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LTE ADVANCED

INTRODUCTION

LTE ADVANCED is a mobile communication Standard, formally submitted as a candidate 4G system to


ITU-T in late 2009.
It was approved into ITU, IMT Advanced and was finalized by 3GPP in March 2001.
Standardized by the 3GPP as a major enhancement of the LTE (Long Term Evolution) standard.
It was commercially implemented in October 2012 in Russian network YOTA.

KEY MILESTONES FOR ITU-R IMT ADVANCED EVALUATION


MILESTONE
Issue Invitation to propose Radio Interface Technologies.
ITU date for cut-off for submission of proposed Radio Interface.
Cut-off date for evaluation report to ITU.

DATE
March 2008
October 2009
June 2010

Decision on framework of key characteristics of IMT Advanced Radio Interface


Technologies.

October 2010

Completion of development of radio interface specification recommendations.

February 2011

LTE ADVANCED KEY FEATURES

Peak data rates: Downlink-1Gbps; Uplink-500Mbps.

Spectrum efficiency: 3 times greater than LTE (LONG TERM EVOLUTION).

Peak Spectrum efficiency: downlink -30bps/Hz; uplink -15bps/Hz.

Spectrum use: the ability to support scalable bandwidth use and spectrum aggregation where noncontiguous spectrum needs to be used.

Latency: from idle to connected in less than 50ms and then shorter than 5ms one way for individual
packet transmission.

Cell edge usage throughput to be twice that of LTE.

Average User throughput to be 3 times that of LTE.

Mobility: Same as that in LTE.

Compatibility: LTE Advanced shall be capable of interworking with LTE and 3GPP legacy systems.

COMPARISION BETWEEN LTE AND ADVANCED LTE

NEW FUNCTIONALITIES IN LTE ADVANCED

CARRIER AGGREGATION (CA):

Each aggregated carrier is referred to as a component carrier.

Use maximun of five component carriers.

Each of Bandwidth of 1.4Mhz, 3Mhz, 5Mhz, 10Mhz, 15Mhz, or 20Mhz.

The individual component carriers can also be of different bandwidths.I

Channel Bandwidth per CCs can be different between uplink and downlink.

The individual component carriers can also be of different bandwidths.

THREE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS :1. INTRA BAND, CONTIGUOUS- The component carriers are allocated within the same
operating band and they are contiguous.
2. INTRA BAND, NON-CONTIGUOUS- The component carriers are allocated within the
same operating band and they are non contiguous.
3. INTER BAND, NON-CONTIGUOUS- The component carriers are allocated in different
operating bands. The component carriers will experience different pathloss, which increases
with increasing freqency.

ENHANCED USE OF MULTI-ANTENNA TECHNIQUES:

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) OR SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING

Used to increase the overall bitrate.

Through transmission of two (or more) different data streams on two (or more) different antennas.

Using the same resources in both frequency and time, separated only through use of different
reference signals to be received by two or more antennas.

A major change in LTE-ADVANCED is the introduction of higher order MIMO; 8x8 in the
downlink and 4x4 in the uplink.

MIMO shall be used when S/N(Signal to Noise ratio) is high, i.e. high quality radio channel.

For situations with low S/N it is better to use other types of multi-antenna techniques to improve S/N
e.g. TX-diversity.

SUPPORT FOR RELAY NODES:

The Relay Nodes are low power base staions.

Provide enhanced coverage and capacity at cell edges.

It can also be used to connect remote areas without fibre connections.

The Relay Node (RN) is connected to the DeNB via the radio interface Un.

UEs at the edge of the donor cell are connected to the RN via Uu.

UEs closer to the DeNB are directly connected to the RN via Uu.

When the Uu an Un are different frequencies the Relay Node is referred to as a Type 1a RN.

For Type 1 RN, Uu and Un use the same fequencies, there is high risk for self interference in the
Relay Node.

This can be avoided through time sharing between Uu and Un, or having different locations of the
transmitter and reciever.