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Project Report on Dialysis of Different Sewage Water Samples and Identification of Different

Ions in Resulting Solutions

The sewage water contains the following three types of impurities :1. Suspended Impurities.
2. Colloidal Impurities.
3. Crystalloid Impurities.

These kind of impurities enter into the sewage water due to disposal of the human wastes and the
industrial waste materials. These impurities become causes pollution of water and hence their
removal is essential before the discharging of the sewage water in the rivers, takes or red.
Aim of Project Report : The main aim of the project is to identify the ions in the resulting
solution and separate out the crystalloids or ions present in the sewage water by dialysis. The
ions generally present and hence tested are as follows :
Cautions :- Ca+2 ; Mg+2 ; Pb+2 ; Ki+
Anions :- S2 ; Ci ; So4-2.
Chemistry Experiment : Dialysis of different sewage water samples and identify the different
ions in the resulting solutions.
Procedure :
(a) Apparatus : Beaker, Funnel, Filter Paper, Cellophane Paper, Test Tubes, Charcoal block,
Platinum wire etc.
(b) Chemicals and Materials : Various samples of sewage water, and some common laboratory
reagents as required for the qualitative inorganic analysis.
Now, we will discuss about this experiments means about the procedure of dialysis of sewage
water and analysis of the ions present. It will discussed step by step in procedure (A) &
procedure (B).
Dialysis of Sewage Water - Procedure (A)
Analysis of the ions present - Procedure (B)

Procedure (A) : Collect 3-4 different samples of sewage water from different places.
Dialysis of Sewage Water :
1. Filter sample 1 to remove the suspended impurities and collect the filtrate in
a beaker.
2. Make a bag of the cellophane paper by folding it, inserting the stone of the
funnel into the mouth of the bag and tying it with a thread, as shown in the
3. Put the filtered sewage water into the bag through the funnel fill 3/4th of the
bag is full.
4. Place a 600 ml. beaker around the bag so that the bag is well within it.
5. Put distilled water into the beaker so that only the mouth and a little position
of the bag remain outside the water.
6. Allow the bag to stay in the distilled water for about half an hour. The ions of
the salts presents in sewage water will pass out of the bag into the distilled

Procedure (B) : Concentrate the solution in the beaker by boiling it till the volume is reduced to
about 20 ml. Test the presence of different ions in this solution as follows :Pb+2 Ions : Potassium Iodide Test : To 1 ml. of the solution in a test tube add few drops of K.I.
Solution. A yellow ppts. Pb+2 confirms.
Ca+2 Ions : Ammonium Oxalate Test : To 1 ml. of solution, add ammonium isolate solution. A
white ppts, Ca+2 confirms.
Mg+2 Ions : Ammonium phosphate test : To 1 ml. of the solution, add NH4OH solution till it is
alkaline and then add ammonium phosphate solution. A white ppts, Mg+2 confirms.
K+ Ions : Picric acid test : To 1 ml. of the solution and Picric acid solution. A yellow ppts, K+
S-2 Ions : Sodium Nitroprusside test : To 1ml. of the solution add ammoniac sodium
nitroprusside solution. Avoided or purple colour, S-2 confirms.
Ci Ions : Ag. NO3 Test : To 1 ml. of the solution, add a few drops of dilute nitric acid. Boil off
gases. Cool the solution and add AgNO3 solution. A curly white ppts. soluble in NH4OH, Ci

So42 Ions : BaCl2 Test : To 1ml. of the solution, add BaCl2 solution. A white ppts. insoluble in
HCl or HNO3, So4-2 ions confirms.
Repeat the process of dialysis and analysis of ions with each of the given samples of sewage
Results :
S.N Sample of Sewage
o. Water

Presence / Absence Of
Pb+2 Ca+2 Mg+2 Ki+











Ci- So4-2