Murkawa, H. 2006. Determination of welding deformation in fillet-welded joint by
means of numerical simulation and comparison with
experimental measurements. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology 183: 219225.
Deng, D. & Murakawa, H. 2008. Prediction of welding
distortion and residual stress in a thin plate buttwelded joint. Computational Materials Science 43:
353365.
Dow, R., Hugill, R., Clark, J. & Smith, C. 1981. Evaluation of ultimate ship hull strength. Extreme loads and
response symposium. SNAME, Arlington VA, October
1981.

Faulkner, D. 1975. A review of effective plating for use in


the analysis of stiffened plating in bending and compression. Journal of Ship Research 19(1): 117.
Gannon, L.G., Liu, Y., Pegg, N.G. & Smith, M. 2010.
Influence of welding sequence on residual stress and
distortion in flat-bar stiffened plates. Marine Structures 23: 120.
Goldak, J., Chakravarti, A. & Bibby, M. 1984. A new
finite element model for welding heat sources. Metallurgical Transactions B 15B: 229305.
Gordo, J.M. & Guedes Soares, C. 1993. Approximate load
shortening curves for stiffened plates under uniaxial
compression. In D. Faulkner et al. (eds), Integrity of
Offshore Structures5, 189211.
Guedes Soares, C. 1988. Design equation for the compressive strength of unstiffened plate elements with
initial imperfections. Journal of Constructional Steel
Research 9: 287310.
Kenno, S.Y., Das S., Kennedy, J.B., Rogge, R.B. &
Gharghouri, M. 2010. Residual stress distributions in
ship hull specimens. Marine Structures 23: 263273.
Latrou, N., Thevenet, D. & Cognard, J.Y. 2005. A fatigue
crack initiation approach for naval welded joints.
Oceans 2005Europe, Vol. 2; Proc. IEEE, Brest,
2023 June 2005.
Michaleris, P. & DeBiccari, A. 1997. Prediction of welding distortion. Welding Journal 76(4): 172180.
Nagaraja, R. & Tall, L. 1961. Residual stresses in welded
plates. The Welding Journal 40: 468 s480 s.
Paik, J.K., Hughes, O.F. & Renaud, C. 2005. Ultimate
limit state design technology for aluminum multi-hull
ship structures. Transactions, SNAME 113: 137.
Smith, C.S., Anderson, N., Chapman, J.C., Davidson,
P.C. & Dowling, P.J. 1992. Strength of stiffened plating under combined compression and lateral pressure.
Transactions, RINA 134: 131147.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Geometrical effects on strength and deformability of corroded


steel plates
Muhammad Rabiul Islam
Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan

Yoichi Sumi
Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan

ABSTRACT: Strength and deformability of steel plates for marine use are studied from the viewpoint
of geometry of corrosion pits and the size effect of corroded plates. The actual shape of corrosion pit
depends on the surrounding environment, which may result in a variety of pitting shapes such as conical and ellipsoidal shapes. In the present study, the effect of the two shapes has been investigated by
the non-linear, large deformation and three-dimensional finite element analyses for simulated corrosion
surfaces generated by a probabilistic model of a corrosion process. The strength of corroded plates with
semi-ellipsoidal pits is found to be estimated by the empirical formula obtained from that with conical
pits, where the estimation is based on the minimum cross sectional area of the plate. The deformability
and energy absorption of the corroded plates could be estimated by the surface roughness represented by
the difference of averaged plate thickness and that at the section of minimum cross sectional area. Having
investigated the size effect of corroded plates probabilistically, it has been quantitatively shown that the
strength and deformability reduce with increasing plate length, while they may increase with increasing
plate width. The size effect is more pronounced for deformability with the change of width.
1

INTRODUCTION

Corrosion wastage is a prominent cause of age


related deterioration of steel structures. Metal
degrades locally in pit forms reducing strength and
deformability, which are main salient features for
integrity of steel structures. Since the effect of corrosion is due to the geometric change of structures
where chemistry does not come into play (Oka et al.,
1990), studies related to pitting corrosion should
take into account of the actual shape of pitting,
which is considerably affected by the surrounding
environment. Nakai et al. (2004a, b) observed circular cone-shaped pits in the hold frames of bulk
carriers, and ellipsoidal-shaped pits in the bottom
shell plates of a tanker. They investigated actual
pitting corrosion observed on hold frames of
bulk carriers in different studies (2004a, b, 2005 &
2006). Paik et al. (2003 & 2004) studied the ultimate strength behavior of corroded plates, whereas
Sumi (2008) estimated tensile strength and deformability by using replica specimen.
The present study focuses on the effects due to
pit geometry and plate size, where various corrosion conditions with conical and ellipsoidal pits
have been simulated using probabilistic model

proposed by Yamamoto and Ikegami (1998) for


conical pits.
Strength and deformability reduction under
quasi-static uni-axial tensile load is estimated by a
series of non-linear implicit finite element analysis. Commercial code LS DYNA 971 is used with
the material type of piecewise linear plasticity.
In non-linear FE analyses it is required to define
materials behavior under large strain. Material true
stress-true strain relationship is investigated with
the help of tensile test by using vision-sensor technology. Inhomogeneous strain field is calculated
by the effective strain defined by Scheider et al.
(2004), and tri-axial state of stress is considered
using both Bridgman (1964) and Ostsemin (1992)
correction factors. Results of FE analyses are also
verified by experiments in the case of ellipsoidal
pits. The material used is a conventional structural
steel SM490A. Empirical formulae for strength
reduction (Paik et al., 2003) and deformability
reduction (Ahmmad and Sumi, 2010) have been
examined for ellipsoidal pits.
Size effects of strength, deformability and energy
absorption of corroded plates are also investigated
by the numerical simulation with the use of the
central limit theorem.

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Table 1.

Material

Material properties.
Youngs Tensile
Yield
Mass
strength density modulus strength
3
(MPa)
Elongation
(MPa) (kg/m ) (GPa)

SM490A 365.0

7853.6

206.9

509.4

28.73

Failure
strain
0.97

(1998), we shall assume the phenomena of


corrosion by the three sequential processes.
Life of paint coating (T0) follows lognormal distribution with parameters 0 (mean of ln(T0)) and
0 (standard deviation of ln(T0)):
fT0 (t ) =

Figure 1.

(1)

Transition time between active and progressive


pitting (Tr) follows exponential distribution with
parameter (inverse of mean transition time):

True stresstrue strain relation.

gTr (t ) =

MATERIAL PROPERTY IN LARGE


STRAIN

Geometric configuration of a specimen changes


considerably under large deformation due to necking, which makes the measuring process of material response during the large plastic deformation
a great challenge. Inhomogeneous strain field may
result in a tri-axial stress state. In the case of large
and non-uniform deformation, the true form of
quantities of stress and strain should be considered. As far as the deformation is uniform the true
form can be calculated from engineering quantities, but after the initiation of diffuse necking,
it requires the precise measurement of the instantaneous deformation.
In the present paper, the vision-sensor technology (Ahmmad and Sumi, 2010) is used in obtaining
the relationship between the true stress and the true
strain beyond the onset of localized necking, which
can be accomplished by introducing Bridgman
(1964) and/or Ostsemin (1992) correction factors.
The mechanical properties of the material used in
the present work are listed in Table 1. In the current
study local necking is observed at effective strain,
0.41. The average percentage of stress correction
at this value is 0.8% (1% by Bridgman and 0.6%
by Ostsemin) so that the effect is not so significant
(see Figure 1).
3

( t )2
1
0
exp
.
2 0t
2 02

p ( t ).

(2)

In the third process, depth of pit (z) progresses


with time () elapsed after the generation of progressive points as:
z() = a.()b; a, b coefficients,

(3)

where the coefficient b varies from 1 to 1/3 depending on materials, environmental conditions and etc.
The coefficient a follows lognormal distribution
with parameters a(mean of ln(a)) and a(standard
deviation of ln(a)):
ha ( x ) =

( x
1
exp
2 a x
2 a2

)2 .

(4)

They estimated the parameters governing their


probabilistic model from a survey carried by
ClassNK on 50 bulk carriers. These values are estimated for four different locations of those ships, in
which values corresponding to bulkhead plates in
cargo holds are used in this study. Using Monte
Carlo Simulation 5 data-sets for each process are
generated.
The shape functions for conical and ellipsoidal pits are defined in the following form; conical
shape:

SIMULATION OF PITTED SURFACE

W0 (

According to the description of a probabilistic corrosion model proposed Yamamoto and Ikegami

0 , r0 , 0 )

= 0 max 0 r0

(x x0 )2 + ( y y0 )2

(5)

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ellipsoidal shape:
0 , r0 , 0 )

W02 (
= 02

( {

max 00, r02

{(x x ) + ( y y ) }}), (6)


2

where X0 and X are the position vector of a pit


center and that of an evaluation point, z0 and r0 are
the depth and the radius of a corrosion pit at X0.
The parameter 0 ( = z0/r0) follows normal distribution with parameters (mean of ) and (standard deviation of ):
f ( x ) =

( x )2
1

exp
.
2
2 2

(7)

Each sample of the corroded surfaces is defined


by using equally spaced data points. Pit cusps are
located by using uniform random variants. CADsoftware RHINOCEROS is used to model the
corrosion surface by the NURBS surfaces. Corroded surfaces with different DOP (Degree of pitting intensity) are generated by varying the time ()
of equation (3).
4

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES

The test specimen is illustrated in Figure 2, whose


finite element model is generated by MSC Patran
using 8-node hexahedron elements (Figure 3).
Analyses have been carried out by the nonlinear

Figure 2.

implicit finite element code of LS-DYNA using


an elasto-plastic material where an arbitrary stress
verses strain curve can be defined. This material
model is based on the J2 flow theory with isotropic
hardening (Hallquist, 1998). A constant velocity,
V(t) = 3 mm/min, is applied in the loading direction. Fracture is introduced by allowing elimination of elements when strain to failure is achieved.
FE results are validated by experiments using the
test specimens with ellipsoidal pits.
4.1

Mesh size effect

Mesh size always has significant effects on finite element results. Strain to failure is generally increases
with finer finite element meshes. So, it was aimed
to find out an appropriate element size along with
strain to failure for which experimental total elongation of specimen can be achieved. In the case
of current model, it has been found that the effect
of element sizes except for the loading direction
are not so significant (Ahmmad and Sumi, 2010).
Therefore, the element size is kept constant (1 mm)
in width direction in the present analysis. Since the
element size in the thickness direction may vary
for specimens with corroded surfaces, the effects
of element sizes in the thickness along with length
(loading) directions are investigated.
As is shown in Figure 4, the total elongation
may change with the element size in the loading
direction. In the present analysis, the failure criterion in terms of the effective strain in an element
is determined in such a way that the total elongation in FE analysis reaches that of the experiment,
28.73% (Table 1) in a flat specimen. It is seen that
the total elongation reaches the experimental value
at effective strain 0.932 in the case of element
size, 1 mm, so that this value with 1 mm mesh is
used for the failure effective strain in the following
analyses. In Figure 5 effect of loading and thickness directional element size is shown, where the
strain to failure is normalized by the value 0.932.

Test specimen for tensile test.

Figure 3. Finite element modeling: (a) Boundary conditions. (b) The minimum value of hz is 1 mm under deepest pit cusp.

Figure 4. Effect of the mesh size in the loading direction


for stress-strain relationship.

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Figure 5. Effect of the mesh size in the loading and


thickness directions with regard to the failure strain.

Figure 6. Cross sectional average corrosion diminution


of 5 ellipsoidal pitted specimen.

From this figure it is found that the element size in


the thickness direction does not exhibit significant
effect. In the case of corroded specimens, a minimum element size 1 mm is maintained by defining
a middle surface (Figure 3b), while the element size
is kept 1 mm in the other two directions.
4.2

Comparison between FE and experimental


results

Five specimens of different corrosion conditions


(DOP 20%, DOP 50%, DOP 78%, DOP 93% and
DOP 99%) with ellipsoidal pits are processed in the
present study. Figure 6 shows the averaged cross
sectional area along the specimen length, in which
the locations of failure are also indicated. It may
be seen that they show very strong correlation with
the location of minimum thickness of the cross
section. From FE analysis it is observed that stress
concentration occurs at each pit cusp, where a
shear band begins to form. The final failure occurs
at the position of the minimum thickness in a shear
band. Locations of failure in FE analyses exactly
coincide with those of experiments (Figure 7)
except for DOP 50%, in which there exist the two
possible sections. (see the insets of Figure 6).
In comparing the experimental and FE results
(Figures 8 and 9), they generally exhibit fairly good
agreement with each other, where the nominal
stresses are based on the intact cross section of the
flat specimen. Since the continuous measurement
by extensometer is not available for DOP 78% and
DOP 93%, the total elongations are measured from
fracture specimens in these cases. The experimental
results and FE analysis are listed in Table 2.
4.3

Figure 7. Locations of failure in simulations (top) and


experiments (bottom).

Figure 8. Experimental results for nominal stress


nominal strain (ellipsoidal pits).

Effect of pit shape on strength


and deformability

A number of non-linear implicit finite element


analysis have been carried out for different corrosion conditions considering conical and ellipsoidal

Figure 9. FE analysis of experimental specimens


(ellipsoidal pits).

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Table 2. Strength and elongation of plates with


ellipsoidal pits.
DOP (%)

Tensile
strength
(MPa)
Elongation
(%)

20

50

78

93

99

Exp. 509.4 498.1 484.0 452.3 432.8 373.4


FE. 507.8 495.8 480.8 455.4 429.3 373.0
Exp. 28.7 24.0 24.0 18.5 19.0 18.0
FE. 28.7 21.5 23.5 18.5 17.6 18.0

pits using 5 sample data sets of probabilistic


corrosion model. From Figures 10 and 11 it is clear
that total elongation of pitted specimen decreases
considerably with increasing DOP whereas tensile
strength decreases moderately. Considering the
case where DOP = 99%, deformability decreases
51% and strength decreases 18% in case of conical shape whereas those amounts are 56% and 33%
respectively in the case of ellipsoidal pit. Higher
material loss due to elliptical shape is responsible
for this phenomenon.
Paik et al. (2003) derived an empirical formula
for predicting the ultimate compressive strength
and shear strength based on damage (Dm):
Ru = (1 Dm)0.73,

(8)

Figure 10. FE results for nominal stressnominal


strain relationship (conical pits).

Figure 11. FE results for nominal stressnominal


strain relationship (ellipsoidal pits).

where Ru is the ultimate tensile strength of pitted


plates normalized by that of an intact plate. The
damage is defined by
Dm =

A0

AP
A0

(9)

where A0 is the intact sectional area and AP is the


smallest cross sectional area due to surface pits.
The present study shows very good agreement with the formula for both types of pit shape
(Figures 12 and 13). Experimental results are also
plotted in Figure 13. It is found that strength
reduces approximately 20% in 10 years due to conical pits in a bulk carrier.
Ahmmad & Sumi (2010) derived two empirical formulae for predicting deformability reduction due to conical pit based on surface roughness
given by
Rd

1 8 14RS + 26.4RS2 f

0 Rs 0.15,

Figure 12. Strength reduction at different damages for


specimens with conical pits.

(10)

and
Rd

1 0 2RP 5.3RP2 f

0 RP 0.35.

(11)

In equation (10) and (11) Rd is the ratio of total


elongation of pitted plate to that of an intact plate

Figure 13. Strength reduction at different damages for


specimens with ellipsoidal pits.

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Figure 14. Change of deformability reduction with


surface roughness due to ellipsoidal pits.

in minimum section by relating the width and


length of plate to their representative quantities.
In this study the size effect coefficient so obtained
will be used to predict the size effect of strength,
deformability and energy absorption reduction
due to pitting corrosion.
According to Yamamoto (2008), a plate sample
is discretized by N number of cross sections where
each cross section consists of M number of points,
which means that N and M are the numbers representing plate length and width, respectively. The
average sectional corrosion diminution (
) can
be defined as:
ZM =

1
M

z (x ym ),

(14)

m =1

where z(x, ym) is the corrosion diminution of mth


sampling point in a transverse section located at
position x. In the present analysis, the sampling
points are equally spaced in the x- and y-direction
with the distance 1 mm. The value, Z M , is assumed
to be a random variable, so that the central limit
theorem leads it to follow a normal distribution
regardless of the original distribution,, with a
standard deviation of mean as M M .
Therefore, we can obtain

Figure 15. Change of deformability reduction with


maximum surface roughness due to ellipsoidal pits.

and the variables representing surface roughness


are given by
RS

Dm

zavg
T

; RP =

Pmax
T

zavgg

(12), (13)

respectively, where zavg is the average corrosion


diminution, T is the thickness of the intact plate
and Pmax is the depth of the deepest pit.
As illustrated in Figure 14, current study shows
that equation (10) is also applicable for ellipsoidal
pits with the specified range, whereas equation (11)
gives good estimation in a very limited range of
application, say surface roughness (RP) up to 0.1
for ellipsoidal pits (Figure 15). With increasing RP
value, the scatter of Rd increases, so that equation
(10) is recommended for use in the estimation of
deformability. Deformability is reduced more than
60% due to ellipsoidal pit for a corroded surface
with DOP = 99%.
5

SIZE EFFECT

Yamamoto (2008) studied size effect of pitted plate


in the evaluation of average thickness diminution

M=

2
= Representative Width,
2
M

(15)

where is the standard deviation of corrosion


diminution of the whole domain. The distribution
function for the maximum Z M among N sections
can be given by:

gN max ( z ) = N FZ M ( z )

N 1

fZ M ( z ) ,

(16)

where fZ M ( z ) is the probability density function


of the normal distribution of Z M . The mode
value of the above distribution can be expressed by
using the inverse of standard normal distribution
function :
1

z MN mod = FZM1 1
N

=+
1 1 ,
N
M

(17)

where is the mean corrosion diminution of


the whole domain. Equation (17) shows that the
maximum average sectional corrosion diminution decreases and converges to with increasing
representative width, M, while it monotonically
increases with increasing representative length, N.

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Rewriting equation (17), the representative length


can be expressed as:
N=

5.1

1
M z MN
1

(18)

Effect of width and length on maximum


sectional average corrosion diminution

The relationships expressed by equations (15) and


(18) are examined by varying both actual width
and actual length from 200 mm to 1,000 mm by
100 mm interval for six sample specimens with
conical pits with seven corrosion conditions. The
averaged relations are shown in Figures 16 and 17,
in which they show linear correlation.
The maximum average sectional corrosion diminution (equation (17)) can be evaluated by adding
size effect coefficient, SC, multiplied by standard
deviation of corrosion diminution of whole area to
the average corrosion diminution of whole area.

Figure 18. Size effect on maximum sectional average


corrosion diminution.

SC =

1
1

1 1 .

N
M

(19)

The size effect coefficient is illustrated in


Figure 18, extending the length and width up to
3000 mm based on the results of Figures 16 and
17 in an averaged manner. This may cover the
standard size of stiffened panel in marine structures. The size effect of width is more pronounced
than that of length, and it decreases gradually
with increasing the width, while it increases with
increasing the length.
5.2

Size effect on strength, deformability


and energy absorption reduction

Ahmmad & Sumi (2010) proposed an empirical


formula for estimating energy absorption reduction due to pitting, which is given by
Re = Ru Rd
Figure 16. Linear approximation for relation between
actual and representative width.

where Ru and Rd represent strength reduction


(equation (8)) and deformability reduction (equation (10)), respectively. Estimation of Ru solely
depends on damage of surface, whereas Rd can
be estimated from damage and average corrosion
diminution. In order to investigate the size effect
on Ru, Rd and Re, damage can be redefined as:
Dm =

Figure 17. Linear approximation for relation between


actual and representative length.

(20)

z MN mod
T

(21)

The mean and standard deviation appearing in


equation (17) are statistically independent regardless of location. As an illustrative example, here, we
shall investigate the size effect of strength, deformability and energy absorption reduction of a specimen with plate thickness, T = 16 mm, = 3.09 mm
and = 1.33 mm, and the results are shown in
Figures 1921. As can be seen from Figure 19,

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CONCLUSIONS

Two types of pit geometry and the size effect of


corroded plates have been studied numerically
and experimentally to examine the strength and
deformability of corroded plates. The following
findings are obtained:

Figure 19.

Figure 20.
factor.

1. The empirical formulae for strength reduction


and deformability reduction derived for conical
pits are also applicable to ellipsoidal pits.
2. Strength and deformability reduction is higher
for ellipsoidal pits than those for conical pits
because of the geometrical effect.
3. By combining the size effect coefficient of the
maximum average sectional corrosion diminution with the strength and deformation
reduction factors, the size effect of strength
reduction, deformability reduction and energy
absorption reduction due to pitting corrosion
can be estimated.
4. Strength and deformability increase with
increasing the plate width, while they reduce
with increasing length.
5. The size effect of strength reduction is not so
significant for a plate wider than 500 mm,
while deformability is affected in a much wider
range.

Size effect on strength reduction factor.

Size effect on deformability reduction

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors express their appreciation to
Mr. S. Michiyama and Mr. H. Arakaki for their
supports during the present work. This work has
been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific
Research (No. A(2) 22246109) from the Ministry
of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to Yokohama National University. The
authors are grateful for the support.
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Figure 21.
factor.

Size effect on energy absorption reduction

the size effect on strength is not so significant for


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The results also show that strength and deformability reduce with increasing plate length, while
they increase with increasing plate width. This
phenomenon may be interpreted in the following
way; the parallel load-bearing paths strengthen
the structural redundancy with increasing a plate
width. On the contrary, a least durable section may
appear by increasing the specimen length.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Methods to cope with up heaval buckling of high temperature


offshore pipelines in Mexicos Bay of Campeche
J. Ochoa Z., J.E. Iturriaga F. & S. Melndez P.
PEMEX Exploracin y Produccin, Mxico

ABSTRACT: In Mexico, offshore pipelines are installed inside trenches. This has the effect of restraining
their movements to some extent, due to the weight of the backfill and the friction of the soil around the
pipe. When high temperature hydrocarbons start flowing through the pipelines, the friction around them
prevents the elongation and an axial force builds up. This force reaches a point where the restraining forces
are not enough to hold the pipe and buckling occurs. For buried pipelines the buckling is upwards, thus
the name Up Heaval Buckling (UHB). The mitigation measure for this problem is to add weight in the
form of rock or concrete mattresses at the places where UHB might occur. In Mexico a group of factors
have resulted in very expensive solutions, thus, PEMEXs engineering department is working on finding
the most adequate methods to cope with UHB.
1

INTRODUCTION

When steel pipelines are heated they tend to increase


their dimensions, and particularly their length, due
to thermal expansion. When a pipeline is installed,
either offshore or inland, the contact between the
soil and the pipe restrains the movement to some
extent, due to the friction produced by this contact. When high temperature hydrocarbons start
flowing through the pipe, the temperature of the
pipe starts to increase, but the restraining force
produced by the friction prevents the elongation,
and an axial force starts building-up along the pipe.
As time passes, the pipeline temperature starts
approaching the temperature of the hydrocarbons.
If the temperature of the hydrocarbons is above a
certain limit, the axial force reaches a point where
the restraining forces are not enough to hold the
pipeline in place and elongation occurs.
Normally, the restraining forces that keep the
pipeline in place are not constant along the pipe,
so, the increasing axial force produced by heating
the pipe will be higher than the restraining forces at
certain locations first along the pipeline. These local
elongations between still-fixed sections implicate
that the pipeline will buckle where the restraining
forces are lower, thus exceeded first by the increasing axial force. Having a sideways or upwards
curvature along the axis of the pipeline makes
the location of the curvature prone to buckling.
As the curvature increases in a specific location,
so does the risk of buckling. When the curvature
of the pipelines axis is downwards (concave),
the development of the buckle is prevented by the
contact between the soil and the pipe.

The type of buckling described above is known


as global buckling. Local buckling is when, in a
localized section, the plate that forms the pipeline
buckles. The scope of this work focuses on global
buckling.
Although high temperature is the factor that
affects the most the elongation of the pipeline and
therefore its eventual buckling, high internal pressure has a minor contribution. Generally, the pipelines that are prone to buckling are those known
as high temperature, high pressure or HT/HP
pipelines.
Global buckling is a load response and not a
failure mode as such. Global buckling may, however, imply an ultimate failure mode such as:
local buckling
fracture
fatigue. (DNV, 2007)
Global buckling not being a failure mode, in
some cases it is not just allowed but even needed
and designed to happen at predefined locations to
keep the stresses and response of the pipeline under
the allowable limits. Letting the pipeline buckle at
pre-defined locations can achieve significant
CAPEX reduction over the very few viable alternatives, such as trench and rockdump. (Hooper
et al., 2004).
DNV (2007) groups the possible pipeline buckling scenarios in 3 categories:
Exposed pipelines on even seabed
Exposed pipelines on un-even seabed
Buried/covered pipelines.

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For exposed pipelines, global buckling is


permitted, and the analysis and design philosophy
is based on allowing the pipe to buckle at specified
locations. The design for these scenarios includes
horizontal curvatures meant to induce buckling,
which liberates the expansion forces. This method
is known as Snake-lay Design, and, as Hooper et al.
(2004) explain it, the philosophy involved is to
work with the response rather than against it.
Sometimes, in order to reduce the friction
between the soil and the pipeline in the locations
where buckling has to occur, thus facilitating the
process, the pipeline is laid over steel pipes installed
perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline, in the
locations where the curvature is specified. These
steel pipes over which the pipeline is installed are
known as Sleepers.
For buried or covered pipelines, the analysis
and design philosophy is to prevent buckling completely; this is achieved by maintaining the restraining forces always higher than the driving forces.
When a pipeline is installed inside a trench, the
buckling tends to be upwards, in a vertical plane,
as this direction presents less resistance to the pipe
movement, thus the name Up Heaval Buckling
(UHB).
In Mexico, the code for designing offshore pipelines (PEMEX, 2009) specifies that they have to
always be installed inside trenches, with a minimum
depth of lowering (DOL, vertical distance between
the top of the pipeline and the undisturbed seabed
elevation) of 1 m. This indicates that the HT/HP
pipelines prone to buckle would present UHB,
and they have to be designed as to prevent it from
happening.
Mexico has been producing hydrocarbons in offshore facilities for almost 40 years. PEMEX is the
Mexican National Oil Company, and by law, is the
only entity allowed to produce oil and gas within
the Mexican borders. Despite PEMEXs long
experience in offshore activities, the first HT/HP
pipeline prone to UHB in the Mexican part of the
Gulf of Mexico came around 2005 when some
oilfields from the Southwest Marine Region presented very hot oil.
Being a new problem for PEMEX, technical
support was hired from international engineering firms. A group of factors have resulted in very
expensive solutions, thus, PEMEXs engineering
department is working on finding the most adequate methods for Mexico to cope with UHB.
2

BASIC DEFINITIONS FOR UHB


ANALYSIS

As in most of the structural analysis and design


situations, UHB design is about making sure that

the restraining forces that prevent buckling from


happening are safely above the driving forces that
induce it.
DNV (2007) suggests that the design process
should be performed in two stages:
Pre-installed design phase
Post-installed design phase.
The post-installed design phase, which is the
final design against UHB is performed with Finite
Element Modeling (FEM) and non-linear analyses. Although there are good commercial software packages capable of performing the analysis,
PEMEX is writing and testing its own software
in order to adapt it to its particular needs. A few
years ago, the post-installed design phase against
UHB was done using the theoretical prop shape
configuration, and the expressions derived from
this assumption.
For the pre-installed design phase, the expressions derived from the theoretical prop shape
configuration are still in use. A widely accepted
approach is that of Palmer et al. (1990) which
sets the bases for latter works. Expression 1 below
(DNV, 2007) is one example, and it is going to be
used as a support to what is being discussed and
analyzed in this work:
SF |

eff
f

(Rmax + wp +

wo

EI
4 wo

(1)

where the left-hand side of the inequality is the


driving force in Newtons that induces UHB, and
the right-hand side is the restraining force that prevents it.
SF is the safety factor and has to be greater than
1 in order to prevent UHB; Seff is called effective
axial force and is the driving force that induces
UHB, it is measured in Newtons; Rmax is the additional required downward force to prevent UHB, in
Newtons per metre; wp and wo are the submerged
weights during operation and during installation
respectively, measured in Newtons per metre; E
is the Youngs modulus of the steel in Pa; I is the
moment of inertia of the transverse section of the
steel pipe and is height of the theoretical imperfection (prop).
The effective axial force Seff is obtained with
Equation 2 below (DNV, 2007):
Seff = H pi Ai (1 2 v) As E T

(2)

where H is the residual tension from the installation of the pipe in N, which is normally taken
as null to be conservative; pi is the difference in
internal pressure compared to as laid in Pa; Ai is
the internal transverse area in m2; v is the steels

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poisson ratio, As is the steel transverse area in m2;


is the steels expansion coefficient in K1 and T
is the difference in the steels temperature compared to as laid in K.
2.1

Prop type imperfection

Imagine that while laying a pipeline on a flat seafloor, a segment of it rests on an imperfection on
the trench bottom that is in contact with the pipeline just at one point, as depicted in Figure 1.
As seen in Figure 1, the soil is modelled as
Winckler springs, and the imperfection is modelled
as a simple support at a certain node, that has an
upwards ground displacement of m. Note that
the theoretical configuration is symmetrical with
respect to the simple support. For constructing
the model shown in Figure 1, springs in tension
are taken out, to have a better representation of
the pipe/soil interaction. There is a direct relationship between the magnitude of the curvature and
the propensity to UHB, the higher the curvature,
the lesser is the restraining force preventing UHB.
Besides the height of the theoretical imperfection
, other important parameters affecting the prop
shape and the curvature are the submerged weight
wo, the stiffness E I of the pipeline, and the stiffness of the soil. It should be clear now that in reality, when laying a pipeline inside a trench on the
bottom of the sea, the occurrence of a theoretical
imperfection configuration is very rare.
2.2

Mitigation measures against UHB

Two important definitions are derived from the


flexural moment diagram of the prop imperfection
configuration. The so-called wave-length, which is
two times the horizontal distance between the maximum and the minimum elevations of the pipeline,
which are the points with horizontal tangents; and
the convex zone which can be determined as the
horizontal distance between the inflection points
of the longitudinal axis of the pipeline. At those
inflection points the bending moment is null.
In Figure 2 below, the flexural moment diagram of
the theoretical imperfection configuration is presented with the prop shape. The convex zone and
wave-length are indicated.

Figure 2. Flexural moment diagram and deformed


shape showing the convex zone and wave-length.

Figure 3. Transverse section of a trenched pipeline


mitigated with rock dump.

Manipulating Expression 1 and taking the limit,


Equation 3 below is obtained:
R max

| Sefffff |

4 wo
w p 11 w o
E I

(3)

when Rmax is null or negative means that there is


no requirement for additional weight to prevent
UHB, the own weight and stiffness of the pipe are
enough to keep the pipeline stable. If Rmax is positive, means that in order to prevent UHB, a downward force of Rmax magnitude has to be applied on
top of the pipeline in the convex zone. The most
common way to add weight on top of the pipeline
to prevent UHB is by dumping gravel inside the
trench, on top of the pipeline. Figure 3 depicts a
transverse section of a trenched pipeline mitigated
with rock dump.
When the length of the pipeline to be mitigated
against UHB is relatively short, other solutions
to achieve additional weight are used, as concrete
mattresses or geotextile bags filled with sand or
other material.
Analyzing Equations 2 and 3, it can be seen that
the parameters inducing UHB are:

High internal operating pressure pi


steel transverse area As
high internal operating temperature T
height of the imperfection .
The parameters preventing UHB are:

Figure 1. Theoretical configuration for an imperfection


(prop) of m of height.

Submerged weight of the pipeline wo


submerged weight of the fluids being transported, included in wp
bending stiffness E I.

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Besides just adding extra weight Rmax over the


pipeline to prevent UHB, affecting the parameters
inducing it has been thought of frequently. The
operating conditions pi and T are difficult to
reduce. In some cases, not in Mexico, T has been
manipulated by using cooling spools. The idea
of heating the pipeline while installing it, during
pipe laying thus reducing T has been discussed.
Increasing the Specified Minimum Yield Strength
(SMYS), hence being able to reduce the steel transverse area As is something common. Reducing the
height of the imperfection is directly related to
the methods and quality of the trenching.
3

METHODS TO COPE WITH UHB


IN MEXICO

Mexico has been producing hydrocarbons from


offshore fields for almost 40 years, but the experience with HT/HP pipelines prone to buckling is
limited to some years, and not more than five pipelines. Although the number of pipelines designed
against UHB is very limited, they were long, and
the mitigating measures to prevent UHB proved to
be very expensive. PEMEXs engineering department was assigned to reduce the amount of mitigating measures and to investigate ways to reduce
the cost of implementing them.
3.1

Changing the design code?

The Mexican design code for offshore pipelines


(PEMEX, 2009) stipulates that offshore pipelines
have to be trenched. This responds to the fact that
the code was developed for shallow water pipelines,
where hydrodynamic stability on the sea bottom
of the pipeline is hard to achieve for hurricane
conditions. As explained before, when the pipeline is inside a trench, UHB has to be forcefully
prevented.
PEMEXs engineering department is exploring
the possibility of changing the code to allow for
exposed pipelines, while still maintaining hydrodynamic stability. As mentioned before, exposed
pipelines are allowed to buckle at specified locations, and there is the possibility of not using mitigating measures against buckling at all.
The Mexican code (PEMEX, 2009) specifies
that the pipeline has to be trenched with a DOL of
1 m, following, parallel, the profile of the seabed.
When the seabed is un-even, there might be crests,
and the code is asking the designer to impose the
same crest in the pipeline profile as there is in the
seabed. The possibility and advantages of specifying in the code a more rectilinear pipeline profile,
with a minimum DOL of 1 m is being studied and
its feasibility established.

The Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP) is


proposing PEMEX to include in the future HT/HP
to insert expansion loops (omegas) each some
km that would be above the seafloor, and would
allow the pipeline to expand, liberating the internal
force created by the increasing temperature.
3.2 Modifying laying and trenching practices
In Mexico, offshore pipelines are first laid on the
seafloor, and then, with water-jetting, trenched
to the specified DOL. This trenching method has
served well its original purpose, which was to protect the pipeline against hydrodynamic instability,
and therefore little has changed in the technology
involved.
However, water-jetting the pipeline to trench it
produces a profile that has a significant amount
of imperfections and in previous paragraphs it has
been discussed the implications and consequences
of the imperfection heights for UHB mitigation.
It has become clear to PEMEX that in order to
reduce as much as possible the amount of imperfections and their height, and hence the amount of
mitigating measures against UHB, the laying and
trenching practices have to be improved, starting
to use the latest technology available. Improving the flatness of the trenching in Mexicos Bay
of Campeche will present challenges, as the soil
is extremely soft in most areas, intermingled with
paleochannels and dead coral zones.
3.3 Improving the smoothing of the raw
survey data
Once the pipeline is trenched in place, and after
the hydro-test has been performed, a survey of
the profile of the pipeline has to be performed.
This information is paramount to perform the
post-installation UHB analysis. No matter how
accurate the survey is, there is always some noise
in the measurements, so, in order to perform the
UHB analysis, the raw data has to be smoothed
by fitting a polynomial to it. Fitting one polynomial to several kilometres of pipeline would not
give a correct answer, so, the polynomial fitting has
to be performed by steps in much shorter lengths
of pipeline. International engineering firms have
the length over which the polynomial fitting is
to be performed predefined, irrespectively of the
exact characteristics of the pipeline and seabed.
PEMEXs engineering department is exploring
the advantages of fitting the polynomials ever the
exact length of the wave-length (see Fig. 2).
The polynomials degree for the fitting is something that is being studied. International engineering firms, and some literature specify a cubic
polynomial for the fitting. The opinion of PEMEXs

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engineering department is that according to beam


theory, the regression polynomials degree has to
be at least 4.
The regression polynomial represents the elevation of the pipeline profile, in other words, the
deformed position of the neutral axis. Assuming
that the un-deformed neutral axis of the pipeline
is collinear with the X axis, and that the Y axis
represents the vertical direction, a general regression polynomial of third degree for smoothing
data for UHB analysis would be as presented in
Equation 4 below:
y(x) = a x3 + b x2 + c x + d

(4)

from beam theory, it is known that the curvature of


the pipeline axis is related to the flexural moment
by Equation 5 below:
M (x) = E I

d 2 y (x)
dx 2

(5)

also from beam theory, it is known that the derivative of the flexural moment along the axis of the
pipeline is the shear force, and that the derivative
of the shear force along the axis is the distributed
load, as presented in Equations 6 and 7 below:
dM ( x )
dx
dV ( x )
q (x) =
dx

V (x) =

(6)
(7)

assuming that the pattern of the distributed load


on the pipeline is constant, the shear force would
be linear, the flexural moment would be quadratic,
as would the curvature of the pipeline, the slope
of the pipe line would be cubic, and the polynomial representing the deformed position of the
pipelines neutral axis would be of fourth degree,
as opposed to the third degree polynomial used by
the international engineering firms that assisted
PEMEX. The load pattern that affects an offshore
trenched pipeline must be at least quadratic, which
leads to believe that the real polynomial representing the pipeline longitudinal axis should be of
sixth degree.
It is important to mention that reducing the
length over which the regression is made, and
increasing the degree of the fitting polynomial,
makes it more compliant with the raw data, which
might introduce risks that are being studied.
3.4

Improving survey quality

In the past, for pipelines that were not prone to


UHB, the post installation survey was the means

to have As-laid information for the Geographic


Information System and for future interventions.
The equipment used for the survey was not part
of state-of-the-art technology, but again, for
the intended purposes it served well. The general position of the pipeline was known, which
was what was being needed. For UHB analysis,
the precision needed for the pipeline profile is
completely different. Lack of precision in a survey for UHB analysis has as a consequence that
continuous rock dump has to be applied along
the axis of the pipeline, which implies massive
amounts of gravel and money. The uncertainties on the exact location of the pipeline profile
impede the designer to know where the profile
is convex, hence eventually needing mitigating
measures. If the designer cannot identify the
locations where mitigating measures would be
needed, he will specify them for the whole susceptible length of pipeline.
For the common operating conditions in
Mexico, if the standard deviation of the differences between the smoothed profile and the raw
data is around 2.5 cm, there would not be the need
for continuous mitigating measures.
3.5

Design of other mitigation measures

It has been mentioned that the mitigation measures


for UHB, once the pipeline is already trenched, are
rock dumping (see Fig. 3) and installing concrete
mattresses or geotextile bags filled with sand or
concrete.
If the total pipeline length to be mitigated is
relatively long, the solution is rock dumping, which
implies mobilization and demobilization of a special vessel, generally from the North Sea. The cost
of these is above five million dollars without taking
into account the cost of the rock, which is bought
in Mexican ports. For a pipeline that presents a
shorter length to be mitigated, the adopted solutions are installing, one by one, either concrete
mattresses or geotextile bags.
The problem with rock dumping, besides the
cost of bringing the equipment from the North
Sea, is that a huge amount of rock is not directly
working on top of the pipeline, it fills the sides of
the trench or simply rests on the sea floor. The poor
accuracy for locating the rock, added to the lack of
cohesion make that the amount of rock wasted is
considerable.
Using concrete mattresses or geotextile bags
present two problems, first, the geometry of both
do not match properly the top half of the pipeline,
and a big portion of them is not resting on top of
the pipe but on the seabed. Second, they have to
be installed one by one, with a diver directing and
participating in the maneuver.

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The idea was to design a solution that could


address and minimize the disadvantages presented
by the existing mitigating solutions. The chosen
name is alforjas which means saddlebags in
Spanish. Figure 4 shows a transverse section of a
pipeline with the saddlebags on top.
A pair of saddlebags is two high density concrete pieces connected to each other by chain or
steel rope. In figure 5 a 3D image of a single saddlebag is presented.
The saddlebags can be mass-produced and stored.
The geometry is designed to take into account:
Different pipeline outside diameters. The articulation on top of the pair of saddlebags allows
them to accommodate a range of outside
diameters.
Sedimentation area. The upper part of the pair
of saddlebags is designed to create a region of
low fluid velocity, hence allowing sedimentation
of suspended particles on the seawater, which
increases the downward force and the stability.
In extreme cases, this region would be used as
a base to other mitigating measures as rock or
concrete mattresses.
Different trench materials. The design allows
changing the outer wall inclination to accommodate trenches in soils with different angle
of rest.
Besides, the geometrical design implies a low
position of the centroid, giving stability to the saddlebags, once installed on top of the pipeline.
The concretes density can be increased, incrementing the weight of each saddlebag, or reducing
their sizes.
Some very interesting advantages of the saddlebags are being found, but the most promising
is the reduction of time of installation. It has been
mentioned that a pair of saddlebags is connected
on top by chain or steel rope. Longitudinally, a
series of pairs of saddlebags are also connected by
chain or steel wire. In previous paragraphs it was
commented that the additional downward force
needed to prevent UHB from happening has to
be applied in the convex zone of the imperfection.

Figure 4. Transverse section showing the mitigation


measure designed in PEMEXs engineering department.

Figure 5.

3D image of a single saddlebag.

Figure 6. Isometric image of an ensemble of saddlebags.

Figure 7.

Top view of an ensemble of saddlebags.

Pairs of saddlebags are connected longitudinally


to obtain a length equal to the convex zone. The
distance between pairs of saddlebags is such as to
have the downward force per unit length needed.
This ensemble of pairs of saddlebags that has the
length of the convex zone can be installed on top
of the pipeline from a vessel, in a very similar way
as the pipeline is laid. In Figures 6 and 7 a group of
saddlebags, connected between them is depicted.
For installation purposes, the first end of the
saddlebags ensemble would have to be connected
to an anchor or dead-weight at the sea bottom.

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The installation vessel would have to start sailing


towards the imperfection, lowering the ensemble.
When the first end, composed by a pair of saddlebags reaches the seabed a diver or ROV would
have to direct it to land directly on top of the pipe,
as the vessel sails and lowers the rest of the saddlebags ensemble, the ROV or diver would have to
direct the vessel in order to place all the saddlebags
pairs on top of the pipeline.
At the current time, PEMEX is evaluating technically and economically the merits of pursuing
the saddlebags idea.
4

Table 2. Rock cover and rock weight to prevent


UHB for different imperfection heights.

RESULTS

For the technical merit of the saddlebags or other


solutions, an analysis has been made of the traditional rock-dumping.
PEMEX designed and installed a 30 pipeline
that is 21 km long, and will be transporting oil
at around 120C. During the design phase of the
project (PEMEX 2010), the downward force Rmax
required to keep the pipeline stable, thus preventing
UHB was determined. In table 1 in the next page,
the values of Rmax for different heights of the theoretical imperfection , and 120C are presented:
The values presented in the second column of
table 1 are then converted to either rock quantities or number of concrete mattresses. Using as
example rock-dump, for each value of downward
force, a rock cover height is determined. From the
rock cover height the amount of rock is computed
(PEMEX 2010). In table 2 below the values of rock
cover height and amount of rock are presented:
Comparing the downward force required to
prevent UHB from happening (second column of
table 1) against the weight of rock needed to provide
such downward force (third column of table 2), it is
found that the amount rock not directly acting on
top of the pipeline, thus not working in the UHB
solution ranges from 60% to 85% of the total.
The saddlebags solution, by design, applies all the
mobilized weight on top of the pipeline, thus making it a more efficient solution in this aspect also.
Table 1. Downward forces
required to prevent UHB for
different imperfection heights
and 120C.
Imperfection
height (M)

Rmax (kN/m)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

4.17
11.21
15.64
19.07
21.71

Imperfection
height (m)

Rock cover (m)

Rock weight
(kN/m)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

0.5
0.55
0.75
0.9
1

45
50
66
78
93

CONCLUSIONS

The analysis and design of HT/HP pipelines


prone to buckling is a new challenge for the otherwise offshore experienced PEMEXs engineering
department.
Allowing the design of exposed offshore pipelines could be a means of addressing HT/HP pipelines, but it requires changing the Mexican design
code for offshore pipelines (PEMEX, 2009), and
solving hydrodynamic stability in hurricane conditions in different ways than trenching it.
Laying, trenching, surveying and smoothing
practices have a very high impact on the amount
of mitigating measures needed for a specific pipeline prone to UHB.
Commonly used mitigating measures against
UHB in other parts of the world might not be the
most adequate for Mexicos Bay of Campeche. The
lack of operators, other than PEMEX, in Mexico
makes mobilization and demobilization costs
extremely high. The use of alternative solutions, as
the saddlebags presented here, could be adopted by
countries where the traditional solutions are not as
convenient as they are for the countries that originally developed them.
REFERENCES
DNV 2007. Global buckling of submarine pipelines.
Structural design due to high temperature/high pressure
DNV-RP-F110. Norway: Det Norske Veritas.
Hooper, J., Maschner, E. & Farrant, T. 2004. HT/HP
Pipe-in-Pipe Snaked Lay TechnologyIndustry Challenges. OTC 16379. Houston: OTC.
Palmer, A.C., Ellinas, C.P., Richards, D.M. & Guijt, J.
1990. Design of Submarine Pipelines Against Upheaval
Buckling. OTC 6335. Houston: OTC.
PEMEX 2009. Diseo de lneas submarinas en el Golfo de
Mxico. Mexico: PEMEX.
PEMEX 2010. 30 Pipeline BetweenandPredictive
Upheaval Buckling Report. London: KW LTD.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Benchmark study on use of ALPS/ULSAP method to determine


plate and stiffened panel ultimate strength
J.K. Paik, S.J. Kim, D.H. Kim & D.C. Kim
The Lloyds Register Educational Trust Research Centre of Excellence, Pusan National University,
Busan, Korea

P.A. Frieze, M. Abbattista & M. Vallascas


PAFA Consulting Engineers, Hampton, UK

O.F. Hughes
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA

ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to check the accuracy of the ALPS/ULSAP (Analysis of
Large Plated Structures/Ultimate Limit State Assessment Program) methods use to determine the ultimate strength of plates and stiffened panels. The details of the ALPS/ULSAP method and theory are
presented in both Ultimate Limit State Design of Steel-plated Structures, co-authored by J.K. Paik and
A.K. Thayamballi, and Ship Structural Analysis and Design, co-authored by O.F. Hughes and J.K. Paik.
In this benchmark study, the accuracy of the plate and stiffened panel ultimate strength obtained with
the ALPS/ULSAP method is ascertained through comparison with that obtained using nonlinear finite
element methods and the DNV/PULS method.
1

INTRODUCTION

It is now well recognized that ultimate strength


is a much better basis for the design and strength
assessment of ship structures than allowable working stress (Paik & Thayamballi 2003, 2007; ISO
2007; Hughes & Paik 2010), which also holds true
for the condition assessment of aged structures
(Paik & Melchers 2008).
Plates and stiffened panels are the basic structural components that govern the overall failure of
ships and offshore structures. Their accurate and
efficient calculation is thus a very important task
in the design and safety assessment of ships and
offshore structures.
The ultimate strength algorithms for plates and
stiffened panels developed by Paik and his colleagues (Paik & Thayamballi 2003; Hughes & Paik
2010) have been implemented in ALPS/ULSAP
software (2010). The present paper reports the
results of a benchmark study comparing the
ultimate strength of plates and stiffened panels
obtained using the ALPS/ULSAP method with
that obtained with nonlinear finite element methods and the DNV/PULS method (2009).

THEORY OF THE ALPS/ULSAP


METHOD

The stiffened plate structure shown in Fig. 1 is considered. This structure is subject to the combined
in-plane and lateral pressure load shown in Fig. 2.
2.1 Ultimate strength of plates
The membrane stress-based method (plastic edgeoriented plate hinge approach) is applied (Paik &
Thayamballi 2003, 2007; Hughes & Paik 2010).
The membrane stress inside a deflected or buckled plate is non-uniform. Figure 3 depicts a typical
example of the axial membrane stress distribution
inside a plate that is subject to uniaxial compressive loading before and after buckling occurs. For
simplicity, the case of a single bulge in the middle
of the plate is shown.
The membrane stress distribution in the loading (x) direction becomes non-uniform as the plate
starts to deflect (e.g., due to buckling). That in
the y direction also becomes non-uniform if the
unloaded plate edges remain straight, although no
membrane stresses will develop in this direction

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(a) Before buckling.

Figure 1(a). Stiffened plate structurenomenclature


of the plate panel.
(b) After buckling, the unloaded edges move freely in plane.
b

tp
N.

tp
A.

hw
tw

N.

tp
A.

hw

N.

A.

hw

tw

tw
tf

bf

tf
bf

Figure 1(b). Stiffened plate structurenomenclature


of the stiffeners.

(c) After buckling, the unloaded edges remain straight.

Figure 3. Membrane stress distribution inside a plate


subject to uniaxial compressive loads in the case of one
bulge in the middle of the plate.

Figure 2. Stiffened panel subject to a combined in-plane


and lateral pressure load.

under longitudinal compression only if these edges


move freely in plane. It should be noted that the
unloaded edges of a plate that is part of a stiffened
panel are likely to remain straight.
The maximum compressive membrane stresses
develop around the plate corners, and the minimum (tensile) membrane stresses occur in the

middle of the plate, where a membrane tension


field is formed by the plate deflection because the
plate edges remain straight.
A similar nonlinear membrane stress distribution may appear inside a deflected plate that is
subject to combined axial compression and lateral
pressure loads. Edge shear loading may render the
membrane stress distribution pattern more complex than that under biaxial and lateral pressure
load conditions, but as long as the edge shear is
a secondary load component, the basic membrane
stress distribution pattern inside the plate is likely
to be similar to that in Fig. 4(c).
With an increase in plate deflection, the membrane stress is redistributed as in Fig. 4(c), but,
although the stress in the mid-width of the plate
remains lower, that in the upper and/or lower faces
in the mid-width will initially yield through bending action.
As long as it is possible to redistribute the
stress to the straight plate boundaries through
membrane action, however, the plate will not collapse. Collapse will occur when the most stressed
boundary locations yield because the plate can no
longer keep the boundaries straight, thus resulting in a rapid increase in lateral deflection, which
corresponds to the ultimate limit state or ultimate
strength (Paik & Thayamballi 2003).

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probable yield locations can be found once the


maximum or minimum membrane stresses are
defined, as shown schematically in Fig. 4.
a. Plasticity at plate corners:

eq1

x2 max x max y max + 2y max + 3 2 = Y . (1)

b. Plasticity at longitudinal mid-edges:

(a) Plasticity at the corners.

eq 2

x2 max x max y min + 2y min + 3 2 = Y . (2)

c. Plasticity at transverse edges:

eq3

x2 min x min y max + 2y max + 3 2 = Y . (3)

As the applied loads increase, the plate will collapse if any one of the three foregoing equivalent
stresses, namely, eq1, eq2, or eq3, reaches material
yield stress Y. The minimum value among all of
the applied load components that satisfy the three
equations must then be the real ultimate strength
of the plate.
The maximum and minimum membrane stresses
in equations (1) to (3) can be formulated as functions of the various parameters of influence (Paik &
Thayamballi 2003; Hughes & Paik 2010).

(b) Plasticity at the longitudinal mid-edges.

(c) Plasticity at the transverse mid-edges.


Figure 4. Three possible locations for the initial plastic
yield at plate edges subject to combined loads (: Expected
plasticity location; T: Tension; C: Compression) (Paik &
Thayamballi 2003).

Because of the nature of the combined membrane axial stresses in the x and y directions, there
are three possible locations for the initial yield at
the edges, namely, the plate corners, the longitudinal mid-edges, and the transverse mid-edges, as
shown in Fig. 4. The stress at the two mid-edge
locations, i.e., that at each longitudinal or transverse mid-edge, is expected to be the same as long
as the longitudinal or transverse axial stresses are
uniformly applied, i.e., without in-plane bending.
Depending on the predominant half-wave mode
in the length direction, the location of possible
plasticity may vary at the long edges because the
location of the minimum membrane stresses may
differ, whereas it is always at the mid-edges in
the short direction. In this regard, the membrane
stress-based method can also be called the plate
edge-oriented plastic hinge approach.
The occurrence of plasticity can be assessed
using the von Mises yield criterion. The three
following ultimate strength criteria for the most

2.2 Ultimate strength of stiffened panels


The possible collapse modes for a stiffened panel
subject to a combined in-plane and lateral pressure
load, such as that shown in Figs. 1 and 2, can be
categorized into the following six types (Paik &
Thayamballi 2003, 2007; Hughes & Paik 2010).
Collapse mode I: Overall collapse of the plating
and stiffeners as a unit; see Fig. 5(a).
Collapse mode II: Plate-induced collapse without
distinct failure of the stiffeners; see Fig. 5(b).
Collapse mode III: Stiffener-induced collapse by
beam-column-type collapse; see Fig. 5(c).
Collapse mode IV: Stiffener-induced collapse by
local buckling of the stiffener web; see Fig. 5(d).
Collapse mode V: Stiffener-induced collapse by
flexural-torsional buckling or tripping of the
stiffeners; see Fig. 5(e).
Collapse mode VI: Gross yielding.
This classification of collapse modes is applicable to any load combinations, including uniaxial
compressive loads and combined in-plane loads
with or without lateral pressure loads.
Collapse mode I represents overall collapse after
overall buckling. In this mode, the stiffeners and
the plating buckle as a unit, and overall buckling
often occurs under an elastic regime. This collapse

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Figure 5(a). Collapse mode I: Overall collapse of the


plating and stiffeners as a unit (shaded areas represent
yielded regions).

Figure 5(b). Collapse mode II: Plate-induced collapse


mode without distinct failure of the stiffeners (shaded
areas represent yielded regions).

Figure 5(c). Collapse mode III: Stiffener-induced collapse mode by beam-column-type failure (shaded areas
represent yielded regions).

Figure 5(d). Collapse mode IV: Stiffener-induced


collapse mode by local buckling of the stiffener web
(after the buckling collapse of the plating between the
stiffeners).

Figure 5(e). Collapse mode V: Stiffener-induced collapse


mode by flexural-torsional buckling of the stiffeners
(after the buckling collapse of the plating between the
stiffeners).

mode typically occurs when the stiffeners are relatively weak relative to the plating.
Collapse mode II occurs when the panel is subjected predominantly to biaxial compressive loads,
thereby causing it to collapse due to yielding along
the plate-stiffener intersection at the panel edges,
with no distinct stiffener failure. In contrast to collapse modes III, IV, and V, this mode assumes that
the stiffeners do not fail first.
When the stiffener dimensions are neither weak
nor strong, the stiffened panel is likely to behave
as a plate-stiffener combination that is representative of the entire panel, thus reaching its ultimate
strength via collapse mode III, beam-column-type
collapse.
When the height to thickness ratio of the stiffener web is large, local buckling is likely to take
place in the web. Collapse mode IV occurs when
the stiffener web buckles in conjunction with the
inception of failure in the plating between the
stiffeners.
When the stiffener flange is of a type that is
unable to remain straight, the stiffeners twist sideways, a phenomenon known as flexural-torsional
buckling or tripping. Collapse mode V constitutes
the pattern of failure in which the panel collapses
due to the lateral-torsional buckling or tripping of
the stiffeners.
The stiffened panel reaches its ultimate strength
in collapse mode VI when the panel is stocky or
subjected predominantly to axial tensile loading,
such that neither local nor overall buckling occurs
until the panel cross-section yields either entirely
or to a large extent.
Although these collapse modes are illustrated
separately here, some of them may interact and
occur simultaneously. For the sake of simplicity,
however, a stiffened panel is considered to reach
its ultimate strength via the first, and predominant, of the six collapse modes to occur. Hence,

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the ultimate strengths of the panel are calculated


separately for each of these collapse patterns, with
the smallest value among those computed taken as
its real ultimate strength.
BENCHMARK STUDY

3.1

b/2
b/2

Long. stiffeners

Trans. frames

b
b/2
b/2
a/2

Study methods

The three following methods were employed for


comparison purposes in this benchmark study.

a/2

a/2

a/2

Figure 6(a). Nonlinear finite element


modellingextent of the analysis for the plate.

method

Figure 6(b). Nonlinear


modellingmesh size.

method

Nonlinear finite element method


ALPS/ULSAP method (2010)
DNV/PULS method (2009)
For the nonlinear finite element method analysis, which was considered to be the most refined
approach, ANSYS (2010), Abaqus (2010), and
MSC/MARC (2010) were employed.
3.2

Ultimate strength of plates

The geometric and material properties of the plates


considered in this study are as follows.

Plate length, a = 2550 mm


Plate breadth, b = 850 mm
Plate thickness, tp = 11, 16, 22, 33 mm
Yield stress, Yp = 313.6 MPa
Elastic modulus, E = 205800 MPa
Poissons ratio, v = 0.3

abb==2550
a
2550 850(mm)
850 (mm)
tp= 11
11mm
mm
0.8

yu/ Y

FEM
ALPS/ULSAP
DNV/PULS

0.4

0.0

Yp E .
where
p
The magnitude of the ANSYS and ALPS/
ULSAP method analyses differs from that of the
DNV/PULS because the latter implicitly considers the initial imperfections, whereas both of the
former deal with them as parameters of influence,
and the present benchmark study considers an
average level of plate initial deflection.
Figure 6 presents the nonlinear finite element
method modeling for the plate in terms of the
analysis extent and mesh size.
Figures 7 to 10 present the ultimate strength
interaction relationships between biaxial compressive loads for plates with tp of 11 mm, 16 mm,
22 mm, and 33 mm, respectively.
The comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP
method computations are in very good agreement

0.6

0.2

for ANSYS and ALPS/ULSAP;


for DNV/PULS,

element

1.0

The plates are subject to biaxial compressive


loads, and all edges are assumed to be simply supported. No welding residual stresses are considered, although the plates have initial deflection wopl,
which corresponds to the plate buckling mode, as
follows.
wopl = 0.1 2tp
wopl = b/200

finite

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

xu/ Y

Figure 7. Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with
tp = 11 mm.

with the ANSYS analyses, whereas the DNV/PULS


tends to overestimate the plate ultimate strength.
3.3

Ultimate strength of stiffened panels

The geometric and material properties of the stiffened panel (denoted by panel type C) considered in
this study are as follows.
Panel length, a = 4750 mm
Panel breadth, B = 8550 mm

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Number of stiffeners = 8
Plate breadth, b = 950 mm
Plate thickness, tp = 11, 12.5, 15, 18.5, 25
37 mm
Yield stress of plate, Yp = 313.6 MPa
Yield stress of stiffeners, Ys = 313.6 MPa
Elastic modulus, E = 205800 MPa
Poissons ratio, v = 0.3

1.0

a bb==2550
a
2550 850(mm)
850 (mm)
tp= 16
16mm
mm
0.8

yu/ Y

0.6
FEM
ALPS/ULSAP
DNV/PULS

0.4

No welding residual stresses are considered. The


following condition is applied for the plate initial
deflection.

0.2

wopl = 0.1 2tp for FEA and ALPS/ULSAP;


wopl = b/200 for DNV/PULS,

0.0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

xu/ Y

Figure 8. Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with
tp = 16 mm.
1.0

a bb==2550
a
2550 850(mm)
850 (mm)
22mm
mm
tp= 22

yu/ Y

0.6

0.4

FEM
ALPS/ULSAP
DNV/PULS

0.0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

xu/ Y

Figure 9. Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with
tp = 22 mm.
1.2

a b = 2550 850 (mm)


tp = 33 mm

1.0

0.8

yu/ Y

For the initial distortions of the stiffeners,


the following condition is applied for all of the
methods.
Column-type initial distortion, woc = 0.0015a
Sideways initial distortion, wos = 0.0015a

0.8

0.2

where wopl = the plate initial deflection amplitude corresponding to the buckling mode,

Yp E .
p

Three types of stiffeners, namely, flat-bar, anglebar, and T-bar stiffeners, are considered. The four
stiffener sizes shown in Table 1 are considered for
each of the stiffener types. The size of transverse
frames and longitudinal girders is not addressed
herein, but it is considered to be large enough so that
neither lateral deformation nor failure occurs before
the stiffened panel reaches the ultimate strength.
Figure 11 represents the ANSYS nonlinear finite
element method modeling in terms of the analysis
extent and mesh size. A + 1 + span model in
the longitudinal (x) direction and + 1 + bay
model in the transverse (y) direction are applied.
A finer mesh is applied as the stiffener web height
increases, based on the results of a convergence
study. Table 2 indicates the boundary conditions
applied for the ANSYS nonlinear finite element
method analysis of the stiffened panel.
The present benchmark study was undertaken
in association with the activities of ISSC (International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress)

0.6

Table 1. Dimensions of the stiffeners considered


(panel C).

0.4
FEM
ALPS/ULSAP
DNV/PULS

0.2

0.0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Y

0.8

1.0

Size

Flat-bar Angle-bar
(mm)
(mm)
hw bf tw/tf
hw tw

T-bar (mm)
hw bf tw/tf

Size 1
Size 2
Size 3
Size 4

150 17
250 25
350 35
550 35

138 90 9/12
235 90 10/15
383 100 12/17
580 150 15/20

1.2

Figure 10. Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for the plate with
tp = 33 mm.

138 90 9/12
235 90 10/15
383 100 12/17
580 150 15/20

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y
D'

Tran
s. fra

of the analysis. Six elements in the plate breadth


between the stiffeners are assigned, and three elements in the stiffener web height.
One element is used for the angle-type stiffener
flange, and two for the T-type, in all of the nonlinear finite element method analyses. No elements
are assigned for the longitudinal girders or transverse frames, although lateral deflections along
them are not allowed.

mes

D''

D'''

s
er
rd
gi
i.
g
n
Lo

C'

B
z
A

B'

A'
A''
A'''

Size 1

Size 2

Size 3

Size 4

Flat type
(hw tw)
150 17(mm)
13800 elements

250 25(mm)
13800 elements

350 35(mm)
25000 elements

550 35(mm)
41000 elements

Angle type
(hw bf tw /tf)
138 90 9/12(mm)
15400 elements

235 90 10/15(mm) 383 100 12/17(mm)


15400 elements

26600 elements

580 150 15/20(mm)


42600 elements

Tee type
(hw bf tw /tf)
138 90 9/12(mm)
15400 elements

235 90 10/15(mm) 383 100 12/17(mm)


15400 elements

26600 elements

580 150 15/20(mm)


42600 elements

Figure 11. ANSYS nonlinear finite element method


modeling in terms of the analysis extent and mesh size.
Table 2. Boundary conditions applied for the ANSYS
nonlinear finite element method analysis.
Boundary

Description

A-A and D-D

Symmetric condition with


Rx = Rz = 0 and uniform
displacement in the y direction
(Uy = uniform), coupled the
plate part
Symmetric condition with
Ry = Rz = 0 and uniform
displacement in the x direction
(Ux = uniform), coupled with
longitudinal stiffeners
Uz = 0

A-D and A-D

A-D, A-D,
B-B and C-C

3.3.1 Stiffened panels under longitudinal


compression
Figures 12 to 14 show the normalized panel ultimate strength under longitudinal compression as a
function of the slenderness coefficient of the plate
between the longitudinal stiffeners by comparison
with the nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA),
ALPS/ULSAP, and DNV/PULS for the flat-bar,
angle-bar, and T-bar stiffeners, respectively.
The figures show, and in line with expectations,
that the normalized panel ultimate strength characteristics are significantly dependent on the panel
geometry, among other factors. It is interesting to
note that the maximum value of the normalized
panel ultimate strength appears at a certain plate
slenderness coefficient with size 2 stiffeners.
Figure 15 shows the variation in panel ultimate
strength as a function of the column slenderness
ratio for a plate-stiffener combination with flat-,
angle- and T-bar stiffeners. This figure shows that
the panel ultimate strength clearly decreases as the
column slenderness ratio increases in the range of
moderate and small stiffeners representing relatively large column slenderness ratio. For stiffened
panels with small column slenderness ratios, however, no clear relationship between the panel ultimate strength and the column slenderness ratio
does exist.
1.2

Panel C: hw tw = 150 17 (mm) (F)


FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (ABAQUS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

0.8

xu/ Yeq

Technical Committee TTT.1 Ultimate strength,


and some different FE codes with different FE
modeling techniques were considered. For the
MSC/MARC nonlinear finite element method
analysis, a + 1 + span model in the longitudinal (x) direction and 1 bay model in the transverse
(y) direction are taken as the extent of the analysis. Ten plate-shell elements in the plate breadth
between the stiffeners are assigned, and six plateshell elements are used in the stiffener web height
direction regardless of the stiffener web height.
For the Abaqus nonlinear finite element
method analysis, a + 1 + 1 + span model in the
longitudinal (x) direction and 1 bay model in the
transverse (y) direction are taken as the extent

0.6

0.4
Mode III

0.2

III
III

III

III

III

0.0
0

(b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 12(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under
longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 1).

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1.2

1.2

Panel C: hw tw = 250 25 (mm) (F)


FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (ABAQUS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0

0.8
III

IV

xu/ Yeq

0.8

xu/ Yeq

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 138 90 9/12 (mm) (A)

IV

III

0.6

III
Mode III

0.6

III

III

Mode III

0.2

0.2

III

III

0.4

0.4

III

0.0

0.0
0

Figure 12(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under


longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 2).

Figure 13(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 1).
1.2

1.2

(b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 235 90 10/15 (mm) (A)

Panel C: hw tw = 350 35 (mm) (F)

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0
1.0

xu/ Yeq

III

Mode III

xu/ Yeq

0.8
0.8

IV
IV

II

II

0.6

III

0.6

III

Mode III

0.4
0.4

0.2

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

0.0

0
0

(b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 12(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under
longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 3).
1.2

Figure 13(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 2).

1.2

Panel C: hw tw = 550 35 (mm) (F)

1.0

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (A)

1.0
Mode III

IV

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.8

xu/ Yeq

(b / t p ) Yp / E

IV
IV

0.6

IV

II

0.4

III

Mode III

V
V

0.6

0.4
FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (ABAQUS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0
0

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

(b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 12(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under


longitudinal compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Figure 13(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 3).

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1.2

1.2

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm)(A)

1.0

1.0
Mode III

0.8

0.8

xu/ Yeq

xu/ Yeq

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (T)

II
II

II

0.6

Mode III

V
V

0.6

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (ABAQUS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0
0

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0

( b / t p ) Yp / E

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (ABAQUS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

1.0
Mode V

0.6
III

0.4
III

Mode III

0.2

III

V
II
II

0.4
FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (ABAQUS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

0.2

0.0
1

Figure 14(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under


longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 1).

1.2

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Design Formula (DNV/PULS)

xu/ Yeq

III

Flat bar under longitudinal compressive loads


FEA (ANSYS)
Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

0.8

0.6

Figure 14(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under


longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 235 90 10/15 (mm) (T)

1.0

( b / tp ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

1.2

II

0.6

III

III

0.0
0

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.8

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 138 90 9/12 (mm) (T)

1.0

Figure 14(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under


longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 3).
1.2

1.2

( b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 13(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under longitudinal compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 4).

xu/ Yeq

0.4

0.4

xu/ Yeq

III

0.6

0.4

Mode III

0.4
0.2

0.2
0.0
0.0

0.0
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

(a / r ) Yeq / E

( b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 14(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under
longitudinal compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 2).

Figure 15(a). Variation in normalized panel ultimate


strength under longitudinal compression as a function of
the column slenderness ratio with flat-bar stiffeners.

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1.2

1.0

1.2

Angle bar under longitudinal compressive loads


FEA (ANSYS)
Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

0.8

yu/ Yeq

xu/ Yeq

Panel C: hw tw = 150 17 (mm) (F)

0.6

Mode I

0.6
III

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

III
III

0.0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Figure 16(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under


transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 1).
1.2

Tee bar under longitudinal compressive loads


FEA (ANSYS)
Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Panel C: h w tw = 250 25 (mm) (F)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

xu/ Yeq

( b / t p ) Yp / E

Figure 15(b). Variation in normalized panel ultimate


strength under longitudinal compression as a function of
the column slenderness ratio with angle-bar stiffeners.

1.0

III

0.0

2.5

(a / r ) Yeq / E

1.2

III

0.6

Mode III

0.6
III

0.4

0.4

III
III

IV

IV

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

( b / t p ) Yp / E

(a / r ) Yeq / E

Figure 15(c). Variation in normalized panel ultimate


strength under longitudinal compression as a function of
the column slenderness ratio with T-bar stiffeners.

Figure 16(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under


transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 2).
1.2

Through the wide range of panel dimensions, the


comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP method
solutions are in very good agreement with those
of the nonlinear FEA, though slightly on the conservative side, whereas the ALPS/ULSAP method
tends to underestimate the ultimate strength of the
panels with large flat-bar stiffeners, as shown in
Figs. 12(c) and 12(d).

Panel C: h w tw = 350 35 (mm) (F)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

yu/ Yeq

0.8
Mode III

0.6
III

0.4

IV
IV

3.3.2

Stiffened panels under transverse


compression
Figures 16 to 18 show the normalized panel ultimate
strength under transverse compression as a function
of the slenderness coefficient of the plate between
the longitudinal stiffeners by comparison with
nonlinear FEA and ALPS/ULSAP for flat-bar,
angle-bar, and T-bar stiffeners, respectively.

IV

IV

0.2

0.0
0

(b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 16(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under
transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 3).

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1.2

1.2

Panel C: hw tw = 550 35 (mm) (F)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (A)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Mode III

0.6
IV

0.4

Mode III

0.6
V

0.4

IV
IV

IV

V
IV

IV

Figure 16(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under


transverse compression for flat-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 138 90 9/12 (mm) (A)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

Figure 17(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under


transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 3).
1.2

1.2

( b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 12/17 (mm) (A)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

IV

0.0

0.0

Mode III

0.6
III

Mode V

0.6
IV

0.4

0.4

IV

III
III

IV
III

III

IV

IV

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0
0

Figure 17(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under


transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 1).
1.2

Figure 17(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under


transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 4).

1.2

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 235 90 10/15 (mm) (A)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

( b / t p ) Yp / E

(b / t p ) Yp / E

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 138 90 9/12 (mm) (T)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

IV

0.2

0.2

Mode III

0.6
III

0.4

Mode III

0.6
III

0.4

III
V

III
III

III

III

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0
0

( b / t p ) Yp / E

( b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 17(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under
transverse compression for angle-bar stiffeners (size 2).

Figure 18(a). Ultimate strength of the panels under


transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 1).

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1.2

Figure 19 shows the variation in normalized


panel ultimate strength under transverse compression as a function of the column slenderness
ratio of the longitudinal stiffeners with attached
plating. The panel ultimate transverse compressive strength tends to remain unchanged for the
column slenderness ratio of the longitudinal stiffeners as long as the plate is identical. It is interesting to note that a clear relationship between the
panel ultimate transverse compressive strength
and the column slenderness ratio of the longitudinal stiffeners exists, representing that the panel
ultimate transverse compressive strength increases
as the column slenderness ratio of the longitudinal
stiffeners with attached plating increases when the

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 235 90 10/15 (mm) (T)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

yu/ Yeq

0.8
Mode III

0.6
III

0.4

III
V

0.2

0.0
0

( b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 18(b). Ultimate strength of the panels under
transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 2).

1.2

1.0

1.2

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (T)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Size 4 Size 3

0.8

yu/ Yeq

Size 2

0.8

xu/ Yeq

1.0

Flat bar under transverse compressive loads


FEA (ANSYS)
Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Mode III

Size 1

0.6

0.4

0.6
V

0.4

0.2
V
IV

IV

IV

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

( a / r ) Yeq / E

0.0
0

(b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 18(c). Ultimate strength of the panels under
transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 3).

Figure 19(a). Variation in normalized panel ultimate


strength under transverse compression as a function of
the column slenderness ratio with flat-bar stiffeners.

1.2

1.2

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

1.0

1.0

Angle bar under transverse compressive loads


FEA (ANSYS)
Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
Size 4 Size 3

Size 2

Size 1

xu/ Yeq

0.8

yu/ Yeq

0.8
Mode V

0.6

0.4

IV

0.4

0.6

IV
IV

IV

0.2

IV

0.2
0.0
0.0

0.0
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

(a / r ) Yeq / E

( b / t p ) Yp / E
Figure 18(d). Ultimate strength of the panels under
transverse compression for T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Figure 19(b). Variation in normalized panel ultimate


strength under transverse compression as a function of
the column slenderness ratio with angle-bar stiffeners.

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1.2

1.0

1.0

Tee bar under transverse compressive loads


FEA (ANSYS)
Design formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

Panel C: tp=18.5 mm
hw tw = 150 17 (mm) (F)
FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8
Size 4 Size 3

Size 2

Size 1

yu/ Yeq

xu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

Mode III

0.2

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.0

2.5

0.0

( a / r ) Yeq / E

Figure 19(c). Variation in normalized panel ultimate


strength under transverse compression as a function of
the column slenderness ratio with T-bar stiffeners.

0.2

0.6

0.8

1.0

Figure 20(a). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
flat-bar stiffeners (size 1).
1.0

plate thickness is changed but with identical longitudinal stiffeners.


The comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP
method solutions for the panel ultimate strength
under transverse compression are in very good
agreement with those of the nonlinear FEA except
for the panels with a very thick plate and relatively
weak stiffeners. See Figs. 16(a) and 16(b) in which
the ALPS/ULSAP method overestimates the
panel ultimate strength due to the overestimation
of the load-carrying capacity of the longitudinal
stiffeners.

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm


hw tw = 250 25 (mm) (F)
FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4

Mode III

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

Figure 20(b). Ultimate strength interaction relationship between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm
and flat-bar stiffeners (size 2).
1.0

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm


hw tw = 350 35 (mm) (F)
FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

yu/ Yeq

3.3.3 Stiffened panels under biaxial compression


Figures 20 to 22 show the panel ultimate strength
interaction relationships between biaxial compressive loads by comparison with nonlinear FEA and
ALPS/ULSAP for flat-bar, angle-bar, and T-bar
stiffeners, respectively.
Figure 23 shows the panel ultimate strength
interaction relationship between biaxial compressive loads by comparison with nonlinear FEA and
ALPS/ULSAP for size 4 T-bar stiffeners with different plate thicknesses.
The comparisons show that the ALPS/ULSAP
method computations are in very good agreement
with those of the nonlinear FEA for the wide
range of plate and stiffener dimensions with different types of stiffeners.

0.4

xu/ Yeq

0.6

0.4

Mode III

Mode II

0.2
Mode IV

3.3.4

Stiffened panels under combined


longitudinal compression and lateral
pressure loads
The panel ultimate strength under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure loads
is now analyzed, as shown in Fig. 24. Two kinds
of lateral pressure loading, namely, the plate-sided

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

Figure 20(c). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
flat-bar stiffeners (size 3).

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1.0

1.0

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm


hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (A)

hw tw = 550 35 (mm) (F)


FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

FEA (ANSYS)

0.8

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.6

0.4

Mode III

Mode II

Mode II

Mode III

0.2

0.2
Mode V

Mode IV

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

0.0

Figure 20(d). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
flat-bar stiffeners (size 4).

0.8

1.0

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (A)

hw bf tw/tf = 138 90 9/12 (mm) (A)

FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

FEA (ANSYS)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.6

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm

0.8

0.4

xu/ Yeq

Figure 21(c). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
angle-bar stiffeners (size 3).
1.0

1.0

0.2

0.6

Mode III

0.4

0.2

0.6

Mode III

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

0.2

Mode IV

Mode V

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

0.0

Figure 21(a). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
angle-bar stiffeners (size 1).
1.0

0.2

1.0

hw bf tw/tf = 235 90 10/15 (mm) (A)

1.0

hw bf tw/tf = 138 90 9/12 (mm) (T)


FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.8

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm

FEA (ANSYS)

0.6

0.4

0.6

Figure 21(d). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
angle-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm

0.8

0.4

xu/ Yeq

Mode III

0.6

0.4
Mode III

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

0.0

Figure 21(b). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
angle-bar stiffeners (size 2).

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

Figure 22(a). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 1).

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1.0

1.0

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm

Panel C: tp = 11mm
hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

hw bf tw/tf = 235 90 10/15 (mm) (T)


FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.6

0.4

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

0.8

Mode III

0.6

0.4
Mode IV

0.2

0.2

Mode II

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.0

1.0

Figure 22(b). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 2).
1.0

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

0.2

0.2
Mode V

Mode II

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

xu/ Yeq

0.0

1.0

Figure 22(c). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 3).
1.0

1.0

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm

yu/ Yeq

Mode IV

0.6

0.8

1.0

Panel C: tp= 15 mm
FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.4

xu/ Yeq

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.8

0.2

Figure 23(b). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 12.5 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

0.6

Mode III

0.6

Panel C: tp= 12.5 mm

0.8

yu/ Yeq

yu/ Yeq

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

0.4

0.4

xu/ Yeq

Figure 23(a). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 11 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Panel C: tp = 18.5 mm
hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (T)

0.8

0.2

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

Mode II

0.2

0.2
Mode V

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

0.0

1.0

Figure 22(d). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

Figure 23(c). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 15 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

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1.0

Panel C: tp= 18.5 mm


hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)
FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4

Mode IV

Mode II

0.2
Mode V

Figure 24. A stiffened panel under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure loads.

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

xu/ Yeq

1.0

Figure 23(d). Ultimate strength interaction relationship between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 18.5 mm
and T-bar stiffeners (size 4).
1.0

Panel C: tp= 25 mm
hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)
FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6
Mode III

Figure 25(a). Shape of the initial deflection before lateral


pressure loading (with an amplification factor of 20).

0.4

Mode II

0.2
Mode V

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

xu/ Yeq

0.8

1.0

Figure 23(e). Ultimate strength interaction relationship


between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 25 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 4).
1.2

Figure 25(b). Shape of the initial deflection after lateral


pressure loading in the plate-sided pressure loading (with
an amplification factor of 20).

Panel C: tp= 37 mm
hw bf tw/tf = 580 150 15/20 (mm) (T)

1.0

FEA (ANSYS)
FEA (MSC/MARC)
Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)

yu/ Yeq

0.8
Mode V

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

xu/ Yeq
Figure 23(f). Ultimate strength interaction relationship
between biaxial compressive loads for tp = 37 mm and
T-bar stiffeners (size 4).

Figure 25(c). Shape of the initial deflection after lateral


pressure loading in the stiffener-sided pressure loading
(with an amplification factor of 20).

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pressure and the stiffener-sided pressure, are


considered.
In the FEA employed in this study, the lateral
pressure loads are applied first until the target
magnitude is achieved, and then the longitudinal
compressive loads are increased. This type of loading order changes the shape of the initial deflections before longitudinal compression is applied,
as shown in Fig. 25.
Figure 26 shows the deformed shapes of the
panel with T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and tp = 15 mm
at the ultimate limit state under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure loads,
where p = 0.25 MPa.
Figures 27 and 28 show the panel ultimate
strength interaction relationships between lon-

1.0

Panel C: h w bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (T)


Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
FEA (ANSYS) with Plate-sided Pressure
FEA (ANSYS) with Stiffener-sided Pressure

0.8

xu/ Yeq

Mode V Mode III

0.6
Plate-sided Pressure

0.4

0.2
Stiffener-sided Pressure
tp=18.5 mm

0.0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

p (MPa)
Figure 28. Ultimate strength interaction relationship
between longitudinal compression and lateral pressure
loads for the panel with T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and
tp = 18.5 mm.

Figure 26. Deformed shape of the panel under combined longitudinal compression and lateral pressure
loads for T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and P = 0.25 MPa at the
ultimate limit states (with an amplification factor of 10).
1.0

Panel C: hw bf tw/tf = 383 100 12/17 (mm) (T)


Design Formula (ALPS/ULSAP)
FEA (ANSYS) with Plate-sided Pressure
FEA (ANSYS) with Stiffener-sided Pressure
Mode V
Mode II Mode V

xu/ Yeq

0.8

0.6

0.4
Plate-sided Pressure
Mode III

0.2
Stiffener-sided Pressure
tp=15 mm

0.0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

gitudinal compression and lateral pressure loads


with T-bar stiffeners (size 3), by comparison with
nonlinear FEA and ALPS/ULSAP, for tp = 15 mm
and tp = 18.5 mm, respectively. The nonlinear FEA
results for both the plate- and stiffener-sided pressure loading cases are compared.
It is observed that the panel collapse modes differ depending on both the loading ratio and the
pressure loading direction as well as the panel
dimensions. The comparisons show that the ALPS/
ULSAP method solutions are in very good agreement with the nonlinear finite element method
computations.

0.4

p (MPa)
Figure 27. Ultimate strength interaction relationship
between longitudinal compression and lateral pressure
loads for the panel with T-bar stiffeners (size 3) and
tp = 15 mm.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The objective of the benchmark study reported in


this paper was to check the accuracy of the ALPS/
ULSAP methods use to determine plate and stiffened panel ultimate strength, compared with nonlinear FEA and the DNV/PULS method.
The dimensions and material properties of
a real ship panel were selected as the standard
panel for testing purposes, and a wider range of
plating and stiffener dimensions was considered
by varying the panels properties. Three types
of stiffeners, namely, flat-bar, angle-bar, and T-bar
stiffeners, were considered, and different loading
conditions, including longitudinal compression,
transverse compression, biaxial compression, and
combined longitudinal compression and lateral
pressure loads, were applied.

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The ALPS/ULSAP method solutions were


found to be in very good agreement with the
nonlinear finite element method computations
through a wide range of panel dimensions and
different loading conditions. Because the ALPS/
ULSAP method is based on design formulations,
the computational time required is extremely short
compared to the nonlinear finite element method.
This will be of great advantage in the structural
design and safety assessment of ship structures
comprising a large number of plate panels.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The present study was undertaken at The Lloyds
Register Educational Trust (The LRET) Research
Centre of Excellence at Pusan National University, Korea. This benchmark study was performed
in association with the activities of International
Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC)
Technical Committee III.1 Ultimate Strength. The
authors are pleased to acknowledge the financial
support of both The LRET and The National
Research Foundation of Korea.

ANSYS. 2010. Version 12.0, ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg,


PA, USA (www.ansys.com).
DNV/PULS. 2009. CSADirect analysis of ship structures. Classification Notes, No. 34.1, Det Norske Veritas, April.
Hughes, O.F. and Paik, J.K. 2010. Ship structural analysis and design, The Society of Naval Architects and
Marine Engineers, New Jersey, USA.
ISO. 2007. International standard ISO 18072-1, Ships and
marine technologyShip structures, Part 1: General
requirements for their limit state assessment, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
MSC/MARC. 2010. MSC Software Corporation, Santa
Ana, CA, USA (www.mscsoftware.com).
Paik, J.K. and Melchers, R.E. 2008. Condition assessment
of aged structures, CRC Press, New York, USA.
Paik, J.K. and Thayamballi, A.K. 2003. Ultimate limit
state design of steel-plated structures. John Wiley &
Sons, Chichester, UK.
Paik, J.K. and Thayamballi, A.K. 2007. Ship-shaped offshore installations: Design, building, and operation.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

REFERENCES
Abaqus. 2010. SIMULIA, Providence, RI, USA
(www.simulia.com).
ALPS/ULSAP. 2010. A computer program for ultimate
limit state assessment of plate panels. Advanced Technology Center, DRS C3 Systems, Inc., MD, USA
(www.proteusengineering.com, www.maestromarine.
com).

186

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Modified Paik-Mansour formula for ultimate strength


calculations of ship hulls
J.K. Paik, D.K. Kim, D.H. Park & H.B. Kim
The Lloyds Register Educational Trust Research Centre of Excellence, Pusan National University,
Busan, Korea

A.E. Mansour
University of California, Berkeley, USA

J.B. Caldwell
Emeritus Professor, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to develop a modified Paik-Mansour formula for the
ultimate strength calculations of ship hulls subject to vertical bending moments. The method is based on
a credible bending stress distribution over the hull cross-section presumed at the ultimate limit state. The
accuracy of this method is demonstrated through comparison with computations obtained using more
refined methods, such as nonlinear finite element method, intelligent super-size finite element method,
and idealized structural unit method. Statistical analysis of the hull girder ultimate strength based on
comparisons among the various computations is carried out in terms of their mean values and coefficients
of variation. The original Paik-Mansour method is found to be inapplicable to the case of a pure vertical
bending moment depending on the ships hull type and/or vertical bending direction, but the modified
Paik-Mansour method is more general and is able to resolve this issue.
1

INTRODUCTION

It is now well recognized that ultimate strength


is a much better basis for the design and strength
assessment of ship structures than allowable working stress (Paik & Thayamballi 2003, 2007; ISO
2007; Mansour & Liu 2008; Hughes & Paik 2010).
The same is also true for the condition assessment
of aged structures (Paik & Melchers 2008).
As applied hull girder loads increase, the most
highly stressed structural components of the ships
hull buckle in compression or yield in tension.
A ship can withstand further hull girder loading
even after the buckling or yielding of a few structural components. However, local failures result
in a decrease in the structural effectiveness of the
hull, and hence the overall hull structure eventually
reaches the ultimate limit state as the hulls redundancy becomes exhausted due to the progressive
structural failures that occur when hull girder
loads are applied.
The collapse of a ships hull constitutes the most
catastrophic failure event because it almost always
entails the complete loss of the ship. Such collapse
can occur when the hulls maximum load-carrying
capacity (or ultimate hull girder strength) is insufficient to sustain the corresponding hull girder

loads applied. The most typical consequence of


hull girder collapse is the breaking of the hull
into two parts due to the action of extreme vertical bending moments that exceed the ultimate hull
girder strength.
The prevention of hull collapse is thus the most
important task in the design and safety assessment
of ship structures, and an accurate and efficient
method of computing ultimate hull girder strength
is a prerequisite for robust ship structural design.
In this paper, the original Paik-Mansour formula method (Paik & Mansour 1995) is modified
to allow more accurate calculation of ultimate hull
girder strength. The accuracy of the method developed herein is demonstrated through comparison
with more refined method computations.

2
2.1

PRESUMED STRESS DISTRIBUTIONBASED METHOD


Caldwells original formula method

Caldwell (1965) was the pioneer of the presumed


stress distribution-based method of calculating
the ultimate vertical bending moments of a ships
hull. As shown in Figure 1, he presumed a bending

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Figure 1. Caldwells (1965) presumption of the bending


stress distribution at the ultimate limit state under a vertical bending moment for a simplified ship hull cross-section
subject to sagging or hogging (N.A. = neutral axis).

stress distribution over the hull cross-section at


the ultimate limit state under vertical bending
moments, in which all of the materials in compression have reached their ultimate strength with
buckling and all of the materials in tension have
yielded. Caldwell then calculated the ultimate bending moments by integrating the presumed bending
stresses over the hull cross-section.
Such presumed stress distribution does not,
however, accurately represent the ultimate limit
states of modern ship structures, thereby resulting in overestimated calculations of ultimate hull
girder strength.
2.2

Original Paik-Mansour formula method

Experimental studies of large-scale ship hull models (e.g., Dow 1991) and numerical studies of fullscale ships (e.g., Rutherford and Caldwell 1990;
Paik et al., 1996) have demonstrated that the overall collapse of a ships hull under a vertical bending
moment is governed by the collapse of the compressed flange, although some degree of reserve
strength remains after the compressed flange has
collapsed.
This is the case because, after the buckling of
the compressed flange, the neutral axis (N.A.) of
the hull cross-section moves toward the tensioned
flange, and a further increase in the applied bending moment is sustained until this flange yields. At
later stages of this process, the vertical structures
around the compressed and tensioned flanges (e.g.,
the longitudinal bulkheads or side shell structures)
may also fail.
In the vicinity of the final N.A., however, the
vertical structures usually remain in a linear elastic
state until the overall collapse of the hull girder.
Depending on the geometrical and material properties of the hulls cross-section, these parts may
of course fail, which corresponds with Caldwells
(1965) presumption.
Figure 2 shows an example of typical bending stresses across the hull cross-section of a

Figure 2. Example of typical bending stress distribution


across the cross-section of a ships hull at the ultimate limit
state under a hogging bending moment (+: tension: :
compression), obtained through numerical investigations
(Paik et al., 1996).

single-hulled oil tanker at the ultimate limit state


under a vertical hogging bending moment, as
obtained through numerical investigations (Paik
et al., 1996). It is evident from this figure that
the compressed flange (the bottom panel) collapses, and the tensioned flange (the deck panel)
yields, until the ultimate strength has been reached,
whereas the vertical structures in the vicinity of
the N.A. remain intact (linear elastic). Hence, the
approach based on Caldwells presumed bending stress distribution can result in the strength
of a ships hull against collapse being greatly
overestimated.
Paik and Mansour (1995) subsequently suggested
the bending stress distribution over the hull crosssection at the ultimate limit state that is shown in
Figure 3. In the sagging condition, regions 1 and 2
are under tension, and regions 3 and 4 are under
compression. Region 1 represents the outer bottom
Y
panels, which have yielded to reach yield stress x ,
and region 4 the upper deck panels and upper part
of the vertical structures, which have buckled and
collapsed to reach ultimate stress Ux . Regions
2 and 3, however, remain in a linear elastic or
unfailed state, reaching an elastic stress of xE .
In the hogging condition, regions 1 and 2 are
under compression, and regions 3 and 4 are under
tension. Region 1, which represents the outer
bottom panels and the lower part of the vertical
structures, has buckled and collapsed to reach ultimate stress Ux , and region 4, which represents the
upper deck panels, has yielded to reach yield stress
Yx . Regions 2 and 3 remain in the linear elastic
regime, reaching elastic stress Ex .
The height of region 4 (the upper part of the vertical structures) in the sagging condition, or that of
region 1 (the lower part of the vertical structures)

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xY

Ux

Mu

i =1

Tens.
Comp.

D-gus

E
x

xE
gus

xE

Tens.
Comp.

( zi

gu ),

(3)

where n = the total number of structural components, and gu is as defined in Equation (2). Mu is
denoted by Mus (negative value) for the sagging
condition and by Muh (positive value) for the hogging condition.

D-guh

xE

xi ai

guh

2.3 Modified Paik-Mansour formula method


Ux

xY

(a) Sagging

(b) Hogging

Figure 3. Paik and Mansours (1995) original presumption of the bending stress distribution across the
cross-section of a ships hull at the ultimate limit state
under sagging or hogging conditions (+: tension; : compression) (the superscripts U, Y, E denote the ultimate
strength, yielding, and elastic region, respectively).

in the hogging condition, after buckling and


collapse is assigned on the basis of the geometrical
and material properties of the ships hull structure.
Under a vertical bending moment, the summation
of axial forces over the entire cross-section of the
hull becomes zero, as follows.
xdA = 0,

(1)

where dA = integration across the entire crosssection of the hull.


The height of region 4 in the sagging condition
or that of region 1 in the hogging condition can be
defined by solving Equation (1). The distance gu
from the ships baseline (reference position) to the
horizontal N.A. of the cross-section of the ships
hull at the ultimate limit state can then be obtained
as follows.

The original Paik-Mansour formula method does


not allow the expansion of the yielded area to the
vertical members under tensile loads, although it
presumes that the tension flange, i.e., the deck panels in the hogging condition and the outer bottom
panels in the sagging condition, has yielded at the
ultimate limit state of the hull girders subject to
vertical bending moments.
However, depending on the geometric and/or
material properties of the hull cross-sections, the
vertical members close to the tension flange may
also have yielded until the hull girders reach the
ultimate limit state. Therefore, the bending stress
distribution at the ultimate limit state presumed in
the original Paik-Mansour method is now modified to that shown in Figure 4, where hY is the
height of the yielded area under axial tension and
hC is the height of the collapsed area under axial
compression.
In contrast to the original Paik-Mansour formula method, which involves only one unknown,
i.e., hC, in the bending stress distribution over the
hull cross-section, the modified method involves
two unknowns, i.e., hY and hC. Equation (1) is
insufficient to determine two unknowns, and thus
the following iteration process is required to determine hY and hC.

gu =

xxi ai zi
i =1
n

(2)

xxi ai
i =1

where zi = the distance from the ships baseline


(reference position) to the horizontal N.A. of the
ith structural component; xi = the longitudinal
stress of the ith structural component following
the presumed stress distribution; ai = the crosssectional area of the ith structural component; and
n = the total number of structural components. gu
is denoted by gus in the sagging condition and by guh
in the hogging condition.
The ultimate vertical bending moment Mu is
then calculated as the first moment of the bending
stresses around the N.A. position, as follows.

Figure 4. Modification of the Paik-Mansour presumption of the bending stress distribution across the
cross-section of a ships hull at the ultimate limit state
under sagging or hogging conditions (+: tension; : compression) (the superscripts U, Y, E denote the ultimate
strength, yielding, and elastic region, respectively).

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i.

ii.
iii.
iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

3.1

Develop the structural model with nodal


points for the hull cross-section using the
plate-stiffener combination elements and/or
plate elements.
Calculate the ultimate axial compressive
stresses of the individual elements.
Divide the ships depth into a number of segments (parts).
Keeping hY (the height of the yielded hull
part) at a constant value starting from hY = 0,
increase hC (the height of the collapsed hull
part) starting from hC = 0.
Assign the linear elastic stresses of the individual elements in regions 2 and 3 linearly between
the average values of the ultimate stresses in
the collapsed hull part (region 4 under sagging or region 1 under hogging) and the yield
stresses in the yielded hull part (region 1 under
sagging or region 4 under hogging).
Calculate the total axial forces (positive sign)
in tension and the total axial forces (negative
sign) in compression across the entire hull
cross-section.
Repeat steps (iv) to (vi) varying hC together with
hY until the difference between the numerical
values of these axial forces should be acceptably small.

Figure 6 shows the hull cross-section models


developed for various types of ship structures. In
the present study, all types of ship hulls are modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener combination
models except for tanker hull structures, while
tanker hull structures under a sagging moment are
modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener separation models, and those under a hogging moment
are modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener combination models. The details of the ships, including
the geometric and material properties of their hull
cross-sections, are presented in Paik (2011).
3.2

Ultimate strength of structural elements

The ultimate strength of individual structural


elements under axial tension is considered to be

STRUCTURAL MODELING OF HULL


CROSS-SECTIONS AND INDIVIDUAL
ELEMENT ULTIMATE STRENGTH
Structural modeling

The hull cross-sections of a ship may be modeled


as an assembly of plate-stiffener combination models (beam-column elements with attached plating)
and/or plate-stiffener separation models (plate
elements + beam-column elements without attached
plating), as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 6(a). Structural modeling for Dows 1/3-scaled


frigate test hull using plate-stiffener combination
models.

Figure 5(a). Plate-stiffener combination models (beamcolumn elements with attached plating) in a stiffened
plate structure.

Figure 5(b). Plate-stiffener separation models (plate


elements + beam-column elements without attached plating) in a stiffened plate structure.

Figure 6(b). Structural modeling for a container ship


hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

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Figure 6(c). Structural modeling for a bulk carrier hull


using both plate-stiffener combination models and platestiffener separation models.

Figure 6(d). Structural modeling for a Suezmax-class


double-hull tanker ship hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

Figure 6(e). Structural modeling for a Suezmax-class


double-hull tanker ship hull using plate-stiffener separation models.

Figure 6(f). Structural modeling for a single-hull VLCC


hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

Figure 6(g). Structural modeling for a single-hull VLCC


hull using plate-stiffener separation models.

Figure 6(h). Structural modeling for a double-hull


VLCC hull using plate-stiffener combination models.

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I = the moment of inertia with regard to the


corresponding nodal point for the plate-stiffener
combination element; and
t = plate thickness.
The foregoing equation implicitly takes into
account the effect of initial imperfections in terms
of plate initial deflection, column type initial
distortions of the stiffeners, sideways initial distortions of the stiffeners, and welding residual
stresses.

Figure 6(i). Structural modeling for a double-hull


VLCC hull using plate-stiffener separation models.

equivalent to the material yield stress, whereas the


ultimate strength of those under axial compression
is assumed to be as follows.
3.2.1 Plate-stiffener combination elements
The ultimate compressive strength of the platestiffener combination elements shown in Figure 6
are determined by the following Paik-Thayamballi
empirical formula (Paik & Thayamballi 2003).

Yeq

in xu1, 2 ,

xu

3.2.2 Rectangular plate elements


The ultimate compressive strength of plate elements is determined by the following equation
(Paik et al., 2004).
For plate elements with a/b 1, the ultimate axial
compressive strength with an average level of initial
imperfections should be determined as follows.
032 4
2 + 1.00 f
xu 0.03
= 1.274 /
Yp
2
1.248 / 0.283
where,
=

Yeq

=
0.995 + 0.936

a Yeq
;
r E

b Yp
;
t E

r=

2 2

b Yp
;
t E

Yp = yield stress of plating;


b = spacing of the stiffeners or the plate breadth
between the stiffeners;
E = elastic modulus; and
t = plate thickness.

(4)

where
xu1

1.5
3.0 (5)
> 3.0

For plate elements with a/b < 1, the ultimate axial


compressive strength with an average level of initial
imperfections should be determined as follows.

+ 0.188 0.067 4

xu a *xu 0.475 a
=
+
1 ,
Yp b Yp
2 b

(6)

where
4
2

*xu 0.032 + 0.002 + 1.0 f


= 1.
/
f
Yp
2
1
.
2
4
48
/

0
.
283
f

I
;
As

Yeq = the equivalent yield stress of the plate-stiffener


combination element;
Yp = the yield stress of the plating;
a = the length of the plate-stiffener combination
element;
As = the cross-sectional area of the plate-stiffener
combination element;
b = the spacing of the stiffeners or the plate breadth
between the stiffeners;
E = elastic modulus;

1.5
1.5 < 3.0 ;
> 3.0

a Yp
.
t E

APPLIED EXAMPLES

The ultimate hull girder strengths of the six types of


ship indicated in Section 3.1 are now calculated using
the proposed modified Paik-Mansour method, with

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4.1

12

Sagging bending moment (MNm)

the results compared with the strengths obtained with


more refined methods. As previously mentioned,
tanker hull structures under a sagging moment are
modeled as an assembly of plate-stiffener separation models (plate elements + beam-column elements without attached plating, see Figure 5(b)),
while those under a hogging moment and other
types of ship hulls are modeled as an assembly of
plate-stiffener combination models.
The ANSYS (2010) nonlinear finite element
method, ALPS/HULL (2010) intelligent supersize finite element method, and CSR (Common
Structural Rules) (IACS 2006a, 2006b) idealized
structural unit method are employed for this
comparison. The test results for the Dows (1991)
frigate test hull model in the sagging condition are
also compared.
An average level of initial imperfections was
applied for the numerical computations, although
welding residual stresses were not considered.
Details of this ultimate strength comparison are
presented in Paik (2011).

10
8

6
Test result
ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

2
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 7(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the Dows


frigate test hull under a sagging moment.
Table 1. Heights of the collapsed and yielded
parts of the Dows frigate test hull.
Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)

Dows frigate test hull

Figure 7 shows the results of the ultimate strength


behavior comparison for the Dows frigate test hull
subject to a vertical bending moment.
Table 1 presents the heights of the collapsed and
yielded parts, as per Figure 4, with hY = 0 indicating that only the tension flange, i.e., the deck panel
in the hogging condition or the outer bottom panel
in the sagging condition, has yielded until the
ultimate strength is reached. It can be seen that the
original and modified Paik-Mansour methods
produce identical results for this case.

Method

hC

hY

hC

hY

Original P-M
Modified P-M

210.0
210.0

0.0
0.0

760.2
760.2

0.0
0.0

Hogging bending moment (GNm)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

2
1
0

4.2

Container ship hull

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 8 shows the results of the ultimate strength


behavior comparison for the container ship hull

Figure 8(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the container ship hull under a hogging moment.

10

Sagging bending moment (GNm)

Hogging bending moment (MNm)

12

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

Curvature (1/km)

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 7(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the Dows


frigate test hull under a hogging moment.

Figure 8(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the container ship hull under a sagging moment.

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Table 2. Heights of the collapsed and yielded


parts of the container ship hull.

Hogging bending moment (GNm)

20

Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)


Method

hC

hY

Original P-M 698.8 0.0


Modified P-M 698.8 0.0

hC

hY

10330.8 0.0
10330.8 0.0

subject to a vertical bending moment. Table 2


presents the heights of the collapsed and yielded
parts, as determined by the original and modified
Paik-Mansour methods, which produce identical
results for this case.

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 9(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the bulk carrier hull under a hogging moment.
16

12

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 9(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the bulk


carrier hull under a sagging moment.
Table 3. Heights of the collapsed and yielded
parts of the bulk carrier hull.

Suezmax-class double-hull tanker hull

Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)

Figure 10 shows the results of the ultimate


strength behavior comparison for the Suezmaxclass double-hull tanker hull subject to a vertical
bending moment.
Table 4 presents the heights of the collapsed and
yielded parts of the Suezmax double-hull tanker
hull. It can be seen that, in the hogging condition,
the height of the yielded part is larger than that of
the collapsed part because the double bottom structures are much heavier than the deck structures
in this type of ship. The modified Paik-Mansour
method is able to handle this aspect, whereas the
original such method is not suitable.

Method

hY

hC

hY

17935.0
17935.0

0.0
0.0

16

Single-hull tanker hull

Figure 11 shows the results of the ultimate strength


behavior comparison for the single-hull tanker
hull subject to a vertical bending moment. Table 5
presents the heights of the collapsed and yielded
parts determined by the original and modified
Paik-Mansour methods, which in this case produce identical results.

hC

Original P-M

Modified P-M 1654.1 13.7

Hogging bending moment (GNm)

4.5

0.00

Bulk carrier hull

Figure 9 shows the results of the ultimate strength


behavior comparison for the bulk carrier hull subject to a vertical bending moment. Table 3 presents
the heights of the collapsed and yielded parts, as
determined by the original and modified PaikMansour methods.
It can be seen that the pure hogging bending
moment condition cannot be achieved for this case
with the original Paik-Mansour method, as it does
not permit the expansion of the yielded part except
for the tension flange. However, the modified PaikMansour method is able to achieve this condition
because the tension flange is allowed to expand,
with hY = 13.7 mm.
4.4

12

Sagging bending moment (GNm)

4.3

16

14
12
10
8
6
ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

4
2
0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 10(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the


Suezmax-class double-hull tanker hull under a hogging
moment.

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12

Table 5. Heights of the collapsed and yielded


parts of the single-hull tanker hull.

10

Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)

Sagging bending moment (GNm)

14

Method

hC

hY

hC

hY

Original P-M
Modified P-M

7035.2
7035.2

0.0
0.0

15225.5
15225.5

0.0
0.0

6
ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

4
2
0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

Hogging bending moment (GNm)

30

Figure 10(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the


Suezmax-class double-hull tanker hull under a sagging
moment.
Table 4. Heights of the collapsed and yielded
parts of the Suezmax-class double-hull tanker
hull.
Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)
Method

hC

hY

Original P-M

Modified P-M 12.1 2210.6

hC

hY

16078.5
16078.5

0.0
0.0

25

20

15

10

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 12(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the doublehull tanker hull under a hogging moment.
18

30

15

Sagging bending moment (GNm)

Hogging bending moment (GNm)

21

12
9
ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

6
3
0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 11(a). Ultimate strength behavior of the singlehull tanker hull under a hogging moment.

25

20

15

10

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0
0.00

Sagging bending moment (GNm)

20

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

Curvature (1/km)

16

Figure 12(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the doublehull tanker hull under a sagging moment.

12

4.6

ANSYS
ALPS/HULL
CSR
Modified Paik-Mansour formula method

0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Curvature (1/km)

Figure 11(b). Ultimate strength behavior of the singlehull tanker hull under a sagging moment.

Double-hull tanker hull

Figure 12 shows the results of the ultimate strength


behavior comparison for the double-hull tanker
hull subject to a vertical bending moment.
Table 6 presents the heights of the collapsed and
yielded parts of the double-hull tanker hull, which
has similar characteristics to the Suezmax-class
double-hull tanker hull (see Table 4).

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

The mean values and coefficients of variation


for the modified Paik-Mansour design formula
and the numerical methods are identified for all
six types of ship hull. In addition, the deviation
between the numerical methods is also provided as
a reference.
5.1

Formula method versus ANSYS nonlinear


finite element method

Table 7 presents the mean values and coefficient


of variations for the formula method versus the
ANSYS nonlinear finite element method for all six
types of ship hull. Figure 13 shows the trend of the
deviation in ultimate hull strength between these
two methods.

HULL intelligent super-size finite element method


for all six types of ship hull. Figure 14 shows the
trend of the deviation in ultimate hull strength
between these two methods.
5.3

Formula method versus CSR idealized


structural unit method

Table 9 presents the mean values and coefficients


of variation for the formula method versus the
CSR idealized structural unit method for all six
types of ship hull. Figure 15 shows the trend of the
deviation in ultimate hull strength between these
two methods.
30

5.2

(Mu)Formula (GNm)

25

Formula method versus ALPS/HULL


intelligent super-size finite element method

Table 8 presents the mean values and coefficients of


variation for the formula method versus the ALPS/

20

15

10

Table 6. Heights of the collapsed and yielded


parts of the double-hull tanker hull.

Hog / Sag
:
:
:
:
:
:

0.0125

Hogging (mm) Sagging (mm)

0
0

hC

Method

hY

Original P-M

Modified P-M 15.9 3816.0

Table 7.

hC

hY

20240.7
20240.7

0.0
0.0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ANSYS (GNm)

Figure 13. Trend of the deviation in ultimate hull


strength between the formula method and the ANSYS
nonlinear finite element method.

Comparison between developed formula method and ANSYS nonlinear finite element method.
Hogging

Sagging

Formula
Ship
Dows test
hull
Container
ship
Bulk carrier
D/H
Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC
Mean
S-D
COV

Dows frigate test hull


Container ship
Bulk carrier
D/H Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

ANSYS

Formula

ANSYS

Mp
Muh
Muh
Formula/ Mus
Mus
Formula/
(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp ANSYS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ANSYS
0.013

0.010

0.772

0.011

0.840

0.920

0.009

0.697

0.011

0.793

0.879

9.220

6.400

0.694

6.969

0.756

0.918

7.077

0.768

6.951

0.754

1.018

20.394
17.677

16.576
13.965

0.813
0.790

17.500
14.066

0.858
0.796

0.947
0.993

14.798
12.213

0.726
0.691

15.800
11.151

0.775
0.631

0.937
1.095

22.578
32.667

18.701
25.667

0.828
0.786

17.355
27.335

0.769
0.837

1.078
0.939

17.825
22.390

0.789
0.685

16.179
22.495

0.717
0.689

1.102
0.995

0.966
0.061
0.063

1.004
0.088
0.087

Note: MP = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,
S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

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Table 8. Comparison between developed formula method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite element
method.
Hogging

Sagging

Formula

ALPS

Formula

Muh
Muh
Formula/ Mus
Mp
(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp ALPS
(GNm)

Ship
Dows test
hull
Container
ship
Bulk carrier
D/H
Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

ALPS
Mus
Formula/
Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ALPS

0.013

0.010

0.772

0.011

0.799

0.966

0.009

0.697

0.010

0.743

0.939

9.220

6.400

0.694

6.916

0.750

0.925

7.077

0.768

6.635

0.720

1.067

20.394
17.677

16.576
13.965

0.813
0.790

16.602
13.308

0.814
0.753

0.998
1.049

14.798
12.213

0.726
0.691

15.380
11.097

0.754
0.628

0.962
1.101

22.578
32.667

18.701
25.667

0.828
0.786

17.335
25.600

0.768
0.784

1.079
1.003

17.825
22.390

0.789
0.685

17.263
22.000

0.765
0.673

1.033
1.018

Mean
S-D
COV

1.003
0.055
0.055

1.020
0.061
0.060

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,
S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

5.5

30

Table 11 presents the mean values and coefficients of variation for the CSR idealized structural
unit method versus the ANSYS nonlinear finite
element method for all six types of ship hull.
Figure 17 shows the trend of the deviation in ultimate
hull strength between these two methods.

(Mu)Formula (GNm)

25

20

15

10

5.6

Hog / Sag
: Dows frigate test hull
: Container ship
: Bulk carrier
: D/H Suezmax
: S/H VLCC
: D/H VLCC

0.0125

0
0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ALPS/HULL (GNm)

Figure 14. Trend of the deviation in ultimate hull


strength between the formula method and the ALPS/
HULL intelligent super-size finite element method.

ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite


element method versus ANSYS nonlinear
finite element method

Table 10 presents the mean values and coefficients


of variation for the ALPS/HULL intelligent supersize finite element method versus the ANSYS
nonlinear finite element method for all six types of
ship hull. Figure 16 shows the trend of the deviation in ultimate hull strength between these two
methods.

CSR idealized structural unit method versus


ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite
element method

Table 12 presents the mean values and coefficients of variation for the CSR idealized structural
unit method versus the ALPS/HULL intelligent
super-size finite element method for all six types of
ship hull. Figure 18 shows the trend of the deviation in ultimate hull strength between these two
methods.
5.7

5.4

CSR idealized structural unit method versus


ANSYS nonlinear finite element method

Summary of the comparison

Table 13 summarizes the results of the comparison between the mean values and coefficients of
variation obtained with the various methods. It is
evident that the formula method developed herein
is in very good agreement with more refined methods such as the ANSYS nonlinear finite element
method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size
finite element method. It tends that the CSR idealized structural method overestimates the ultimate
hull strength.

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Table 9.

Comparison between developed formula method and CSR idealized structural unit method.
Hogging

Sagging

Formula

CSR

Formula

MP
Mus
Mus
(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp

Ship
Dows test
hull
Container
ship
Bulk carrier
D/H
Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

CSR

Formula/ Mus
Mus
Formula/
CSR
(GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp CSR

0.013

0.010

0.772

0.012

0.888

0.870

0.009

0.697

0.010

0.764

0.912

9.220

6.400

0.694

8.040

0.872

0.796

7.077

0.768

7.843

0.851

0.902

20.394
17.677

16.576
13.965

0.813
0.790

17.941
15.714

0.880
0.889

0.924
0.889

14.798
12.213

0.726
0.691

14.475
12.420

0.710
0.703

1.022
0.983

22.578
32.667

18.701
25.667

0.828
0.786

19.889
28.352

0.881
0.868

0.940
0.905

17.825
22.390

0.789
0.685

17.868
24.798

0.791
0.759

0.998
0.903

Mean
S-D
COV

0.887
0.051
0.058

0.953
0.054
0.056

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,
S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.
30

(Mu)Formula (GNm)

25

20

15

10

Hog / Sag
: Dows frigate test hull
: Container ship
: Bulk carrier
: D/H Suezmax
: S/H VLCC
: D/H VLCC

0.0125

0
0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)CSR (GNm)

Figure 15. Trend of the deviation in ultimate hull


strength between the formula method and the CSR idealized structural unit method.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The objective of this paper has been to develop a


modified Paik-Mansour formula method for the
ultimate strength calculations of ship hulls subject to vertical bending moments. The principles
of both the original and modified Paik-Mansour
formula methods have been presented.
The original Paik-Mansour method does not
allow the expansion of the yielded part in the vertical members, but limits this part to the tension

flange, i.e., the deck panel in the hogging condition and the outer bottom panel in the sagging
condition. Depending on the geometrical properties
of the ships hull cross-section and/or the direction
of the vertical bending moment, the original PaikMansour method is unable to accommodate the
pure vertical bending moment condition in which
the total axial forces over the hull cross-section
must be zero.
The modified Paik-Mansour method, in contrast, does permit the expansion of the yielded
part, thereby allowing the pure vertical bending
moment condition to be achieved regardless of the
geometrical properties of the hull cross-sections or
the vertical bending loading direction.
This benchmark study of the modified PaikMansour method was undertaken with more
refined methods, such as the ANSYS nonlinear
finite element method, ALPS/HULL intelligent
super-size finite element method, and CSR idealized structural unit method, by identifying the
mean values and coefficients of variation for the
modified method.
The comparisons showed that the modified
Paik-Mansour formula method is in very good
agreement with both the ANSYS nonlinear
finite element method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite element method, and will
prove very useful as a simple formula for ultimate
strength predictions of ship hulls.
The modified Paik-Mansour method presented
in this paper is a logical step in the development of
a formula-based method for predicting the longitudinal bending moment which will break the back

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Table 10. Comparison between ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite element method and ANSYS nonlinear
finite element method.
Hogging

Sagging

ANSYS

ALPS

ANSYS

Mp
Muh
Muh
(GNm) (GNm) Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp

Ship
Dows test
hull
Container
ship
Bulk carrier
D/H
Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

ALPS

ALPS/ Mus
Mus
ALPS/
ANSYS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ANSYS

0.013

0.011

0.840

0.011

0.799

0.952

0.011

0.793

0.010

0.743

0.936

9.220

6.969

0.756

6.916

0.750

0.992

6.951

0.754

6.635

0.720

0.955

20.394
17.677

17.500
14.066

0.858
0.796

16.602
13.308

0.814
0.753

0.949
0.946

15.800
11.151

0.775
0.631

15.380
11.097

0.754
0.628

0.973
0.995

22.578
32.667

17.355
27.335

0.769
0.837

17.335
25.600

0.768
0.784

0.999
0.937

16.179
22.495

0.717
0.689

17.263
22.000

0.765
0.673

1.067
0.978

Mean
S-D
COV

0.962
0.026
0.027

0.984
0.045
0.046

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,
S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.
30

(Mu)ALPS/HULL (GNm)

25

20

15

10

Hog / Sag
: Dows frigate test hull
: Container ship
: Bulk carrier
: D/H Suezmax
: S/H VLCC
: D/H VLCC

0.0125

0
0

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ANSYS (GNm)

Figure 16. Trend of the deviation in ultimate hull


strength between the ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size
finite element method and the ANSYS nonlinear finite
element method.

of a ships hull. Since the 1965 paper introduced


the concept of ultimate longitudinal strength, there
has been a general acceptance that this limit state is
approachedbut not necessarily reachedwhen
the compressed flange of the ships hull (i.e., the
horizontal material in the deck(s) or bottom structure) reaches its ultimate compressive resistance,
and the tension flange reaches the tensile yield
stress of the structural material.
The modelling of the contribution of the web
of the hull girder (i.e., the vertical elements including

side structures and longitudinal bulkheads) to the


ultimate hull bending strength was recognised in
the original paper as being less straightforward;
and the assumption of a modified strength
reduction factor in the compressed elements of
the web, together with the occurrence of yielding
throughout the tension side of the final neutral
axis, received much discussion at the time. It was
accepted that the latter assumption would be likely
to result in an overestimate of the ultimate bending strength of the hullthough probably only a
small one in view of the dominance of the contributions of the two flanges (decks and bottom
structures).
30 years later, these assumptions were challenged in the Paik-Mansour model of the stress
distribution across the hull girder at the ultimate
bending moment, as seen in Figure 3 of this paper.
By postulating a linear elastic stress distribution
over a large part of the web of the hull girder
and thus not calling on the full tensile strength of
the longitudinal material in this part of the structure, it seemed possible that this method would
underestimatebut again only slightlythe ultimate bending strength of the hull. Most importantly, the original Paik-Mansour method is unable
to accommodate a pure bending moment depending on the geometrical properties of ship hulls and/
or bending moment direction.
In the present paper, a scenario lying between
the above two extreme models is proposed, in
which some proportionto be found by an iterative procedureof the web of the hull girder,

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Table 11.

Comparison between CSR idealized structural unit method and ANSYS nonlinear finite element method.
Hogging

Sagging

ANSYS
Muh
Mp
(GNm) (GNm)

Ship
Dows test
hull
Container
ship
Bulk carrier
D/H
Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

CSR

ANSYS

CSR

Muh
Muh/Mp (GNm) Muh/Mp

CSR/
Mus
Mus
CSR/
ANSYS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ANSYS

0.013

0.011

0.840

0.012

0.888

1.058

0.011

0.793

0.010

0.764

0.963

9.220

6.969

0.756

8.040

0.872

1.154

6.951

0.754

7.843

0.851

1.128

20.394
17.677

17.500
14.066

0.858
0.796

17.941
15.714

0.880
0.889

1.025
1.117

15.800
11.151

0.775
0.631

14.475
12.420

0.710
0.703

0.916
1.114

22.578
32.667

17.355
27.335

0.769
0.837

19.889
28.352

0.881
0.868

1.146
1.037

16.179
22.495

0.717
0.689

17.868
24.798

0.791
0.759

1.104
1.102

Mean
S-D
COV

1.090
0.056
0.052

1.055
0.091
0.086

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment,
S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.
30

30

25

(Mu)CSR (GNm)

(Mu)CSR (GNm)

25

20

15

20

15

10

10

Hog / Sag
: Dows frigate test hull
: Container ship
: Bulk carrier
: D/H Suezmax
: S/H VLCC
: D/H VLCC

Hog / Sag
:
:
:
:
:
:

0.0125

Dows frigate test hull


Container ship
Bulk carrier
D/H Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

0.0125

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

0.0125

10

15

20

25

30

(Mu)ALPS/HULL (GNm)

(Mu)ANSYS (GNm)

Figure 17. Trend of the deviation in ultimate hull


strength between the CSR idealized structural unit method
and the ANSYS nonlinear finite element method.

Figure 18. Trend of the deviation in ultimate hull


strength between the CSR idealized structural unit
method and the ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite
element method.

on the tension side of this web, is postulated to


have reached the material yield stress (see Figure 4)
when the ultimate bending strength is reached. It
is noted that the modified Paik-Mansour method
presented in the paper covers both the above two
extreme models. Furthermore, the modified
Paik-Mansour method is more general and is able
to accommodate a pure bending moment regardless of the geometrical properties of ship hulls and/
or bending moment direction.

In the Applied Examples summarised in Section 4, it is evident that in certain cases this yielding
of the material in the webs of ship hull girders
might indeed extend for significant distances vertically from the yielding flange. The amount
of this contribution to the ultimate longitudinal
strength of a ship from the tensioned material in
the cross-section will, of course, depend on the
proportion and disposition of vertical material
in the hull cross-section.

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Table 12. Comparison between CSR idealized structural unit method and ALPS/HULL intelligent super-size finite
element method.
Hogging

Sagging

ALPS
Ship
Dows test
hull
Container
ship
Bulk carrier
D/H
Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

Mp
(GNm)

Muh
(GNm)

0.013

CSR

ALPS

CSR

Muh/Mp

Muh
(GNm) Muh/Mp

CSR/ Mus
Mus
CSR/
ALPS (GNm) Mus/Mp (GNm) Mus/Mp ALPS

0.011

0.799

0.012

0.888

1.111

0.010

0.743

0.010

0.764

1.029

9.220

6.916

0.750

8.040

0.872

1.163

6.635

0.720

7.843

0.851

1.182

20.394
17.677

16.602
13.308

0.814
0.753

17.941
15.714

0.880
0.889

1.081
1.181

15.380
11.097

0.754
0.628

14.475
12.420

0.710
0.703

0.941
1.119

22.578
32.667

17.335
25.600

0.768
0.784

19.889
28.352

0.881
0.868

1.147
1.108

17.263
22.000

0.765
0.673

17.868
24.798

0.791
0.759

1.035
1.127

Mean
S-D
COV

1.132
0.038
0.034

1.072
0.087
0.081

Note: Mp = fully plastic bending capacity, Muh = ultimate hogging moment, Mus = ultimate sagging moment, S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.
Table 13.

Comparison of all methods considered: A summary.


Formula/ANSYS Formula/ ALPS Formula/ CSR

ALPS/ ANSYS CSR/ ANSYS

CSR/ ALPS

Ship

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Hog

Sag

Dows test
hull
Container
ship
Bulk carrier
D/H
Suezmax
S/H VLCC
D/H VLCC

0.920

0.879

0.966

0.939

0.870

0.912

0.952

0.936

1.058

0.963

1.111

1.029

0.918

1.018

0.925

1.067

0.796

0.902

0.992

0.955

1.154

1.128

1.163

1.182

0.947
0.993

0.937
1.095

0.998
1.049

0.962
1.101

0.924
0.889

1.022
0.983

0.949
0.946

0.973
0.995

1.025
1.117

0.916
1.114

1.081
1.181

0.941
1.119

1.078
0.939

1.102
0.995

1.079
1.003

1.033
1.018

0.940
0.905

0.998
0.903

0.999
0.937

1.067
0.978

1.146
1.037

1.104
1.102

1.147
1.108

1.035
1.127

Mean
S-D
COV

0.966
0.061
0.063

1.004
0.088
0.087

1.003
0.055
0.055

1.020
0.061
0.060

0.887
0.051
0.058

0.953
0.054
0.056

0.962
0.026
0.027

0.984
0.045
0.046

1.090
0.056
0.052

1.055
0.091
0.086

1.132
0.038
0.034

1.072
0.087
0.081

Note: S-D = standard deviation, COV = coefficient of variation.

While useful methods have been developed in


the literature, it is however emphasized that the
scarcity of full-scale data from experiments or ship
failures makes it difficult to judge which method
might provide the best basis for ship design or
approval calculations. Back-breaking hull failure
involves so much buckled and fractured metal, that
it must be doubted whether the reality can ever be
modelled with precision. It might therefore be prudent to take as the design critical limit state the
longitudinal bending moment at which the tension
flange of the hull structure first reaches the yield
stress after the compressed flange has reached its

limiting resistance. Any margin above this critical


bending moment provided by progressive yielding
of the remaining structure is likely to be small, and
can be seen as a small margin of safety reflecting
our uncertain knowledge of the anatomy of final
failure of ships hulls in bending.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The present study was undertaken at The Lloyds
Register Educational Trust (The LRET) Research
Centre of Excellence at Pusan National University,

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Korea in association with the activities of


International Ship and Offshore Structures
Congress (ISSC) Technical Committee III.1
Ultimate Strength. Thanks are due to Dr. C.H.
Huang, China Corporation Register of Shipping, Taiwan, for his CSR idealized structural unit
method computations. The authors are pleased to
acknowledge the financial support of The LRET
and The National Research Foundation (NRF) of
Korea. This paper is a sequel to Chapter 16: Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls in Ship Structural
Analysis and Design, co-authored by O.F. Hughes
and J.K. Paik.
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Development of advanced designed formulation to estimate


the buckling/ultimate strength of curved plates
Joo-Shin Park, Min-Sung Chun & Yong-Suk Suh
Department of Structure Research, Marine Research Institutes, Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd, Geoje,
Kyungnam, Korea

ABSTRACT: During the past decades a number of studies have been conducted in terms of evaluation
of the nonlinear buckling characteristics of curved plates. However any explicit expression or formula
for calculating buckling/ultimate strength of curved plates is not available yet. Therefore it is imperative to develop practical formulas for estimating buckling/ultimate strength of curved plates. The aim
of this study is to analyze nonlinear buckling characteristics of curved plates. A series of FEM analyses
are performed on curved plates varying several parameters such as flank angle (curvature), plate thickness, loading conditions, etc. According to the various conditions applied to the curved plates, buckling
strength and ultimate strength are calculated. And also the stress-strain curve is drawn for each set of
applied conditions from the numerical calculations. It is shown that buckling/ultimate strength formula
developed for a curved plate can give a reasonable estimate of strength for curved plate, when the newly
defined curvature correction parameter considering the increase of the buckling strength due to curvature
is applied. It is our hope that the obtained buckling/ultimate strength characteristics would be used as
practical design guide for estimating the nonlinear buckling strength of curved plates in the field of ships
and offshore structures.
1

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Cylindrically curved plates are extensively used in


ship structures. Curved plates such as deck plating with a camber, side shell plating at fore and aft
parts, bilge circle part are normally assembled. It
is believed that such curved plates can be modeled
fundamentally by a part of a cylinder subjected
to axial loading produced by hull girder bending.
From the estimations using cylinder models, it
is known that in general, curvature increases the
buckling strength of a curved plate subjected to
axial compression, and component of curvature
may cause an increase in the ultimate strength as
well as buckling strength [1]. However, in spite of
wide use of these structural members, the practical method for structural assessment on buckling/
ultimate strength of curved plate has not clearly
established yet. Some reference of finite element
analysis and class rules which deals with the buckling strength of curved plate as a part of ship
structures exist, but the result of FEA and related
rules indicate different design values. In addition
to this contradiction, the absence of validation by
relevant experimental investigations invokes the
need for an improved design procedure of curved
plates. Therefore, development of well predictable
and integrated rules for curved plate are required

to guarantee the total safety of any type of ship


structure as an urgent task in the shipbuilding
industries. In the present study, to clarify and
examine the fundamental buckling behaviours of
cylindrically curved plate under axial compression, combined compression with lateral pressure,
a series of elasto-plastic large deflection analyses are performed together with the comparisons
with the collapse behaviours including nonlinear
factors. On the basis of the calculated results, the
effects of curvature (R), initial deflection (w), slenderness ratio () and aspect ratio (a/b) on the characteristics of the buckling and ultimate strength
behavior of cylindrically curved plates subjected
to axial compressive loading and combined axial
compression and lateral pressure are discussed.
Based on the results of a series of the nonlinear
finite element calculations for all edges simply supporting plating, design formulae are derived in
empirical form in order to predict the buckling/
ultimate strength of curved plates. The predicted
results show a good accuracy comparing to the
results of finite element analysis.
1.1 Literature survey
At the beginning, a brief review is made on previous research works related to buckling and

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ultimate strength behaviour of cylindrically curved


plates and stiffened plates.
Maeno et al. (2003, 2004) performed a series of
elasto-plastic large deflection analysis to investigate
the buckling/plastic collapse behaviour of ships
bilge strakes, typical in Tanker and Bulk Carrier,
which are unstiffened curved thick plates subjected to axial compression. Yumura et al. (2005)
investigated buckling/plastic collapse behaviour of
cylindrically curved plates under axial compression. Park, H.-J. et al. (2005) performed nonlinear
FE analyses on actual stiffened curved plates of a
container ship varying the curvature and spacing
of stiffeners. Kwen et al. (2003, 2004) performed
non-linear FE analyses for unstiffened curved
plates varying aspect ratio, slenderness ratio and
curvature under various loading conditions such
as longitudinal thrust, transverse thrust and
shear load.
Cho et al. (2007) performed both ultimate
strength tests on six curved stiffened plates and
nonlinear finite element analyses under axial compression. An analytical approach was proposed by
Levy (1943) by using large deflection theory for
simulating the elastic behaviour of initially curved
sheet. Buermann et al. (2006) presented a fast semianalytical model for the post-buckling analysis of
stiffened cylindrical panels. Kundu et al. (2007)
investigated the geometrically nonlinear postbuckling analysis of laminated composite doubly
curved shells using FEM. Applying the arc length
method, both snap-through and snap-back postbuckling behaviour were well captured. Park, J.-S.
et al. (20052010) performed non-linear FE analyses for unstiffened curved plates varying aspect
ratio, slenderness ratio and curvature under combined loading conditions as well as development
of analytical method. However, further studies are
needed for facilitating more rational guidelines of
buckling/ultimate strength considering engineering concept of curved plates.
2

FE MODLE AND METHOD

The target curved plate structure is shown in Fig. 1.


The cylindrically curved plates have the dimensions of a in length, b in width, t in thickness and
in flank angle, where the length b is kept constant
as 1,000 mm throughout the present study. There
is a relationship between the width b and the flank
angle as b = R, where R is the radius of curvature as shown in the Figure.
2.1

Initial imperfections

In advanced ship structural design, load-carrying


capacity calculations of plating should be considered

0.5a
0.5a

R
b

TRANS.frame

Figure 1.

Cylindrically curved plate.

post-weld initial imperfections as parameters


of influence [4]. The initial buckling mode obtained
by eigen-value analysis by using FEM is used as
initial deflection mode.
2.2 Material properties
The curved plates analyzed using the one bay
model had material properties as shown in Table 1.
The analysis models incorporated an idealized
elastic-perfectly plastic stress and strain curve, and
the strain hardening rate is set as zero. Isotropic
hardening law is assumed employing von Misess
yield condition.
2.3 Calculation method
The conventional Newton-Raphson method fails
because of the singularity of the stiffness matrix
and a diverging solution. In general, the Arc-length
methods avoid this situation and it is suitable for
nonlinear static equilibrium solutions of unstable problems such as snap-through or snap-back
behaviour. In the present study considered material and geometric nonlinear analysis should be
undertaken using commercial FEM code, MSC.
Nastran [5] which is a general purpose finite element method package. The Arc-length method
involves the tracing of a complex path in the
load-displacement response into the buckling/post
buckling regimes. For problems with sharp turns
in the load-displacement curve or path dependent materials, it is necessary to limit the arc-length
radius (arc-length load step size) using the initial arc-length radius. During the solution, the
Arc-length method will vary the arc-length radius

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Table 1.
plate.

Material properties for curved

Material

High tensile steel


(AH32)

Elastic modulus (E)


Poisson ratio (v)
Yield stress (Y)

206 GPa
0.3
315 MPa

at each arc-length sub step according to the degree


of nonlinearities that is involved.
3
3.1

NUMERICAL SIMULATION
AND RESULTS
(a) Longi.compression

Eigen buckling mode

A series of eigen-value buckling analysis is carried


out to evaluate buckling strength and to examine
the significant buckling mode. The latter result is
used to produce initial deflection. Figure 2 shows
typical buckling modes varying flank angle and
slenderness ratio. When a flank angle is zero, that
is in case of a flat thinner plate, the plate buckles
into four half-waves in the longitudinal direction.
However, as the flank angle increases to 5 degrees,
the buckling mode changes so that the deflection
flattened out towards loading direction and deflection locally grow at the loading edges as shown in
Fig. 2(a)-flank angle 5 degrees, 10 mm. When a
flank angle is greater than these values, buckling
takes place in an irregular mode as indicated in
Fig. 2(a). For larger thickness of plate, five or four
half-waves mode appears in the loading direction
as shown in Fig. 2(a). In general, buckling mode of
plate under transverse compressive loading takes
place one half-wave, however, plate with curvature
appears in the circumferential direction at the local
parts as shown in Fig. 2(b)-flank angle 30 degrees,
20 mm. This is considered as a part of shell buckling of a cylinder wall in a so-called diamond buckling mode [2, 3].
3.2

(b) Trans.compression

Figure 2. Typical buckling modes obtained by elastic


eigen-value analysis.

Figure 3.

Elastic buckling mode varying flank angle.

the outward deflection develops from the beginning of compressive loading because of Poissons
effect. It is noticed that the curved plates can have
a primary buckling mode that is different from the
buckling mode of flat plate and that the buckling
strength is generally larger than that of the flat
plate.

Fundamental buckling mechanism

Figure 3 shows the corresponding elastic buckling modes varying flank angles. The solid red line
represents compressive load, and solid blue line is
tension. When the flank angle is less than or equal
to 2 degrees, the buckling takes place with three
longitudinal half-waves as in the case of a rectangular flat plate having the same aspect ratio. With
further increase in the flank angles, the buckling
mode changes in one longitudinal half wave with
additional swelled component of deflection near
the transverse edges. In the case of curved plates,

3.3

Benchmark study

Figure 4 shows the results of critical buckling


strength for curved plate which represent comparison between class rule and finite element analysis using commercial code ABAQUS. As shown
in Fig. 4, a comparison of two results is made in
which the critical buckling strength from both
FEM and class rule calculation is relatively unanimous in case of thicker plate. But in case of thinner
plate, the result of critical buckling strength shows
significant errors because curvature reduction

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1
ABS
BV
DNV
GL
NK
RINA
KR

0.6

0.8

xu/y

RULE (cr /y)

0.8

Flat plate
Curved plate
5 degrees
Curved plate
45 degrees

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

A : Secondary Buckling
B : After 2nd Buckling
C : Ultimate Strength

FEA(ABAQUS, cr /y)

Figure 4. Verification results of buckling strength for


curved plate under axial compression.

xu / y

Figure 5. The relationships of between average stress


and average stain of plate with/without curvature under
longi.compression.

factor used in classs equations currently is not in


the reflected buckling phenomenon.
3.4

Progressive collapse behaviour

A series of elasto-plastic large deflection analysis is performed to clarify the fundamentals in


progressive collapse behaviour including occurrence of buckling/yielding of cylindrically curved
plates under axial compression. The thickness of
the plate varies from 7 mm to 35 mm. For each
case, calculated average stress-average strain relationships are summarised in Figure 5 including the
case of a flat plate.
Firstly, progressive collapse behaviour of a thin
plate subjected to compressive load is explained
Fig. 5. When the flank angle is 5 degrees, secondary
buckling takes place at the A point as shown Fig. 5.
Then, load-carrying capacity rapidly decreases due
to the occurrence of secondary buckling accompanied by snap-back unloading phenomenon. At
that time, the buckling mode abruptly changes
from one half wave to three half-waves for loading
direction. The final collapse mode further changes
from three to five half-waves against increase in the
compressive loading as shown in Figure 6.
This is because of the occurrence of the secondary buckling after the primary buckling. It is
known that secondary buckling strength of a simply supported plate is very high, but for the aspect
ratio at which buckling mode terminates; the secondary buckling strength is relatively low. Such
high-order buckling after the primary buckling
takes place because of the change in the in-plane
stress distribution due to large deflection.
This snap-back behaviour can be captured
using arc-length control with incremental force by

Non-symm.onehalf-wave mode

Non-symm.threehalf-waves mode

Non-symm.fivehalf-waves mode
Figure 6. Change of buckling mode of the curved plate
with a flank angle of 5 degrees.

compressive load. Especially, the ultimate strength


of thin plate (t = 10 mm) is estimated lower than
that of flat plate due to the occurrence of secondary buckling [6]. In case of the ultimate strength of
the curved plate with small flank angle secondary
buckling behavior should be carefully considered.
With further increase in the curvature, buckling/
ultimate strength gradually increases and thus
buckling/yielding starts to take place and the ultimate strength is attained. Figure 7 shows average

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1
Flat plate
Curved plate
5 degrees
Curved plate
45degrees

0.8

0.6

0.6

XU/Y

yu/y

0.8

0.4

0.4

Longitudinal
Compression
0.2

5 Deg.
10 Deg.
20 Deg.
30 Deg.

0.2

0
0

yu /y

Plate Slenderness Ratio,

Figure 7. The relationships of between average stress


and average stain of plate with/without curvature under
trans.compression.

Figure 8. The relationships of between average stress


and slenderness ratio varying curvature under longi.
compression.
1

stress and average strain curve varying curvature


considering same thickness (t = 10 mm). When
transverse compression is applied on the curved
plate, buckling/yielding starts at the short-edges
and the ultimate strength is attained. In the postultimate strength, yielding is restricted only near
the end parts where buckling deflection is produced. This implies that the middle part of the
plate remains in the elastic range. Thus from the
results i.e. Fig. 7 the buckling/ultimate strength is
decreased with the increase in the curvature. However this characteristic is different for the loading
in the longitudinal direction.

A series of FEM analysis are performed by changing the slenderness ratio of the curved plate from
1.18 to 4.14. This slenderness ratio is obtained by
changing the thickness of the plate between 10 mm
and 35 mm whereas keeping the breadth and the
length of the plate as 1,000 mm and 3,700 mm,
respectively. The flank angle is taken as 5, 10, 20 and
30 degrees. The calculated ultimate strength is plotted against slenderness ratio as shown in Figure 8.
It is seen that ultimate strength of curved plate
with flank angle of 5 degrees gives too conservative estimation. This is because of the occurrence
of the secondary buckling. Figure 9 shows relationship between average stress and slenderness
ratio varying curvature under trans.compression.
The differences of ultimate strength according to
change in the thickness is small, over 20 degrees of
flank angle.
Figure 10 shows the Ultimate strength interaction relationship of a curved plate under combined biaxial compressive loads as a function of

5 Deg.
10 Deg.
20 Deg.
30 Deg.

YU/Y

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

Plate Slenderness Ratio,

Figure 9. The relationships of between average stress


and slenderness ratio varying curvature under trans.
compression.
1
Model1
BC
10t
12t
14t
16t
20t
24t
30t
35t

0.8
b = 1000 mm, a/b = 3.7, 0 = 0.052t
Frank Angle = 10 deg.

YU/Y

3.5 Influence of slenderness ratio

Transverse
Compression
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

XU/Y
Figure 10. Ultimate strength interaction relationship of
a curved plate under combined biaxial compressive loads
as a function of the plate thickness.

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the plate thickness. The loading ratio (longitudinal


compressive loading by transverse compressive
loading) is composed 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 3:7.
With the increase in the plate thickness, the loadcarrying capacity also increased for various combination of stress components.

4.1

y
0.8

Empirical Formula (xcr / y )

DEVELOPMENT OF FORMULATION
Buckling strength formulation

Correlation : 0.979
Standard Deviation : 0.05

0.6

0.4

0.2

The buckling strength obtained by FEM analysis


is plotted against the slenderness ratio, and compared with the empirical formula in Fig. 11. The
distribution of buckling strength by varying slenderness ratio almost remains same at the flank
angle over 10 degrees. However, in case of small
flank angle the tendency is different. This is mainly
affected due to the change the curvature. The scatter of the buckling strength between FE-Analysis
and empirical formula is shown in Figures 11
and 12. In the present formulation used classical
Euler buckling format and re-adopted the correction factor as namely, CB, CR and CJ by Eqs. (4.1)
(4.8). The coefficient of buckling strength (CB) is
assumed as function of curvature/slenderness ratio
of the curved plate and coefficient of reduction
(CR). This function of CB represents the effect of
curvature. The final coefficient (CJ) is assumed
as correction factor to represent the buckling
mechanism. This formulation follows calculation
of plasticity correction by Johnson-Ostenfeld. In
general, Euler buckling stress (E) is higher than
half the yield stress (y), the critical buckling stress
is given by J0 = [1(Y / 4E)] Y, assuming that
the proportional limit is 0.5Y. It is generally found
1

x
0.8

Empirical Formula (xcr / y )

Correlation : 0.991
Standard Deviation : 0.163

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

FEA (xcr /y)

Figure 12. Correlation of the empirical formula with


buckling strength obtained by FEM of curved plate
under trans. compressive load.

from these results that the developed formula can


predict the buckling strength that is in good agreement with the FEM results.
Buckling strength of curved plate under
longitudinal /transverse compressive loads
2

LC

2E t
CB
12(1 v 2 ) b

1 v2
CR
Y / E

=k

CB

R
CR = 0 0323
t
0
1.0
CJ =
1
.1
1
1.00
CJ =
88
0.88

(1)
(2)

0.751

CJ

(3)

< 2.0
= 10 ~ 30
2.0

(4)

< 2.0
= 0 10
2.0

(5)

Transverse compressive load

0.6

0.4

CB

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2E t
CB
12(1 v 2 ) b

1 v2
CR
Y / E

=k

R
CR = 0.003
t

0
0

TC

(6)
(7)

1.514

(8)

FEA (xcr /y)

Figure 11. Correlation of the empirical formula with


buckling strength obtained by FEM of curved plate
under longi. compressive load.

4.2 Ultimate strength formulation


Based on the insights noted above, the ultimate
strength of the cylindrically curved plate, for axial

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Longitudinal compressive load

U LC
Y
CF =

0.8

Empirical Formula (xcr / y )

compression may be empirically derived by curve


fitting of the finite element results as follows; The
new expression of the Franklands formula [7]
used including new factors. It was also adopted by
the US Navy. This expression has the same general form as the one due to Faulkner to Guedes
Soares but the coefficients are different, leading
to a more conservative prediction. The coefficient
CF assumed as function of double slenderness ratio,
and correction factors (Ca, Cb and Cc) represents
effect of curvature with the change in the thickness
of plate. The accuracy of the present formula plotted against slenderness ratio is checked by a comparison with finite element solutions for a range of
flank angle between 5 and 30 degrees, as shown in
Figures 13 and 14. It is noted that correlation ratio
and standard deviation of the error in the empirical formula against FEA is 0.99 and 0.133, of the
curved plate subjected to longitudinal compression
respectively. Also, the empirical formula correlated
with 0.99 and standard deviation is 0.08 against
the ultimate strength obtained by FEA of curved
plate under transverse compression. The newly
developed ultimate strength formula for curved
plate can give a reasonable estimation comparing
FEM results.

Correlation : 0.999
Standard Deviation : 0.08

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

FEA( xcr /y)

Figure 14. Correlation of the empirical formula with


ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate
under trans. compressive load.

R
R
Cb = 4.138 + 1.934 1.023
t
t

(12)

R
R
Cc = 1.001 0.181 + 1.382
t
t

(13)

Transverse compressive load

2.25 1.25
=
2 CF

(9)

Ca Cb
+
+ Cc
2

R
R
Ca = 2.596 1.712 + 0.415
t
t
2

(10)

R
R
Cb = 2.095 + 0.929 0.136
t
t

(11)

R
R
Cc = 1.009 0.724 + 0.322
t
t

R
R
Ca = 3.434 1.989 + 0.646
t
t

(14)
(15)

(16)

Ultimate strength of curved plate under combined longitudinal compressive load and lateral
pressure

x
Empirical Formula (xcr / y )

0.8

U LCLP

Correlation : 0.998
Standard Deviation : 0.133

0.6

CF =

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

FEA( xcr /y)

Figure 13. Correlation of the empirical formula with


ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate
under longi. compressive load.

2.25 1.25
=
2 CF

CP

Ca Cb
+
+ Cc
2

Range ( ) = 10 ~ 30
2

b
b
Ca = 3.434 1.989 + 0.646

R
R

2
b
b


C = 4.138
1 + 1.934
934 1.023
b

R
R

b
b
001 0.181 + 1.382
Cc = 1.001
R
R

(17)
(18)

(19)

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Range ( ) 10
Ca = 0.068
C = 0.181
b

Cc = 0.883

(20)

CP = 0.210 + 1.263

(21)

Formula (XU/Y)

0.8

Ultimate strength of curved plate under


combined-transverse compressive load and lateral pressure

U TCLP
Y
CF =

2.25 1.25
=
2 CF

CP = 0.196 2 + 0.893 + 0.314

(25)

Formula (XU/Y)

Model1
LC+LP
FEM-Formula
Linear

0.4

0.2
Correlation : 0.995
Standard Deviation : 0.271

0
0.8

0.6

0.8

formula plotted against slenderness ratio is checked


by a comparison with finite element solutions as
shown in Figures 15 and 16. It is noted that correlation ratio and standard deviation of the error
in the empirical formula against FEA is 0.99 and
0.27, of the curved plate subjected to combined
longitudinal compression and lateral pressure,
respectively.
The normalized ultimate strength by FEA is
plotted against the normalized ultimate strength
by empirical formula of curved plate under combined transverse compression and lateral pressure
as shown in Figure 16. Good agreements are also
observed in both results.
CONCLUSION

The objective of the present paper is to clarify and


examine the fundamental buckling/plastic collapse
behaviour and ultimate strength of cylindrically
curved plate under a variety of loading conditions
(compression and combined compression and lateral pressure).
On the basis of the calculated results, the effects
of curvature (R), slenderness ratio and loading
effect on the buckling and ultimate strength have
been discussed. A simple formulation is developed
as an efficient method to predict the critical buckling strength and ultimate strength. The following
points can be concluded:

0.6

0.6

0.4

FEA( XU/Y)

b = 1000 mm, a/b = 3.7


0 = 0.052 t, P = 0.2 MPa

0.4

0.2

Figure 16. Correlation of the empirical formula with


ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate
under transverse compression and lateral pressure.

The coefficient CP assumed as function of slenderness ratio, and the other factors (Ca, Cb and Cc)
represents effect of curvature with the change in
the thickness of plate. The accuracy of the present

0.2

0.4

Correlation : 0.993
Standard Deviation : 0.105

(23)

(24)

0.6

0.2

b
b
Ca = 2.596 1.712 + 0.415

R
R

2
b
b

C = 2.096
+ 0.929
9 0.136
b

R
R

b
b
009 0.724 + 0.322
Cc = 1.009
R
R

0.8

b = 1000 mm, a/b = 3.7


0 = 0.052 t, P = 0.2 MPa

(22)

CP

Ca Cb
+
+ Cc
2

Model1
TC+LP
FEM-Formula
Linear

FEA( XU/Y)
Figure 15. Correlation of the empirical formula with
ultimate strength obtained by FEM of curved plate
under longitudinal compression and lateral pressure.

1. Cylindrically curved plate under longitudinal


compression takes place the buckling mode
with several half waves for loading direction

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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

when secondary buckling occurs. When free


from secondary buckling, local region near
loading edges only collapses.
The buckling of the curved plate with relatively large flank angle takes place in one-half
wave mode in loading direction with the local
swelled shape near the loading edges. After the
occurrence of primary buckling, the secondary
buckling takes place and deflection change to
the mode with the larger number of half-waves.
Also the in-plane rigidity is decreased.
The ultimate strength of curved plate is significantly reduced when the secondary bucking takes place. At that time, buckling mode
abruptly changed with redistribution of inplane stress.
The curved plate under trasversal compression underestimates the buckling and ultimate
strength with increase in the curvature. This is
mainly induced by collapse pattern.
A simple formula developed for a curved plate
can give a reasonable estimate of buckling/
ultimate strength of curved plate under a variety
of loading conditions (longitudinal/transverse
compressive load, combined biaxial compression and lateral pressure).
Good correlations are observed in the ultimate
strength including buckling strength by applying the proposed empirical formula.

REFERENCES
[1] Joo-Shin, Park., Masahiko, Fujikubo., Iijima,
Kazuhiro & Tetsuya Yao, Prediction of the secondary buckling strength and ultimate strength of cylindrically curved plate under axial compression, The
International Journal Society of Offshore and Polar
Engineers (IJSOPE-ASME), 2009. 07.
[2] Timoshenko, S.P. & Gere, J.M. Theory of elastic stability, McGraw-Hill Book, New York. (1961).
[3] Timoshenko, S.P. & Woinosky-Krieger, S. Theory
of plates and shells McGraw-Hill Book, New York,
1959.
[4] Paik, J.-K. & Thayamballi, A.K. Ultimate limit state
design of steel-plated structures, John Wiley & Sons,
U.K., 2003.
[5] MSC. Nastran implicit nonlinear (SOL 600) Users
Guide, Solution methods and strategies in nonlinear
analysis, (2005).
[6] Joo-Shin, Park., Iijima, Kazuhiro & Tetsuya Yao,
Characteristics of Buckling and Ultimate Strength
and Collapse Behaviour of Cylindrically Curved Plates
subjected to Axial Compression, Journal of Advanced
Material Research, 2008. 01. 30. pp. 11951200.
[7] Frankland, J.M. The strength of ship plating under
edge compression, US EMB Report 469, May, 1940.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The research study reported in this paper was
undertaken with Samsung Heavy Industry and
seven kinds of classification of societies (Lloyds
Register, ABS, Class NK, Korean Register, Bureau
Veritas, Germanischer Lloyds and RINA). The
authors are glad to acknowledge their continuous
technical and other supports.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Ultimate strength assessment of ageing steel plates subjected


to random non-uniform corrosion wastage
J.E. Silva, Y. Garbatov & C. Guedes Soares
Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon,
Instituto Superior Tcnico, Lisboa, Portugal

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of non-linear randomly distributed
nonuniform corrosion on the ultimate strength of unstiffened rectangular plate subjected to axial
compressive loading. A series of 570 plate surface geometries are generated by Monte Carlo simulation
for different degree of corrosion, location and ages and nonlinear finite element analyses are carried out,
using a commercial finite element code. Based on a regression analysis, empirical formulae to predict
strength reduction because of corrosion have been derived demonstrating a good accuracy.
1

INTRODUCTION

Corrosion has always been one of the major


problems in marine industry. Many catastrophic
situations have been caused by corrosion damage,
even when all the design requirements are satisfied
(Nakai et al., 2004, 2006).
Some studies from the last decades considered
simplified models of general corrosion wastage,
linearly increasing with time (Hart et al., 1986;
Guedes Soares 1988a and Shi 1993). More recent
studies demonstrated the nonlinear time dependent
corrosion models are more appropriate (Guedes
Soares et al., 2009) and that corroded surfaces
could be modelled by random fields (Teixeira and
Guedes Soares, C. 2008)
Many models and studies have been carried out
to predict the behaviour of structural elements
affected by corrosion degradation in a deterministic way, focusing their attention on pitting corrosion as one of the most hazardous forms.
Paik et al. (2003, 2004) investigated the ultimate
strength of plate elements with pit corrosion
wastage under axial loads and in-plane shear loads.
They derived a closed-form solution to estimate
the ultimate strength of pitted plates by idealizing
corrosion pits as a cylindrical shape and by varying the degree of pits and intensity in a systematic way.
Duo et al. (2007) idealized corrosion pits as cylindrical cones and investigated the influence of localized corrosion on the ultimate strength. Although
over 256 nonlinear finite element analyses were
conducted in a systematic way it was assumed that
corrosion was constrained to a rectangular area on
the plate.

Jiang and Guedes Soares, (2008, 2009, 2010) and


Saad-Eldeen and Guedes Soares, (2009) focused
their attention on the influence of scattered pitted
plates on the collapse strength by using the mathematical model proposed by Daidola et al. (1997),
who developed a method to estimate the residual
thickness of pitted plates.
The study, presented here, instead of using any
idealization of special distribution of pitting corrosion, treats it as a quasi-random distribution of
plate thickness by applying the approach of corrosion wastage developed by Guedes Soares and
Garbatov (2009) and using Monte Carlo simulation. Using non-linear finite element analysis, the
ultimate strength of a steel plate has been evaluated. The scope of this work is to analyse the effect
of non-linear randomly distributed nonuniform
corrosion on the ultimate strength of unstiffened
rectangular plate subjected to axial compressive
loading.
2

CORROSION MODEL

Three fundamental approaches can be applied for


corrosion deterioration modelling. The conventional approach is just to consider that corrosion
grows linearly with time but this is a crude model.
The second can be based on the results of experiments in specific conditions which suggest laws
of growth of corrosion as a function of specific
parameters. The corrosion model can be developed by considering all those laws derived from
experiments in specific conditions. This approach
involves one difficulty in generalizing results from
laboratory tests to full-scale conditions. The other

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t c
t

, t c

t < c

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

t, years
Figure 1.
tanks.

Corrosion depth of deck plates of ballast

1
0.9

(1)

where d is the long-term corrosion wastage,


d (t) is the corrosion wastage at time t, c is the
time without corrosion which corresponds to the
start of failure of the corrosion protection coating
(when there is one), and t is the transition time
duration.
The long-term wastage d is defined as the
maximum value in the observed time interval
for ballast tanks and cargo tanks respectively.
The period without corrosion, or the time of initiation of corrosion c, and the transition time,
t are defined based on performing a least squares
fit to the data using a quasi-Newton algorithm,
which determines the direction to search used at
each iteration considering the mean value of corrosion depth.
The parameters of the regressed line of corrosion
depth as a function of time were determined under
the assumption that it is approximated by the
exponential function given in Eqn. (1) for ballast
tanks of tanker deck by Garbatov et al. (2007).
The long-term corrosion wastage for deck plates of
ballast tanks has been defined as d,ballast = 1.85 mm.
The time without corrosion is c,ballast = 10.54 years
and the transition period t,ballast = 11.14 years (see
Figure 1).
The standard deviation as a function of time
has been fit to StDev(t) = a Ln(t)b, which is
shown in Figure 2. Based on the analysis performed by Garbatov and Guedes Soares, (2008) the

Standard Deviation, mm


d
d (t ) =

0,

2.0

Corrosion depth, mm

difficulty is related to the general lack of data on


the environmental conditions which affect corrosion in full-scale.
The third approach, which is the one that is
adopted here, is to consider that a model should
provide the trend that is derived from for the dominating mechanism and then it should be fit to the
field data. Guedes Soares and Garbatov, (1999) proposed a model for the non-linear time-dependent
function of general corrosion wastage. This timedependent model separates corrosion degradation into three phases. In the first one there is no
corrosion because the protection of the metal surface works properly. The second phase is initiated
when the corrosion protection is damaged and
corresponds really to the start of corrosion, which
decreases the thickness of the plate. The third
phase corresponds to a stop in the corrosion process and the corrosion rate becomes zero.
The model is based on the solution of a differential equation of the corrosion wastage:

0.8
0.7

a = 0.384
b= 0.710

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

12

16 20

24

28 32

36

t, years
Figure 2. Standard deviation of corrosion wastage of
deck plates of ballast tanks.

corrosion wastage depth is fit by the Log-normal


distribution.
The mean value and the variance of the
log-normal distribution for the corrosion wastage
of deck plates of ballast tanks are 0.544 and
0.919. The model just presented is used for deteriorated plate surface modelling.
3

MONTE CARLO SIMULATION


OF THE CORRODED PLATE SURFACE

The corroded plate surface is modelled as random


plate thickness that results in the random vertical

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position of the coordinates of corroded surface for


equally spaced reference points positioned along
the x and y direction of the plate, as shown in
Figures 3 to 7. These reference points are defined
in a Monte Carlo simulation as being the nodes of
the finite element mesh on the p
plate.
The plate thickness, Zijcorroded, at any reference
point with coordinates x, y for the corroded plate
surface, is defined by the random thickness of the
act
intact plate surface, Zijint
affected by the random
j
vertical reduction resulting from the corrosion
depth, Zijcorrosion depth as:
Zcorroded

Zint act Zcorrosion

depth

according to the previous procedure, using the


simulated random thickness at the reference nodes
to adjust the plate thickness at the nodes according
to Eqn. 2, as displayed in Figures 3 to 7. Corrosion
plate reduction is applied symmetrically on both
sides of plate. 570 successful simulations of corroded plate surfaces are performed.
The mean value and the standard deviation of
the corrosion depth are considered as the ones
related to the deck plate of ballast tanks of tanker
ship. The mean value and the standard deviation of
the intact plate thickness are considered as 10 mm
and 1 mm respectively.

(2)

where Z are the matrixes of the corroded and intact


surface and corrosion depth.
This convention is used to derive the formulation
that describes the vertical position of the surface of
the non-linear corroded plate in the Monte Carlo
simulation resulting in randomly distributed
plate thicknesses for randomly defined reference
nodes at a specific year based on Eqn. (2) applying the corrosion degradation levels as defined by
Eqn. (1) and (2).
The vertical random coordinates (corrosion
depth) of the corroded and intact plate surfaces and
corrosion depths are modelled by a log-normal distribution. This probabilistic distribution is widely
known and can be found in the literature about
statistics. The intact plate surface coordinates and
corresponding corrosion depths are considered as
not correlated.
The modelling of the corroded plate surface in the finite element analysis model is made

Figure 4. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 9.6 mm at the 20th year.

Figure 3. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 9.8 mm at the 15th year.

Figure 5. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 9.2 mm at the 25th year.

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Table 1.

Plate BC (CConstrained; F-Free).

y=0
y=L
x=0
x=b
x = b/2 and y = 0

Figure 6. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 8.9 mm at the 30th year.

Ux

Uy

Uz

rotx

F
F
F
F
C

C
F
F
F
C

C
C
C
C
C

C
C
F
F
C

L is the plate length in y direction, b is the width


along the x-axis and h0 is the intact thickness.
The plate is supported in such a way that there
is no displacement along z-axis in all the edges,
the rotation along an axis parallel to x-axis in the
edges y = 0 and y = L is constrained, there is no
displacement along y axis in the edge y = 0 and
the point (x = b/2; y = 0) is clamped to ensure the
symmetry. Table 1 summarizes the boundary conditions, where C means constrained and F is
free displacement or rotation respectively.
4.2

Initial imperfections

The initial imperfections, which simulate the


presence of manufacture and welding defects, are
considered in this study as proposed by Smith
et al. (1987):
z
w0

x y
w0 sin sin
i

b L
h020

b
y
0 =
h E
0

Figure 7. Modelled plate surface with an average thickness of 8.4 mm at the 40th year.

NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT


ANALYSIS

To evaluate the ultimate strength of a rectangular


steel plate subjected to compressive load, a nonlinear finite element analysis is performed using
ANSYS, (2009) commercial software. A large
deflection analysis with the arc length method has
been employed.
4.1

Plate geometry

The plate has a rectangular shape and is defined


with z being the perpendicular axis to plates plane.

(3)
(4)

(5)

where, x, z, y are plates coordinates system,


w0 is the maximum amplitude of imperfection,
0 denotes the intact plate slenderness as proposed
by Faulkner (1975) and E and y are Young modulus and yield stress respectively.
It is beyond the scope of this study to evaluate the influence of these parameters on ultimate
strength and the only parameter that is varying
is the plate thickness as a function of corrosion
deterioration.
4.3

Finite element modelling

The finite element geometry is modelled using a


mesh with around 2520 rectangular elements and
2627 nodes accounting for some previously analyses
related to sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength,
as for example by Rigo et al. (2003). The defined

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Figure 9.

Intact plate stress-strain response.

0.7
FEM mesh with initial imperfection.
Average Stress Ratio, ASR

Figure 8.

mesh size proves a good quality of results and it is


not too dense to avoid endless of calculations.
The plate is modelled by nonlinear shell elements
with four nodes, SHELL181. This element permits
to use nodal properties for introducing thickness
on every node. Figure 8 illustrates FEM mesh, initial imperfections and plate coordinates system.
5

ULTIMATE STRENGHT ASSESSMENT

Ry i

i =1

A
0

(6)
yield
l

where ASR is the average stress ratio, Ry,i is the


reaction forces, in y direction, at the ith node, which
has the coordinates: (xi, 0, 0), k is the number of
nodes at y = 0, A0 = h0b is the sectional area of plate
at y = 0 and yield is the yield stress point of the
material.

0.4
0.3
0.2

(7)

Figure 10.
samples.

0.5
1
Strain/ Yield Strain
Deteriorated

plate

1.5

stress-strain

ratio

where is plate strain, y = 0.001714 is the yield strain


of material, Uyp is the displacement in y direction at
point p = (b/2, L, 0) and L is the plate length.
To evaluate the ultimate strength, the maximum
value of the stress strain curve of each plate is analysed. The ultimate strength ratio of intact plate
is defined as u,0/y = 0.6972 as can be seen from
Figure 5. The average stress strain ratio samples
for the deteriorated plate are shown in Figure 6.
6

y p

0.5

0.1

The stress-strain curve for the intact plate used for


FE analysis is shown in Figure 9. The axial load is
applied on the edge y = L and the average stresses
it calculated based on the reaction forces in the
edge y = 0.

ASR =

0.6

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The ultimate strength ratio, u/y as a function of


time is shown in Figure 11, where the resulting

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Figure 11. Ultimate strength ratio u/y as a function


of time.

Figure 12. Standard deviation of ultimate strength


ratio, u/y as a function of time.

values of the 570 nonlinear finite element computations are collected. The results clearly reveal
that a nonlinear curve is the best fitted one to the
collected data. Following this tendency an exponential equation is used to define to the ultimate
strength ratio as:
u ,0
, t C

u (t ) y
n
=

t
y
u,0 exp t C ,

y
t ,U

(8)
t C

where t is time in years, C = 10.54 years is the


coating life as discussed in Section 2, u,0 y
is the ultimate strength ratio when t = C, t,U is
the transition time to be adjusted and it has time
unit and n is a non dimensional parameter, which
represent the time decay capacity of the ultimate
strength of the plate.
However, the parameters t,U and nt depend of
plate ultimate strength. For the studied plate, the
parameters that best fit Eqn. (9) are t,U = 49.92
years and n = 1.42.
The R2 value has been evaluated to check the
accuracy of the regression analysis showing a good
agreement between the calculated and predicted
values of ultimate strength ratio, R2 = 0.9769.
The standard deviation as a function of time has
been defined as (see Figure 12):
(t ) 0, t C
StDev u =
y at Ln (t ) + bt ,

t C

(9)

Figure 13. Ultimate strength ratio, u/y as a function


of plate slenderness, .

where at and bt are defined based on regression


analysis resulting in 0.0156 and 0.0411 respectively. The R2 value has been calculated as 0.871.
The ultimate strength ratio has been also analysed as a function of plate slenderness (see Eqn. 5),
where the mean value and standard deviation have
been modelled as:
n
u () u,0

C ,
E
exp
=
, C ,

y
y
,U

(10)

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()
(11)
StDev u
a Ln () b C ,
y
For the studied plate, the parameters that
best fit Eqn. (10) are ,U = 1.11, C, = 2.9 and
n = 1.09 respectively. For the standard deviation,
the parameters a and b are 0.0976 and 0.1030
respectively. The R2 coefficient for the mean value
and standard deviation of ultimate strength ratio
as a function of plate slenderness are 0.9885 and
0.8542 respectively.
It is considered that the ultimate strength ratio
can be described as a log-normal distribution function, truncated at u y , f U y with
TR
a mean value and standard deviation varying as
a function of time or plate slenderness, as:

u ,0

f U 0< U
=
y
y
y
TR
where

U f
g =
y 0

u ,0
,
y

, 0 < U 1

y
y
U
,
>1
y


g U
y

f U d U
y y

(12)

(13)

The time dependent probability density function


of the estimated ultimate strength ratio is given
in Figure 14. The probability density function as

a function of plate slenderness can be also easily


plotted.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study analyzed the effect of non-linear


randomly distributed corrosion on the ultimate
strength of unstiffened rectangular plate subjected
to axial compressive loading. A series of 570 plate
surface geometries where generated by Monte Carlo
simulation for different degree of corrosion,
location and age and nonlinear finite element
analyses were carried out. The random surface
modelling, used in this study, allowed adequate
representation of the real corroded plate surface
accounting for the random origin of the location
and the form of corrosion depths. The plate slenderness varied from 2.9 to 3.45 as a function of
corrosion degradation. For 30 years service life,
without replacement of plate, the ultimate strength
has lost his capacity from 0.69 to 0.44 which results
in 37%. Based on a regression analysis empirical
formulae to predict strength reduction because of
corrosion have been derived demonstrating a good
accuracy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work has been made under the plurianual
funding of the Portuguese Foundation of Science
and Technology (Fundao para Cincia e Tecnologia) to the Centre for Marine Technology and
Engineering (CENTEC).
The work reported here is a contribution to
the activities of the MARSTRUCT VIRTUAL
INSTITUTE, (www.marstruct-vi.com) in particular its Technical Subcommittee 2.3 on Ultimate
Strength.

REFERENCES

Figure 14. Probability density function of ultimate


strength ratio, u/y and a function of time.

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Daidola, J., Parente, J. & Orisamolu, I. 1997. Residual
strength assessment of pitted plate panels. Report
SSC-394, Ship Structure Committee.
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Faulkner, D. 1975. A review of effective plating for use in
the analysis of stiffened plating in bending and compression, J. Ship Research, Vol. 19, pp. 117.
Garbatov, Y. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008. Corrosion
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Deck Plates of Ballast and Cargo Tanks of Tankers,
Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering,
Vol. 129, No. 1, pp. 4855.
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buckling, Structural Safety, Vol. 5, pp. 1734.
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Maintained Corrosion Protected Plate Subjected
to Non-Linear Corrosion and Compressive Loads,
Marine Structures, Vol. 12, No. 6, 425446.
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2009. Influence of Environmental Factors on Corrosion of Ship Structures in Marine Atmosphere, Corrosion Science, Vol. 51, pp. 20142026.
Hart, D., Rutherford, S. & Wickham, A. 1986. Structural
reliability analysis of stiffened panels, Trans Roy Inst
Nav Architects (RINA), Vol. 128, pp. 293310.
Jiang, X. & Guedes Soares, C. 2009. Nonlinear FEM
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mild steel square plate, Journal of Ship Mechanics,
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Jiang, X. & Guedes Soares, C. 2010. Ultimate Compressive Capacity of Rectangular Plates with Partial Depth
Pits, Proceedings of the OMAE, paper 2010-21050.
Jiang, X. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008. Nonlinear FEM
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pp. 123130.
Nakai, T., Matsushita, H. & Yamamoto, N. 2006. Effect
of pitting corrosion on the ultimate strength of steel
plates subjected to in-plane compression and bending,
J Mar Sci Technol, pp. 5264.

Nakai, T., Matsushita, H. & Yamamoto, N. 2007. Visual


assessment of corroded condition of plates with pitting
corrosion taking into account residual strengthin
the case of webs of hold frames of bulk carriers, Proceedings of the OMAE, paper OMAE2007-29159.
Paik, J., Lee, J. & Ko, M. 2004. Ultimate shear strength
of plate elements with pit corrosion wastage, ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 42, pp. 11611176.
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Saad-Eldeen, S. & Guedes Soares, C. 2009. Effect of pitting corrosion on the collapse strength of rectangular
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(Eds), Taylor and Francis, pp. 231236.
Shi, W. 1993. In-service assessment of ship structures:
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Smith, C., Davidson, P., Chapman, J. & Dowling, P.
1988. Strength and stiffness of ships plating under inplane compression and tension, Trans Roy Inst Nav
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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Comparison of numerical results with experiments on ultimate


strength of short stiffened panels
Mingcai Xu & C. Guedes Soares
Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Instituto Superior Tcnico,
Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

ABSTRACT: Short stiffened panels are simulated and compared with test results under axial compression
until collapse to investigate the influences of the stiffeners geometry. The stiffened panels with different
combinations of mechanical material properties and geometric configurations are considered. Four type
stiffeners are made of mild or high tensile steel for bar stiffeners and mild steel for L and U stiffeners.
To produce adequate boundary conditions at the loaded edges in the experiments, three bays stiffened
panel are used in the test and in the FEM analysis. The influence of the stiffeners geometry on the ultimate strength of the stiffened panels under compression is analyzed.
1

INTRODUCTION

It is very important to estimate the load carrying


capacity of stiffened panels from the viewpoints
of safety and economy. Non-conventional materials that allow having the same strength of the hull
with a lighter ship structure are used in marine
structures. For example, composites, aluminum
alloys and high strength steel are used in different
ships for that purpose. The strength to weight ratio
is an important index to design economical and
efficient ship. The adoption of very high strength
steels satisfies these requirements allowing the use
of thinner plates, with the corresponding weight
reduction which is very important for high speed
vessels. The application of very high tensile steel
is a good option, but it requires explicit consideration of the failure mechanisms, primarily fatigue
and buckling (Janssen 2000). However, it leads to
the use of thinner plate need to concerns about the
elasto-plastic buckling strength.
In order to reproduce adequate working conditions on a ship structure, the boundary conditions on the loaded top edges and unloaded lateral
edges should be considered carefully. Several ultimate strength tests have been conducted in the
past on simple stiffened panels under compression (Faulkner 1977); (Horne 1976); (Mathewson
and Vinner 1962); (Smith 1979). However, this
approach raises difficulties in reproducing adequate boundary conditions at the loaded edges in
the experiments.
To circumvent this problem, the tests of Gordo
and Guedes Soares (2008) used specimen with
three bays longitudinally. The use of three-bay

panels instead of one single-bay panels allows to


have more realistic results by avoiding boundary
conditions problems for the central plates related
to eccentricity of load and to include the interference between adjacent panels (Lus et al 2008a, b).
To prescribe appropriate boundary conditions
is a main challenge in modeling stiffened panels by experiment and finite elements. Because
the boundary of stiffened panels is supported by
strong members such as longitudinal girders and
transverse frames, the simply supported boundary condition is often adopted. But the degree of
rotational restraints at the panel boundary is not
equivalent to zero. It is important to model the
panel edge condition in a relevant way.
The objective of these FEM simulations is to
compare the different structural solutions for panels under compression adopted in the experimented
programmer. Comparison between the performances of S690, mild steel and hybrid solutions are
made. The base geometry is the one used on the
box girders tests of Gordo and Guedes Soares
(2007). In this regard, the results can be compared
with those of similar stiffened plates belonging to
much larger structures.
2

DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIMENS

Figure 1 and Table 1 show the geometry of the different panels adopted in the experiment and in the
present study. The AB means different number
stiffener.
Four series of experiments and FEM analysis
were carried out using two different types of steel
as follows:

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Hybrid L structure: S690, on plating and mild


steel on L stiffeners.
Hybrid U structure: S690, on plating and mild
steel on U stiffeners.
The S690 steel was supplied by Dillinger
Hutterwerke in the form of sheet of 4 mm thickness, and the mild steel was supplied by Lisnave
Shipyard. The stiffened plates were manufactured
at Lisnave Shipyard according to the standard
techniques of the shipyard (Gordo and Guedes
Soares 2008).
3

Figure 1.
panels.
Table 1.

Geometry of FS, BS, LS and US for stiffened

Geometry and material of stiffened panels.


Plate

FS3-A3
FS3-B3
BS3-A3
BS3-B3
LS3-A3
LS3-B3
US3-A3
US3-B3

Dim (mm)

300 900 4
600 900 4
300 900 4
600 900 4
300 900 4
600 900 4
300 900 4
600 900 4

690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690

EXPERIMENTAL WORK

The experiment work that is used here as reference


for the numerical calculations have been conducted
by Gordo and Guedes Soares (2008) and a brief
account is given here for completeness.
A 300 ton hydraulic press was used to perform
the tests of the panels under uniaxial compression. Figure 2 shows the general arrangement of
the tests (left) and a detailed view of the support
for the framing systems which intends to reproduce simply supported boundary conditions. The
lateral edges of the panels are totally free to move
out-of-plane and to rotate. This means that large
panels (B series) should be less affected by the lack
of effectiveness at the lateral plating edges during
buckling. In fact, the percentage of the total crosssection area with reduced effectiveness due to
unsupported lateral edges is lower on the wide panels than in the narrow ones and thus, the expected
ultimate load is higher for the wide panels.
The transverse framing system is simply supported in a U bar in each side, allowing longitudinal displacement and rotation but avoiding
out-of-plane displacement from the initial plane
of load. The loaded top edges have full contact with the steel beds corresponding to nearly
clamped conditions, at least until collapse, due to

Stiffener
Dim (mm)
FS3-A3
FS3-B3
BS3-A3
BS3-B3
LS3-A3
LS3-B3
US3-A3
US3-B3

I 20 4
I 20 4
I 30 8
I 30 8
L38 19 4
L38 19 4
U (40 150 40) 2
U (40 150 40) 2

Y
690
690
343
343
296
296
200
200

Fully S690 structure: S690, on plating and bar


stiffeners.
Hybrid bar structure: S690, on plating and mild
steel on bars.

Figure 2. Setup of the test of stiffened plates (left).


Details of the lateral support of the frames in vertical
guides (right).

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the bi-dimensional geometry of the cross section


of the panels. The hydraulic flow was controlled
manually due to limitations of the control device
which means that the shortening rate was not constant during the tests.
There are six stiffened panel in experiment,
including FS3-B3, BS3-A3, BS3-B3, LS3-A3,
LS3-B3 and US3-B3.
4
4.1

element mesh should be fine enough to properly


describe the model shape (also after deformation).
Therefore, a balance between required accuracy
and efforts is needed. It is considered that the
element size to thickness ratio (usually at least 5)
(ISSC 2009). Figure 3 only shows three bays stiffened panels which were used in the experiment.

4.2

NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT


ANALYSIS
Finite element model

The geometric and material nonlinearities are


both taken into account, including elastic-plastic
large deflection. The material property assumed
use the characteristic values of yield strength and
Youngs Modulus, where appropriate, a bi-linear
isotropic elastic-plastic material model excluding
strain rate effects is to be used. A plastic tangent
modulus of 1000 MPa is acceptable for normal
and higher strength steel (ABS 2006). The following are the material properties: Youngs modulus,
E = 200 GPa; Tangent modulus, ET = 10 GPa;
Poisons ratio, v = 0.3.
The FE code used for simulation is ANSYS/
Mechanical. This is a widely used finite element
code for nonlinear structural analyses. The shell

The boundary condition and loading

To prescribe appropriate boundary conditions


is a main challenge in modeling stiffened panel
by experiment and finite elements. Because the
boundary of stiffened panels is supported by
strong members such as longitudinal girders and
transverse frames, the simply supported boundary
condition is often adopted. But the degree of rotational restraint at the panel boundary is not equivalent to zero. It is important to model the panel
edge condition in a relevant way. Figure 2 shows
that the loaded top edges have full contact with
the steel beds corresponding to nearly clamped
conditions, at least until collapse, due to the
bi-dimensional geometry of the cross section of
the panels. The coordinate and model is show in
Figure 4. The following are the boundary condition of stiffened panel:
AA1 at the stiffener and plate: UX, UY, UZ, RX,
RY and RZ.
BB1 at the stiffener and plate: UY, UZ, RX, RY,
RZ and equal x-displacement by coupling UX
degree.
CC1 and DD1 at t transverse frame and plate
intersection: UZ.
The pressure in the z direction is applied on the
edge of the plate and stiffener. The pressure value
of the plate is Pp, and then the pressure value on
stiffener is Ps, Ps = Pp tw/tp, where tw is the thickness of web and tp is the thickness of plate.

Figure 3.

The FE model of U Series stiffened panel.

Figure 4.

The coordinate and model of stiffened panel.

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4.3

Geometrical initial imperfections

The imperfections are caused during a complex


fabrication process and are subject to significant
uncertainty related to the magnitude and spatial
variation. These initial imperfections affect significantly the ultimate strength of stiffened panel
and should be accounted for. The buckling model
component of the deflected shape has the most
significant weakening effect (Guedes Soares and
Soreide 1983).
Kmiecik (1971) considered the initial deflection
as the superimposition of the Fourier components
for the first time. The behavior of plates subjected
to buckling loads depends to a considerable degree
on the shape of their initial deflection (Kmiecik
1995). The importance of their research is that
the buckling mode component can be isolated.
Three types of initial out-of-straightness should be
accounted for plate and stiffener imperfections, as
following (Paik 2009):
Hungry horse mode initial deflection of local
plate panels.
The transverse imperfect displacement field of
plates can be normally represented by a double
Fourier series as follows:
wopl =

b
x y
sin siin
200 a b

(1)

Column-type initial deflection of stiffeners


w0c =

a
x
sin
1000 a

(2)

Side-ways initial deflection of stiffeners due to


angular rotation about panel-stiffener intersection line
w0 s =

a
x
sin
1000 a

(3)

where a is the plate length, b is the plate width.


To get the initial imperfection in FEM analysis,
the shapes of initial imperfections are divided into
plate initial deflection, column-type initial distortions of stiffeners and sideways initial distortions
of stiffeners. Firstly, linear buckling analysis is
performed for the target stiffened panel and find
out the related buckling modes of plating and stiffener. Then the geometry properties, for example
the thickness of plates and stiffener, are changed
to decouple those deformations of interest from

lower eigenmodes and get desired shapes for plate


out-of-plane and stiffener out-of-plane deformations. The three types of initial distortions are
superimposed altogether FEM model.

COMPARISION OF RESULTS BETWEEN


EXPERIMENT AND FEM ANALYSIS

The strength of the panel was obtained by summing the reaction force on each node (Ri), on
the opposite boundary were the load is applied
and divided by the sectional area of the stiffened
panel (At):
N

Ri

R i =1
=
At
At

(4)

The following will compare the results of FEM


analysis and the test for three bays model. That
cause the value of dL/L between test and simulation is different. So the initial shortening at low
stresses should be moved in test data.
5.1

FS series results

The very long initial shortening at low stresses


shown in the tests is due to the rearrangement of
the test setup until every part of the panel, support
and hydraulic machine is in full contact and it was
partially removed from the graphics due to lack of
interest.
Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the average stress
and shortening between experiment and FEM
analysis for FS series. Average stress-shortening
curve shows a linear behavior until the ultimate
compressive stress was achieved. The ultimate
strength is similar between test and simulation, but
the stiffness in FEM analysis is bigger than in test.
Furthermore, the average stress-shortening curve
at unload phase are still different between them.
The ultimate strength of F series is the lowest
in the four stiffener series. The stiffeners experience
lateral buckling and then induce panel failure from
Figure 7. It can be seen that the plate and stiffener
as a unit collapses. This phenomenon explains that
the collapse was sudden resulting from the yielding
of the stiffeners. It needs to the stronger stiffeners to avoid the whole collapse when the spacing
of the panel is increased. The value of the 1three
bays model with different boundary condition are
all similar. It means that the support at the frame
z direction and the symmetric boundary condition on the lateral edge effect the ultimate strength
slightly for FS series.

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350

500

TEST
FEM

FS3-B3

BS3-A3
TEST
FEM

300

400
Stress (Mpa)

Stress (Mpa)

250
200
150
100

300
200
100

50
0
0

10
3

dL/L(10 )

dL/L(10 )

Figure 5. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for FS3-B3.

Figure 8. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for BS3-A3.

350

500

FS3-A3

300

TEST
FEM

400

200

Stress (Mpa)

Stress (Mpa)

250

BS3-B3

150
100
50

300
200
100

0
0

10

12

dL/L(10 )

Figure 6.
FS3-A3.

10
3

Average stress-shortening curve of FEM for

dL/L(10 )

Figure 9. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for BS3-B3.

Figure 7. Von Mises stress distributions at the ultimate


limit state for FS.

series specimen. The stiffeners are thick bars made


of steel of 343 MPa yield stress and the associated plate is made of 690 MPa nominal yield stress
steel. There was a very great discharge of load after
the ultimate load was achieved during the development of large out of plane deformations of the
panel between frames. Once the panels collapse,
from Figure 8 and Figure 9, the values of ultimate
strength drop down very quickly in the test and
FEM analysis. The ultimate strength of BS series
specimen is bigger than the FS series. The collapse
of the BS3 panel is due to stiffener induced failure and generates large transverse loads on the
transverse frame supports, shows in Figure 10 and
Figure 11.

5.2

5.3

BS series results

Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the average stress and


shortening of test and FEM analysis for the BS

LS series results

Figure 12 and Figure 13 show the experimental


average stress and shortening curve and the FEM

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LS3-B3
TEST
FEM

500

Stress (Mpa)

400
300
200
100
0
0

10
3

dL/L(10 )

Figure 10. Von Mises stress distributions at the ultimate


limit state for BS3-A3.

Figure 13. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for LS3-B3.

Figure 11. Von Mises stress distributions at the ultimate


limit state for BS3-B3.
Figure 14. Von Mises stress distributions at the ultimate
limit state for LS3-A3.

LS3-A3
TEST
FEM

500

Stress (Mpa)

400

test. The main reason may be the residual stresses


in stiffened panel, and this aspect is not considered in FEM analysis. The ultimate strength of LS
series specimen is bigger than the BS series.
The buckling of plate occurs in the middle span
of the panels, and then induces stiffener failure
in the LS series specimen from Figure 14 and
Figure 15. The series of panels reinforced with L
stiffeners allowed obtaining results as expected
that the L series have good capability to avoid
buckling.

300
200
100
0
0

10
3

dL/L(10 )

Figure 12. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for LS3-A3.

analysis for LS series specimen. The slope of the


average stress-shortening curve is different between
FEM analysis and the test. The stiffness of the
FEM analysis is bigger than the stiffness of the

5.4

US series results

Figure 16 and Figure 17 show the average stress


and shortening curve of the test and the FEM
analysis for the US series specimen.
The slopes of the average stress-shortening
curve are also different between FEM analysis and

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Figure 15. Von Mises stress distributions at the ultimate


limit state for LS3-B3.

Figure 18. Von Mises stress distributions at the ultimate


limit state for US3-B3.

US3-B3
TEST
FEM

Stress (Mpa)

400

in Figure 18, and then the overall collapse is very


sudden in US series specimen.

300

200

100

0
0

dL/L(10 )

Figure 16. Average stress-shortening curve of experiment and FEM for US3-B3.
400
US3-A3

Stress (Mpa)

300

200

100

0
0

10

CONCLUSIONS

The ultimate strength of three bays stiffened panels


are compared with the experimental results. Several
modes of collapse were observed in each panel in
the A and B series numerical results which are the
same as the experiments. Column-induced collapse
modes occur on FS and BS series. In the design,
the stiffener should be stronger to avoid columninduced collapse and the aspect ratio should be
considered. However, stiffener flange plate collapses first on US models. The collapse is related
with not only the aspect ratio but also the type
of stiffener. The best results in terms of ultimate
strength were obtained for LS panels. L series
stiffeners have good capability to avoid buckling
and they are worth of further research.
The ultimate strength of U series stiffeners
drops down very quickly in both test and FEM
analysis. The ultimate strength stress distribution
pictures of the U series show that buckling occur
in the flange occur very early. U series stiffeners
have high ultimate strength value, but its necessary
to further research to determine their suitable
dimension.

dL/L(10 )

Figure 17.
US3-A3.

Average stress-shortening curve of FEM for

the test. The US series has U stiffeners of 2 mm


thickness. Thus, the slenderness of the flange plating is higher than the slenderness of the associated
plating. The flange plate occurs buckling, showed

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work contributes to the activities of
MARSTRUCT VIRTUAL INSTITUTE, (www.
marstruct-vi.com) in particular its Technical Subcommitteee 2.3 on Ultimate Strength and 3.3
Experiments on Ultimate Strength.

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The first author has been financed by the


Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundao para a Cincia e Tecnologia), under
contract SFRH / BD / 65120/ 2009.
REFERENCES
ABS 2006. Rules for building and classing, steel vessels.
Faulkner, D. 1977. Compression tests on welded eccentrically stiffened plate panels. In: Dowling P.J., et al.,
editors. Steel Plated Structures. London: Crosby
Lockwood Staples; pp. 1309.
Gordo, J.M. & Guedes Soares, C. 2007. Experimental
evaluation of the behavior of a mild steel box girder
under bending moment. In: Guedes Soares, C., Das,
P.K., (Eds). Advancements in Marine Structures.
Taylor and Francis; pp. 377383.
Gordo, J.M. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008. Compressive
tests on short continuous panels, Marine Structures,
21, 113137.
Guedes Soares, C. & Soreide, T.H. 1983. Behaviour and
Design of Stiffened Plates under Predominantly Compressive Loads, International Ship building Progress,
Vol. 300-January 1983 No. 341.
Horne, M.R. & Narayanan, R. 1976. Ultimate capacity
of stiffened plates used in girders. Proc Inst Civil Eng
1976; 61:253280.
ISSC 2009, 17th International ship and offshore structures
congress 1621 August 2009, committee III.1 ultimate
strength.

Janssen, G.T.M. 2000. Fatigue based design rules for the


application of high tensile steel in ships. In: Proceedings of the 7th international marine design conference,
Korea, 2000. pp. 317328.
Paik, J.K. 2009. Nonlinear finite element method models
for ultimate strength analysis of steel stiffened-plate
structures under combined biaxial compression and
lateral pressure actionsPart II: Stiffened panels,
Thin-Walled Structures 47, 9981007.
Kmiecik, M. 1971. Behaviour of axially loaded simply
supported long rectangular plates having initial deformations, Report No. R84, Ship Research Institute,
Trondheim.
Kmiecik, M., Jastrzebski, T. & Kuzniar, J. 1995. Statistics of Ship Plating Distortions, Marine Structures 8,
119132.
Lus, R.M., Guedes Soares, C. & Nikolov, P.I. 2008a.
Collapse Strength of Longitudinal Plate Assemblies
with Dimple Imperfections. Ships and Offshore Structures. 3(4):359370.
Lus, R.M., Witkowska, M. & Guedes Soares, C. 2008b.
Ultimate Strength of Transverse Plate Assemblies
Under Uniaxial Loads. Journal of Offshore Mechanics
and Arctic Engineering 130(2):021011-1-021011-7.
Mathewson, J. & Vinner, A. 1962. The strength and stiffener of plating stiffened by flat bars. Part 1: axial compressive loading tests. Report 392. UK: BSRA.
Smith, C. 1979. Compressive strength of welded steel
ship grillages. Trans RINA 117:32559.

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Advances in Marine Structures Guedes Soares & Fricke (eds)


2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-67771-4

Numerical study of the effect of geometry and boundary


conditions on the collapse behaviour of short stiffened panels
Mingcai Xu & C. Guedes Soares
Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Instituto Superior Tcnico,
Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

ABSTRACT: A numerical study is conducted to analyze the influences of the stiffeners geometry and
panel boundary conditions on the ultimate strength of stiffened panels under compression. The four types
of short stiffened panels analyzed are made of mild or high tensile steel and have bar, L and U stiffeners.
To understand the effect of finite element modeling on the ultimate strength of the stiffened panels, four
types of models with different geometry are investigated in the FE analysis. Moreover, different boundary
conditions for the same FE model are also investigated. From the results of the FE analysis, two of the
four models studied can produce adequate boundary conditions at the loaded edges. The stiffened panels
with different combinations of mechanical material properties and geometric configurations are considered. The initial geometric imperfection affects the collapse behaviour of stiffened panel and is analyzed
in FE simulation.
1

INTRODUCTION

Stiffened panels are very popular structures in


marine structures and their load carrying capacity are important from the viewpoint of safety and
economy. The strength to weight ratio is an important index to design economical and efficient ship.
In order to reproduce adequate working conditions on a ship structure, the boundary conditions
on the loaded top edges and unloaded lateral edges
should be considered carefully.
FE codes have been used to analyze the stress
distributions and deformation of very complicated
structures with the accuracy demanded in engineering applications under all kind of loading conditions. They are also a suitable tool for assessing the
ultimate strength of ship structures. The advanced
buckling analysis method is to be based on nonlinear analysis techniques or equivalent, which predict
the complex behaviour of stiffened and unstiffened
panels (IACS_CSR 2006). Namely, the extent of
the model used in the buckling assessment is to be
sufficient to account for the structure that is surrounding the panel of interest, and to reduce the
uncertainties introduced through the boundary
conditions. In general, the model is to include more
than one stiffener span in the stiffener direction and
the portion between two primary support members
in the direction normal to the stiffeners. To prescribe appropriate boundary conditions is a main
challenge in modeling stiffened panels by experiment and finite elements. Because the boundary of

stiffened panels is supported by strong members


such as longitudinal girders and transverse frames,
the simply supported boundary condition is often
adopted. But the degree of rotational restraints at
the panel boundary is not equivalent to zero. It is
important to model the panel edge condition in a
relevant way.
To circumvent this problem, the tests of Gordo
and Guedes Soares (2008) used specimen with
three bays longitudinally. The use of three-bay
panels instead of one single-bay panels allows to
have more realistic results by avoiding boundary
conditions problems for the central plates related
to eccentricity of load and to include the interference between adjacent panels, which was found to
be significant by Lus et al. (2008a, b).
In this study two kinds of models are investigated which are 1 + 1 bays and 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays
in the longitudinal direction. The 1 + 1 bays model
consists of two full bays, while the 1/2 + 1 + 1/2
bays model consists of one full bay plus two half
bays.
A series of nonlinear finite element method
computations were carried out in ISSC (2009)
in two full bays (1 + 1 bays) model with various
parameters of influence to investigate the ultimate
strength characteristics of stiffened panels representative of ship hulls.
Zhang & Khan (2009) and Fujikubo (2005) analyzed the ultimate strength of plates using non-linear
FE software by one full bay plus two half bays
(1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays) model. Tanaka and Endo (1988)

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carried out a series of experimental and numerical


FE investigations on the ultimate compressive
strength characteristics of longitudinally stiffened
panels having three flat bar stiffeners with three
bays, which were intended to fail by local buckling
or tripping of longitudinal stiffeners.
To understand the influence of boundary conditions and model geometry, the ultimate strengths
of stiffened panels under axial compression are calculated for 120 specimens with different boundary
conditions and model geometry. These stiffened
panel models include 3 bays, 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays,
1 + 1 bays and 1 bay. The plate is always very high
strength steel (S690) but the stiffeners are made of
mild or high tensile steel for bar stiffeners and mild
steel for L and U stiffeners. The base geometry
is the one used on the box girders tests Gordo and
Guedes Soares (2007) (2008).
2

DESCRIPTION OF THE MODELS


FOR THE ANALYSIS

Figures 1, 2 and 3 show the geometry of the different panels.


Table 1 shows the geometry and material of
stiffened panels. The A-E means different number
of stiffener.

Figure 3.
Table 1.

Geometry of 1 bay.
Geometry and material of stiffened panels.
Plate

Sample

Dim (mm)

FS3-I3
FS3-I21
FS3-I22
FS3-I1
BS3-I3
BS3-I21
BS3-I22
BS3-I1
LS3-I3
LS3-I21
LS3-I22
LS3-I1
US3-I3
US3-I21
US3-I22
US3-I1

(300 i) (400 3) 4
(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4
(300 i) (400 + 400) 4
(300 i) 400 4
(300 i) (400 3) 4
(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4
(300 i) (400 + 400) 4
(300 i) 400 4
(300 i) (400 3) 4
(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4
(300 i) (400 + 400) 4
(300 i) 400 4
(300 i) (400 3) 4
(300 i) (200 + 400 + 200) 4
(300 i) (400 + 400) 4
(300 i) 400 4

690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690
690

Stiffener

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

Geometry of 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 and 3 bays.

Geometry of 1 + 1 bays.

Dim (mm)

FS3-I3
FS3-I21
FS3-I22
FS3-I1
BS3-I3
BS3-I21
BS3-I22
BS3-I1
LS3-I3
LS3-I21
LS3-I22
LS3-I1
US3-I3
US3-I21
US3-I22
US3-I1

I 20 4
I 20 4
I 20 4
I 20 4
I 30 8
I 30 8
I 30 8
I 30 8
L38 19 4
L38 19 4
L38 19 4
L38 19 4
U (40 150 40) 2
U (40 150 40) 2
U (40 150 40) 2
U (40 150 40) 2

690
690
690
690
343
343
343
343
296
296
296
296
200
200
200
200

Note: The value of I and i: i = 1 when I = A, i = 2 when


I = B, i = 3 when I = C, i = 4 when I = D, i = 5 when I = E;
Frame dimensionL50 20 6 (mm).

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Four series of FEM analysis were carried out


using two different types of steel as follows:
Fully S690 structure: S690, on plating and bar
stiffeners.
Hybrid bar structure: S690, on plating and mild
steel on bars.
Hybrid L structure: S690, on plating and mild
steel on L stiffeners.
Hybrid U structure: S690, on plating and mild
steel on U stiffeners.
3

to thickness ratio (usually at least 5) (ISSC 2009).


Figure 4 only shows three bays stiffened panels.
3.2

The boundary conditions and loading

The stiffened panel models including 3 bays,


1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays, 1 + 1 bays and 1 bay, are simulated with different boundary conditions, as shown
in Table 2. To investigate the effect of model
geometry and boundary condition on the collapse behavior of stiffened panel, nine cases are
calculated in ANSYS.

NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT


ANALYSIS
1

ELEMENTS

Finite element model

To investigate the influence of different models and


boundary conditions, 3 bays, 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 bays,
1 + 1 bays and 1 bay stiffened panel are simulated
in FEM analysis.
The geometric and material nonlinearities are
both taken into account, including elastic-plastic
large deflection. The material properties assumed
use the characteristic values of yield strength and
Youngs Modulus. Where appropriate, a bi-linear
isotropic elastic-plastic material model excluding
strain rate effects is to be used. A plastic tangent
modulus of 1000 MPa is acceptable for normal
and higher strength steel (ABS 2006).
The following are the material properties:
Youngs modulus, E = 200 GPa; Tangent modulus, ET = 10 GPa; Poisons ratio, v = 0.3. The FE
code used for simulation is ANSYS/Mechanical.
This is a widely used finite element code for nonlinear structural analyses. The shell element mesh
should be fine enough to properly describe the
model shape (also after deformation). Therefore,
a balance between required accuracy and efforts
is needed. It is considered that the element size
Table 2.

ELEMENTS

FEB 4 2010
21:39:54

3.1

Y
Z

BS2-A

FEB 4 2010
21:41:12

BS2-B

(a) The FE model of F and BSeries


1

ELEMENTS
ELEMENTS
FEB 4 2010
21:42:56

FEB 4 2010
21:44:18

Y
Z

LS2-B

LS2-A

(b) The FE model of L Series


1

ELEMENTS
FEB 4 2010
21:44:40

Y
Z

ELEMENTS

US2-A

FEB 4 2010
21:45:06

US2-A

(c) The FE model of U Series

Figure 4.

The FE model of continuous stiffened panel.

The boundary condition of FE model.

3 bays

2 bays

2 bays
(1 + 1)

1bay

Boundary condition

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

A-A1: UX,UY,UZ,RX, RY and RZ


A-A1: UX, UY, UZ,
B-B1: UY, UZ, RX, RY, RZ and equal Ux
B-B1: UY, UZ, equal Ux
C, C1, D, and D1 on frame: UZ
C, C1 on frame: UZ
The intersection between frame and plate: UZ
AB, A1B1 edge: UY, RZ and RX

Note: Different model and boundary condition correspond to different location of stiffener.

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The pressure in the z direction is applied on the


edge of the plate and stiffener. The pressure value
of the plate is Pp, and then the pressure value on
stiffener is Ps, Ps = Pp tw/tp, where tw is the thickness of web and tp is the thickness of plate. Table 2
shows all kinds of boundary conditions with
different models. The coordinate and model is
show in Figure 5.

shapes of initial distortions with one half wave


in the longitudinal and transverse direction. The
transverse imperfect displacement field of plates
can be normally represented by a double Fourier
series as following:

3.3

Column-type initial deflection of stiffeners

Geometrical initial imperfections

It has generally been found that initial imperfections tend to decrease the rigidity and ultimate
strength of plates. These initial imperfections affect
significantly the ultimate strength of stiffened
panel and should be accounted for. The imperfections are caused during a complex fabrication
process and are subject to significant uncertainty
related to the magnitude and spatial variation. The
most accurate method is to use real measured data.
But its not always available.
Kmiecik (1971) considered the initial deflection
as the superimposition of the Fourier components
for the first time. The behavior of plates subjected
to buckling loads depends to a considerable degree
on the shape of their initial deflection (Kmiecik
1995). So the equivalent initial imperfection is
used. In most of the initial theoretical studies initial deflection assumed to have the same shape as
the buckling mode.
The following three types of initial deflection
are accounted for (Paik 2009):
Hungry horse mode initial deflection of local
plate panels
The adopted range of values for the plate outof-plane and stiffener lateral/flexural imperfection
magnitudes correspond to recommended values.
A statistical analysis of the initial distortions of the
ship plates shows that the majority of the plates,
(around 90%), particularity square plates, have

wopl =

w0c =

b
x y
sin siin
200 a b

a
x
sin
1000 a

(1)

(2)

Side-ways initial deflection of stiffeners due to


angular rotation about panel-stiffener intersection line
w0 s =

a
x
sin
1000 a

(3)

where a is the plate length, b is the plate width.


To get the initial imperfection in FEM analysis,
the shapes of initial imperfections are divided into
plate initial deflection, column-type initial distortions of stiffeners and sideways initial distortions
of stiffeners. Firstly, linear buckling analysis is
performed for the target stiffened panel and find
out the related buckling modes of plating and stiffener. Then the geometry properties, for example
the thickness of plates and stiffener, are changed
to decouple those deformations of interest from
lower eigenmodes and get desired shapes for plate
out-of-plane and stiffener out-of-plane deformations. The three types of initial distortions are
superimposed altogether FE model.
4

THE RESULTS OF THE FEM ANALYSIS

The total force at the boundary/compressed edge is


determined by the following:
N

Ri

(4)

i =1

where N is t