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UNIT-IV

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Wave equations for conducting & perfect dielectric media Uniform plane waves & relations b/w E & H and sinusoidal variations Wave propagation: In lossless and conducting media polarization Wave propagation: In good conductors and good dielectrics

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Wave equations:

The Maxwell's equations in the differential form

The Maxwell's equations in the differential form Let us consider a source free uniform medium having
The Maxwell's equations in the differential form Let us consider a source free uniform medium having

Let us consider a source free uniform medium having dielectric constant , magnetic permeability and conductivity . The above set of equations can be written as

conductivity . The above set of equations can be written as Using the vector identity ,
conductivity . The above set of equations can be written as Using the vector identity ,
conductivity . The above set of equations can be written as Using the vector identity ,

Using the vector identity ,

of equations can be written as Using the vector identity , We can write from 2

We can write from 2

written as Using the vector identity , We can write from 2 Substituting from 1 But

Substituting

Using the vector identity , We can write from 2 Substituting from 1 But in source

from 1

vector identity , We can write from 2 Substituting from 1 But in source free( )

But in source free(

We can write from 2 Substituting from 1 But in source free( ) medium (eq3) In

) medium (eq3)

2 Substituting from 1 But in source free( ) medium (eq3) In the same manner for

In the same manner for equation eqn 1

free( ) medium (eq3) In the same manner for equation eqn 1 Since from eqn 4,

Since

from eqn 4, we can writefrom 1 But in source free( ) medium (eq3) In the same manner for equation eqn

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These two equations are known as wave equations. Smartzworld.com Uniform plane waves: A uniform plane

These two equations

These two equations are known as wave equations. Smartzworld.com Uniform plane waves: A uniform plane wave
These two equations are known as wave equations. Smartzworld.com Uniform plane waves: A uniform plane wave

are known as wave equations.

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Uniform plane waves: A uniform plane wave is a particular solution of Maxwell's equation

assuming electric field (and magnetic field) has same magnitude and phase in infinite planes

perpendicular to the direction of propagation. It may be noted that in the strict sense a uniform

plane wave doesn't exist in practice as creation of such waves are possible with sources of

infinite extent. However, at large distances from the source, the wavefront or the surface of the

constant phase becomes almost spherical and a small portion of this large sphere can be

considered to plane. The characteristics of plane waves are simple and useful for studying many

practical scenarios

Let us consider a plane wave which has only E component and propagating along z . Since the

x

plane wave will have no variation along the plane perpendicular to z

i.e., xy plane,

along the plane perpendicular to z i.e., xy plane, . The Helmholtz's equation reduces to, (1)

. The Helmholtz's equation reduces to,

i.e., xy plane, . The Helmholtz's equation reduces to, (1) The solution to this equation can

(1)

The solution to this equation can be written as

to, (1) The solution to this equation can be written as (2) are the amplitude constants

(2)

to, (1) The solution to this equation can be written as (2) are the amplitude constants

are the amplitude constants (can be determined from boundary conditions).

In the time domain,

be determined from boundary conditions). In the time domain, (3) assuming are real constants. Here, represents
be determined from boundary conditions). In the time domain, (3) assuming are real constants. Here, represents

(3)

assuming

from boundary conditions). In the time domain, (3) assuming are real constants. Here, represents the forward

are real constants.

Here,

In the time domain, (3) assuming are real constants. Here, represents the forward traveling wave. The

represents the forward traveling wave. The plot of

several values of t is shown in the Figure below

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represents the forward traveling wave. The plot of several values of t is shown in the

for

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Smartzworld.com Figure : Plane wave traveling in the + z direction As can be seen from

Figure : Plane wave traveling in the + z direction

As can be seen from the figure, at successive times, the wave travels in the +z direction.

If we fix our attention on a particular point or phase on the wave (as shown by the dot) i.e. ,

constant

Then we see that as is increased to

t

, z also should increase to Or,
, z also should increase to
Or,

so that

is increased to t , z also should increase to Or, so that = When we

=

When

we write

,
,
t , z also should increase to Or, so that = When we write , =

= phase velocity

.

Or,

to Or, so that = When we write , = phase velocity . Or, (4) If
to Or, so that = When we write , = phase velocity . Or, (4) If

(4)

If the medium in which the wave is propagating is free space i.e.,

medium in which the wave is propagating is free space i.e., Then Where ' C '
medium in which the wave is propagating is free space i.e., Then Where ' C '

Then

Where 'C' is the speed of light. That is plane EM wave travels in free space with the speed of light.

plane EM wave travels in free space with the speed of light. The wavelength is defined

The wavelength is defined as the distance between two successive maxima (or minima or any other reference points).

Substituting

i.e.,

between two successive maxima (or minima or any other reference points). Substituting i.e., or, or, ,
or, or, ,
or,
or,
,

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or,
or,

(5)

Smartzworld.com or, (5) Thus wavelength also represents the distance covered in one oscillation of the wave.

Thus wavelength also represents the distance covered in one oscillation of the wave. Similarly,

represents a plane wave traveling in the ­z direction.

The associated magnetic field can be found as follows:

From (6.4),

magnetic field can be found as follows: From (6.4), where = = is the intrinsic impedance
magnetic field can be found as follows: From (6.4), where = = is the intrinsic impedance

where

magnetic field can be found as follows: From (6.4), where = = is the intrinsic impedance

=

=

field can be found as follows: From (6.4), where = = is the intrinsic impedance of
field can be found as follows: From (6.4), where = = is the intrinsic impedance of

is the intrinsic impedance of the medium.

When the wave travels in free space

impedance of the medium. When the wave travels in free space is the intrinsic impedance of

is the intrinsic impedance of the free space.

In the time domain,

intrinsic impedance of the free space. In the time domain, (7) (6) Which represents the magnetic

(7)

(6)

Which represents the magnetic field of the wave traveling in the +z direction.

For the negative traveling wave,

in the +z direction. For the negative traveling wave, (8) For the plane waves described, both

(8)

For the plane waves described, both the E & H fields are perpendicular to the direction of propagation, and these waves are called TEM (transverse electromagnetic) waves.

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The E & H field components of a TEM wave is shown in Fig below

H field components of a TEM wave is shown in Fig below Figure : E &

Figure : E & H fields of a particular plane wave at time t.

Poynting Vector and Power Flow in Electromagnetic Fields:

Electromagnetic waves can transport energy from one point to another point. The electric and magnetic

field intensities asscociated with a travelling electromagnetic wave can be related to the rate of such

energy transfer.

Let us consider Maxwell's Curl Equations:

Using vector identity

consider Maxwell's Curl Equations: Using vector identity the above curl equations we can write In simple
consider Maxwell's Curl Equations: Using vector identity the above curl equations we can write In simple

the above curl equations we can write

Using vector identity the above curl equations we can write In simple medium where and are
Using vector identity the above curl equations we can write In simple medium where and are

In simple medium where

the above curl equations we can write In simple medium where and are constant, we can
the above curl equations we can write In simple medium where and are constant, we can

and are constant, we can write

write In simple medium where and are constant, we can write and (1) Applying Divergence theorem
write In simple medium where and are constant, we can write and (1) Applying Divergence theorem
write In simple medium where and are constant, we can write and (1) Applying Divergence theorem

and

(1)

In simple medium where and are constant, we can write and (1) Applying Divergence theorem we

Applying Divergence theorem we can write,

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Smartzworld.com (2) The term magnetic fields and the term represents the rate of change of energy

(2)

Smartzworld.com (2) The term magnetic fields and the term represents the rate of change of energy

The term

magnetic fields and the term

represents the rate of change of energy stored in the electric and

represents the power dissipation within the volume. Hence right

hand side of the equation (6.36) represents the total decrease in power within the volume under consideration.

decrease in power within the volume under consideration. The left hand side of equation (6.36) can
decrease in power within the volume under consideration. The left hand side of equation (6.36) can

The left hand side of equation (6.36) can be written as

(W/mt 2 ) is called the Poynting vector and it represents the power density vector associated with the

electromagnetic field. The integration of the Poynting vector over any closed surface gives the net power

flowing out of the surface. Equation (6.36) is referred to as Poynting theorem and it states that the net

power flowing out of a given volume is equal to the time rate of decrease in the energy stored within the

volume minus the conduction losses.

Poynting vector for the time harmonic case:

where

losses. Poynting vector for the time harmonic case: where For time harmonic case, the time variation

For time harmonic case, the time variation is of the form

of a quantity is the real part of the product of a phasor quantity and

reference. For example, if we consider the phasor

, and we have seen that instantaneous value

the phasor , and we have seen that instantaneous value when is used as then we

when

the phasor , and we have seen that instantaneous value when is used as then we

is used as

, and we have seen that instantaneous value when is used as then we can write

then we can write the instanteneous field as

when is used as then we can write the instanteneous field as (1) when E 0

(1)

when E 0 is real.

Let us consider two instanteneous quantities A and B such that

us consider two instanteneous quantities A and B such that (2) where A and B are

(2)

consider two instanteneous quantities A and B such that (2) where A and B are the

where A and B are the phasor quantities.

i.e,

such that (2) where A and B are the phasor quantities. i.e, Therefore, (3) Since A
such that (2) where A and B are the phasor quantities. i.e, Therefore, (3) Since A

Therefore,

(2) where A and B are the phasor quantities. i.e, Therefore, (3) Since A and B
(2) where A and B are the phasor quantities. i.e, Therefore, (3) Since A and B

(3)

Since A and B are periodic with period

by

Therefore, (3) Since A and B are periodic with period by can be written as ,

can be written as

A and B are periodic with period by can be written as , the time average

, the time average value of the product form AB, denoted

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Smartzworld.com (4) Further, considering the phasor quantities A and B , we find that and ,
Smartzworld.com (4) Further, considering the phasor quantities A and B , we find that and ,

(4)

Further, considering the phasor quantities A and B, we find that

considering the phasor quantities A and B , we find that and , where * denotes

and

the phasor quantities A and B , we find that and , where * denotes complex

, where * denotes complex conjugate.

B , we find that and , where * denotes complex conjugate. (5) The poynting vector

(5)

The poynting vector

, where * denotes complex conjugate. (5) The poynting vector can be expressed as (6) If

can be expressed as

conjugate. (5) The poynting vector can be expressed as (6) If we consider a plane electromagnetic

(6)

conjugate. (5) The poynting vector can be expressed as (6) If we consider a plane electromagnetic

If we consider a plane electromagnetic wave propagating in +z direction and has only component,

from (6.42) we can write:

direction and has only component, from (6.42) we can write: Using (6) (7) where For a

Using (6)

and has only component, from (6.42) we can write: Using (6) (7) where For a general
and has only component, from (6.42) we can write: Using (6) (7) where For a general

(7)

has only component, from (6.42) we can write: Using (6) (7) where For a general case,
has only component, from (6.42) we can write: Using (6) (7) where For a general case,

where

For a general case, we can write

and

, for the plane wave under consideration.

we can write and , for the plane wave under consideration. (8) We can define a

(8)

We can define a complex Poynting vector

consideration. (8) We can define a complex Poynting vector . and time average of the instantaneous
.
.

and time average of the instantaneous Poynting vector is given by

Polarisation of plane wave: The polarisation of a plane wave can be defined as the orientation of the electric field vector as a function of time at a fixed point in space. For an electromagnetic wave, the specification of the orientation of the electric field is sufficent as the magnetic field components are related to electric field vector by the Maxwell's equations.

Let us consider a plane wave travelling in the +z direction. The wave has both E x and E y components.

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(1) The corresponding magnetic fields are given by, Smartzworld.com Depending upon the values of E

(1)

The corresponding magnetic fields are given by,

(1) The corresponding magnetic fields are given by, Smartzworld.com Depending upon the values of E o
(1) The corresponding magnetic fields are given by, Smartzworld.com Depending upon the values of E o

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Depending upon the values of E ox and E oy we can have several possibilities:

1. If E oy = 0, then the wave is linearly polarised in the x-direction.

2. If E oy = 0, then the wave is linearly polarised in the y-direction.

3. If E ox and E oy are both real (or complex with equal phase), once again we get a linearly polarised wave

with the axis of polarisation inclined at an angle

fig1 below

, with respect to the x­axis. This is shown inthe axis of polarisation inclined at an angle fig1 below Fig1 : Linear Polarisation If Eox

fig1 below , with respect to the x­axis. This is shown in Fig1 : Linear Polarisation

Fig1 : Linear Polarisation

to the x­axis. This is shown in Fig1 : Linear Polarisation If Eox and Eoy are

If Eox and Eoy are complex with different phase angles, will not point to a single spatial direction.

4.

This is explained as follows:

Let

angles, will not point to a single spatial direction. 4. This is explained as follows: Let
angles, will not point to a single spatial direction. 4. This is explained as follows: Let

Then,

angles, will not point to a single spatial direction. 4. This is explained as follows: Let

and

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angles, will not point to a single spatial direction. 4. This is explained as follows: Let

(2)

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To keep the things simple, let us consider a =0 and field on the z =0 plain.

From equation (2) we find that,

and field on the z =0 plain. From equation (2) we find that, . Further, let

. Further, let us study the nature of the electric

that, . Further, let us study the nature of the electric (3) and the electric field
that, . Further, let us study the nature of the electric (3) and the electric field
that, . Further, let us study the nature of the electric (3) and the electric field

(3)

and the electric field vector at z = 0 can be written as

Assuming

electric field vector at z = 0 can be written as Assuming , the plot of
electric field vector at z = 0 can be written as Assuming , the plot of

, the plot of

vector at z = 0 can be written as Assuming , the plot of for various

for various values of t is hown in figure 2

(4)

the plot of for various values of t is hown in figure 2 (4) Figure 2

Figure 2 : Plot of E(o,t)

From equation (6.47) and figure (6.5) we observe that the tip of the arrow representing electric field vector traces qn ellipse and the field is said to be elliptically polarised.

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Smartzworld.com Figure 3: Polarisation ellipse The polarisation ellipse shown in figure 3 is defined by its

Figure 3: Polarisation ellipse

The polarisation ellipse shown in figure 3 is defined by its axial ratio(M/N, the ratio of semimajor to

semiminor axis), tilt angle

Linear polarisation can be treated as a special case of elliptical polarisation, for which the axial ratio is

infinite.

polarisation, for which the axial ratio is infinite. (orientation with respect to xaxis) and sense of

(orientation with respect to xaxis) and sense of rotation(i.e., CW or CCW).

respect to xaxis) and sense of rotation(i.e., CW or CCW). In our example, if out a

In our example, if

out a circle. Such a case is referred to as Circular Polarisation. For circular polarisation the axial ratio is

unity

, from equation the tip of the arrow representing electric field vector traces

tip of the arrow representing electric field vector traces Figure 5: Circular Polarisation (RHCP) Further, the

Figure 5: Circular Polarisation (RHCP)

Further, the circular polarisation is aside to be right handed circular polarisation (RHCP) if the electric field vector rotates in the direction of the fingers of the right hand when the thumb points in the direction of propagation­(same and CCW). If the electric field vector rotates in the opposite direction, the polarisation is asid to be left hand circular polarisation (LHCP) (same as CW).In AM radio broadcast, the radiated

(LHCP) (same as CW).In AM radio broadcast, the radiated electromagnetic wave is linearly polarised with the

electromagnetic wave is linearly polarised with the field vertical to the ground( vertical polarisation) where as TV signals are horizontally polarised waves. FM broadcast is usually carried out using circularly polarised waves.In radio communication, different information signals can be transmitted at the same frequency at orthogonal polarisation ( one signal as vertically polarised other horizontally polarised or one as RHCP while the other as LHCP) to increase capacity. Otherwise, same signal can be transmitted at orthogonal polarisation to obtain diversity gain to improve reliability of transmission.

Behaviour of Plane waves at the inteface of two media: We have considered the propagation of uniform plane waves in an unbounded homogeneous medium. In practice, the wave will propagate in

bounded regions where several values of

will propagate in bounded regions where several values of will be present. When plane wave travelling

will be present. When plane wave travelling in one

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medium meets a different medium, it is partly reflected and partly transmitted. In this section, we consider wave reflection and transmission at planar boundary between two media.

and transmission at planar boundary between two media. Fig 6 : Normal Incidence at a plane

Fig 6 : Normal Incidence at a plane boundary

Case1: Let z = 0 plane represent the interface between two media. Medium 1 is characterised by

interface between two media. Medium 1 is characterised by and medium 2 is characterized by .Let

and medium 2 is characterized by

1 is characterised by and medium 2 is characterized by .Let the subscripts ' i '

.Let the subscripts 'i' denotes incident, 'r'

denotes reflected and 't' denotes transmitted field components respectively.

The incident wave is assumed to be a plane wave polarized along and travelling in medium 1 along

direction. From equation (6.24) we can write

x

1 along direction. From equation (6.24) we can write x (1) (2) . z where Because
1 along direction. From equation (6.24) we can write x (1) (2) . z where Because

(1)

1 along direction. From equation (6.24) we can write x (1) (2) . z where Because

(2)

along direction. From equation (6.24) we can write x (1) (2) . z where Because of
.
.

z

where

Because of the presence of the second medium at =0, the incident wave will undergo partial reflection

and

and partial transmission.The reflected wave will travel along

and partial transmission.The reflected wave will travel along in medium 1.

in medium 1.

The reflected field components are:

(3)

(3)

in medium 1. The reflected field components are: (3) (4) The transmitted wave will travel in

(4)

1. The reflected field components are: (3) (4) The transmitted wave will travel in medium 2

The transmitted wave will travel in medium 2 along for which the field components are

(3) (4) The transmitted wave will travel in medium 2 along for which the field components
(3) (4) The transmitted wave will travel in medium 2 along for which the field components

(5)

(6)

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where Smartzworld.com and Smartzworld.com

where

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and

where Smartzworld.com and Smartzworld.com

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In medium 1,

and in medium 2,

andIn medium 1, and in medium 2, and Smartzworld.com Applying boundary conditions at the interface z

andIn medium 1, and in medium 2, and Smartzworld.com Applying boundary conditions at the interface z

In medium 1, and in medium 2, and and Smartzworld.com Applying boundary conditions at the interface

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Applying boundary conditions at the interface z = 0, i.e., continuity of tangential field components and noting that incident, reflected and transmitted field components are tangential at the boundary, we can write

components are tangential at the boundary, we can write & From equation 3to 6 we get,

&

are tangential at the boundary, we can write & From equation 3to 6 we get, Eliminating

From equation 3to 6 we get,

boundary, we can write & From equation 3to 6 we get, Eliminating E t o ,
boundary, we can write & From equation 3to 6 we get, Eliminating E t o ,

Eliminating E to ,

& From equation 3to 6 we get, Eliminating E t o , or, or, (8) is

or,

From equation 3to 6 we get, Eliminating E t o , or, or, (8) is called

or,

equation 3to 6 we get, Eliminating E t o , or, or, (8) is called the
equation 3to 6 we get, Eliminating E t o , or, or, (8) is called the

(8)

is called the reflection coefficient.

From equation (8), we can write

the reflection coefficient. From equation (8), we can write or, (9) is called the transmission coefficient.

or,

reflection coefficient. From equation (8), we can write or, (9) is called the transmission coefficient. We
reflection coefficient. From equation (8), we can write or, (9) is called the transmission coefficient. We

(9)

is called the transmission coefficient.

We observe that,

equation (8), we can write or, (9) is called the transmission coefficient. We observe that, Smartzworld.com

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(7)

(8)

(10)

The following may be noted

The following may be noted (i) both and T are dimensionless and may be complex (ii)

(i) both and T are dimensionless and may be complex

be noted (i) both and T are dimensionless and may be complex (ii) Let us now

(ii)

Let us now consider specific cases:

Case I: Normal incidence on a plane conducting boundary

The medium 1 is perfect dielectric

plane conducting boundary The medium 1 is perfect dielectric and medium 2 is perfectly conducting From

and medium 2 is perfectly conducting

1 is perfect dielectric and medium 2 is perfectly conducting From (9) and (10) = ­1
1 is perfect dielectric and medium 2 is perfectly conducting From (9) and (10) = ­1

From (9) and (10)

and medium 2 is perfectly conducting From (9) and (10) = ­1 and T =0 .

= ­1

and T =0

.
.

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Hence the wave is not transmitted to medium 2, it gets reflected entirely from the interface to the medium

1.

gets reflected entirely from the interface to the medium 1. & (11) Proceeding in the same

&

reflected entirely from the interface to the medium 1. & (11) Proceeding in the same manner

(11)

Proceeding in the same manner for the magnetic field in region 1, we can show that,

manner for the magnetic field in region 1, we can show that, (12) The wave in

(12)

The wave in medium 1 thus becomes a standing wave due to the super position of a forward travelling

wave due to the super position of a forward travelling wave and a backward travelling wave.

wave and a backward travelling wave. For a given ' t', both and

measured from z = 0. This is shown in figure 6.9.

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' t' , both and measured from z = 0. This is shown in figure 6.9.

vary sinusoidally with distance

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Smartzworld.com Figure 7: Generation of standing wave Zeroes of E 1 (z,t) and Maxima of Maxima

Figure 7: Generation of standing wave

Zeroes of E 1 (z,t) and Maxima of

Maxima of E 1 (z,t) and zeroes of

H 1 (z,t).

H

1 (z,t).

1 ( z,t ) and zeroes of H 1 ( z,t ). H 1 ( z
1 ( z,t ) and zeroes of H 1 ( z,t ). H 1 ( z

Case2: Normal incidence on a plane dielectric boundary : If the medium 2 is not a perfect

conductor (i.e.

transmitted wave in the medium 2.Because of the reflected wave, standing wave is formed in medium 1.

From equation (10) and equation (13) we can write

medium 1. From equation (10) and equation (13) we can write ) partial reflection will result.

) partial reflection will result. There will be a reflected wave in the medium 1 and a

result. There will be a reflected wave in the medium 1 and a (14) Let us

(14)

Let us consider the scenario when both the media are dissipation less i.e. perfect dielectrics (

)
)
the media are dissipation less i.e. perfect dielectrics ( ) In this case both Smartzworld.com and

In this case both

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media are dissipation less i.e. perfect dielectrics ( ) In this case both Smartzworld.com and become
media are dissipation less i.e. perfect dielectrics ( ) In this case both Smartzworld.com and become

and become real numbers.

(15)

(16) Smartzworld.com From (6.61), we can see that, in medium 1 we have a traveling

(16)

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From (6.61), we can see that, in medium 1 we have a traveling wave component with amplitude TE io and a standing wave component with amplitude 2JE io . The location of the maximum and the minimum of the electric and magnetic field components in the medium 1from the interface can be found as follows. The electric field in medium 1 can be written as

as follows. The electric field in medium 1 can be written as i.e. If The maximum

i.e.as follows. The electric field in medium 1 can be written as If The maximum value

The electric field in medium 1 can be written as i.e. If The maximum value of

If

The maximum value of the electric field is

>0

as i.e. If The maximum value of the electric field is >0 (18) (17) and this

(18)

(17)

and this occurs when

the electric field is >0 (18) (17) and this occurs when or , n = 0,

or

electric field is >0 (18) (17) and this occurs when or , n = 0, 1,

, n = 0, 1, 2, 3

The minimum value of

this occurs when or , n = 0, 1, 2, 3 The minimum value of is

is

this occurs when or , n = 0, 1, 2, 3 The minimum value of is

(20)

(19)

And this occurs when

2, 3 The minimum value of is (20) (19) And this occurs when For i.e. <0

For

3 The minimum value of is (20) (19) And this occurs when For i.e. <0 or

i.e.

minimum value of is (20) (19) And this occurs when For i.e. <0 or , n

<0

or

of is (20) (19) And this occurs when For i.e. <0 or , n = 0,

, n = 0, 1, 2, 3

(21)

this occurs when For i.e. <0 or , n = 0, 1, 2, 3 (21) is

is

this occurs when For i.e. <0 or , n = 0, 1, 2, 3 (21) is

The maximum value of

is

which occurs at the z min locations and the minimum value of

at the z m i n locations and the minimum value of which occurs at z

which occurs at z max locations as given by the equations (6.64) and (6.66).

From our discussions so far we observe that

and (6.66). From our discussions so far we observe that can be written as (22) The

can be written as

our discussions so far we observe that can be written as (22) The quantity S is

(22)

The quantity S is called as the standing wave ratio.

As

be written as (22) The quantity S is called as the standing wave ratio. As the
be written as (22) The quantity S is called as the standing wave ratio. As the

the range of S is given by

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be written as (22) The quantity S is called as the standing wave ratio. As the

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From (6.62), we can write the expression for the magnetic field in medium 1 as

write the expression for the magnetic field in medium 1 as (23) From (6.68) we find

(23)

the expression for the magnetic field in medium 1 as (23) From (6.68) we find that
the expression for the magnetic field in medium 1 as (23) From (6.68) we find that

From (6.68) we find that

In medium 2, the transmitted wave propagates in the + z direction.

Oblique Incidence of EM wave at an interface: So far we have discuss the case of normal incidence where electromagnetic wave traveling in a lossless medium impinges normally at the interface of a second medium. In this section we shall consider the case of oblique incidence. As before, we consider two cases

i. When the second medium is a perfect conductor.

ii. When the second medium is a perfect dielectric.

A plane incidence is defined as the plane containing the vector indicating the direction of propagation of

the incident wave and normal to the interface. We study two specific cases when the incident electric field

will be maximum at locations where

is minimum and vice versa.

be maximum at locations where is minimum and vice versa. is perpendicular to the plane of
be maximum at locations where is minimum and vice versa. is perpendicular to the plane of

is perpendicular to the plane of incidence (perpendicular polarization) and is parallel to the plane of

incidence (parallel polarization). For a general case, the incident wave may have arbitrary polarization but

the same can be expressed as a linear combination of these two individual cases.

Oblique Incidence at a plane conducting boundary

i. Perpendicular Polarization

The situation is depicted in figure 8.

Polarization The situation is depicted in figure 8. Figure 8: Perpendicular Polarization As the EM field

Figure 8: Perpendicular Polarization

depicted in figure 8. Figure 8: Perpendicular Polarization As the EM field inside the perfect conductor

As the EM field inside the perfect conductor is zero, the interface reflects the incident plane wave. and

respectively represent the unit vector in the direction of propagation of the incident and reflectedis zero, the interface reflects the incident plane wave. and waves, is the angle of incidence

the direction of propagation of the incident and reflected waves, is the angle of incidence and
the direction of propagation of the incident and reflected waves, is the angle of incidence and

waves, is the angle of incidence and is the angle of reflection.

We find that

of incidence and is the angle of reflection. We find that (24) Since the incident wave

(24)

Since the incident wave is considered to be perpendicular to the plane of incidence, which for the present case happens to be xz plane, the electric field has only y­component.

Therefore,

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The corresponding magnetic field is given by Similarly, we can write the reflected waves as

The corresponding magnetic field is given by

The corresponding magnetic field is given by Similarly, we can write the reflected waves as Since

Similarly, we can write the reflected waves as

is given by Similarly, we can write the reflected waves as Since at the interface z=o,

Since at the interface z=o, the tangential electric field is zero.

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(26)

(25)

 
  (27)

(27)

Consider in equation (6.72) is satisfied if we have

 
 
  (28)

(28)

The condition

The condition is Snell's law of reflection.

is Snell's law of reflection.

(29)

(29)

The condition is Snell's law of reflection. (29) The total electric field is given by Similarly,

The total electric field is given by

of reflection. (29) The total electric field is given by Similarly, total magnetic field is given

Similarly, total magnetic field is given by

(31)

(30)

by Similarly, total magnetic field is given by (31) (30) (32) From eqns (31) and (32)

(32)

From eqns (31) and (32) we observe that

1. Along z direction i.e. normal to the boundary

that 1. Along z direction i.e. normal to the boundary y component of and x component
that 1. Along z direction i.e. normal to the boundary y component of and x component
that 1. Along z direction i.e. normal to the boundary y component of and x component
that 1. Along z direction i.e. normal to the boundary y component of and x component

y component of and x component of maintain standing wave patterns according to

and

whereof maintain standing wave patterns according to and . No average power propagates along z as

of maintain standing wave patterns according to and where . No average power propagates along z

. No average power propagates along z as y component of

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Smartzworld.com and x component of are out of phase. 2. Along x i.e. parallel to the

and x component of are out of phase.

2. Along x i.e. parallel to the interface

are out of phase. 2. Along x i.e. parallel to the interface y component of and
are out of phase. 2. Along x i.e. parallel to the interface y component of and

y component of and z component of are in phase (both time and space) and propagate with phase velocity

(both time and space) and propagate with phase velocity (33) The wave propagating along the x

(33)

The wave propagating along the x direction has its amplitude varying with z and hence constitutes a non

its amplitude varying with z and hence constitutes a non uniform plane wave. Further, only electric

uniform plane wave. Further, only electric field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation (i.e. x), the magnetic field has component along the direction of propagation. Such waves are called transverse electric or TE waves.

ii. Parallel Polarization:

In this case also

or TE waves. ii. Parallel Polarization : In this case also and are given by equations

and

TE waves. ii. Parallel Polarization : In this case also and are given by equations (6.69).

are given by equations (6.69). Here

: In this case also and are given by equations (6.69). Here and have only y

and

this case also and are given by equations (6.69). Here and have only y component. Figure

have only y component.

given by equations (6.69). Here and have only y component. Figure 9: Parallel Polarization With reference

Figure 9: Parallel Polarization

With reference to fig 9: the field components can be written as:

Incident field components:

components can be written as: Incident field components: Reflected field components: (34) (35) Since the total

Reflected field components:

as: Incident field components: Reflected field components: (34) (35) Since the total tangential electric field

(34)

(35)

Since the total tangential electric field component at the interface is zero.

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field components: (34) (35) Since the total tangential electric field component at the interface is zero.

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Smartzworld.com Which leads to Substituting these quantities in (6.79) and adding the incident and reflected electric
Smartzworld.com Which leads to Substituting these quantities in (6.79) and adding the incident and reflected electric

Which leads to

Substituting these quantities in (6.79) and adding the incident and reflected electric and magnetic field components the total electric and magnetic fields can be written as

and

as before.

and magnetic fields can be written as and as before. (36) Once again, we find a

(36)

and magnetic fields can be written as and as before. (36) Once again, we find a
and magnetic fields can be written as and as before. (36) Once again, we find a

Once again, we find a standing wave pattern along z for the x and y components of and , while a

pattern along z for the x and y components of and , while a . non
.
.

non uniform plane wave propagates along x with a phase velocity given by

Since, for this propagating wave, magnetic field is in transverse direction, such waves are called

transverse magnetic or TM waves.

Oblique incidence at a plane dielectric interface : We continue our discussion on the behavior of

plane waves at an interface; this time we consider a plane dielectric interface. As earlier, we consider the

two specific cases, namely parallel and perpendicular polarization.

where

cases, namely parallel and perpendicular polarization. where For the case of a plane dielectric interface, an

For the case of a plane dielectric interface, an incident wave will be reflected partially and transmitted

partially. In Fig(6.12), transmission.

and transmitted partially. In Fig(6.12), transmission. corresponds respectively to the angle of incidence,

corresponds respectively to the angle of incidence, reflection and

1. Parallel Polarization : As discussed previously, the incident and reflected field components can be written as

: As discussed previously, the incident and reflected field components can be written as Smartzworld.com (37)

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(37)

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(38)

(38)

In terms of the reflection coefficient

In terms of the reflection coefficient
(39)

(39)

The transmitted filed can be written in terms of the transmission coefficient T

(40)

(40)

We can now enforce the continuity of tangential field components at the boundary i.e. z=0

of tangential field components at the boundary i.e. z=0 (41) If both and We find that

(41)

If both

field components at the boundary i.e. z=0 (41) If both and We find that are to

and

field components at the boundary i.e. z=0 (41) If both and We find that are to

We find that

at the boundary i.e. z=0 (41) If both and We find that are to be continuous

are to be continuous at z=0

for all , then form the phase matching we have

x

at z=0 for all , then form the phase matching we have x (42) Further, from
at z=0 for all , then form the phase matching we have x (42) Further, from

(42)

Further, from equations (6.86) and (6.87) we have

all , then form the phase matching we have x (42) Further, from equations (6.86) and

(43)

all , then form the phase matching we have x (42) Further, from equations (6.86) and
all , then form the phase matching we have x (42) Further, from equations (6.86) and
all , then form the phase matching we have x (42) Further, from equations (6.86) and

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Smartzworld.com or From equation (6.90) we find that there exists specific angle or Further, For non

or

Smartzworld.com or From equation (6.90) we find that there exists specific angle or Further, For non
Smartzworld.com or From equation (6.90) we find that there exists specific angle or Further, For non

From equation (6.90) we find that there exists specific angle

equation (6.90) we find that there exists specific angle or Further, For non magnetic material Using
equation (6.90) we find that there exists specific angle or Further, For non magnetic material Using

or

equation (6.90) we find that there exists specific angle or Further, For non magnetic material Using

Further,

For non magnetic material

Using this condition

or Further, For non magnetic material Using this condition (44) (45) for which (47) (46) =

(44)

(45)

for which

magnetic material Using this condition (44) (45) for which (47) (46) = 0 such that (48)

(47)

(46)

= 0 such that

this condition (44) (45) for which (47) (46) = 0 such that (48) From equation (6.93),

(48)

From equation (6.93), solving for

we get(46) = 0 such that (48) From equation (6.93), solving for This angle of incidence for

= 0 such that (48) From equation (6.93), solving for we get This angle of incidence

This angle of incidence for which

polarization we represent this angle by so that

= 0
= 0

is called Brewster angle. Since we are dealing with parallel

is called Brewster angle. Since we are dealing with parallel 2. Perpendicular Polarization For this case

2. Perpendicular Polarization

For this case

Brewster angle. Since we are dealing with parallel 2. Perpendicular Polarization For this case (49) Smartzworld.com

(49)

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Using continuity of field components at z=0 As in the previous case Using these conditions
Using continuity of field components at z=0 As in the previous case Using these conditions

Using continuity of field components at z=0

Using continuity of field components at z=0 As in the previous case Using these conditions we

As in the previous case

of field components at z=0 As in the previous case Using these conditions we can write
of field components at z=0 As in the previous case Using these conditions we can write

Using these conditions we can write

As in the previous case Using these conditions we can write (53) (54) Smartzworld.com (50) (51)

(53)

(54)

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(50)

(51)

(52)

From equation (6.99) the reflection and transmission coefficients for the perpendicular polarization can be

computed as

for the perpendicular polarization can be computed as We observe that if = 0 for an
for the perpendicular polarization can be computed as We observe that if = 0 for an

We observe that if = 0 for an angle of incidence

the perpendicular polarization can be computed as We observe that if = 0 for an angle
the perpendicular polarization can be computed as We observe that if = 0 for an angle
the perpendicular polarization can be computed as We observe that if = 0 for an angle
the perpendicular polarization can be computed as We observe that if = 0 for an angle

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(55)

We observe if

Again

We observe if Again Smartzworld.com or or or (56) i.e. in this case of non magnetic
We observe if Again Smartzworld.com or or or (56) i.e. in this case of non magnetic

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We observe if Again Smartzworld.com or or or (56) i.e. in this case of non magnetic

or

or

We observe if Again Smartzworld.com or or or (56) i.e. in this case of non magnetic

or

We observe if Again Smartzworld.com or or or (56) i.e. in this case of non magnetic
We observe if Again Smartzworld.com or or or (56) i.e. in this case of non magnetic

(56)

i.e. in this case of non magnetic material Brewster angle does not exist as theWe observe if Again Smartzworld.com or or or (56) denominator or equation (6.101) becomes zero. Thus

denominator or equation (6.101) becomes zero. Thus for perpendicular polarization in dielectric media,

there is Brewster angle so that

in dielectric media, there is Brewster angle so that can be made equal to zero. From

can be made equal to zero.

From our previous discussion we observe that for both polarizations

previous discussion we observe that for both polarizations If ; for which i.e. For The incidence

If

discussion we observe that for both polarizations If ; for which i.e. For The incidence angle
;
;

for which

we observe that for both polarizations If ; for which i.e. For The incidence angle the

i.e.

we observe that for both polarizations If ; for which i.e. For The incidence angle the

For

observe that for both polarizations If ; for which i.e. For The incidence angle the angle

The incidence angle

the angle of incidence is larger than total internal reflection occurs. For such case an evanescent wave exists along the interface in the x direction (w.r.t. fig (6.12)) that attenuates exponentially in the normal i.e. z direction. Such waves are tightly bound to the interface and are called surface waves.

Solved examples:

is called the critical angle of incidence. If

1. The magnetic field component of an EM wave propagating through a non magnetic dielectric medium is given by

through a non magnetic dielectric medium is given by Determine the permittivity of the medium and

Determine the permittivity of the medium and the electric field intensity.

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Smartzworld.com Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along

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Solution :

Smartzworld.com Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z
Smartzworld.com Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z
Smartzworld.com Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z

The dielectric constant of the medium=81

Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z direction
Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z direction
Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z direction
Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z direction
Solution : The dielectric constant of the medium=81 2. A plane wave travelling along +z direction

2. A plane wave travelling along +z direction is incident normally on a perfect conducting wall at

z=0.The reflected field is given by

conducting wall at z=0.The reflected field is given by (a) Determine the incident field and its

(a) Determine the incident field and its polarisation.

(b) Determine the current density induced on the conducting wall.

Solution : Tangential component of the electric field is zero on a metallic wall.

At z=0

of the electric field is zero on a metallic wall. At z=0 Smartzworld.com and It represents

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field is zero on a metallic wall. At z=0 Smartzworld.com and It represents a right hand
field is zero on a metallic wall. At z=0 Smartzworld.com and It represents a right hand

and

field is zero on a metallic wall. At z=0 Smartzworld.com and It represents a right hand
field is zero on a metallic wall. At z=0 Smartzworld.com and It represents a right hand
field is zero on a metallic wall. At z=0 Smartzworld.com and It represents a right hand
field is zero on a metallic wall. At z=0 Smartzworld.com and It represents a right hand

It represents a right hand circularly polarized wave.

(b) At z=0

(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a

Figure

(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a
(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a
(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a
(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a
(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a
(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a
(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a
(b) At z=0 Figure Smartzworld.com 3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a

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3. The magnetic field component of a plane wave in a lossless non magnetic dielectric medium is given by

in a lossless non magnetic dielectric medium is given by Determine (a)Wavelength and wave velocity (b)Electric

Determine (a)Wavelength and wave velocity (b)Electric field component and polarization of the wave.

Solution :

(a)

(a)Wavelength and wave velocity (b)Electric field component and polarization of the wave. Solution : (a) Smartzworld.com

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(b) This is a linearly polarized wave travelling along x. Smartzworld.com Smartzworld.com

(b)

(b) This is a linearly polarized wave travelling along x. Smartzworld.com Smartzworld.com
(b) This is a linearly polarized wave travelling along x. Smartzworld.com Smartzworld.com

This is a linearly polarized wave travelling along x.

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Questions:

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Questions: Smartzworld.com Bits: 1. For a uniform plane wave propagating in x­direction E x = 0
Questions: Smartzworld.com Bits: 1. For a uniform plane wave propagating in x­direction E x = 0
Questions: Smartzworld.com Bits: 1. For a uniform plane wave propagating in x­direction E x = 0
Questions: Smartzworld.com Bits: 1. For a uniform plane wave propagating in x­direction E x = 0

Bits:

1. For a uniform plane wave propagating in x­direction E x =0 and H x =0

2. Intrinsic impedance of a medium is

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plane wave propagating in x­direction E x = 0 and H x =0 2. Intrinsic impedance

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3. Attenuation constant in free space is zero

4. Phase constant in free space is

in free space is zero 4. Phase constant in free space is 5. Phase velocity of

5. Phase velocity of free space is v p =

free space is 5. Phase velocity of free space is v p = 6. Attenuation constant

6. Attenuation constant in good conductors is

is v p = 6. Attenuation constant in good conductors is 7. Depth of penetration is
is v p = 6. Attenuation constant in good conductors is 7. Depth of penetration is
is v p = 6. Attenuation constant in good conductors is 7. Depth of penetration is

7. Depth of penetration is

8. Complex pointing vector is E H* (yes/no)

9. In a circular polarization , E x and E y components have the same magnitude

10. Power density is represented by pointing vector

11. Unit of propagation constant is m

12. Horrizontal polarization is said to be linear polarization.

-1

polarization is said to be linear polarization. -1 13. Brewster angle is given by 14. If

13. Brewster angle is given by

14. If the Depth of penetration of a plane wave in a mediam is 2mm,the attenuation constant

is 0.5x10 3 m

-1

mediam is 2mm,the attenuation constant is 0.5x10 3 m -1 15. 16. When an EM wave

15.

16. When an EM wave is incident on a perfect conductor normally , standing waves are

If

0.2 rad/m

produced

17. The velocity of EM wave is inversely proportional to

18. The direction propagation of EM wave is obtained by E

19. Uniform plane wave is transverse in nature

of EM wave is obtained by E 19. Uniform plane wave is transverse in nature H

H

Complex pointing vector P is

of EM wave is obtained by E 19. Uniform plane wave is transverse in nature H

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