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FoodandMIKRO575
environmentalhygieneandcontrol5credits

PerSaris
ProfessorofFoodMicrobiology
FoodandEnvironmentalSciences
DepartmentofMicrobiology

FacultyofAgricultureandForestry

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Attractrankingof

Authorities

Industry(R&D+selfmonitoring)

Research

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Whatamicrobiologicalpointmustbeableto?

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MIKRO575FoodandEnvironmentalControlandHygiene

Pathogensmicrobes
Supervisoryauthorities
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Lait
GHP,GMP,selfmonitoring,HACCP,accreditation,
MicrobiologicalRiskAssessment
Epidemiologicalstudies
Ecology
Toxicology
Building/Technology
Watertreatment
Biotechnology
GeneticsandGeneticEngineering

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Ifyouareinterested
foodmicrobiology,
Sowhatistheteachingofmicrobiologydepartment

MIKRO231FoodMicrobiology

MIKRO232FoodMicrobiologylabcourse

MIKRO575FoodandEnvironmentalControl,and
hygiene

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Ifyouareinterested
foodmicrobiology,
Sowhatlessonshaveserved

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FoodChemistryWARD

EK131EuropeanFoodLegislationandControl

EK132ChemicalRiskFactors

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MIKRO575FoodandEnvironmentalHygieneandcontrol(5credits)
28October27November2011
Mon1216,Wed1416 Hall2402ViikkiBiocenter3(except20.11,when
Hall2013Biocenter2).

Time

Lecturer

Topic

28.10MondayPerSaris

Intro,foodcontrol,epidemiology

30.10Wednesday
A.Culebro

Campylobacter

04.11Monday

Salmonella,E.coli,Shigella,Vibrioandaeromonakset

06.11Wednesday

Yersinia

11.11Monday

Listeria,bacilli

13.11Wednesday

Staphylococciandclostridia

18.11Monday

Noroviruses,hepatitisvirusesandBSE

20.11Wednesday
Hall2012Bio2

Protozoa,nematodesandtapeworms

25.11Monday

Biogenicamines,levtoksiinitandcyanobacterialtoxins
Moulds

27.11Wednesday

Qualitysystem
Inordertoensurefoodsafety
(HACCP),GMOandwatermonitoring,accreditation,

Moodlekeyisthe"MIKRO575"
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Theexamduringtheyearateachgeneralmicrobiologyexamday
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Lecturematerial

ThematerialisMOODLEfor

Thecourseisonly=MIKRO575

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Exam

Fourmaterialtypesofquestions

(e.g.HACCP,Salmonellaelintarvikepatogeenina,
FoodcontrolinFinland,Tapeworm,Norovirus)

Theexamcanberenewedeverygeneralmicronsexamdates

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Microorganismsinfood

Itisestimatedthat1/41/3oftheworld'sfoodproductionislost
microbialaction

Eachyear,fallsillanddiesfromeatingthousands

Annuallyproducedintonsoffoodanddrinkingwater

Wikipedia2011Foodwaste

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Wastedfood

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Wikipedia2011Foodwaste

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USA,theCDC'sestimateof2011

TheCDCestimatesThateachyearRoughly1in6
Americans(or48millionpeople)getssick,128,000
arehospitalized,and3,000dieoffoodbornediseases.

48000000

128000

3000

CDC=CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention

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KTL'scommunicablediseasestatistics2002
Today,THL

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Whatisfoodcontrol?

Foodcontrolisdirectedtofood
primaryproduction,processing,transporting,storing,
export,import,sellingandserving.Thepurposeis
tosafeguardfoodqualityandprotectconsumers
adversehealtheffects,aswellasfinanciallosses.

Withinthescopeoffoodcontrolalsoincludesmarketing.
Controlseestoitthatthefood
Theinformationprovidedistruthfulandsufficient
andtheyarenotmisleading.

http://www.elintarvikevirasto.fi/valvontakampanja/valvonta.html
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Whatisfoodcontrol

FoodSupervisoryAuthorityresponsibleforverifyingthe
foodsafety,aswellastoverify
thenatureandcompositionofthefoodissued
theaccuracyofthedata.

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Foodcontrolinpractice

Mostofthefoodcontroltakesplaceinthemunicipality
by.Municipalitieshaveorganizedelintarvikevalvontansa
cooperatingarea.Social
foodcontrolauthoritiestothevet,
healthinspectororothersocialfoodadministrator.

Slaughterhousesandoftheirconnectionplants
supervisionandinspectionofthemeatcorrespondstoEvira.

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RegionalStateAdministrativeAgenciesdrivenbymunicipalities

TheRegionalStateAdministrativeAgency'smissionistoguidemunicipalities
bythefoodcontrol.RegionalStateAdministrativeAgencies
makemm.foodcontrol
vaatimuksenmukaisuudenarviointejamunicipal
foodcontrolunits.Theseassessmentsaimto
developingmunicipalfoodcontroland
tocollectdataonmunicipalfoodcontrol
ofconformity.

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FinnishFoodSafetyAuthorityEviraistoleadand
develop

FinnishFoodSafetyAuthorityEviramanagesanddevelops
foodsafetycontrolsthroughoutFinland.

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Customsandfoodcontrol

CustomsmonitorstheEUmemberstatesandfromthirdcountries
otherthanfoodstuffsofanimalorigin.

Comingfromthirdcountriesofanimals
derivedfoodsmonitoredbyEvira.

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TheFinnishDefenceForces

TheFinnishDefenceForcescontrolledbytheDefenceForces'area

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foodconformityandsafety.

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Businesses

Companiesthemselvesareresponsiblefortheproductstheyproduce
safety.Companiesusetheirowninhousecontrol
thebasisforproductioncontrol.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Meatinspectionatslaughter
Meatintendedforthegeneralpublicmustbe
checked.Slaughterhousemeatinspectionperformed
Stateinspectingveterinarianandsmallscale
ietheplaceofslaughterattheslaughterhousemunicipality
theofficialveterinarian.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

SAs
Slaughterhousesandactingontheirconnectionwiththemeatindustry
enterprisesmustbeapprovedbytheNationalFoodAgency.Other
meatplantswillaccordinglybethemunicipality
approvedbythesupervisoryauthority.Approvedenterprise
Authorityisalsoresponsibleforitssupervision.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Themeathealthmarking
Approvedmeatinspectionmeatstampedwiththe
theapprovalmark.Thisisthesocalled.thehealthmark
DEALoccurmeatormeatpackedthebody
numberorsymbol.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Requirementsforimportbumps
OtherEUcountriessuppliedtheanimal
foodmonitoringthefirstdestination.
Thefirstdestinationmeansanentitythat
thefirstinFinlandtoreceiveimported
fooditem.Beforeundertakingtotake
toreceivemeatorotheranimalby
foodproductsfromotherEUMemberStates,isthe

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informtheplaceofbusinessislocated,
thesupervisoryauthorityorinaslaughterhouseState
theofficialveterinarian.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Firstdestinationsshallinformeach
receiveditemtotheAuthoritynolaterthan
arrivalthebatchsothattheauthorityhas
theopportunitytoinspecttheitem.Thefirstdestinationtask
isasselfcontrolcheckstheitems
andtheirdocumentation.Thecompanymustalsobetakenintobatches
Forexample,samplesformicrobiologicalstudies.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

LocalSupervisoryAuthoritymonitors
thefunctionalityofthefirstdestinationoftheownchecks,toverify
spotcheckitemsandthoseofthefollowingdocuments,aswellas
ifnecessary,takesamplesforexamination.
TheAuthorityalsomaintainsaregisterofyour
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domainfirstdestinations.

Finlandimportedfrombeef,porkandpoultrymeat
aswellaseggsasrequiredbysalmonella

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

EUimportsfromoutsidetheEUanimalby
foodsmonitoredbytheMinistryofAgricultureandForestry
borderinspectionunit.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Meatproductstransportrequirements
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Perishablefoodsthatinordertosurvive
requirecoldstoragemustbetransporteduptothem
temperaturesthathealthprotectionofRegulation
(1280/1994)27:Accordingtoeasilycompliedwith
thestorageofperishablegoods.
Transporttemperaturemustnotriseaboveshortterm
mentionedtemperatureshigherifthefood
Thehygienicqualitydoesnotdeteriorate.Whenmeatandmeatproducts
sold,trimmedorpackagedgetstheirtemperature
however,notexceed+7C.Meatandmeatproducts
isthepointofsalebestoredinsuchawaythattheirtemperature
amaximumof+6degrees.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Thelegalrequirementsformincedmeat
composition
Naudanjauhelihassagetfatforupto20
weightpercent,mincedporkcontainingupto
30weightpercentandotherspeciesproduced
mincedmeatnomorethan25percentbyweight.Mincedmeatmust
appointslowerfatifthemincedmeatisfat
notmorethan7weightpercent.Lowfat
mincedmeatconnectivetissueproteinaccountedfor
ofthetotalproteinofnotmorethan12weightpercent.
Connectivetissueproteintototalproteinmustbe
naudanjauhelihassaupto15,containingpig
mincedmeatnomorethan18andotheranimalspecies
mincedmeatproducedupto15percentbyweight.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Grindingandsellingtradeinmincedmeator
agrillkioskorcateringrestaurant
Retailbay,mincedmeatmustbeprepared
freshorfrozenolleestagoodquality
musculoskeletalmeatfalling,however,
poultrymeat.Thefinishedmeatandpreground
liverregrindingisprohibited.Atvarioustimes,
itemsmade
mustnotbemixedwitheachother.

producedinaretailoutletformincedmeatandminced
costsofproductionmaybesoldonthedayandthefollowing
day.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

RoastGroundBeef
Meatisoftensoldasroastmeat.Cattle
paistijauhelihanmustbegroundbeefindoor,outdoor,
angle,orroastdinner.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

MeatSpeciesReporting
Foreachspeciesusedinfoodmeat(pork,
beef,etc.)shallbedeemedtoconstituteyourown
ingredientsplayarole,sothateachofthemmustinformthe
thelistofingredientsintheirplaceweight
intheorderof.Mincedmeatpackagecontains
typesofmeattobeusedinpercentagesor
Theweightratio.

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Mincedmeatlabeling
Industrialpreparingmincedmeatmustbe
atleastthefollowingentries:
1)theexpirydate
2)anindicationastowhichspeciesthemeatpreparationisdone
3)typesofmeatusedinpercentagesorweightratio
4)Thefatcontentoftheproductbyusingthephrase,
'fatcontentnotexceeding"
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5)theproportionofthepreparationofconnectivetissueprotein
ofthetotalproteinusingthephrase
"connectivetissueproteinoftotalprotein
upto...%".

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Inaddition,mincedbeefcontaining
Asregardsbeefandveal:
6)Thebatchidentification
7)thecountryoforigin(thecountryinwhichtheanimalwasborn,and
grown)ifthecountryoforiginisthesameasthecountryofmanufacture,
thecountryoforigindoesnotneedtobelabeled
8)slaughtered
9)manufacture

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Anexampleofthecontrolofmeat

Mincedmeatstorage,preparationorfreezing
athome
Storemeatinthecoldestpartoftherefrigerator,covered.
Keeprawmeatsandreadymadefoodsseparate.Mincedmeat

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theshelflifeisconsiderablyshorterthanothermeat.
Mincedmeatisareasontoproduceassoonasthedayofpurchase.Meat
handlingtoolsandcuttingboardsmustbe
pure.Mincedmeatiscookeddirectly
temp.Donottasterawmincedmeat,
butalwaysmaistiaispalacookinthemicrowaveor
pan.

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Dietaryhandicaps

Acuterisks

Chronic

risks

Microbialinfections

Wrongnutrition

Naturalharmfulsubstances

Naturalharmfulsubstances

(allergy,nitrate,fungi)

EnvironmentalPollution

Wrongnutrition

Pesticides

Additives

Additives

PesticideIngredients

Microbesandmicrobialtoxins

EnvironmentalPollution

GMOs?

SeeEVIRAfoodcontrol

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EpidemicClearing

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Thereportistheresponsibilityoftheresponsibilityofthemunicipalauthority

Forthisworkisthemunicipalitysettlementworkinggroup

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Themunicipalworkinggroupreport

aleadinghealthcenterdoctor/communicablediseasesinthecorresponding
doctor
CommunicableDiseasesSupervisor
healthsurveillancechiefofficial
Veterinariansinvolvedinfoodcontrol
Foodhealthinspectorcarryingoutcontroltasks

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Themunicipalityandthecommittee'stasks

ensurethatthenecessarystudiesoftheepidemic
establishdone

tocoordinatemeasuresaimedatepidemic

theflowofinformationbetweentheauthorities

Informationtothepublic

Connectiontoregionalandvaltakunnalisiinauthorities

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Suspectedoutbreakscanoccur

HealthCentre

Environmentalhealthcare

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Today=NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare

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NowpartEVIRAa
=NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare
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EFSA

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Checklistofparagraph20
causativeagentsofdeciphering

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Sampling

300500gorml

recordallrelevantinformation,suchas,

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theorigin,themagnitudeofthebatchmanufacturingprocess,
valmistusajakohta,thelastkyttajakohta,
foodstoragetemperaturesamplesaretaken

Rawmaterialsamplescanbetakencooking
simulations

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Foodpoisoningbasic

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WatersamplingEpidemic

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WaterEpidemiccoordinationresponsibilityfalls
NationalPublicHealthInstituteinKuopiounitare
EnvironmentalHealthGroup

Watercollectedbeforeshokkikloorauksiaorirrigations

atleasttwoL

storage+4C

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Othersamples

purityofsamplesfromsurfaces

50100cm

foodemployeesstool,handand/ornasalsamples

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Thesamplesareillare

Theattendingphysicianmakestherequestforexamination
asinglecaseofdiarrhea

ThemostcommonFBaktVi1afaecalculture1theresearchpackage

Epidemicresearchrequeststothemunicipalitysettlementgroup

Ingeneral,theFBaktVi3growingafecal3package,whichcanbe
expandtheviralandparasiticstudies

Samplesseeksto520person310
themostrepresentative(mytisintvessel)isselectedhigher
forstudies

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FBaktVi1

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FBaktVi3

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ParasiticStudies

10ofthemostrepresentative(atleast3)selected

thatpartofthetransferredcontainingformalin
thesamplecontainer

1part2parts10%formalin

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closerfecespart1+35partsof10%formalin

SomeofthesamplesmayalsobestoredPVA.han
(polyvinylalcohol)

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ParaF0

HelsinkiUniversityCentralHospitallaboratorydiagnosticparasitologyunit

Giardia
Amoeba
Cryptosporidium
Cyclospora

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FVirEpid

Calicivirus
Astrovirus
Rotavirus

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Adenovirus

10samplesarefrozen
HelsinkiUniversityCentralHospitallaboratorydiagnosticvirologydepartment

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Epidemiology

DescriptiveEpidemiology

AnalyticEpidemiology

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DescriptiveEpidemiology

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aninterestingcollectionandorganizationofdata

basicinformation,suchasspecifyingthetimeandplace

whetheritisfoodpoisoning

dishesobtaininformation

Manufactureoffood,handling,transportationandstorage

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Pointepidemic

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Spreadingepidemic

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AnalyticEpidemiology

aimstointegratetheoccurrenceofanoutbreakinone
aparticularfoodtype

seekstoidentifysusceptibletoteaandillnessbetween
dependenceoftheintensity

cohortstudiesorcasecomparatorstudy

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Statisticaltreatment

Fourfieldwithtwovariables,afood
eatingandillness.

Obtained4groups:

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CPI

2 nelikentttesti

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Theclarificationsepidemicmore

FoodpoisoningoutbreaksclearingGuide

Rahkioetal.2000
VammalanPrintingWorksLtd.
FoodandHealthJournal

Page85
Alsoinenglish:ModernFoodMicrobiology,Jayetal.2005

Homepagesshouldfollow:

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EVIRA

NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare

WHO

FDA

EFSA

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