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14 visualizzazioni35 pagineIntroduction to Statics or rigid bodies

Sep 28, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

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Introduction to Statics or rigid bodies

© All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

14 visualizzazioni35 pagineIntroduction to Statics or rigid bodies

© All Rights Reserved

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Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

De La Salle University

What is Mechanics?

o

predicts the conditions of rest or motion of bodies

under the action of forces

bodies, mechanics of deformable bodies, and

mechanics of fluids.

which are stationary (usually) or at constant

velocity.

2 /35

What is Mechanics?

statics

Rigid Bodies

kinematics

dynamics

kinetics

Mechanics

of Solids

Strength of materials

Deformable Bodies

Engineering

Mechanics

Theory of elasticity

Theory of plasticity

Ideal fluids

Mechanics

of Fluids

viscous fluids

compressible fluids

3 /35

What is Mechanics?

o

displacement, velocity and acceleration without

regard to the cause of the motion

the relationships between forces and acceleration

time, mass and force.

4 /35

Fundamental Concepts

involved in Newtons Laws

o

point P given in terms of three coordinates measured

from a reference point or origin.

time and position at which it occurred.

response to earths gravitational attraction and

resistance to changes in translational motion.

5 /35

Fundamental Concepts

involved in Newtons Laws

o

force is characterized by its point of application,

magnitude, and direction, i.e., a force is a vector

quantity

independent of each other. Force, however, is not independent of the other

three. The force acting on a body is related to the mass of the body and the

variation of its velocity with time.

6 /35

o

First Law

If the resultant force acting on a particle is zero, the particle will

remain at rest (if originally at rest) or will move with constant

speed in a straight line (if originally in motion)

Second Law

If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the particle

will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude of the

resultant and in the direction of the resultant force

Third Law

The forces of action and reaction between bodies in contact have

the same magnitude same line of action, and opposite sense.

7 /35

Units

o

may be defined arbitrarily. The fourth unit, referred

to as a derived unit, must have a definition

compatible with Newtons 2nd Law.

8 /35

Units

o

are length, time, and mass which are arbitrarily

defined as the meter (m), second (s), and kilogram

(kg). Force is the derived unit,

time, and force which are arbitrarily defined as the

foot (ft), second (s), and pound (lb). Mass is the

derived unit,

9 /35

Units

Units

Mass

Length

Time

Force

SI

kilogram (kg)

meter (m)

second (s)

newton (N)*

U.S.

slug (-)*

foot (ft)

second (sec)

pound (lb)

units, but defined by Newtons

second law.

gravitational field is unnecessary for definition of the three

basic units. On the other hand, the US customary system is

a gravitational system.

10 /35

Units

(SI)

m

F = ma

1 N = (1 kg) (1 m / s2)

1 N = 1 kg m / s2

(US)

F = ma

1 lb = (1 slug) (1 ft / s2)

a

1 slug = 1 lb - s2 / ft

So:

* 1 N is the force which will accelerate 1 kg at 1 m/s2

* 1 slug is the mass which a 1 lb force will accelerate at at 1 ft/sec2

11 /35

Law of Gravitation

m1

F

r

m2

particles

between the particles

where G is the universal gravitational constant.

12 /35

Law of Gravitation

Special case: mass m on surface of Earth

From

, we have

me

m

R

or W = mg

where W is the magnitude of the force of gravitational attraction (the

weight of m) and g = Gme/R2 is the acceleration of gravity.

13 /35

Law of Gravitation

The common value for analyses relative to the rotating Earth are:

m

m

W g

a F

Note that W = mg may be obtained from Newtons Second Law

applied to a particle of mass m which is allowed to fall freely near

the surface of the Earth.

14 /35

Review of Vectors

o

which add according to the parallelogram law. Examples:

displacements, velocities, accelerations.

Vector classifications:

- Fixed or bound vectors have well defined points of

application that cannot be changed without affecting

an analysis.

- Free vectors may be freely moved in space without

changing their effect on an analysis.

- Sliding vectors may be applied anywhere along their

line of action without affecting an analysis. Force is a

vector quantity.

15 /35

Vectors

o

not direction. Examples: mass, volume,

temperature

direction.

same magnitude and the opposite direction.

16 /35

Addition of Vectors

o

Law of cosines

R 2 P 2 Q 2 2 PQ cos B

R PQ

C

B

C

Law of sines

sin A sin B sin C

Q

R

A

17 /35

Addition of Vectors

o

C

B

PQ QP

o

Vector subtraction

18 /35

Addition of Vectors

o

repeated application of the triangle rule

or more vectors.

Vector addition is associative,

P Q S P Q S P Q S

o

19 /35

Unit Vectors

V Vx Vy Vz

Vx i Vy j Vz k

V cos x i V cos y j V cos z k

V cos x i cos y j cos z k

V li mj nk

l 2 m2 n2 1

l,m,n direction cosines of V

20 /35

Rectangular Components

Fx and Fy are the x- and y- scalar

components of F.

Fx F cos

Fy F sin

Note that scalar components

include sign information.

21 /35

Dot or Scalar Product

P Q PQ cos

May be regarded as

Magnitude of P times component

Qcos of Q in the direction of P.

Or

Pcos of P in the direction of Q.

22 /35

i i j j k k 1

i j j i i k j k k j 0

P Q Px i Py j Pz k Qx i Qy j Qz k

PxQx Py Qy Pz Qz

23 /35

Cross or Vector Product

P Q PQ sin en

Where en is a vector perpendicular to

the plane formed by P and Q in the

right-hand sense.

From the definition,

i j k j k i k i j

j i k k j i i k j

i i j j k k 0

24 /35

P Q Px i Py j Pz k Qx i Qy j Qz k

Py Qz Pz Qy i Pz Qx PxQz j PxQy Py Qx k

i

P Q Px

Qx

j

Py

Qy

k

Pz

Qz

25 /35

o

characterized by its point of application,

magnitude, line of action, and sense.

combined effect of two forces may be

represented by a single resultant force.

a parallelogram which contains the two

forces in adjacent legs.

26 /35

o

which all pass through the same

point.

A set of concurrent forces applied to

a particle may be replaced by a

single resultant force which is the

vector sum of the applied forces.

more force vectors which, together,

have the same effect as a single force

vector.

27 /35

o

Problem Statement:

Includes given data, specification of what

is to be determined, and a figure showing

all quantities involved.

Solution Check:

verifying that the units of the

computed results are correct,

substituting

given

data

and

computed results into previously

unused equations based on the six

principles,

physical intuition to assess whether

results seem reasonable

Free-Body Diagrams:

Create separate diagrams for each of the

bodies involved with a clear indication of

all forces acting on each body.

Fundamental Principles:

The six fundamental principles are applied

to express the conditions of rest or motion

of each body. The rules of algebra are

applied to solve the equations for the

unknown quantities.

28 /35

Numerical Accuracy

o

cannot be more accurate than the less accurate of these

two.

the accuracy of the computations much greater than the

accuracy of the data. Hence, the solution accuracy is usually

limited by the data accuracy.

29 /35

o

(four if the number begins with a one).

Answer displayed on calculator

4.13459

4.13

4.13594

4.14

1.33333

1.333 or (4/3)

0.96592

0.966

934.25

934

279,340

279,000

30 /35

registry so as to avoid roundoff errors.

31 /35

Sample Problem

The two forces P and Q act on a bolt A. Determine

their resultant. R = 98 N, = 35o

32 /35

Sample Problem

A barge is pulled by two

tugboats. If the resultant of

the forces exerted by the

tugboats is 5000 N directed

along the axis of the barge,

determine (a) the tension in

each of the ropes for a = 45o,

(b) the value of a for which

the tension in rope 2 is a

minimum. (a) T1 = 3700 N, T2 = 2600

N (b) T1 = 4330 N, T2 = 2500 N, a = 60o

33 /35

Sample Problem

Two forces are applied to an

eye bolt fastened to a beam.

Determine graphically the

magnitude and direction of

their resultant using (a) the

parallelogram law, (b) the

triangle rule. R = 8.40 kN, a = 19.0o

34 /35

To steady a sign as it is being

lowered, two cables are

attached to the sign at A. Using

trigonometry and knowing that

a = 25o, determine (a) the

required magnitude of the force

P if the resultant R of the two

forces applied at A is to be

vertical, (b) the corresponding

magnitude of R. (a) 489 N (b) 738 N

35 /35

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