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# 6/24/2012

## Production of Power from Heat

(Part 1: Steam Power Cycles)
ChE 413: Topic 2a
Chapter 8 (SVNA)
Handbook (Chapter 10)

## To differentiate between the following types of

steam power cycles (L1.1):
Ideal Rankine Cycle
Practical Rankine Cycle
Regenerative Cycle

## To use steam tables to perform calculations on

problems related to the steam cycles (L2.1).

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## Reversible, Isothermal Heat Absorption (QH) at TH

(saturated water to saturated steam)
Reversible, Adiabatic (Isentropic) Expansion from TH
to TC (saturated steam to wet steam)
Reversible, Isothermal Heat Rejection (QC) at TC
(wet steam condensing , lowering quality)
Reversible, Adiabatic Compression (WC) from TC to
TH. (wet steam to saturated water)
Gives the highest possible thermal efficiency

QH
QC

W
QH

TH
TC

QH QC
QH

TC
TH

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Rankine Cycle

## Constant Pressure (P1) Heating in a Boiler

Heating of subcooled water at T1 to saturation T1
Vaporization at constant P1 and T1 to saturated steam
Superheating the steam at P1, T2

## Reversible, adiabatic (isentropic) expansion of vapor

to condenser pressure P2,T2 converting to wet
steam
Isobaric, Isothermal Condensation of wet steam to
saturated water at P2, T2.
saturated water to boiler pressure P1, T1.

## Usual Problem Type

Given: Power Generation Rate; Boiler
Steam Pressure & Temperature,
Condenser Pressure
Required: Thermal Efficiencies of Ideal and
Practical Rankine Cycles; Steam Rate;
Heat Transfer Rates (QH, QC)

## Steps 2-3 and 4-1 are irreversible

(S3>S2 and S1>S4)

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Example

## Given: Ideal Rankine Cycle

Power Generation: 80 MW
Boiler Steam Pressure & Temperature: 8600
kPa and 500oC
Condenser Pressure: 10 kPa

Required:
Thermal Efficiency of Ideal Rankine Cycle
Thermal Efficiency assuming 75% turbine and
pump efficiencies.

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## Increasing Boiler Pressure (Normal Limit

=10 MPa)
2. Increasing Superheated Temperature
(Normal Limit = 600oC)
3. Lowering Condensing Temperature
(Limited by Ambient or Climate
Temperature)
4. Increasing Feedwater Temperature in
stages (Regenerative Cycle)
1.

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## Problem Set (End of Chapter 8)

8.1/8.2 Basic Cycle & Carnot
8.3/8.4/8.5 Rankine Cycle
8.6 Steam Turbine in Series
8.7/8.8 Regenerative Cycle, one
feedwater heater
8.9 Regenerative Cycle, two feedwater
heaters

e = 0.78

T1 = T4- 6

P4 = 350 kPa

P4 = 20 kPa

p = 0.78