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Influence of Ignition and Operation

Type on Particle Emissions from


Residential Wood Combustion

Anna Doberer1
Jürgen Good1,2
Thomas Nussbaumer1,2

1LucerneUniversity of Applied Sciences, Horw


2Verenum Research, Zurich

SWITZERLAND

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1. Introduction
2. Objectives
3. Method
4. Results
5. Conclusions

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Background

• Measurements in Switzerland
demonstrate, that about 80% of
soot in an alpine valley near the
highway originates from wood
combustion [Prévot et al., 2006].

• By using emission factors from type-test measurements,


PM10 in the ambient air is strongly under-estimated.
• Earlier investigations reveal that condensables can
contribute significantly to total PM emission
[Klippel & Nussbaumer, 2007].

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1. Introduction
2. Objectives
3. Method
4. Results
5. Conclusions

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Objectives

1. Influence of operation

2. Differences between type-test and real-life


conditions on PM emissions

3. To assess not only solid particles, but also


condensables and VOC since they may form SOA

4. Recommendations for optimum operation in practice

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1. Introduction
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Conclusions

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Wood combustion Practice Laboratory
devices
Wood stoves X X

Tile stove X -

Chimney X -

Log wood boiler X ongoing

Pellet stove - X

Pellet boiler - ongoing

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Sampling and Measurement of PM


Gravimetric determination of PM
according to VDI 2066
- Isokinetic sampling
- Filter temperature of 160°C

Sampling of condensables according to


EPA method 5H
- Based on water filled impingers
- Sampling at temperatures close to 0°C

Sampling during start-up, stable operation and burnout

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Investigated Parameters

• Ignition mode
- from the bottom
- from the top

• Operating conditions
- excess air
- batch and log size
- fuel moisture
- flue draft

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Type-test conditions versus natural draft


20
Natural draft in practice
[P a ]

15
is not constant, but shows 10
12 Pa

a strong correlation with 5


the stack gas temperature 0
00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00

chimney
Kaminzugdraft

300

Simulation of natural draft: 250

200
[°C]

150
p(T) = 0.0671 T – 0.287 100

50
R2 > 0.99 0
00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00
Abgastemperatur
stack gas temperature

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1. Introduction
2. Objectives
3. Method
4. Results
5. Conclusions

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Emission during start-up, stable operation and burnout


excess air

PM
[mg/mn3]

PM [%]

50%

Klippel and Nussbaumer, 2006


20 min
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Ignition from the bottom versus from the top

600

500 486 478


PM [mg/mN ] during start-up

400

299
300
3

212 219
200
122
83 79
100

0
heavy wood stove * tile stove * stove without heat chimney
*Vock and Jenni, 2007 storage

ignition from the bottom ignition from the top

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Flyer

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Influence of fill quantity of fuel chamber

combustion phases Σ –> whole batch

450 450
ignition
400
mg/mn3 @ 13 Vol.-% O2

stable burning 400


350 burnout 350

mg/MJ
300 300
250 250
200 200
150 150
100 100
50 50
0 0
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
fill quantity of fuel chamber fill quantity of fuel chamber

150 mg/mn3 @ 13 Vol.-% O2 = 100 mg/MJ

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Influence of operation on PM emissions

Best case Typically operated Worst case

Sufficient oxygen Large amount of Air inlet reduced


supply, small logs large logs or shut
Operation of
wood stove

PM
mg/m3 20 – 50 250 up to 2 500
@13 Vol.-% O2

Nussbaumer et al. 2008


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Emissions: Natural draft versus constant draft
Ignition Stable Operation Burnout
250

200
PM [mg/mn ]
3

150
12 Pa Draft
Natural Draft
100

50

Measurements with constant draft do not indicate PM


emissions in practice. Natural chimney draft leads to higher
emissions during ignition.

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Condensable fraction of emissions


3500
SP at 160°C Condensable Particles
3000

2500
cold start warm start
[mg/mN3]

2000

1500

1000

500

0
1 2 3 4 5
ignition from the top i. from the bottom type-test

CP:SP (start-up) 11 3 6 6 1.5

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1. Introduction
2. Objectives
3. Method
4. Results
5. Conclusions

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Conclusions
• The start-up phase strongly contributes to the total PM but
is not considered in nowadays type-tests.
• Igniting the fire from the top can reduce PM emissions of
wood stoves
• The operation type has a very strong influences on PM
emissions. Nowadays type-tests and labels should reward
stoves which minimize the influence of the user.
• Under typical burning conditions, high concentrations of
organic condensables are emitted which are not trapped in
hot filter sampling
• Condensables are likely to be correlated to hydrocarbons
measured by FID. Preliminary measurements show a
reasonable correlation between FID and impingers, which
is further investigated

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Acknowledgments

Swiss Federal Office for Energy


Swiss Federal Office for the Environment

Liebi
Schmid
Sigmatic
Tiba
Tonwerk Lausen

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Literature
Klippel, Nussbaumer: Feinstaubbildung in Holzfeuerungen
und Gesundheitsrelevanz von Holzstaub im Vergleich zu
Dieselruss. 9. Holzenergie-Symposium, Zürich, 2006.

Vock, Jenni: Emissionsarme Anfeuermethoden für


Stückholzfeuerungen, 2007.

Nussbaumer, Doberer, Klippel, Bühler, Vock: Influence of


ignition and operation type on particle emissions from
residential wood combustion. 16th European Biomass
Conference, Valencia, 2008.

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