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Introduction to PLC:

Programmable logic control or PLC is the most commonly used industrial automation
technique in the world. It is universally applied for factory automation, process control and
manufacturing systems. Programmable logic control originated from the creation of
computerized versions of relay control systems used to control manufacturing and chemical
process systems. The programming is done using a special technique called ladder logic,
which allows sequences of logical actions to be set up, inter-linked and timed. A standard
task in logic control is batch control and sequencing in a process system. PLC allows as
controlling an automated process. Automation
1. Gain complete control of manufacturing process.
2. Achieve helps a manufacturing facility to- consistency in manufacturing
3. Improve quality & accuracy
4. Work in difficult or hazardous environments
5. Increase productivity
6. Shorten the time to market
7. Lower the cost of quality, scrap & rework
8. Offer greater product variety
9. Quality charge over from one product to another
10. Control inventory
A PLC is a user friendly, microprocessor specialized computer that carries out control
functions of many types and levels of complexity. Its purpose is to monitor crucial process
parameters and adjust process operations accordingly. It can be programmed, controlled and
operated by a person unskilled in operating computers. Essentially, a PLC's operator draws
the lines and devices of ladder diagrams with a keyboard onto a display screen. The
resulting drawing is converted into computer machine language and run as a user program.

Architecture of PLC:

Basic Structure of PLC

PLC scan cycle :

A PLC works by continually scanning a program. We can think of this scan cycle as
consisting of 3 important steps. There are typically more than 3 but we can focus on the
important parts and not worry about the others. Typically the others are checking the system
and updating the current internal counter and timer values.

PLC operation

Advantage of PLC:
Programmable Logic Controllers have been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will
probably remain predominant for some time to come. Most of this is because of the
advantages they offer. With the growth in technology PLCs are now capable of advanced
data manipulations, communications and process controls. Benefits of using PLC in
industries are
1. The PLC is a hardened industrial computer designed to withstand the harsh
factory environment.
2. PLSs is reusable they contain a changeable program that eliminators extensive
and component changes.
3. PLCs offer easy troubleshooting
4. PLCs feature easy installation and small size.
Some of the used Instructions:
Examine if Closed (XIC)
Use the XIC instruction in your ladder to determine if a bit is on. When the instruction is
executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated as true. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed off (0),

then the instruction is evaluated as false.

Examine if Open (XIO)

Use an XIO instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is off. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is
evaluated as true. When the instruction is evaluated as false.

Timer On-Delay (TON)

Use the TON instruction to turn an output on or off after the timer has been on for a
preset time interval. The TON instruction begins to count time base intervals when
rung conditions become true. As long as rung conditions remain true, the timer
adjusts its accumulated value (ACC) each evaluation until it reaches the preset
value (PRE). The accumulated value is reset when rung conditions go false,
regardless of whether the timer has timed out.