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Acts of Peter and Andrew

husband, ultimately resulting in the apostles arrest. The prominence of the relationship between
apostle and female convert has led to comparison
with the ancient romance novel; the shared elements (including das Motiv der Wanderung, and the
aretalogische, teratologische, tendenzise, and erotische
Elemente) were first described in detail by R. Sder,
whose work remains influential. There are also
clear generic connections with popular biography
of the first centuries CE, such as the Vita Apollonii
and Vita Aesopi. The apocryphal acts are perhaps
best understood as part of the broad landscape of
Greco-Roman prose fiction. The relationship of the
apocryphal acts to the canonical Acts is best explored on a text-by-text basis. Nevertheless, it is
clear that at least several of these texts were not
meant simply to supplement but rather to supplant
the (soon to be) canonical text. The Acts of John, e.g.,
presents John as the founder of the Christian community at Ephesus, with no mention (in sharp contrast to the canonical Acts) of Pauls ever having
been there.
Bibliography. Primary: E. Junod/J. D. Kaestli, Acta Iohannis (CCSA 12; Turnhout 1983). A. F. J. Klijn, The Acts of
Thomas (rev. ed. Leiden 22003). R. A. Lipsius/M. Bonnet,
Acta Apostolorum Apocryphorum, 3 vols. (Leipzig 18911903).
J.-M. Prieur, Acta Andreae (CCSA 56; Turnhout 1989).
L. Roig Lanzillotta, Acta Andreae Apocrypha (Geneva 2007).
L. Vouaux, Les Actes de Pierre (Paris 1922).
Secondary: F. Bovon, Les Actes apocryphes des aptres (Geneva 1981). H.-J. Klauck, Apokryphe Apostelakten (Stuttgart 2005). R. Sder, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und
die romanhafte Literatur der Antike (Stuttgart 1932).


belonged in a liturgical context, it was closer to the

oratorio and less liturgical than the Historia. The
first known actus musicus was Andreas Fromms dialogue Actus musicus de Divite et Lazaro (Stettin 1649,
a musical representation of the Parable of the Rich
Man and Lazarus).
Bibliography: H. E. Smither, A History of the Oratorio, 4
vols. (Chapel Hill, N.C. 19772000). H. E. Smither, Actus musicus, Grove Music Online (, accessed July 3, 2008).

Nils Holger Petersen

See also /Historia; /Oratorio

/Hadad (Deity)

Adada is a city in North Pisidia (modern Sag
rak). It
is mentioned in an inscription recording an alliance
with Termessus (2nd cent. BCE). The site contains
remains of a Hellenistic tower and temples to Trajan, to Zeus-Serapis, and to the emperor dating
from the late imperial period. Adada lay on a Roman road that ran from Pisidian Antioch to Perga.
Paul and Barnabas probably traveled this route
through Pisidia on the return of their first journey
(Acts 14 : 24).
Bibliography: M. Bykkolanc, Adada (Ankara 1998).

Mark Wilson

Janet E. Spittler
See also /Andrew, Acts of; /Barnabas, Acts of;
/Bartholomew, Acts of; /John, Acts of;
/John, Acts of (by Prochorus); /Manichaean
Collection of Acts; /Matthew, Acts of;
/Nereus and Achilleus, Acts of; /Nouna, Acts
of; /Paul, Acts of; /Paul and Thekla, Acts
of; /Perpetua and Felicitas, Passion of; /Peter,
Acts of; /Peter, The Act of (BG 8502,4);
/Peter and Paul, Acts of; /Peter and the
Twelve Apostles, Acts of (NHC VI,1); /Philip,
Acts of; /Pilate, Acts of; /Thomas, Acts of;
/Xanthippae et Polyxenae, Acta

Adadah is the MT rendering of the name of a

southern Judean city mentioned in Josh 15 : 22.
However, the LXX gives several variants in rendering the name of this city: arouel, arouer and adada.
The city appears on a list of places that constituted
the inheritance of the people of Judah.
Michael T. Davis

Acts of Peter and Andrew

Adah (also Ada; MT Ad; LXX ) is a common

name in ancient Semitic cultures, likely deriving
from ad, ornament, perhaps related to theophoric adayah, YHWH has adorned (the namebearer).

/Andrew, Acts of



Acts of the Apostles

1. Wife of Lamech

/Luke-Acts, Book of

Wife of Lamech and mother of Jabal, progenitor of

nomadic life and animal husbandry, and Jubal, the
originator of music (Gen 4 : 1924). Adah is often
noted as member of the first polygamist marriage
(cf. Theophilus: 1100). Rabbinic traditions suggest
antediluvian men took two wives, one for procreation and another for sexual pleasure; Adah was the

Actus (in Music)

Actus musicus is a term used in Protestant Germany
of the 17th and early 18th centuries for sacred biblical dramatic musical compositions. Although it

Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception 1 ( Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/New York 2009)



former. Both wives refused intimacy with Lamech,

either in light of the coming flood, or because of
Lamechs unwitting murder of Cain and TubalCain; Adam mediates the dispute (cf. BerR 23 : 25;
Sefer Hayashar 2 : 1635). Ephraem the Syrian
claims that Adah was Seths daughter who exhorted corrupt Lamech to repent (Gen. Commentary
4.12). Chrysostom describes Lamechs song as a
sorrowful confession to his wives (Homilies in Gen.
XX.6). Medieval legends and images elaborate upon
this story, rendering Lamech a type of Christ flagellated, and Adah a type of Christs torturer, physically or verbally abusing him. In the famous 15thcentury play Mistre du Viel Testament, Adah calls Lamech a vile murderer (Rothschild: 189). Adah is
also depicted in Byrons closet drama Cain as
wife and twin sister of Cain, representing the
power of love.

2. Wife of Esau
Wife of Esau, mother of Eliphaz and daughter of
Elon the Hittite (Gen 36 : 216). Interpretation of
Adah has focused upon reconciling conflicting genealogies in Gen 26 : 3435, Gen 28 : 9, and Gen 36.
Adah is called the daughter of Elon, as is Basemath,
who is later called the daughter of Ishmael; some
have equated the two, treating one name as descriptive (Rashi: 1 : 173; Ibn Ezra: 258). Esau calls
her Adah either because the blessing had passed by
him (Sefer Hayashar 29 : 1217), or Basemath because she burned incense to idols and blinded Isaac
(bs m, HALOT 1 : 163; Rashi: 122). Ramban (Nah manides) claims Adah is Basemaths sister (Ramban:
43132). Josephus notes Adah is the daughter of a
Canaanite lord, who negotiated the marriage with
Esau instead of Isaac (Ant. i.18.4). Modern exegetes
explain the contradictions through differing sources, redactions, or tradition-histories (Gunkel: 354;
Sarna: 24653). Early traditions link Adahs only
son Eliphaz to the character of the same name in
the book of Job (Job 42 : 17 [LXX]).
Bibliography: Chrysostom, Homilies in Genesis (PG 53;
St. Ephrem the Syrian: Prose Works (FC 91;
Paris 1862).
Washington, D.C. 1994). A. Ibn Ezra, Commentary on the
Pentateuch. Genesis (trans. H. N. Strickman; New York 1988).
H. Gunkel, Genesis (HAT; Gttingen 1901).
Mistre du
Viel Testament, vol. 1 (ed. J. Rothschild; Paris 1878). L.
Papanicolaou, The Iconography of the Genesis Window of
the Cathedral of Tours, Gesta 20 (1981) 17989. Ramban, Commentary: Genesis (ed. C. Chavel; New York 1971).
Rashi, The Pentateuch and Rashis Commentary, 5 vols. (eds.
M. Rosenbaum/A. Silbermann; Jerusalem 1929).
Sarna, Genesis (JPSTC; Philadelphia, Pa. 1989). Sefer haYashar (ed. J. Dan; Jerusalem 1986). Theophilus of Antioch, To Autolycum (PG 6; Paris 1857) col. 10231175.

Brennan Breed

 day, A
 dayah; LXX )
A proper name (MT A
that means, YHWH has Adorned. The shorter
name dh appears in the Kuntillet Ajrud material


(Hebrew Inscriptions, K Ajr 3). The long form is the

name of eight individuals in the Bible.

1. Father of Zerah
Adaiah was a Levite from the clan of Gershom (the
son of Levi; 1 Chr 6 : 2627 [ET 6 : 4142]). His
name appears within a genealogy that affirms the
Levitical pedigree of Asaph, one of Davids temple
singers (1 Chr 6 : 24 [ET 6 : 39]). Some have identified him with Iddo (1 Chr 6 : 6 [ET 6 : 21]). The respective lists in which Adaiah and Iddo appear
share four other proper names including Zimmah,
who is identified as the grandfather of both Adaiah
and Iddo.

2. The Benjaminite
In 1 Chr 8 : 21, this person appears within the genealogy of Benjamins descendents, who were the
heads of the ancestral houses in Jerusalem (1 Chr
8 : 28). One should identify his father Shimei with
Shema, who was one of the heads of the ancestral
houses of the inhabitants of Aijalon (1 Chr 8 : 13)
since the differences in spelling between Shimei
(MT Sime ) and Shema (MT Sema) probably result
from a textual corruption.

3. Father of Maaseiah
Maaseiah was one of the commanders of the hundreds. These commanders formed an alliance with
the priest Jehoiada to put Joash on the Judean
throne in place of Queen Athaliah (cf. 2 Chr 23;
2 Kgs 11). Although the spelling of Adaiah in 2 Chr
 dayah) appears nowhere else in the Bi23 : 1 (MT A
ble, dyhw does appear in several extra-biblical Hebrew seals (Avigad/Sass 1997, nos. 21, 156, 29396,
336, 593).

4. Grandfather of King Josiah

According to 2 Kgs 22 : 1, Adaiah of Bozkath was
the maternal grandfather of king Josiah of Judah.
He was the father of Jedidah, the kings mother.
His hometown of Bozkath seems to be in the southwestern part of Judah. Along with Lachish and
Eglon, Josh 15 : 39 lists Bozkath among the cities
which the tribe of Judah inherited.

5. Father of Hazaiah
According to Neh 11 : 45, this person was among
the Judahites living in Jerusalem after the exile.
Neh 11 : 5 lists Adaiahs great-great-grandfather as
the Shilonite. Although the genealogy in 1 Chr
9 : 5 does not mention Adaiah, it does mention the
descendants of the Shilonites, specifically Asaiah,
 s ay habbe kr). He may be
the first-born (MT A
identified with Adaiahs great-great-grandson
Maaseiah son of Baruch (MT Maas y ben-Bark)
in Neh 11 : 5.

Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception 1 ( Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/New York 2009)