Sei sulla pagina 1di 65

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.1 gamete formation


No
Marking Criteria
(a) There are two type of reproduction: sexual and asexual. state four differences between these

Marks

two types of reproduction

Sexual

Asexual

D1-Sexual reproduction involving gametes

Asexual reproduction not involving gametes

D2-It involves two individual

It involves only one individual

D3-Gamete formed in meiotic division

The process relies on mitotic division

D4-The offspring are genetically different The offspring are genetically identical with
form parents
parent
(b)

Diagram shows the reproductive structures of a flower

Ovary
Based on diagram, name the type of reproduction carried out by this plant
Sexual reproduction
(c)

What is the importance of the type of reproduction mentioned in (a) (i).explain your answer3
F1-there is variation /diversity (in gene composition of the offspring)
F2-When conditions become unfavorable some individual may survive
F3-and able to reproduce
F4-this will prevent the extinction of the species

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

The male reproductive system

No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

In which organ does cell R is formed


Testis

(b)

(g)

(h)

Explain the importance of both the process of W (mitosis) and X (meiosis) in sperm formation
F1-to produce haploid sperm /gamete

F2-To ensure continuous species //to ensure the zygote formed through fertilization is diploid

F3-Form genetic variation

What are the main function of male gonad,testes?


P1- testes produce male gamete

E1-and male hormone

In which part of testes does spermatogenesis occur?


Seminiferous tubules

(i)

State the function of the tail


To propel the sperm forward when swimming toward the ovum

(f)

What is role Organelle M?


To produce energy through cellular respiration for the sperm to swim to the ovum

(e)

Name the organelle M which is found abundantly in Part A


Mitochondria

(d)

Name the process of the formation of cell R


Spermatogenesis

(c)

Explain the function of scortum?


F-to provide optimum temperature

E-which is 2-3oC lower than normal body temperature

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Diagram shows a portion of the schematic diagram of formation of sperms

No
(a)

(b)

Marking Criteria
State the chromosome numbers of cells P, Q and R
P: 2n
Q: n
R: n

Marks
1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

Name the cell division at W and X


W: Meiosis I
X: Meiosis II

(c)

The female reproductive system

(d)

Name the structure labeled P,Y and R


P:Ovary
R:Corpus luteum
Y :Secondary oocyte

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Name the hormone released by pituitary gland stimulates the development of follicles in P
Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)

(b)

Primary follicle

Graafian follicle

Secondary oocytes

What would happen if structure R is degenerated immediately after zygote is formed?


P1-Level of progesterone will decrease

P2-Endometrium will break down

P3-Fertilised egg would not implant in endomentrium and wound be aborted

(i)

State the process occurs in Y


Fertilization

(h)

In human, explain when the secondary oocyte will change into ovum
Secondary oocyte will change into ovum if a sperm penetrate /fertilizes it

(g)

What is ovulation ?
Ovulation is a process of the releasing of secondary oocyte form ovary

(f)

What is process X?
Ovulation

(e)

Name the process that occurs in P that produces secondary oocyte


Oogenesis

(d)

Write the sequence of development of follicle P


Ooogenium

(c)

Formation of primary oocyte takes place during development of a female foetus ,at stage of cell
division events does the development stops?
Prophase I of meiosis

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

Diagram shows the fanges of four types of hormones which control the menstrual cycle follicle
development in the ovaries
Q

Figure shows follicle development in an ovary. A woman has a problem conceiving due to the
failure of process Z.A doctor advises her to take Human chorionic gonadothrophin Hormone
(HCG) that has similar function to hormone P
Based on the above situation, explain how the HCG injection enables the pregnancy to occur

(b)

F1-The HCG hormone stimulates ovulation //causing the graafian follicle to release secondary
oocyte

F2-Corpus luteum secretes progesterone to maintain the thickness of the endomantrium

F3-Thus enables implantation to occur

F1and any F2&F3

Explain what happen if the woman fail to produce hormone Q?


F1-did not stimulates growth of follicle in the ovary//follicle does not develop into graafian (in
the ovary)
F2-Primary occyte does not develop into secondary oocyte

(d)

F3-did not stimulate the production of oestrogen


(c)

What are the functions of Q in the process showed in figure above?


F-Graafian follicle will release secondary follicle and develop into corpus

E-Which will secrete progesterone and oestrogen if pregnancy happen

Explain how the intake of contraceptive pill affects the development of follicles
E1-Contraceptive pill contain oestrogen and progesterone hormone

E2-High level of oestrogen inhibit secretion of FSH//inhibit development of occyte

E3-No ovulation occur

E4-Highh level of progesterone inhibit secretion of FSH//inhibit development of occyte Any 3

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Essay enhancement corner


No

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram shows a physiological process in a human

Based on the diagram above ,describe the physiological process


1
1

P1-the process is oogenesis


P2-germinal epithelial cells undergoes mitosis to form diploid oogonia
P3-oogonia grow to form diploid primary oocytes

P4-the primary oocytes undergoes meiosis I to form haploid secondary oocyte and first polar
body
P5-secondary oocyte undergo meiosis II and form ovum and (second) polar body

1
1

any 4P

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.2 The role of hormones in the menstrual cycle


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

What is the menstrual cycle?


F1: Monthly reproductive cycle controlled by hormones
F2: consist of follicle development, ovulation, thickening of endometrium and menstruation

1
1

1
1

(b)

(c)

(d)

Based on diagram, state the meaning of menstrual cycle? 2


P1-The production of ovum by the ovary of female
P2-follow by a cycle in 28 days
Secondary oocyte,copus lutuem,ovulation ,graafian follicle, primary oocyte
Using the term given ,write the correct sequence of a complete menstrual cycle
Primary occyte
,secondary occyte
,graffian follicle
,ovulation,
corpus luteum
Pituitary gland is important in the regulation of hormones in the menstrual cycle.
Explain its important
P1: The pituitary gland produces FSH to stimulate the development of follicles in the ovary.
P2 : The follicle secretes oestrogen to repair the uterine Wall
P3 : After the 14th day, the pituitary produces LH that causes ovulation.

(e)

1
1
1

Menstrual cycle is a monthly reproductive cycle consisting of follicle


development2ovulation ,the changes of the thickness of the endomentrium ,and
menstruation .State its importance2
P1-Produce female gamete (Ovum for fertilization)
P2-Thickening endomentrium prepared for implantation of the embryo

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Days

Marking Criteria

Marks

0-7

What is hormone X and Y/P and Q

X/P: Follicle stimulating hormone / FSH

Y/Q:LH

Give a reason for your answer


P:On day 13, the hormone is highest/at the peak/maximum level (to stimulate ovulation )

Q:Increase in level form day 1 to day 7/8

State its function of hormone X


To stimulate the formation of follicles in the ovary
Explain the effect of follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) on structure P(Primary follicle)
P1- (FSH) stimulates the growth / development of the primary follicle

P2-Structure P will grow / develop / becomes secondary follicle / Grafiaan follicle.

Name hormone P and Q


Hormone P:Oestrogen

Hormone Q:Progesterone

State the function of hormone X(FSH) and Y(LH)


Hormone X: stimulate growth and development of several primary follicle (in the ovary
to become a Graafian follicle)

Hormone Y: Cause ovulation to occur//


Promotes development of the corpus luteum to produce progesterone and oestrogen//

Stimulate completion of meiosis I by changing primary oocytes into a secondary oocyte


State the process which took place at X
Menstruation

Based on diagram above ,State one reason to support your answer


Thickness of the endomentrium is decreasing

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Days

Marking Criteria

Marks

0-7

An imbalance of hormones P (Oestrogen) and Y (LH) causes the disruption of the


ovulation process. Explain.
Pt. 1 : If P secretion is reduced, Y is inhibited.

Pt. 2 : Ovulation is delayed / does not occur

Pt. 3 : If P secretion is excessive, secretion of Y is stimulated.

Pt. 4 : Inhibits X, no follicle development / ovulation is hastened

Pt 5.The size of structure T is smaller than its size on 20th day

Explain why an imbalance of hormones P and Y causes the disruption of the ovulation
process.
F1: Hormone P is oestrogen and hormone Y is luteinizing hormone

F2: undersecretion of hormone P( oestrogen )inhibits secretion of Follicle stimulating


hormone from pituitary gland

F3: No development of Graafian follicles so no ovulation occur// no secretion of


luteinising hormone from pituitary gland so no ovulation occur

F4: Oversecretion of hormone P stimulates secretion of hormone Y from pituitary gland


F5-Ovulation occur early

Name hormone Q and structure T.


Hormone Q : Progesterone

Structure T : Corpus luteum

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Days

Marking Criteria

Marks

0-7

Based on the graph in diagram ,Name the hormone 2


P:LH

Q:FSH

Give a reason for your answer


P:On day 13, the hormone is highest/at the peak/maximum level (to stimulate ovulation )

Q:Increase in level form day 1 to day 7/8

8-14

State the function of hormone Y


Hormone Y:Cause ovulation to occur//
Promotes development of the corpus luteum to produce progesterone and oestrogen//
Stimulate completion of meiosis I by changing primary oocytes into a secondary oocyte
Explain the effect if the level of hormone Y is low
P1- Ovulation will not occur

P2-Grafiaan follicle will not release the secondary oocyte (into the Fallopian tube).

Explain one difference between primary oocyte and secondary oocyte


Difference: primary oocyte is diploid while secondary oocyte is haploid.

Explanation : Primary oocyte has undergo meiosis (I)

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Days
15-21

Marking Criteria

Marks

Explain the importance of structure Q (corpus luteum)during development


F- Q secrete progesterone

P1-(progesterone will thickened and) maintained the endometrium wall

P2-Endometrium wall ready for implantation of embryo // prevent misscarriage / abortion.

Hormone X

Structure Y

Complete the follicle development in boxes M and N


Based on the diagram ,explain the relationship between the
P1-After ovulation /corpus luteum secretes S /Progestrone

P2-The level of S /progrestrone increase to maintain the thickness of the endomentrium

P3-When the M /corpus luteum degenerates, the level of S progesterone decreases, the
endomentrium begi to disintegrates

If the fertilization occurred, the level of hormones S is maintained and the pregnancy is
proceed
Explain the important of hormone S[GnRH]
P1-To inhibit the secretion of FSH of LH form pituitary gland

P2-no development of follicle /secondary oocyte

P3-then the secretion of oestrogen is reduced

P4-Repair rejuvenation of endomentrium is not happened

P5-Hence no new early embryo develops

1
1

Explain the relationship between structure Y and the level of hormone X form 16 th day to
28th day
P1-16th day to 28th day: Y is formed ,hormone X is secreted,endometrium thickens
th -

th

P2-23 28 days: Y degenerated, the level of hormone x declines resulting in the foetus

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Days

Marking Criteria

Marks

22-28

Complete the graph starting for point X in diagram to show the change in the thickness of
endometrium wall if fertilization does not occur
1

wall is decreasing / thinning.

Explain the graph that you draw in above


P1- Corpus luteum degenerate

P2-No progesterone is secreted (to thicken the endometrium wall).

Draw in Diagram 6, structure T on the 26th day if fertilization did not take place.
The structure T shrinks.
Draw in Diagram 4, structure T on the 26" day if fertilization did not occur.1
Corpus luteum had shrunken/ become smaller in size
Give the relationship between the structure Q and the level of hormone Q(Progesterone)
from the 16th to 28th day2
Pt.1 : On the 16th day, T is formed, hormone Q is secreted.

Pt 2 : On the 24th day, T degenerates, the level of hormoneQ declines.

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Days

Marking Criteria

Marks

22-28

Explain the relationship between the structure T and the level of hormone Q
from the 16" to 28" day.2
16" to 28"
F1: hormone Q( progesterone) rises to a high level to induce endomentrium to thicken and
vascuiarised

E1-stucture T (corpus luteum) developed and become active

F2: hormone Q decreases to a very low level resulting in menstruation

E2: Structure T degenerated and not active

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Essay Enchancement Corner


No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

Based on diagram, state the meaning of menstrual cycle?2


P1-The production of ovum by the ovary of female
P2-follow by a cycle in 28 days
Starting with hormone produced by pituitary gland and ovary, describe how the hormone
regulate the menstrual cycle and an ovary produced an ovum8
F1-What FSH/hormone P does
it stimulates the development of the follicle in the ovariesUsually one follicle ripens to
become the graafina follicle in one of the ovaries during each cycle
It also stimulates the follicle in the ovary to secrete oestrogen
F2-Effects of oestrogen /hormone X
After menstruation ,it causes the repair and growth of the uterine lining(endomentrium)
The urine lining become thick and spongy with blood vessels
A high concentration of oestrogen in the blood inhibitsFSH production ,preventing the
ripening and growth of more follicles
It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone(LH)
F3-Function of LH/Hormone R
It causes ovulation
It also causes the formation of the corpus
F4-Corpus luteum

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and also some oestrogen

1
1
1
1

F5-Function of progesterone /Hormone Y


It keeps the uterine lining thick and well supplied wiuth blood
Preparing it for implantation of the embryo
It inhibit both FSH and LH production

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(b)

Explain the relationship between development of the follicle , changing of the respective
hormonal level in the blood and the thickening of the uterine endometrium in a female.10
Day 0 7
Follicle
very small
start to develop when receive FSH from pituitary
the wall of follicle will produce estrogen
FSH
- pituitary start to release FSH, FSH will go to the ovary
- FSH stimulate development of follicle Endometrium
- stimulate by estrogen; undergo thickening / repairing
Day 8 14
Follicle
- become larger, develop to form follicle Graaf FSH / LH/ Estrogen/progesterone
- FSH decrease, LH at maximum level , estrogen at maximum level

4551/2 All right reserved

10

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

- LH stimulate ovulation / completion of meiosis I, estrogen stimulate the thickening of


endometrium
- Progesterone level very low Endometrium
- endometrium become very thick (ready to implantation (of embryo))
Day 15 21
Follicle
- Follicle undergoes ovulation/ released oocyte II
- The remaining follicle tissue / corpus luteum secreted small amount of estrogen but large
amount of progesterone
FSH/ LH/ Estrogen/ Progesterone
- Progesterone stimulated the thickening of endometrium , halted the secretion of FSH/LH
- Development of new follicle and ovulation stop. Endometrium
- more thicker and highly vascular
- ready for implantation of embryo
Day 22 28
Corpus luteum
- if no fertilisation, corpus luteum become disintegrate FSH/ LH/ Estrogen / Progesterone
- FSH, LH and estrogen at minimum level; progesterone level also drop Endometrium
- endometrium become breakdown & disintegrate
- blood and tissue are shed / lining of uterus discharge through vagina as menstrual flow.

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(c)

Based on the above diagram, explain how pituitary hormones and sex hormones control the
menstrual cycle
F1-During day 1 to day 5, endopsperm wall break down and slough off
F2-Pituitary land starts secreting FSH
E1-FSH causes a Graafian follicle to develop in the ovary
E2-during day 5 to day 10 FAH stimulate the wall of follicle and the tissue of the ovary to
secrete oestrogen
E3-Oestrogen starts to repair of the uterine wall
F3-Ion day 12 to day 14 Oestrogen inhibits pituitary gland form secreting FSH
E4-and stimulates pituitary glands to produce LH
F4-Lh causes ovulation to occur on day 14
E5-After day 14,the graafian follicle to change into corpus luteum
F5-Corpus luteum secretes progesterone
E5-Progresteron make up the endometruim become thicken and filled with numerous blood
vessel for implantation
E6-Increase in the concentration of progesterone will inhibit the production of FSH and LH

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

Digram shows the hormonal secretion and regilaiton the menstraul cycle .Based on the diagram
dicuss the relationship between the following
i. hormonal level and the development of follicles
P1- Pituitary secrete more FSH
P2- FSH reansport to the ovary by blood
P3- FSH stimulate development of the follicle
P4- When the follicle dvelops into graafian follicle ,level if FAH will reduce

1
1
1
1

ii.Ovulation and formaiton of the luteum


P1- When graafian follicle form ,LH will secreted by pituirary
P2- Level of LH become maximum at day 10-14/fertile time form women
P3- LH will stimulate the ovulaiton
P4- When follicle release the secondary oocyte into fallopian tube ,the folliucle
withoutsecondaryoocyte called carpos luteum
iii.
Homonal levels and changes in thickness of the endomantrium
P1- Wall of the follicel secretes oestrogen
P2- It wil stimulate the thickening of endomentrium for implatation
P3- When ovulaiton ovvurs,the secretion of oestrogen stops
P4- Corpus luteum will secretes progestron to continue the funciton of oestrogen
P5- When menstrual occur ,oestrogen and progesterone level will decreas

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

Explain the changes and the functions of each type of hormone produced by
Pituitary and ovary.
FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)
1
1
1

P1 - From day 1 to day 5, pituitary gland stars to secrete FSH


P2 - FSH stimulates the development of follicle
P3 - And stimulates the tissue of ovary to secrete oestrogen
Oestrogen
P4 - From day 5 to day 13, concentration of oestrogen continue to increase

1
1
1

P5 - Oestrogen causes the repair and heal of the endometrium lining


P6 - Endometrium lining becomes thicker and ( filled with blood vessels)
LH (Luteinising Hormone)

1
1
1
1

P7 - On day 13, the LH level increases


P8 - Causing ovulation / Graafian follicle releases secondary oocyte.
P9 - LH causes the formation of corpus luteum
P10 - Corpus luteum secretes progesterone
Progesterone
P11 - Progesterone maintains the thickening of endometrium for implantation
P12 - Progesterone inhibits the secretion of FSH and LH
P13 - If the secondary oocyte is not fertilised by a sperm, corpus luteum disintegrate /
progesterone decreases
P14 - Endometrium lining begins to breakdown and menstruation starts

1
1
1
1
8

Any 8 P

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

Based on the diagram state the meaning of menstuaration


F1-breakdown of the lining of the uterus
P1-diacharge through the vagina
P2-small amount of blood and some cell

1
1
1

Describe how the menstrual cycle is affected if the pituitary hormones peak up seven days later.
F1 - Menstruation / menses will occur a week later (than usual) // on the 7th day of the following
cycle / month.
E1 - FSH peaks up on day-20 / a week later / just before day-21.
E2 - LH peaks up on day 20 / a week later / just before day-21.
F2 - ovulation only occur a week later / day-21
E3 - due to stimulation / from a rise of LH
F3 - level of estrogen remains high until day-21 because
E4 - graafian follicle that release estrogen remains intact / due tono LH
F4 - corpus luteum will only be formed on day-21 / a week later
E5 - this causes level of progesterone to increase after day 21 andremains high
E6 - as level of progesterone high, the lining of uterine wall / endometrium will remains thick
longer
E7 - when corpus luteum degenerate, level of progesterone drops
E8 - this causes the lining of endometrium to disintegrate causing menses which occurs a week
later than usual
Any 10

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.3 Early Development of human zygote


Diagram 1 shows the development of a human zygote .

Label the diagram


Stage

Name of the stage / process

Ovulation

Fertilisation

Zygote

Morula

Implantation

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Early Development of human zygote


No

SPM 2012
Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

Describe the development in detail 8


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

P1-A fertilization ovum is known as a zygote


P2-Zygote divides repeatly by mitois
P3-Morula develops into balstula/blastocytst
P4-It is a hollow ball of cells
P6-Blastocyst forms inner mass cells and trophoblast
P7-Blastocyst implants at the endomentrium /uterus
P8-Inner mass cells /zygotes develops into embryo
P9-trophoblast will form villi of placenta any 8P

(b)

Describe the process which occurred form P and Q 4


P1 Ovulation releases a secondary oocyte , which enters the oviduct.
P2 The secondary oocyte starts meiosis II which progresses until metaphase II.
P3 The nuclei of a sperm cell (n) and the ovum (n) fuse and form a diploid zygote (2n). // A
sperm fertilize the ovum to form a zygote.
P4 Zygote begins to divide repeatedly by mitosis as it travels along the fallopian tube
towards the uterus.
P5 Morula is form followed by blastula.
P6 Implantation occur / The blastocyst attaches itself to the endometrium.

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(c)

Based on the diagram above


(i) Explain briefly process A
F1-ovulaiton
P1-he release of secondary oocyte form the ovary

1
1

(ii) Describe the early development of a zygote form process B until process C
P1-after fertilization the zygoite divide repeatly/undergoes mitosis
P2-as its travel along the (fallopian) tube toward uterus
P3-first division form two-celled embryo
P4-further division formed a solid mass of cells called morula
P5-then morula is ball of about 100 cells called blastocyts/blastula
P6-Blastocyst/blastula is a fluid filled sphere with outer layer of cells and inner cell mass
P7-The cilia in the (fallopian ) tube helps developing embryo to reach the uterus
P8-Blascocyts/blastula undergoes implantation to attach itself to the endomentrium
P9-The inner cell mass becomes firmly embedded in the endomentrium

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

The formation of twins


No
(a)

Marking Criteria
Diagram shows the formation of two pairs of twins
Based on the diagram ,explain how the formation of twin occurs6
F-Siamese twin
P1-One sperm and one ovum are involve in fertilization
P2-to produce one /single zygote
P3-Zygote undergoes mitosis repeatly to form blastocyst
P4-Blastocyts does not divide completely
P5-the blastocyt does not dvide completely
P6-The two blastocyst implant/embedded into endomentrium wall and develop to embryo)
P6-The are joined at certainly part of body

4551/2 All right reserved

Marks

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Comparison of the twins


Refer to

SPM 2005

Q7

No

Pg 312-314
Marking Criteria

Marks

(b)

Based on diagram ,explain the role of placenta as endocrine gland


P1 : After the placenta is formed, it secretes progesterone
P2 : The level of progesterone continues to increase
P3: The hormone maintains the thickness of the uterus lining

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

Diagram 4.1 shows a graph on how the endometrium in the human uterus varies in thickness
with time. Fertilization took place on the 16th day of the second month.

State the process which took place at X.1


Menstruation

(b)

Based on the Diagram 4.1, state one reason to support your answer in (i)1
The endometrium begins to break down

(c)

Complete the graph in Diagram 4.1 to show the changes in the thickness of the endometrium
after day 22 in the second month until day 28 of the third month.1

(d)

Explain why the thickness of the endometrium changes in the way shown in (b) (i).2
P1 : The endometrium begin to became thicker, for preparation for the implantation of a
fertilized ovum
P2 : The endometrium keep thickening due to the level of progesterone and oestrogen continue
to rise because fertilization occurs.
P3 : The corpus luteum continues to secrete oestrogen and Progesterone

(e)

1
1
3
1

Based on the changes in Diagram 3.1, complete Diagram 3.2 to indicate the level of the
hormone progesterone from the first to the third months.2

Explain the changes in the level of progesterone in the three months as shown in Diagram
P1 : Increasing in progesterone level will stimulate the uterine wall to became thicker
P2 :When the fertilization occur, the level of progesterone continue to rise to ensure the uterine
walls continue to grow and nourish the embryo

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(f)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Explain the changes in the level of progesterone when the women faces menopause.
P1 :The level of progesterone become lower

P2: Ovaries are less stimulated by FSH and LH

P3: lead to inhibits the development of the follicles and ovulation

(g)

Diagram 4.3 shows the process of sperm formation in the human testis.2 Are cells V, cell W
and cell X genetically identical? Explain.
1

F : Cell V is similar to cell W but is different from cell X.


P : Cell V and cell W are products of mitosis whereas cell X is a product of meiosis.

The function of the placenta in foetal development


No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

Name two materials that pass via R(Placenta) form mother to the foetus
Water/amino acid/glucose/nutrient/oxygen /antibodies

(b)
(i)

Name M
Amniotic fluid

(ii)

State the importance in fluid M


P1-Protect the foetus by absorbing shock

P2-Protects foetus form physical damage

P3-Allow movement of the foetus any one

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(c)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Explain how the structure R (Placenta) enable exchange of material to take place 2
1
1

F1-Placenta has a large surface area to volume ratio


P1-to increase exchange rate
OR
F2-Material and embryonic bloods are brought into close contact

1
1

P2-Diffusion can take place efficiently


OR
F3-Seperated only by a thin membrane
P3-Diffusion can take place efficiently

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

(d)
P

Structure P consists of two type of blood vessels. Name both vessels


1. Umbilical artery
2. Umbilical vein
(e)
(i)

State the function of each blood vessel named in above/ Give the diference between both blood
vessel
1. Carry waste product/deoxygenated blood form the foetus to the placenta
2. Carry oxygenated blood form placenta to the foetus

(ii)

State two substances which are carried by the blood in Y, in the direction of the arrow
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Nitrogenous waste products

(f)

A pregnant woman of blood group A is having a foetus of blood group B. Based on diagram
5.1 and the statement above , state whether agglutination will occur in the foetal blood or not.
Explain your answer.
F- No
E- The foetal circulatory system and the maternal circulatory system are separated // not
directly connected (due to the presence of the placenta)

(g)

Placenta also involved in endocrine system ,discuss how placenta act as endocrine system
P1-placenta secretes oestrogen and progesterone
P2-helps maintain a thicked ,blood enriched endomentrium during pregnancy

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(a)

(b)

Marking Criteria

Marks

State the differences between the content of R (placenta) and foetal blood
R (placenta)
Foetal blood
Oxygen
High
Low
Nutrient
High
Low
Carbon dioxide
Low
High
Waste /example
Low
High

1
1
1
1

Diagram 5.2 shows a negative habit of a pregnant mother. .


Explain the effect of this habit to the foetus3

P1 : Cigarette contain nicotine / DDT / lead particles.


P2 : Nicotine are small in sizes so it can diffuse from maternal blood capillaries to foetal blood
capillaries through the placenta
P3 : The substances are carried by umbilical vein to the foetus.
P4 : The substances can cause miscarriage // birth defect // illness in the resulting baby
(c)

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

th

In the 16 week, pregnant mother was infected with disease .the infection caused structure n to
stop functioning the mother miscarriage, explain the statement
F1-N secrete progesterone to stimulate/induce the thickening endomentruim
E1-Infection caused N not to secrete progesterone
E2-Endometrium are no longer thicken //endometrium break down o foetus is aborted

(d)

Human chorionic gonadtrophin hormones (HCG) has a similar role to luteinizing


hormone(LH).A wife .A wife has a problem conceiving due to the failure in ovulation . The
wife becomes after doctors has given her injections of HCG
Based on above statement, explain how HCG injection enable the process of pregnancy.
P1-HCG stimulates ovulation
P2-ovum/secondary oocytes is released form the ovary to the fallopian tube
P3-Ovum fuses with sperm in fallopian tube forming a zygote
P4-corpus luteum secretes progesterone
P5-progesterone maintains the thickeness of the uterine wall /endometrium
P6-the thickness of the uterine wall enables implantation to occur

4551/2 All right reserved

any three

1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Essay Enhancement corner


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram shows the structure of placenta


Space filled with maternal blood
Foetal blood
Umbilical artery
Umbilical vein
Placenta

Explain the function of placenta in foetal development 6


P1-Seperates foetal blood form maternal blood

P2-Exchange of substances between foetus and mother

P3-Oxygen and nutrient diffuse form the maternal blood to the foetal blood

P4-Carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste products diffuse form the feotal blood into the
maternal blood

P4-Carbon dioxide and( nitrogenous) waste products diffuses form the foetal blood into the
maternal blood

P5-Some antibodies diffuse for the maternal blood into the foetal blood

P6-Protect the feotus form the high pressure of maternal blood

P7-Prevents large organism like bacteria form entering the foetal blood

P8-Prevents mixing of foetal blood with maternal blood/agglutination any 6P


(b)

The developing foetus is nourish and protected in the mothers uterus


Explain the above statement10
N1-Nutrients/oxygen/antibodies /hormones/any 2 example
N2-Form maternal are transported to the foetus through umbilical vein
N3-Carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste products form the foetus are transported to the
maternal (vein)through umbilical arteries
N4-The numerous blood capillaries ( in the chorionic villi provide a large surface area fro
diffusion of materials
P1-The foetal circulatory system and the maternal circulatory system are separated
P2-Prevents certain harmful bacteria and their toxins form entering the foetus
P3-Prebents the action of meternl hormones/chemical in mothers blood that could harm the
developing foetus
P4-Prevents the mixing of blood groups of mother and the foetus
P5-Which cause Aggulutination
P5-Prevents the fine blood vessel of the foetus di not burst
P7-Due to blood pressure of the maternal circulation 4N +6P

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

The advantage of having separate foetal and maternal circulatory system


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Explain why the foetus has a separate blood circulatory system form his mother2
F-Prevent the mixing of blood groups of the mother and the foetus which may be incompatibles

E1-If incompatible bloods mix, they clot agglutinate

E2-and cause blockage in important organs/death

Or
F-Protect the foetus form the high blood pressure of the mother

E1-Foetus has fine and delicate blood vessel

E2-high blood pressure of mothers blood will cause the feotl blood vessel burst and damage

Or

(b)

F-Prevent the action of maternal hormone /chemical /harmful bacteria

E1-From crossing the foetal blood

E2-which could harm the development of the foetus any two

Name two the materials that partially prevented by placenta form entering the blood of foetus
Drug/alcohol/caffeine/nicotine /HIV/rubella virus

(c)

R regresses and cause miscarriage


Explain the above statement

(d)

F-Placenta acts as an endocrine gland//secreting

E-(these hormone) help to maintain a thickened /blood enriched endomentrium throughout the
pregnancy

Explain why colostrums valuable to the baby immediately after birth 2


F-Colostrums contain antibodies

P-To help/baby survive form pathogen

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Essay enchancement corner


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram 9 shows relationship between K and L of placental blood circulatory system.

Explain why K and L circulatory system are not directly connected to each other.
F1 both system separated
E1 blood of both not mixing
E2 permits exchange of gases/food
E3 waste product
E4 between the foetus and the mother
F2 prevent the action of maternal hormone/other chemical
E5 in mothers blood
E6 which could harm the development of the foetus
E7 but the protection is incomplete.
E8 Harmful chemical/alcohol/nicotine/morphine/bacteria/toxine/viruses
E9 can enter the foetus from mothers blood
E10 cause permanent damage
F3 (protect foetus) from high blood pressure of maternal circulation.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Any ten

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.4Appreciating the contribution of science and technology t human reproduction


No

Marking Criteria

(a)

A married couple, who has been married for 10 years, fail to have baby. Examination by a
doctor revealed that the husband has a low sperm count. Describe one method that would help
the couple to have a child
F1-Artificial insemination
E1-Sperm form a donor can be obtained form a sperm bank
E2-Sperm is injected into the uterus of a woman during ovulation any two

(b)

Marks

If the sperm counts of a husband are too low, artificially insemination can be carries out to
overcome this infertility problem. Discuss the appropriate technique should be used
P1-the sperm are collected for the husband/taken form sperm banks
P2-An inserted directly into the fallopian tube of the wife during ovulation phase

1
1
1

1
1

Essay enhancement corner


Refer to: SPM 2011 State two infertility problem and explain the various method to overcome infertility
problem [6m] Pg 316
No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

A married want to have a baby. But hes wife has fallopian tubes blocked problem.it make
impossible for her to conceive through the natural process.They insist to have their own child.
Describe one modern technique that may be able to help this couple to have their own child.
Explain the moral issues related to the suggested technique10
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

F-The couple can use the intro-vitro fertilization (IVF) method


P1-Mother undergoes hormonal treatment to produce more secondary oocyte
P2-A fine laparoscope is used to remove the secondary oocyte form her ovary
P3-the secondary ooctye are placed in a Petri dish of culture solution
P4-then, sperm form the husband are added to secondary oocyte
P5-the sperm and ova fused and become zygote//fertilization is occurred to form zygote
P6-The zygote undergoes mitosis to become embryo/eight-cell stage
P7-The embryo formed is implanted in the wife uterus
P8-A baby born is called as a test-tube baby
(f+any7P)
Able to explain the moral issues related to the suggested technique of reproductive
technology
M1-Frezzing and destroying living embryo
M2-Vitro fertilization morally acceptable

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(b)

Preventing pregnancy and difficulty in having children are two main problems in human
reproduction.
Based on the statement, discuss the moral issues related to applicationof Science and
Technology in overcoming human reproductions problems.
Preventing pregnancy
F1 Contraceptive method
P1 stop ovum from being formed
P2 stop the fertilize ovum from developing in the uterus.
P3 stop sperm from reaching ovum.
F2 Could harm the foetus when a women has the ability to bear a child.
F3 Only use contraception for health
P4 for health
P5 financial reason
F4 (Prevention of fertilize egg from developing) is an act of killing.
F5 The use of spermicides kills life
F6 Religious believe there is only accept natural method of contraception.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Overcoming infertility
F7 Infertility is the failure of the couple to have a baby
P6 due to block fallopian tubes.
P7 low sperm count
F8 Sperm bank
P8 not allowed (religion) if used sperm not from husband,
F9 In-vitro fertilization IVF
P9 it is wrong to destroy extra embryos
P10 abuse the technique to select the sex /zygote
P11 to produce perfect offspring
F10 Surrogate mother
P12 Life of surrogate mother is threatened.
Many women assume that as long as they are still getting their

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

menstruations , they have plenty of healthy eggs left. But this is


not quite true.

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(c)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Explain the contribution of science and technology to human reproduction


F-name the methods to overcome infertility
E- give explanations
F-Artificial insemination
E1-Impotence in the husband/ erectile dysfunction requirethe sperm to be collected and then
injected into the cervixof the wife time of the woman's ovulation.

E2-Low sperm count /immobile sperms/ abnormal sperms of the Husband to be overcomed by
obtaining healthy sperms form suitable donor in a sperms bank and then inject into the
fallopian tubes of the wife during ovulation.

F-In vitro fertilisation ( inoperable blocked fallopian tubes)

1
1

El: Permanent blocked oviducts in the wife prevent Secondary occytes from being fertilized by
the sperms.
E2: Wife treated with follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) to
increase the oocyte production.

E3: Oocytes collected and placed in a Petri dish containing a suitable medium similar to the
fallopian tubes.

E4: The oocytes are mixed with the husband's sperms.

1
1
1

E5: 2 days old embryos are transferred into the wife's uterus for implantation.
F: In vitro fertilization ( Postponement of motherhood ) /
having children later in life.
El : Eggs / oocytes of women are collected , frozen and stored when less than 34 years old.
E2: Oocytes are used: later when the women decide to stad a family.
F: Surrogate mother
El : Wife unable to have babies herself. And need another younger , healthier woman to bear
her child.
E2: Woman become pregnant by artificial insemination or by in vitro fertilization.

1
1
1
1
1

Any 9 correct
KS: Ability to describe one treatment method correctly

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(d)

(e)

Marking Criteria
Pregnant woman are advised not to smoke and avoid form drugs and alcohol
Explain this statement
- Cigarette contain nicotine / DDT / lead particles.
- The wall of maternal blood capillaries and the wall of foetal blood capillaries are semipermeable.
- Nicotine, drugs and alcohol are small in size.
- Nicotine, drugs and alcohol can diffuse from maternal blood capillaries to foetal blood
capillaries
- through the placenta
- The substances carried by umbilical vein to the foetus.
- Nicotine, drugs or alcohol can affect the development of foetus
- (example) cause disable / miscarriage . birth defect/ illness in the resulting baby.

Marks

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

Mrs. Ali is a married woman, she has a problem to get pregnant

Explian under what type of condition Method A can be used to help Mr. and Mrs. Ali 5
- Method A is known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF)
- Method A is use if the fallopian tubes of Mrs. Ali are blocked.
- sperm cannot reach the ovum, fertilization fail to occur.
- fertilization has to be done outside the body.
- developed zygote/embryo then retransfer and implant in the uterus of Mrs. Ali.
- the embryo then undergo normal development in the uterus of Mrs. Ali as normal pregnancy.

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(f)

Discuss the role of Madam X in Method B and issue may arise


- Method B is used if the uterus of Mrs. Ali fail to carry the implanted embryo because of
damaged or abnormal uterus.

1
1
1
1

- Madam X is the woman who is willing / hired to carry the implanted embryo to full term.
- Madam X is known as surrogated mother.
- Genetically the baby belongs to Mr. and Mrs. Ali.
- Who is the real biological mother of the baby, Mrs. Ali or Madam X
- There are cases that the surrogated mother refuse to return the baby to the couple after giving
birth
(g)

A married do not wish to start a family soon after marriage. Explain the following methods of
contraception
(i)

Natural method

F1-avoid sex during fertile period/after ovulation /around day 14 ( to prevent conception)
P1-Detect ovulation by measuring bodys temperature daily/rise in body temperature
(ii)

Mechanical methods

F2-Using intrauterine device(IUD)


P2-Prevents implantation of embryo
F3-Using diaphragm
P3-Prevnts sperm form entering uterus
F4-Using condom
P4-Prevent sperm form entering uterus
(iii)

1
1

1
1
1
1
1

Chemical method

F5-Taking oral contraceptive pills


P5-Prevent formation of foliciles in the ovaries
F6-Using spermicides
P6-Kill sperm
Any F corresponding P

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

(h)

A husband and wife with seven children plan not to have anymore child. Based on your
biological knowledge, explain the method that can be recommended to them 6
F1-Diaphragm
P1-Inserted into vagina to cover the cervix to stop sperm ofmr entering the uterus
F2-IUD
P2-Fitted into uterus by doctor and can be left in the uterus (2 years) and prevent implantation
F3-Spermicide
P3-Chemical cream /gel /foam is applied to vaginal walls before copulation and kill the sperm
ejaculated into vagina
F4-Contraceptive pills
P4-Prevents ovulation (by inhibiting the secretion of FSH and LH)
P5-noth the fallopian tubes are cut and tied ( in an operation ) causes the ovum cannot reach the
part of fallopian tube ,fertilization is not occurred

(i)

Marks

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Technology in human reproduction has given great contribution to


family planning .contraceptive pills, intrauterine deceive (IUD) and
vasectomy are example of birth control method in family planning
Explain the advantages of the following birth control methods family planning
(i) Contraceptive pill
P1-Contains oestrogen /progesterone
P2-(oestrogen/progesterone hormone) can prevent the formation of follicle in the ovary
P3-Prevents ovulation //inhibits the secretion of follicle stimulating Hormone/FSH /Luteinizing
hormone/LH
P4-No fertilization occur//the woman is not pregnant
P5-Effeceint /safe method (of birth control)
(ii) Intrauterine device (IUC)
P6-(intrauterine) device is inserted into the uterus (by doctors)
P6-Left in the uterus (for approximately two, three and five years)
P8-irritates the endomtrium /prevents the thickening of the uterine wall
P9-Prevent the implantation of embryo
P10-No development of zygote /no pregnancy
P11-effeicent/safe method (of birth control)

1
1
1
1
1
1

(iii) Vasectomy
P12-the vas deferens are tied cut in a surgical operation
P13-The sperm re still produced but cannot be transferred out/reach the uterus/fallopian tube
P14-No fertilization
P15-effeceint/safe method (of birth control) (P5, P11 and P15, mark awarded once only)

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(g)

Reproduction technology has contributed a lot to human health and population growth.
Describe how infertility is overcome in humans using the following methods:
Sperm banking [Bank sperma]
Artificial insemination [Permanian beradas]
In vitro fertilization [Persenyawaan in vitro]
Surrogate mother [Ibu tumpang]
Sperm bank
Used when the man/spouse/male suffers from low sperm count/production of
weak/unhealthy sperms
Sperms are donated and donors identity is recorded/secret
Genetic biodata of donor and the woman recipient should match for successful fertilization
Artificial insemination
Practiced by a couple when the man is sterile
Donors sperm are injected into the womans uterus
during ovulation
No sexual intercourse is involved
The genetic background and health of donor is screenned before acceptance

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1

1
1
1
1

In vitro fertilization
Practiced when the womans ovum cannot be fertilized due to blockage of fallopian tube
Ovum is extracted (from the woman) and fertilized outside the body/in Petri dish/test tube
Fertilized ovum/zygote grows in culture medium
Than it is implanted into the womans uterus
Surrogate mother
Method practiced when a woman cannot be pregnant in normal way
The zygote is obtained by invitro fertilization
Another woman is implanted with the couple zygote
(Surrogate mother) carries the baby only until it is born

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

(h)

Menstrual cycle is regulated by hormone which is secreted by pituitary gland and ovary.
Married woman usually plans their families by taking contraceptive pill.
Based on your knowledge in biology, explain how this pills react as with negative feedback to
prevent pregnancy.
P1Contraceptive pills contain (a combination of low) oestrogen and (high) progestron
hormone
P2 the pills should be taken between any day from the 1st -5th day of the menstrual cycle, for
a duration of 21 days
P3Oestrogen promotes/causes repair / growth of the endometrium (in preparation for
implantation)
P4- Progestrone maintain the thickness of uterus lining
P5 High level of progesterone inhibit the pituitarys production
P6- no secretion of FSH / follicle-stimulating hormone
P7no follicle develops in the ovary
P8 no Graafian follicle
P9 less / no secretion of LH by the pituitary gland
P10 Ovulation is low / does not occur
P11 no fertilisation occur

(i)

(j)

Marks

Describe briefly the method of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human.


P1 - Woman is injected with FSH hormone
P2 - stimulates growth / developments of follicle in the ovary
P3 (A laparoscope is inserted at the navel to) collect immature ova /ovum from the ovaries //
the immature ova/ovum are harvested from the ovaries
P4 - then, the ova are placed in (glassware with) culture solution to mature
P5 Sperms are collected and placed in the culture solution . Fertilisation occurs. // the ova
then, fertilised with the sperm
P6 leave it within 2 days (48 hours) to enable the zygote to develops/ divide themselves into
eight cells
P7 the zygote / embrsyos are placed into the woman/mother uterus (by using a catheter)
P8 the embryos/zygotes are allowed to develop in her uterus until birth
Based on your knowledge in biology, what are the moral issues related to this method?
M1 Storage techniques used in IVF produces more than one zygote. What will happen to this
zygote
M2 If the uterus of the mother is not strong/ healthy, who is going to accept the zygote? What
is the relationship between zygote/child with the surrogate mother
M3 If the husband is infertile, who is going to donate the sperm? What is the relationship
between zygote/child with the father
M4 Unmarried women can have their own children / can get pregnant
M5 Tendency of choosing the children gender
M6 There were cases where the surrogate mother develop emotional ties and refuse to be
separated from their babies
REJECT RELIGIOUS ORDERS

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

10

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(l)

A couple, Mr Zafrie and Mrs Munirah had married almost ten years but still do not have
any child. After undergone an inspection, they found that the husband does not have
any problem but the Fallopian tube of Mrs Munirah is blocked.
Based on your biological knowledge in reproduction technology, explain how the couple can
have children
P1 : means fertilization occurs outside of the body

1
1

P2 : the wife injected with hormone to fasten the development of the secondary oocyte / ovum
in ovary

P3 : secondary oocyte / ovum release out by using


ovulation)

F : In-vitro technique

laparoscope (from ovary before

P4 : sperms from husband fertilize with the secondary oocyte in a Petri dish (contains culture
medium)
P5 : (after fertilization) zygote will divide by mitosis
P6 : (after 2 days) formed embryo until eight cells stage
P7 : embryo transferred to the endometrium of the uterus wall through cervix (using pippet)
P8 : embryo implant at the endometrium of uterus wall and develop
P9 : baby that is delivered is called test tube baby
P10 : This technique is complicate

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(m)

Marking Criteria
In Malaysia, it is estimated that one baby is abandoned every 10 days in the
Klang Valley, and 100 babies abandoned every year nationwide.
The Star Online, September 27, 2008
Discuss the advantages and the disadvantages in the application of science and technology in
human reproduction in handling the issue.
Advantages:
F1 - Sterilise method; vasectomy / by cutting the vas deferens intestes
E1 - to prevent the sperms from going to prostate glands// ejaculation does not contain sperms
F2 - use of (male) condoms
E2 - prevent / reduce chances of sperms from going into cervix / uterus
F3 - Use female diaphragm that covers the cervix // Use of female condom which is fitted
inside vagina
E3 - Block entrance of sperms into the uterus // Prevent entrance of sperms into uterus //
sexually transmitted disease
F4 - Contraceptive pills // Contraceptive implant// Depo-vera injection
E4 - prevent development of follicle // inhibit ovulation // difficulties in implantation of zygote
F5- Morning after pill
E5- Prevent fertilization/
F6- Sterilization by cutting and tying the fallopian tube
E6- Prevent the egg travelling along the fallopian tube / sperms reaching the ovum. Any 8
Disadvantages:
B1 - Sterilising method cause permanent disabilities to produce sperm / ovum hence the person
is not able to produce off springs anymore
B2 Condoms; sometimes sperms can still penetrate therefore chances of getting pregnant is
still there
B3 - Pills are unreliable because they have to be taken consistently
B4 - All these methods will cause teenages / unmarried adults to increase their sexual activities
(because they are not afraid to get pregnant thus increasing the moral issues in the societies).
Any 2
A married woman has her uterus removed ,making it impossible for her to conceiving the
natural process, If she still wants to have a baby with her husband, suggest what she can do.
Justify the technique that can ba used by the couple to conceive 6
F-surrogate mother
P1-Another woman is utilized as a surrogate mother
P2-the sperm and ovum are contribute by the couple
P3-Ovum are fertilized in a petri dish /in-vitro
P4-Fertilized egg are allowed to develop to become embryo
P5-embryo are transferred to the surrogate mothers uterus
P6-the surrogate mother become pregnant and the foetus develop in her uterus until birth
Any 5

4551/2 All right reserved

Marks

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(n)

Marking Criteria
Diagram, 8.3(i) and (ii) show the methods related to human reproduction

Based on the diagram ,describe the method


M1-IVF/In vitro fertilization
P1-a laparoscope is inserted at the navel to collected immature ovum form ovary
P2-The ovum is placed in cultured solution to mature
P3-sperm are collected and added to the culture
P4-Fertilization occurs//sperms and ovum fused and develop into embryo
P5-(after 2-4days) the embryo si transferred/inserted into uterus (through cervix)
M2-Diaphragm
P6-For female contraceptive method
P7-inserted into vagina to cover the cervix
P8-to stop sperm entering the uterus

Marks

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

M1+4P=5
M2+2P=3

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.5 Sexual reproduction in Flowering plants


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

What is fertilization ?2
P1-Process where nucleus o f male gamete fuse with nucleus of female gamete
P2-Both gametes are haploid
P3-Zygote diploid will form

4.5.1 The formation of pollen grains in the anther


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram shows the formation of Y through process X in a typical plant

Name X and Y
X:Meiosis
Y:Pollen grains
(b)

F2-Hapliod
F3-Have very rough surface

Explain how the process you named in (b) take place


1
1
1

P1-Pollinating agent (wind/water/animal)


P2-transfer the pollen onto the stigma
P3-pollen grain will stick onto the surface of the stigma
(e)

1
1
1

Name the process when Y is transferred to stigma


Pollination

(d)

State two characteristic of Y


F1-Have 2 nuclei I.e. tube nucleus and generative nucleus

(c)

1
1

Based on the diagram, explain the formation of pollen grain


F-Pollen grains are formed in anther, an anther has four pollen sacs
E1-Each pollen sac contains hundreds f cells called pollen mother cells (2n)
E2-Each pollen mother cell undergoes meiosis to produces four haploid pollen cells/micro
pores (n)
E4-The nucleus of each microspores then divided by mitosis to form a tube nucleus and
generative nucleus

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Essay enhancement corner


No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

Diagram shows the transferring of pollen grains onto the stigma and fertilization between male
and female gamete
Describe the process that take place in diagram 8

P1- Pollen grains transfer onto stigma

P2- By pollinating agent e.g. animal /water/wind

P3- Pollen grain will stick onto the stigma because stigma is sticky//pollen grain have rough
surface
P4- The sucrose solution on the stigma stimulate pollen grain to germinate
P5- Pollen tube will grow until it reaches the pore at the embryo sac /microphyll
P6- Nucleus tube lead the elongation of pollen tube

1
1
1
1
1

P7- As nucleus tube moved forward ,generative nucleus followed behind

P8- Generative nucleus undergoes mitosis to form 2 male gamete

P9- One of the gamete fertilized the egg cell in the embryo sac to form diploid zygote

P10- The other male gamete fertilized 2 polar nuclei to form triploid endosperm

P11- Both processes take place at the same time ,so it called double fertilization

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(b)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Sexual reproduction in plants involve the production of pollen grains and ovules
(a) By using a flow chart describe how pollen grains are formed in plants.
Pollen sac

C1

Pollen parental
cell
C2
Meiosis
C3
microspores
C4
Pollens

Able to describe how pollen grains are formed in plants

Pollen grains are male gametes (produced in the anther/pollen sac

(pollen sac) contains diploid pollen parental cell/ pollen mother cell/ microspore

1
1

mother cell
1

(each pollen mother cell) undergoes meiosis

Producing 4 haploid microspores(n)

nucleus of (every) microspore undergoes mitosis forming two nuclei

The generative nucleus and the tube nucleus

Microspore with surfaces adapted for dispersion and is now called pollen

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(c)

Diagram (i) and (ii) shows the formation of pollen grain and development of the embyo
sac .Describe both processes 8
Pollen grains
G1-Pollen is produced in the anther (which consists of four pollen sacs)
G2-each pollen sac contain hundred of pollen mother cells which is diploid
G3-each mother cells undergoes meiosis to form four haploid microspores/cells/tetrad
G4-The nucleus of each cell/microspore/tetrad indergoes mitosis to form (pollen )tube and a
generative nucleus

1
1
1
1

Embryo sacs
E1-Embryo sac mother cell (diploid /2n)undergoes meiosis to form four haploid cells
/megaspores
E2-three of the/megaspores degenerate, leaving only one (in the ovule)
E3-Nuclues of megaspores undergoes mitosis three times to form eight haploid bnuclei
E4-Three of eight nuclei migrate to one end of the cell to form antipodal cells
E5-Another two nuclei/polar nuclei move to the centre
E6-(near the opening of ovule /micropyle) one of three nuclei develops into egg cell/female
flanked by two synergid cells
E7-The structure is known as embryo sac

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(d)

Based on diagram ,Describe the process that occurs in the anther


1
1
1
1
1
1
1

P1 Pollen mother cells in the pollen sac are diploid cells


P2 These cells undergoes meiosis
P3 to produce four haploid microspores/ tetrad
P4 Nucleus of each microspore divides by mitosis
P5 Forming haploid tube nucleus and generative nucleus
P6 These microspores develop into pollen grains
(e)

Diagram shows the formation of pollen grain in anther of a plant

Based on the diagram, explain the formation of pollen grain


F-Pollen grains are formed in anther, an anther has four pollen sacs
E1-Each pollen sac contains hundreds f cells called pollen mother cells (2n)
E2-Each pollen mother cell undergoes meiosis to produces four haploid pollen cells/micro
pores (n)
E4-The nucleus of each microspores then divided by mitosis to form a tube nucleus and
generative nucleus

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.5.2The formaiton of the embyyo sac in the ovule


No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

1
1

Name the structure Y


Mega spore/Embryo
(b)

In diagram, complete and label the mature embryo sac


Based in diagram, Explain the formation of a mature embryo sac
1
1
1

P1-Embryo sac mother cell divides by meiosis to form haploid cells


P2-(three haploid cell degenerate,while one haploid cell develop into a haploid megaspore
P3-The nucleus in the mega spores divides 3 times mitotically ) to produce 8 haploid cells
P4-One cell form the egg cell,2 cell form the polar nuclei.3 cells form the anti podal cells and 2
cells form the synergid cells

Fertilization in plant occurs when receive nucleus in pollen grain fused with the nucleus in
embryo sac in ovule .Based on your biology knowledge ,explain the development of ovule to
form mature embryo sac
F-The ovule develops form the ovarian tissue

1
1
1
1

E1-Inside the ovule is a central mass of parenchyma tissue/nucellus


E2-only one diploid cell megaspores /embryo sac mother cell(2n) enlarges
E3-Embryo sac mother cell undergoes meiosis to form a row of four haploid/megaspores
E4-three of the four megaspore enlarges and nucleus undergoes mitosis three times to form
eight haploid nuclei

E5-The left megaspore enlarges and nucleus undergoes mitosis three times to form eight
haploid nuclei

E6-Three of the eight (migrate to one end of the cell) to form antipodal cells, another two
nuclei to form polar nuclei develops into an egg cell/female gamete/ovum and to synergids cell
any 6

1
1

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.5.3Formation of the pollen tube, zygote and triploid


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram shows the germination of pollen tube towards the embryo sac in flowering plants

Based on diagram 5.2, explain the fertilization process in embryo sac


P1-One male gamete will fuse the egg cell to form a diploid zygote
P2-Another male gamete will fuse with 2 polar nuclei to form triploid nucleus
P3-Both process take place at the same time //double fertilization occurs
(b)

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

Reproduction in plants involves the fusion of male gamete and female gamete.diagram 4.2
shows a male gamete 4.3 shows the early stage of double fertilization in flowering
T

Based on the diagram name the structure S


Polen grain
(c)

Explain what happen to structure S when it land on structure T


F1-Sucrose solution /sugar on structure T stimulate germination of S
F2-Pollen tube grows out the ovary
F3-It grows down (the style) into ovary
F4-enter ovule through microphyle

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(e)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Complete diagram 4.4 below to shows how double fertilization occurs

The diagram 4 shows the process of double fertilization in a flowering plants


Criteria of the diagram :
Correct drawing with pollen tube enter through the microphyle end

-1

Correct drawing of embryo sac with 2 polar nuclei and egg nucleus inside- 1
Correct drawing of pollen tube with 2 male nuclei with correct labels

-1

1
1
1

(f)

Name the cells contains in Y that involves in double fertilization process


2 polar nuclei//1 egg cell
(g)

How structure W cause the formation of structure X


F-W rough sticky wall
E1-(sticky wall)stimulate the germination /elongation of structure X to embryo sac

(h)

1
1

State the two nuclei found in the structure X


Nucleus tube and generative nucleus /male gamete

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(i)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Describe briefly the movement of structure X


P1-X secretes enzymes to digest the surrounding tissue as it grows downward
P2-the direction of growth of structure X is controlled by the nucleus tube which at the tip of
the structure

(j)

1
1

Explain why the fertilization process is process is known double fertilization


1

P1-because there are two fertilization


P2-First fertilization happen when one of the male gamete fuses with the egg to form zygote
P3-The second fertilization happens when the other male gamete fuses with the two polar
nuclei to form a triploid nucleus (3n)/endosperm
(k)

1
1

1
1
1
1

Explain what happen happens to the structure Y after double fertilization?


P1-Nuclues triploid /zygote triploid undergoes mitosis
P2-Then develop to endosperm
P3-Zygote develop to embryo
P4-(endosperm) store the food for the development of embryo/seed germination

Essay enhancement corner


No

Marking Criteria

(a)

The product form the process in (a) is transferred onto the stigma through pollination Explain
the process that will occur in the style and ovary after pollination
P1 On the stigma, sugar stimulates pollen grains to germinate
P2 Form pollen tube
P3 Pollen tubes grows into the style and towards the ovule, led by tube nucleus
P4 Generative nucleus undergoes mitosis and form two male gamete nuclei
P5 Pollen tube penetrates the ovule through micropyle

Marks

1
1
1
1
1
1

P6 Tube nucleus disintegrates


P7 One male nuclei fuses with the egg cells to form diploid zygote
P8 Another male nucleus fuses with the two polar nuclei to form triploid zygote
P9 This process is known as double fertilization
P10 Triploid nucleus divide to form endosperm (ie nutritive tissues)
P11 Diploid zygote divides and grows into embryo

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(b)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram shows the proves of fertilization in flowering plants


Pollen grains

Ovary

Mature embryo sac

Based on diagram describe how this process occurs

10

P1-Pollen grains have been released form the anther to the stigma for pollination by insect to
wind
P2-When pollen grain lands on stigma, epidermal cell secrete sucrose solution
P3-(sucrose solution) stimulates the pollen grain to germinate and pollen tube
P4-the pollen tube grows down the style to ward th ovule
P5-it secretes enzyme to digest surrounding tissues as it grow downward
P6-The generative nucleus (follows behind it) divides by mitosis to form two male gamete
nuclei
P7-the male gamete nuclei move down the pollen tube lead by the tube nucleus
P8-when the pollen tube reaches the ovary, it penetrates the ovule through the microphyle
P9-The tube nucleus degenerates, leaving a clear passage for the male nuclei to enter the
embryo sac

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

P10-one male gamete fuses with two polar nuclei to form triploid nucleus which divide by
mitosis to form endosperm tissue

P12-this fertilization is called double fertilization

4551/2 All right reserved

any 10 point

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(c)

Based on the diagram ,explain how double fertilization occurs in the plant10
1

P1-Anther produces pollen grains .male gamete


P2-Polen mother cell (in the anther) undergoes meiosis to produce (four) megaspores
(n)/haploid cells /tetrad

1
1
1

P3-Megaspores (n)/haploid cells /tetrad develop into pollen grains


P4-The nucleus of each megaspores (n)/haploid cell /divides by mitosis
P5-to form one tube nucleus and one generative nucleus

1
1

P6-When a pollen grain falls on the stigma


P7-Stimulates (the pollen grain to germinate to) form pollen tube

1
1

P8-(during the growth of pollen tube) the generative nucleus divides mitotically
P9-to produce two male gametes
P10- to the male gametes move/follow behind the tube nucleus (down the pollen tube until they

reach the microphyle


1

P11-The tube nucleus disintegrates and the two male gametes enter the embryo sac
P12-(during double fertilization ), one male gamete fuses with the egg cell/ovum to form a

diploid zygote and


P13-The other male gamete fuses with two polar nuclei to form a triploid nucleus (so double
fertilization occurs)

any 10

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(d)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram shows the process of double fertilization in the flowering plant

Describe the process


P1-One of the male nuclei which is x fuses with egg cell nucleus which is D

1
1
1
1
1
1

P2-the other form a diploid Zygote


P3-The other male nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei which is C
P4-To form nucleus divides to form the endosperm
P5-This triploid nucleus divides to form the endosperm
P5-That will provide food to the embryo
(e)

Diagram 7.2 shows the growing of pollen tube in the style and the process of double
fertilization in flowering plant.
Pollen grains

Sytle
Pollen tube
Embyro sac

Antipodal cell
Polar
nucleus
Egg cell

Integumens

Pollen tube

Describe the growing process of pollen tube in the style and the process of double fertilization
in flowering plant7
Growing of pollen tube process
P1- Sugary/sucrose solution stimulate the growing of pollen tube
P2 - pollen tube grows down the style towards the ovule
P3 - The generative nucleus divides to form two male gametes nuclei
P4 - Leading the front is the nucleus tube

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Double fertilization
P6 - Pollen tube penetrate the micropyle to reach the egg cell
P7 - Nucleus tube disintegrate
P8 - one of male nucleus fuses with egg cell to form a diploid zygote
P9 - other male gamete nucleus fuses with the two polar nuclei forming a triploid nucleus.
P10 - which later develops into the endosperm
P11 - the synergid cells and the antipodal cells disintegrate
Any 7 P

1
1
1
1
1
1

10

4.5.4 The development of seed and fruits after fertilization


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Based on your answer in above, describe the formation of fruit and seed
P1-The diploid zygote divides via to form the embryo
P2-The embryo develops and differentiates into three part, a radical (young root),plumule
(young shoot) and one two cotyledons (seed leaves)
P3-(at the same time) the triploid endosperm cell undergoes repeated mitosis to beome
endosperm (a food store that nourish embryo after germination )

1
1
1

P4-The intergument forms the testa (seed coat)


1
1
1

P5-The ovule develops into a seed/multiple protect the seed I the ovary
P6-the ovary becomes a fruit (which protect the seed and help in its dispersal)

4.5.5The importance of fertilization


No
(a)

(b)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Explain the significant of double fertilization in flowering plant Structure Question


P1-Diploid zygote will developed to form an embryo
P2-Triploid nucleus will develop to form endosperm tissue
P3-Endosperm tissue nourishes the developing embryo any 2

1
1
1

Explain the significant of the process(double fertilization ) that occur in ovaries of flowering
plants4
P1 After double fertilisation, the outer layer of ovule dries up and develops a hard seed coat
P2 To protect both embryo and endosperm
P3 Ovule will develop into seed
P4 Ovary enlarges and form fruit
P5 Ovary wall develops into fruit wall that cover & protect the fruit
P6 This will ensure the flowering plant to survive
P8 The endosperm of the seed provides nutrition and energy to the embryo for its growth

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.6 Growth in multicellular organism


Refer to: SPM 2007 Q7 Based on the diagram explain meaning of growth [4 marks] Pg 318
No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(a)

(b)

Based on the diagram name the diagram labeled


T1: Zone of cell division
T2: Zone of expansion /elongation
T3: Zone of differentiation

1
1
1

Name the zone where the primary xylem tissue starts to form?
T3//zone of elongation

(c)

Give two example of cells that undergoes the process in zone t3


Epidermal cell//phloem cell/xylem cell/root hair cell
Essay enhancement corner
No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram shows a longitudinal section of shoot tips of a plant

Describe the process of growth in each zone


Zone I
F1-Cell division stage
E1-The number of cells in an organism increase by repeated mitosis

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

(b)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Zone II
F2-Cell enlargement stage
E2-Increase in size and volume of cell through intake of water

1
1

Zone III
F3-Cell differentiation stage
E3-Unspecialized cell become specialized permanent cells with specific function

1
1

Diagram shows the stges of growth X ,Y and Z at tip of plant shoot


Zone P,Q,R and S shows the changes that occur in the cells during the stages of the growth

Based on diagram ,Explain the meaning of growth


Criteria :
P1-Mitosis
P2-Increase in the number of cells
P3-Elogation of cells
P4-Specialisation of cells
P5-increase of shoot length
P6-The process is irreversible
F1-zone P and zone R is cell division /mitosis zone
P1-Produces new /number of cells increases
F2-zone R is elongation region
P2-New vacuole are formed /enlargement of vacuole /increase in the size of cells
F3-zone S is differentiation /specialization in zone
P3-Differentiation cell are specialized to form specific /permanent of tissue /form specific
function /example of tissue
F4-Length of shoot increases/Height of the plant increases
P4-the process is irreversible

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4

Any four

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.7 The growth curve


4.7.1The parameter for measuring growth
No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram 8 shows the growth curve of a maize plant, using dry mass as parameter of growth

Explain how the dry mass of maize plants can be measured over a period of time to be used as a
parameter of growth.
P1- 50 maize seeds are planted in a nursery bed.
P2- The seeds are given the same condition the same amount of light, water and minerals
P3- On day 1, three maize seeds are removed from the nursery bed and heated at 102oC until
their combined mass becomes constant. The average dry mass of each maize seed is
determined.
P4- On day 3, three maize seeds (or seedling, if they have germinated) are taken out and their
average dry mass is determine in the above step (On day 1).
P5- Three seedling are again removed at every interval of two day (on day %, 7, 9 and so on)
and their average dry mass is determined.
P6- Changes in the average dry mass of a maize plant are recorded in the form of a table.
(b)

Explain the shape of the graph shown in Diagram


P1- The growth curve of the maize plant has a sigmoid shape
P2- For the period of time from A to B, the dry mass of the plant decreases.
P3- This is because the stored food in the seed is oxidized to produce energy for germination.
P4- From B to C, leaves have emerged and the young plant begins to make food by
photosynthesis. The food is used to make plant tissues.
P5- This cause the growth rate to increase.
P6- When the maize plant is near maturation,
P7- growth slows down and the curve is less steep(CD)
P8- During the period from D to E, the plant has reached maturity. The rate of photosynthesis
Is equal to the rate of respiration.
P9- Hence, there is no more increase in the dry mass of the plant. Growth rate equals zero.
P10- When the plant are old, there will be a decrease in the dry mass of the plant (EF).
P11- This is because flowers, fruits and the older leaves fall off. The growth rate is negative.

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(c)

Explain why the dry mass is the most accurate parameter of growth.
P1- The dry mass of an organism is its mass after all its water content has been removed.
P2- It is the mass of real tissues in the organism
P3- Unlike fresh mass, dry mass is not affected by changes in the water content in the
organism.

1
1
1

4.7.1 The sigmoid growth curve of an organism


No
(a)

Marking Criteria
On diagram 5.1 label and state all phases that should be in the growth curve2

ABCDE(b)

Marks

Lag phase
rapid growth phase
slow growth phase
Stationary phase
Senescence and death phase

Using any phase above ,explain briefly what happen during each phases
P1-Lag phase : growth rate is slow
P2-Rapid growth phase: growth rate is the fastest
P3-Slow growth phase: growth rate is zero
P5- Senescence and death phase: old age stage

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

Refer to: SPM 2011

Explain the change occur in each phase

No
(a)

[10 marks ]

Pg 315

Marking Criteria

Marks

Graph shows fresh mass of Zea mays plotted against time

10 14

15

Based on the graph, which shows the fastest growth rate?


Week 4-8
(b)

(c)

Explain the growth rates as shown by the graph form start to week 8
P1-Negative growth/growth rate is negative form beginning to week 1because germinating
seeds use the food stored in the endosperm

P2-From week 2-week 4-the growth rate is slow because the leaves are starting to grow(and
photosynthesis has just begun)

P3-Week 4 week 8 shows growth rate because plant is actively making food (though
photosynthesis)

Name the phase f the plant growth after week 8


Mature phase/maturity

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.7.3 The growth curve of insect


Refer to: SPM 2011

Explain the growth of grasshopper [4marks] pg 315

No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

On graph 5.2 draw an arrow and label it as Q to shows where the ecdysis begins

Based on diagram 5.2, explain the process that occur during X


P1-a new exoskeleton forms below the old exoskeleton
P2-the exoskeleton soften and its essential resources are digested and reabsorbed into new
skeleton
P3-The old exoskeleton then splits and is discarded
P4-(before the new exoskeleton hardens), the insect enlarges its body volume by swallowing air
or liquid until new cuticle hardenAny 3

1
1
1
1
3

(b)

Graph 5.1
Graph 5.2
A student carried out an experiment to study the growth and life cycle of a rat and grasshopper.
The curves for both organism are shown in the diagram 5.1 and 5.2
Give two differences of the growth curve between both organism
Growth curve for a rat

Growth curve for a grasshopper

P1

Shaped sigmoid/S

Shaped: staircase

P2-

Has five different phases

Has five instars an imago phase

4551/2 All right reserved

2
2

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

The difference between growth curve of human and insect


No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Graph 7(a) and 7(b) show the growth curve of human and insect.
Based on the graph , compare the growth process in human and insect.

Similarities
S1- height of man / length of instar increases by time

1
1

S2- both show horizontal line / constant growth during adult


Difference
D1- Form of graph Sigmoid form for human and like series of steps in insect
D2- Age of organism the height measured yearly, but in insect used day for measuring the
length
D3- Caused of different human have endoskeleton but insect have exoskeleton
D4- Stages involve in human, the curve has three different phases, but there are five steps in
insect // nymphal stages

1
1
1
1

D5 - Vertical and horizontal line : curve for human did not shows different line (only the
curve from continuous points), but there are five different horizontal and vertical lines each

D6- Zero growth no point to show zero growth in human, but there are 5time of zero growth
(at horizontal line)

D7- Sudden growth : no sudden growth for human, but there are sudden growth in insect (at
vertical line)

D8- Ecdysis : no ecdysis in human but ecdysis occurred in insect

1
1

D9- Mitosis : the cells in human undergo mitosis all the time, but in insect, mitosis only
occurred at certain time (during ecdysis)
D10-Absorption of air : in human, there are no absorption of air, but in insect, during ecdysis
Max 10 marks *
2 marks for similarities
8 marks for Differences

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No
(b)

Marking Criteria
Diagram 8.3(i) and 8.3 (ii) ,explain the differences between the growth curve of both organism
4

Explain the differences between insect growth curve and maize growth curve
E1-the pattern of growth in maize is sigmoid curve but the pattern of growth in insect is the
form of steps
E2-growthis an irreversible process which increase the number of cells, size complexity and
organ function in the organism body
E=2m

Marks

1
1

Essay enhancement corner


No
(a)

Marking Criteria
Growth and development does not cease once birth has occurred, instead it continues
throughout the stages of life from Infancy to adulthood.
Do you agree with the above statement '? Justify your answer.
Give opinion
F:Relate occurrence of growth and development at each stage of life
E: Justification
Opinion : Agree
F: Infancy ( birth - 2 years )
E 1: Growth and development occur at a rapid .rate.
E2: Head and brain develop faster than rest of the body.
E3: Lymph tissues well developed ( thymus) to give immunity to diseases
F: Childhood
E 1 : Period of steady growth and body proportions change.
E2: Steady increase in height and organ size.
F: Adolescence
El : Period of rapid growth/ acceleration of growth.
E2: Development of reproductive system, sexual organs become functional I attains
puberty/gametogenesis
E3: Rapid changes in height, weight, fat distribution and body proportions.
E4: Males experience growth spurts later females and grow for a longer period of time.
F: Adulthood
E 1: Period of no new growth / stationary phase.
E2: functional organ system physical peak.
E3: Growth and specialization of new cells continue to occur to replace dead cells1 damaged
tissues , e.g. blood cells, liver cells , skin cells
Any 8 correct
KN: Ability to describe the human growth curve correctly /reflects the sigmoid shape.

4551/2 All right reserved

Marks

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SULIT

10

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

4.8 The primary and secondary growth in plants


Refer to: SPM 2007
(i) State three differences between primary growth an d secondary growth [3 marks]
(ii) Explain the benefits to the plant that undergoes secondary growth as compared to those that do not undergo
secondary growth [7marks]
Pg 318
4.8.1secondary growth
No
(a)

Marking Criteria

Marks

Diagram 7.3 shows the stages of secondary growth in a dicotyledonous stem.

Explain the process of secondary growth in dicotyledonous stem5


Secondary growth of dicotyledonous stem
P1 - Secondary growth of dicotyledonous stem involves vascular cambium and cork cambium
P2 - Vascular cambium divides actively by mitosis.
P3 - To form ring of cambium / new cells
P4 Cells at inner layer will form secondary xylem
P5 Cells from outer layer will form secondary phloem
P6 Cork cambium divides by mitosis to form new cells
P7 The new cells at the inner layer form parenchyma
P8 The new cells at the outer layer form cork (tissue)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Any 5 P

4551/2 All right reserved

SULIT

SULIT

4551/2
Chapter 4 :Reproduction and growth 2014

No

Marking Criteria

Marks

(b)

Diagram show the stage of secondary growth in the stem of dicotyledons plants. Explain the
stage of growth (1 to 4)
P1-(secondary growth start)st vascular cambium at the vascular bundle /separated primary
xylem and primary phloem//involve the lateral meristem

P2-The cambium cell divide radially and merge with vascular cambium to form intervascular
cambium

P3-(the cambium cell divide) tangentially to produced two layer of cell (one inner layer will
form secondary xylem while the other layer will form secondary phloem

P5-the primary xylem will pushes towards the pith while the primary phloem will pushes
toward to epidermis

P6-the walls of secondary xylem become thickened with lignin to give the tissue mechanical
strength 9which have to support the plant)

P7-Cambium cell between the vascular bundle divided to form secondary parenchyma tissue

1
6

P8-(increasing the secondary tissue will ) increase the diameter of the stem
(c)

Describe the importance od secondary growth


1
1
1
1

E1-secondary growth increase the perimeter/diameter of the stem


E2-to increase the mechanical support (and stability)
E3-Secondary growth produced more secondary phloem and secondary xylem
E4-to support water and mineral salt transportation
E5-to transport the product of photosynthesis
E6-(more secondary xylem tissue produced) to increase support when the plants become
increase the stem and diameter
E7-to increase the lift of the plant of the plant/life longer any 4

4551/2 All right reserved

1
1
1

SULIT