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FLL Robot Design Workshop

Tool Design and Mechanism


Prepared by
Dr. C. H. (Tony) Lin
Principal Engineer
Tire and Vehicle Mechanics
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
tony_lin@goodyear.com

Description
Mechanism (Attachment) is extending
a simple robot into a powerful robot
that can control and change its
environment. Learning about how
properly design attachments for your
robot to meet a particular challenge
can make for a winning robot.

A Systematic Design Methodology


1. Identify the functional requirements, based on mission
requirements, of a class of mechanisms of interest.
2. Determine the nature of motion (i.e., planar, spherical, or
spatial mechanism), degrees of freedom (DOF), type, and
complexity of the mechanisms.
3. Identify the structural characteristics associated with some
of the functional requirements.
4. Enumerate all possible kinematic structures that satisfy the
structural characteristics using graph theory and
combinatorial analysis.
5. Sketch the corresponding mechanisms and evaluate each of
them qualitatively in terms of its capability in satisfying the
remaining functional requirements. This results in a set of
feasible mechanisms.
6. Select a most promising mechanism for dimensional
synthesis, design optimization, computer simulation,
prototype demonstration, and documentation
7. Enter the Building phase.

Robot Design and Construction


Planning what does the team want to
achieve and how will they achieve it? Let
the kids do it!
Design iteration

Brainstorm (what to build)


Design (how to build it)
Build it!
Test it!
Repeat until its perfect (or good enough)

Trade-offs: Good, Quick, Cheap pick two


(at most)! Quality Schedule Budget

How to make things stiff


Use your hypotenuse!

Use right triangles


3-4-5, 6-8-10, 12-16-20, (5,12,13) etc.

Interlock bricks & beams

Two thin bricks in between


Lock with vertical beam

Triple beams (double shear)

Three-pins instead of two pins

Technic Design School

http://technic.lego.com/technicdesignschool/default.asp
Courtesy of Team RED Robot Construction and Design

Demonstration
Three-pins vs. two-pins when used
with more than three beams
Two pin structures bend
Three-pins much more rigid

Stacked beams with


grey two-pins

Stacked beams with


black two-pins

Stacked beams with


black/blue three-pins

Courtesy of Team RED Robot Construction and Design

How to make things strong


Use large parts
Dont use several small parts when one large part will
suffice
Stiffness decreases with the number of parts used to
do a task

Use L-beams to form right angles


Do not use two beams and a pin, use an L

Make structures out of beams, not axles


when possible
Axles are more flexible than beams consistency and
precision
Courtesy of Team RED Robot Construction and Design

Stiffness v. Length Demo


If we need something longer than 15
Two beams overlapped
More overlap = stronger beam

2 x 11

2 x 15
Courtesy of Team RED Robot Construction and Design

Classification of Mechanisms

No DOF Mechanisms
Planar Mechanisms (1-2 DOF)
Planar Linkages
Geared Mechanisms
Chain & Pulley

Spatial Mechanisms (1-3 DOF)


Spherical Mechanisms (>= 3 DOF)
* Remember your robot can move

Examples

Examples

FLL Robot Attachments (Standard Kits)


Passive Attachments
Pushing attachment
Hooking attachment
Dumping attachment
Collecting attachment
Spring-loaded attachment
Power Attachments
Grabbing attachment
Lifting attachment
Pushing attachment
Turning attachment
Hooking attachment
Dumping attachment
Collecting attachment

Passive Attachments

Pushing attachment
Flat surface or Angled surfaces
Move game elements independently or in
a container (Flat surface )
Move game elements out of robots path
(Angled surfaces)

Example: 2010 M&Ms design

Complete Examples

Exercise #1

Build Push Plate (15 minutes)


Pins Guide Attachment
BOM
Instruction

Passive Attachments

Hooking attachment
Fork and Hook attachments
Collecting special objects
Can be combined with power assist to
lift, sweep and drop

Example: 2010 M&Ms design

Complete Examples

Exercise #2
Hooks(15 minutes)
BOM
Instruction

Passive Attachments

Dumping attachment
Container to move game elements to
specific location
Based on basic four-bar linkage or
simple hinge mechanism

Example: 2011 Brazing Brains design

Exercise #3
Four-Bar Carrier(30 minutes)
BOM
Instruction

Passive Attachments

Collecting attachment
Object trap - Box opens only inward
Sweeper moving object in certain
direction
Capture objects to return to base

Example: 2011 Brazing Brains design

Exercise #4
Trap Box (30 minutes)
BOM
Instruction

Passive Attachments

Spring-loaded attachment
Snap or pre-loaded
Collecting, hitting, or turn
Combining with other mechanisms or
trigger

Example: 2011 Brazing Brains design

Exercise #5
Spring Loaded Hook (20 minutes)
BOM
Instruction

Exercise #6
Spring Loaded Trigger (20 minutes)
BOM
Instruction

Courtesy of Team RED Robot Construction and Design

FLL Robot Attachments


Passive Attachments
Pushing attachment
Hooking attachment
Dumping attachment
Collecting attachment
Spring-loaded attachment

Power Attachments

Grabbing attachment
Lifting attachment
Pushing attachment
Turning attachment
Hooking attachment
Dumping attachment
Collecting attachment

Power Attachments
Using third motor as power source to
generate controllable motion

Attachments would be designed to


connect to the fixed motor
Considerations:
Motor location
Moving space
Moving speed & torque

Power Attachments
Grabbing and Collecting attachment
Claw, Vise Grip, Trap

Power Attachments
Lifting, Hooking and Dumping attachment
Lever, Forklift, Trap

Example: 2010 M&Ms design

Exercise #7
Forklift(40 minutes)
BOM
Instruction

Power Attachments
Pushing attachment
LEGO Actuator or Custom Actuator

Power Attachments
Turning attachment
Controllable turning action
Define turning angle, direction and arm
length
Gear type, ratio and direction

Gears and Usage


Regular spur gears

Gearing up or down, changing speed or torque,


Converting rotary to linear motion (rack and pinion)

Bevel gears and crown gears

Change shaft direction by 90 degrees


Note direction of rotation changes
(4 tooth is also good for this task)

Torque

Will only apply a given level of torque before slipping

Worm

Changing direction, speed, and torque (its a 1 tooth gear)


Eliminates back driving
Gear Ratio =
No. Teeth Input/No. Teeth Output

Example: 2011 Brazing Brains design

Exercise #8
Gear & Grip (40 minutes)
BOM
Instruction

Example Videos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h
3PS7nIihOw
Passive and power attachments

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o
7RiDjcm5Dg
Power attachment forklift & actuator

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V
T5_ziLhENE&feature=related
Passive and power attachments
* Identify mechanisms that had been used within each video.

FLL Robot Attachments (Non-Standard Kits)

Pneumatics operation
Pneumatics give the robot another power
source of manipulation besides LEGO NXT
servos (motor)
Powerful
Partial controllable motion - On/off switch
with pneumatic actuator

Examples
lifting attachment

References

Mechanism Design : Enumeration of Kinematic Structures


According to Function, Lung-Wen Tsai
Winning Design! LEGO Mindstorms NXT, David J. Trobaugh
Designing for FLL with Lego Mindstorms Hints and Tips, Team
Unlimited, FTC0001, unlimited.syraweb.org
Robot Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Illustrated, Paul E.
Sandin
Building Robots with LEGO MINDSTORMS, Mario Ferrari, Giulio
Ferrari, and Ralph Hempel