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The Coanda Effect has been discovered in1930 by the Romanian aerodynamicist
Henri-Marie Coanda (1885-1972). He has observed that a steam of air (or a other
fluid) emerging from a nozzle tends to follow a nearby curved surface, if the
curvature of the surface or angle the surface makes with the stream is not too
The Coanda UAV, propelled by an electric engine, uses the Coanda effect to take
off vertically, fly, hover and land vertically ( VTOL ). There is no big rotor like on
an helicopter and the flight is very stable and safe for the surrounding.
More info at:

The Coanda Effect Test Bench

A part of the GFS-UAV project

Created on April 2, 2006 - JLN Labs - April 4, 2006

Toutes les informations et schmas sont publis gratuitement ( opensource ) et sont destins un usage
personnel et non commercial
All informations and diagrams are published freely (opensource) and are intended for a private use and a non
commercial use.

To understand and study deeply the Coanda Effect applied to the construction
of an efficient UAV, I have built a dedicated Coanda Effect Test Bench (CETB).
With such an apparatus, I shall be able to test various shapes of hull and thus
understand how to find the best curve...
The CETB uses a high power blower commonly used to blow the dead leaves in
the garden. I have used a blower Handy Power HP1500S (1500W) which is able
to provide up to 380 m3/h of air flow. I have added a wide plastic adapter
(200x60 mm) and some flat pannels so as to get a laminar flow at the output.

The blower is powered with a 2 KVA voltage regulator which allows a fine tuning
of the air flow.

The Coanda curved shape to be tested is connected at the CTEB output with an
adhesive tape used as hinge.

The air flow is measured at the output of the CETB with a digital wind speed


When the air flow reaches 10 m/s the curved shape lifts-off quickly due to the
Coanda Effect.

If the video doesn't start itself, click on the "Refresh" button on your internet browser

Click on the picture to download the video (3.8 Mb)

Some wool markers have been also added along the curved surface to visualize
the air flow.
Below you will find the video of this test with the wool markers.

Click on the picture to download the video (4.8 Mb)

The upward trust has also been measured with a balance attached to the Coanda
below you will find the datas test results.

Comments from Jean-Louis Naudin : With the Coanda Effect Test Bench
(CETB), I am now able to optimize the efficiency of the curve of the hull for
building an efficient UAV based on the Coanda effect. It will be easy to build
various shapes of Coanda hull and compare their performances...

Click here to download the US Coanda Patent US 2,108,652 (pdf)

Click here to download the French Coanda Patent FR 796,843 (pdf)
For more informations, please contact Jean-Louis Naudin :
Join the GFS-UAV group-list :

return to the GFS-UAV project home page

The GFS-UAV project

A Coanda effect flying saucer

created on March 10, 2006 - JLN Labs - February 25, 2007
Toutes les informations et schmas sont publis gratuitement ( opensource ) et sont destins un usage
personnel et non commercial
All informations and diagrams are published freely (opensource) and are intended for a private use and a non
commercial use.

The GFS-UAV, propelled by an electric engine, uses the Coanda effect to take
off vertically, fly, hover and land vertically ( VTOL ). There is no big rotor like
on an helicopter and the flight is very stable and safe for the surrounding. The
design of the GFS-UAV N-01A is based on the Geoff Hatton' flying saucer from
GFS Project limited.
Le GFS-UAV, propuls par un moteur lectrique, utilise l'effet Coanda pour
dcoller verticalement, voler, faire du stationnaire et atterrir verticalement
( VTOL ). Il n'y a pas un grand rotor comme sur un hlicoptre et le vol est trs
stable et sr pour l'environnement. Le model du GFS-UAV N-01A est bas sur la
soucoupe volante de Geoff Hatton de GFS Project limited.

Dec 19, 2006 : The BIG Coanda Saucer N02 has done successfuly its 1st
If the video doesn't start itself, click on the "Refresh" button on your internet browser

BONUS : The GFS-UAV N01 for the FMS flight simulator

Dec 19, 2006 : FIRST FLIGHT of the BIG Coanda Saucer N02

Manoeuvrability and translation test flights at HIGH SPEED

Outdoor test flights with a wind speed up to 10 km/h

New improvements of the model N-01A (Woow...)

Successful hovering at 3 meters above the ground

The GFS-UAV in action with a video-camera

Photos and a video of the outdoor test flights

Tests flights videos on AFPD and genesis of the project

The GFS-UAV N-01A : Full plan and construction details

The Coanda Effect Test Bench ( CETB )

The N-XX an EHD Coanda Effect craft

The big UAV N-02 construction details


March 10, 2006 : Begining of the project - First test flights

on AFPD simulator

March 17, 2006 : Computer design of the true UAV model N01A

March 19, 2006 : Full plan and construction details about the
UAV N-01A released on the web

March 30, 2006 : 1st preliminary tests of the GFS-UAV N01A in laboratory.

March 31, 2006 : Several lift-off and hovering have been

done successfully in the lab.

April 2, 2006 : The Coanda Effect Test Bench (CETB), a very

useful engineering tool

April 5, 2006 : Improved trust and better stablity with the

streamlined body around the propeller

April 7, 2006 : Successful OUTDOOR tests flights

April 9, 2006 : On Board Video-transmission with the N-01A

April 11, 2006 : Successful demo and test flights in a

wide open space

April 12, 2006 : Some impellers tested in the lab

April 16, 2006 : The N-XX project, an EHD Coanda

effect craft

April 18, 2006 : New improvements of the model N-01A


April 23, 2006 : Outdoor test flights with a wind speed

up to 10 km/h

April 25, 2006 : Manoeuvrability and translation test

flights at HIGH SPEED

May 17, 2006 : The construction of the UAV model N02

is now started (updated on July 5, 2006)

October 17, 2006 : UAV N01 flight test/demo at the


December 12, 2006 : Training flights with the UAV N01

December 19, 2006 : FIRST FLIGHT of the BIG model


Documents, links and references :

PATENTS from GFS Projects Ltd :

Craft having aerofoil surface for controlling its spin - Sept

27th, 2006

Abstract of GB2424400
To prevent the spin of a craft designed to move though, or on a surface of
a fluid, means are provided to vary the effective surface area of an
aerofoil 6. The craft may be of the type in which a fan 2 directs fluid over
a dome-shaped canopy 1 utilising the Coanda effect to generate lift, a
plurality of aerofoils 6 being used to counter unwanted rotation of the
canopy caused by a reaction to the rotation of the fan. Each aerofoil 6
may be driven into or out of a respective slot by means of an actuator
controlled by a signal generated in response to comparison of an output
signal, produced by an optical or piezoelectric gyroscope, with a desired
attitude set by a steering mechanism. The aerofoils 6 may be located
where the angle of attack in relation to the airfiows 7, 14 produced by the
fan 2 is significantly dependent upon fan speed.

Craft having flow-producing rotor and gyroscopic stability

- Sept 27th, 2006

Abstract of GB2424405
In a craft having a rotor 9A, 9B, 9C producing a flow over an
aerodynamic (eg. domed) surface 1, to create lift or thrust, the gyroscopic
effect of the rotor, when driven at full power, is such as to give the craft

positive stability. The rotor may comprise part of a radial flow fan 2,
having blades 9C, and a heavy annular magnet 9B cooperating with fixed
coils 7A for effecting drive of the rotor. The resulting angular momentum
of the rotor may afford gyroscopic stability enabling the craft to hover
close to the ground or a vertical surface. Pitch and roll control may be
achieved by vanes PV1, PV2, RV1, RV2 controlled electronically in
response to rotation sensed by optical gyroscopes S1, S2 and taking
gyroscopic precession into account.

Thrust generation - Sept 27th, 2006

Abstract of GB2424406
A thrust generation arrangement comprises means 3 to causes fluid to
flow over a surface 1 of double convex curvature, the surface 1 causing
the fluid to divert from a radial flow towards an axial direction by the
Coanda effect. The radius of curvature of the surface 1 decreases
progressively less rapidly in a downstream direction. The arrangement
may be used to propel a vertical take-off aircraft, the fluid may be caused
to flow by a radial fan 3, and the surface 1 may be dome shaped.

Vehicle steering control - Sept 27th, 2006

Abstract of GB2424463
A vehicle, preferably an aircraft, comprises an impeller (3, fig 2) which in
use causes fluid to flow over a surface 1 of the vehicle and produce lift or
thrust via the Coanda effect. An intervention mechanism 7 is used to
energise a boundary layer 10 of the fluid on the vehicle surface 1 so as to
control the point at which separation of the boundary layer 10 from the
vehicle surface 1 occurs. The intervention mechanism 7 can thereby
operate to control the steering of the vehicle. The intervention mechanism
may comprise a vibrating diaphragm 8 and/or a flow of fluid though an
opening 6 on the vehicle surface, or a vortex generator.

March 15, 2006 : UK defence ministry demos Coanda-effect

UAV flights ( with Video ) by Flight International

INVENTION: Flying saucer is out of this world on

Peterborough today

GFS Project limited web site

Navy successfully simulates effect that may improve low

speed maneuverability by J. Slomski and T. Marino (NSWC)

Misinterpretations of Bernoulli's Law by Weltner, Klaus and

Ingelman-Sundberg, Martin Department of Physics,
University Frankfurt

Fluid dynamics : Governing equations, the Coanda effect By

Mihaela-Maria Tanasescu - Department of Physics - Texas
Tech University

Ecoulements o la viscosit est ngligeable - document du

Laboratoire Hydrodynamique et Mcanique Physique (HMP)
de l'ESPCI

The Repulsin, a flying saucer by Viktor Schauberger on

Vortex World

Application of NOTAR Antitorque in helicopter design by

Kulair, Inc

The Henri Coanda biography

The Repulsin design by JL Naudin

The Coanda Effect basic experiment by JL Naudin


2004 World Hovercraft Organization


A closer look at how propellers cause forward thrust will reveal that the hovercraft moves
forward by pushing air behind it. Exactly how does the propeller push air behind it? To
understand this we turn to a principle that was discovered about 300 years ago, Bernoullis

Daniel Bernoulli

Bernoulli's Principle: An increase in the velocity of any fluid is always accompanied by a

decrease in pressure.
Since air behaves exactly like a fluid, Bernoullis principle applies. Any time the wind is
blowing or a fan blows air, the pressure of the moving air becomes less than it would be if the
air wasn't moving. As an aside, this characteristic plays a huge role in how weather systems
work! If you can cause air to move faster on one side of a surface than the other, the pressure
on that side of the surface will be less than the pressure on its other side.
One of the most widely used applications of Bernoulli's principle is in the airplane wing.
Wings are shaped so that the top side of the wing is curved while the bottom side is relatively
flat. In motion, the front edge of the wing hits the air, and some of the air moves downward
below the wing, while some moves upward over the top. Since the top of the wing is curved,
the air above the wing must move up and down to follow the curve around the wing, while
the air below the wing moves very little. The air moving on the top of the curved wing must
travel farther before it reaches the back of the wing; consequently it must travel faster than
the air moving under the wing, to reach the back edge at the same time. The air pressure on
the top of the wing is therefore less than that on the bottom of the wing, according to
Bernoullis principle. The higher pressure air on the bottom of the wing pushes up on the
wing with more force than the lower pressure air above the wing pushes down. This results in
a net force acting upwards called lift. Lift pushes the wings upwards and keeps the airplane in
the air.

Though Bernoulli's principle is a major source of lift in an aircraft wing, a Romanian

engineer by the name of Henri Coanda discovered another effect that plays an even larger
role in producing lift.

Henri Coanda
1886 - 1972

Although generally unrecognized, Coanda was actually the first person to build and fly a jet
powered aircraft. It is commonly believed that the first jet engines were developed during
World War II. Dr. Hans Von Ohain designed the first German jet aircraft, which made its first
flight on August 27, 1939. Unaware of Dr. Von Ohain's work, A British engineer named Sir
Frank Whittle also independently designed a jet aircraft, which first flew on May 15, 1941.
Although these two men are generally thought of as the fathers of jet aircraft, Henri Coanda
built and "flew" the first recorded jet aircraft about 30 years earlier. The somewhat amusing
first flight is best described in Coanda's own words:
"It was on 16 December 1910. I had no intention of flying on that day. My plan was to check
the operation of the engine on the ground but the heat of the jet blast coming back at me was
greater than I expected and I was worried in case I set the aeroplane on fire. For this reason
I concentrated on adjusting the jet and did not realize that the aircraft was rapidly gaining
speed. Then I looked up and saw the walls of Paris approaching rapidly. There was no time
to stop or turn round and I decided to try and fly instead. Unfortunately I had no experience
of flying and was not used to the controls of the aeroplane. The aeroplane seemed to make a
sudden steep climb and then landed with a bump. First the left wing hit the ground and then
the aircraft crumpled up. I was not strapped in and so was fortunately thrown clear of the
burning machine."

The Coanda- 1910, the world's first jet aircraft

Unfortunately Coanda couldnt obtain funding to continue his research after the wreck, and
so his contribution to jet propulsion never became widespread. If he had been able to
continue his work, France could have had a jet-powered air force before WW II began. Even
though he didn't build another jet aircraft, he did make a very important contribution to how
the aircraft wings produce lift when he discovered what is now called the Coanda Effect.
Coanda Effect: A moving stream of fluid in contact with a curved surface will tend to follow
the curvature of the surface rather than continue traveling in a straight line.
To perform a simple demonstration of this effect, grab a spoon and find a sink. Get a small
stream of water coming down from the sink, then place the bottom of the spoon next to the
stream. Notice how the water curves along the surface of the spoon. If you hold the spoon so
that it is free to swing, you should be able to notice that the spoon is actually being pulled
towards the stream of water.

The same effect occurs with an airplane wing. If the wing is curved, the airflow will follow
the curvature of the wing. In order to use this to produce lift, we need to understand
something called angle of attack. This gives the angle between the wing and the direction of
the air flow, as shown in the following diagram.

The angle of attack indicates how tilted the wing is with respect to the oncoming air. In order
to produce lift, or an upward force acting on the wing, Newton's third law says that there
must be an equal force acting in the opposite direction. If we can exert a force on the air so
that it is directed down, the air will exert an upward force back on the wing. Look at how the
Coanda effect directs the airflow for different angles of attack in the diagrams below.

This diagram shows that increasing the angle of attack increases how much the air is
deflected downwards. If the angle of attack is too great, the air flow will no longer follow the
curve of the wing. As shown in the bottom of the diagram, this creates a small vacuum just
behind the wing. As the air rushes in to fill this space, called cavitation, it causes heavy
vibrations on the wing and greatly decreases the efficiency of the wing. For this reason,
aircraft wings are generally angled like the middle wing in the diagram. This wing efficiently
directs the airflow downward, which in turn pushes up on the wing, producing lift.
This method of determining lift is called momentum change. Other methods to calculate the
same lift utilize the difference in pressure fields above and below the wing. Either method is
accurate on its own, but never add the two methods together.
In addition to producing lift on an aircraft, Bernoulli's principle and the Coanda effect play an
important role in the operation of a propeller. Examine a propeller closely and you will find
that the blades of the propeller look like an airfoil, or wing. Essentially, a propeller blade is a
wing turned on its side. Just as wings traveling forward are lifted upward, a rotating propeller
blade is sucked or pushed forward. A propeller blade also has something that wings don't:

they are twisted. Watch a propeller turn very slowly, and you will see how the twist of the
blade causes it to move the air evenly and push it backwards. Additionally, the propeller
blades are set at an angle. This is called propeller pitch. The greater the pitch of the propeller,
the more air it can push. Blades of common household fans are also slightly angled to help
move air for cooling. Ideally an equal quantity of air will pass the blade at its root (the hub of
the propeller) and its tip, but the tip travels much faster than the root. To maintain an even
flow rate as much as possible, the hub pitch (pitch at the root of the propeller) has to be very
steep while the propeller tips have to be almost flat! This will help insure an even flow of air
through the duct.

Continue to Experiment 8.1

DiscoverHover CURRICULUM GUIDE #8 - Experiment

2004 World Hovercraft Organization

2 thick books or binders
1 sheet of notebook paper
1 straw


Place two books or binders parallel to each other on a table and approximately 3 [76.2 mm]
apart. Place the sheet of paper over the gap between the books, with the edges of the paper
resting on the inside edges of the books. Using the straw, blow underneath the paper as hard
as possible. The paper will be pushed down in the middle toward the table. The increase in air
speed underneath the paper causes a decrease in pressure. The higher pressure on the top of
the paper pushes the paper down toward the table.

Strip of notebook paper or newspaper, about 2" [50.8 mm] wide and 10" [254 mm] long
Paper clips
The force that lifts an airplane and holds it up comes from air which is forced apart by a
moving wing.

Make an airfoil (wing) by placing one end of the strip of paper between the pages of the book
so that the other end hangs over the top as shown in the above diagram. Move the book
swiftly through the air or blow across the top of the strip of paper. Notice that it flutters

Hold the book in the breeze of an electric fan so the air blows over the top of the paper and
observe what happens.

Take the strip of paper out of the book. Grasp one end of the paper and set it against your
chin, just below your mouth. Hold it in place with your thumb and blow over the top of the
strip. The paper rises. Try the same thing after you have fastened a paper clip on the end of
the strip. See how many paperclips you can lift in this way.
It doesn't matter whether you move the air over the strip of paper by blowing or whether you
move the paper rapidly through the air - either way it rises. How does this relate to what
causes the wings of aircraft to produce lift?

2 empty soft drink cans
30 or more plastic drinking straws
Another way to demonstrate Bernoullis principle is to lay about 30 drinking straws parallel
to each other on a tabletop, then place two empty soft drink cans on top of the straws as
shown in the picture. Using one of the straws, blow as much air as you can between the two
cans and watch what happens. Get a partner with a second straw, and this time each blow
along the outside surface of each can. Can you explain why the cans move the way they do?

A long vacuum cleaner hose or other similar hose (at least 1" [25.4 mm] in diameter)
Small bucket filled with sawdust or paper bits from a paper hole punch
This experiment will help to dramatically demonstrate Bernoulli's Principle, but be
forewarned -- it can make quite a mess! Place the bucket of sawdust/paper scraps on the floor,
with one end of the hose in the bucket. Keeping one end of the hose in the bucket, swing the
other end rapidly over your head like a lasso. (Watch out for low hanging light fixtures!) The
sawdust/paper scraps will come shooting out the top of the hose!
When swinging the hose around over your head, the increased air speed at that end of the
hose results in a corresponding decrease in air pressure. This results in the higher air pressure
at the other end of the hose (the end in the bucket of sawdust/paper scraps) pushing the paper
through the hose and out the swinging end!