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# CARLETON UNIVERSITY

August 2013

## Car leton Univer sity

Depar tment of Mechanical & Aer ospace Engineer ing
MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I
Cour se Outline
1.

## Review of Statics, and Fr iction Pr oblems

Review of statics in two-dimensions; types of common structural components; types of
support and reactions in 2D equilibrium; free body diagrams.
Friction problems: types of friction; equilibrium problems involving Coulomb friction general examples, friction between coaxial discs and flexible belts.

## Concepts of Str ess and Str ain

Definition of stress: normal stress; shear stress; complementary shear stress; hydrostatic
stress. Definition of strain: direct strain; engineering and natural strain; volumetric strain.
Influence of material properties: stress-strain diagrams; yield stress; ultimate stress;
measure of ductility; elastic deformation and plastic deformation. Hooke's law in onedimension; Poisson's ratio; thermal effects. General 3D Hooke's law for direct stresses;
bulk modulus. Shear stress-shear strain relation.

3.

## Statically Deter minate and Indeter minate Str ess Systems

Distinction between statically determinate and indeterminate stress systems. Principles
of solution. Examples in uniaxial and multiaxial stress systems.

4.

## Tor sion of Cir cular Sections

Torsion of circular sections: relation between stress, strain, angle of twist and torque.
Non-uniform circular shafts. Torque transmission by gear wheels.

5.

## Symmetr ic Bending of Beams (I)

Shear force and bending moment diagrams; relationship between loads, shear force and
bending moment. Deformations in pure bending; direct stresses in bending; first and
second moments of area; simple bending formula; applications. Combined bending and
direct stress. Shear stress in bending; shear flow.

6.

## Symmetr ic bending of Beams (II)

Moment-curvature relationship. Slopes and delections by direct integration. Use of
Macaulay's step function. Deflections by superposition. Statically indeterminate beams
problems.

7.

Buckling Instability
Concepts of stable, neutral and unstable equilibrium. Euler's theory of strut buckling; end
conditions. Buckling of real struts. Applicationsof Euler's theory.

## Requir ed Textbook and Cour se Manual:

(a) Mechanics of Engineering Materials
Authors: P.P. Benham, R.J. Crawford and C.G. Armstrong
Edition: 1996
(b) Course Manual

## Other Refer ences:

i)

Mechanics of Solids
P.S. Steif
Pearson-Prentice Hall
1st Edition (2012)

ii)

Mechanics of Materials
R.C. Hibbeler
Pearson-Prentice Hall
8th Edition (2011)

iii)

Mechanics of Materials
J.M. Gere
Thomson Brooks/Cole
6th Edition (2004)

iv)

Mechanics of Materials
R.R. Craig, Jr.
John Wiley & Sons
3rd Edition (2011)

iv)

Mechanics of Materials
T.A. Philpot
John Wiley & Sons
2nd Edition (2011)

Assessment:

Laboratory Experiments
Mid-Term Examination
Final Examination

25%
15%
60%

Total

100%

NOTE:
a)

## Absenteeism fr om any labor ator y without a valid r eason

automatically r esults in a Fail gr ade for the cour se.

b)

## In the event of a missed labor ator y session because of illness, it

must be suppor ted by a medical cer tificate dated no mor e than
one day after the missed session. The medical cer tificate must be
submitted to the instr uctor within 5 wor king days.

c)

## Failur e in either the final examination or the labor ator y

component will constitute failur e in this cour se.

d)

## Students with disabilities that r equir e academic accommodation

in this cour se ar e encour aged to contact the Paul Menton Centr e.

e)

## Ever y student is r equir ed to have a pr oper har d cover

scientific/engineer ing log book for the labor ator y sessions. The
log book is submitted at the end of each session for gr ading.
Submissions in any other for m will not be accepted.

## Car leton Univer sity

Depar tment of Mechanical & Aer ospace Engineer ing
MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I

## Study Guide and Suggested Pr oblems for PA Classes

Listed below are the various chapters in the textbook (Mechanics of Engineering Materials, P.P.
Benham, R.J. Crawford and C.G. Amstrong) which cover the range of topics in Solid Mechanics
taught in this course. Also listed are the problems at the end of these chapters that may be
attempted by students. Students are strongly encouraged to work on as many of these problems
as possible to help reinforce their understanding of the lectures. Difficulties with these problems
may be resolved at the scheduled PA classes which every student is expected to attend (and
attendance will be taken).
Some students may also find it helpful to read the relevant topics in other textbooks listed in the
Course Outline.

1.

## Review of Statics, and Fr iction Pr oblems

Chapter 1, Sections 1.1 - 1.8 for Review of Statics.
Suggested Problems: Problems 1.6 to 1.19, plus supplementary problem set in this
manual.

2.

## Concepts of Str ess and Str ain

Chapter 2, Section 2.1; and Chapter 3.
Suggested Problems: Problems 3.1, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7.

3.

## Statically Deter minate and Indeter minate Str ess Systems

Chapter 2 and Chapter 4.
Suggested Problems: Problems 2.1, 2.2, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9 and 2.13 in Chapter 2;
Problems 4.1 to 4.3, 4.5, 4.6 and 4.8 to 4.13 in Chapter 4.

4.

Tor sion
Chapter 1, Section 1.18 and Section 1.20; and Chapter 5, Sections 5.1 - 5.7.
Suggested Problems: Problems 5.1, 5.3 to 5.5, and 5.7 to 5.9.

5.

## Symmetr ic Bending of Beams (I)

Chapter 1, Section 1.10; and Chapter 6, Sections 6.1 - 6.9, Sections 6.11, 6.12, 6.14 and
6.15.
Suggested Problems: Problems 1.28 in Chapter 1.
Problems 6.1 to 6.4, 6.7, 6.8, 6.10, 6.11, 6.22, 6.28 and 6.29 in
Chapter 6.

6.

## Symmetr ic Bending of Beams (II)

Chapter 7, all sections except Sections 7.5 and 7.6; and Chapter 8, Sections 8.1 and 8.2.
Suggested Problems: Problems 7.1 to 7.3, 7.8, 7.10, 7.12 and 7.14 in Chapter 7.
Problems 8.1 to 8.7 in Chapter 8.

7.

Buckling Instability
Chapter 10, Sections 10.1 and 10.2.
Suggested Problems: Problems 10.1 to 10.5, plus supplementary problem set in this
manual.

## Prepared by: Prof. C.L. Tan

Carleton University

## MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I

Supplementary Problems: Friction
1.

Figure 1 shows two wedge blocks A and B, weighing 1000 N and 50 N, respectively, in
contact. The coefficient of friction between all contacting surfaces is 0.1. What would be
the smallest value of the force P required to push the block A upwards? What would be its
Am.: 887.3 N; 577.4 N.
value if there were no friction?

Figure 2

Figure 1
2.

The top block of the system shown in Figure 2 is free to move vertically. The mass of
each of the three blocks and the corresponding coefficients of friction for the pairs of
contacting surfaces are as indicated in the figure. What is the minimwn horizontal force P
that will cause slip to occur between the blocks?
Am.: J089 N.

3.

The schematic layout of a band brake applied to a brake drum of a hoist is shown in
Figure 3. The braking force P is applied at one end of a lever which is pivoted on a fixed
fulcrwn at F. The diameter of the drum is 1 m; the arc of contact between the belt and the
drum is 225; and the coefficient of friction is 0.3.
What is the force P required to give a braking torque of 5.5 kNm if the drum is rotating
(a) clockwise, and (b) anti-clockwise? Am.: 294 N; 4694 N.

a = 62.5em
b JOem
e = 2.5 em

Figure 3

4.

## In a relatively large motorized mechanical hobby set is a belt-pulley system for

transmitting power. There are two pulleys, one 18 cm diameter and the other 8 cm
diameter, that are on parallel shafts 78 cm apart. They are connected by a cross belt. What
is the length of the belt required and the angle of lap between the belt and each pulley?
The maximum tension allowed in the belt is 200 N and the coefficient of friction between
the belt and the pulleys is 0.25. What is the power that can be transmitted by the belt
when the smaller pulley rotates at 450 rev/min? Ans.: 199 em: 3..177 rad; 219 W.

5.

A friction clutch consists of a single steel disc fixed to the driving shaft. Against this are
pressed to pressed to coaxial rings, one on each face, sliding in splines attached to the
driven shaf and faced with friction material of outer diameter 300 mm and inner diameter
125 mm. On each ring there is a spring load of 2 kN pressing it against the steel disc.
Calculate the maximum power which can be transmitted at 1200 rev/min, assuming (a)
that the pressure between the friction surfaces is uniform, and (b) that the surfaces wear
uniformly. Take the coefficient of friction as 0.35. Ans.: (a) 19.7 kW; (b) 18.7 kW.

Carleton University

## MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I

Supplementary Problems: Buckling Instability

1.

The leg in Figure 1(a) acts as a column and can be modelled by two pin-connected
members that are attached to a torsional spring having a stiffness k (torque/rad), as shown
in Figure 1(b). Assuming that the bone material is rigid, detennine the critical buckling
load P. Ans.: P = 4k1L
p

rr--,..--P

4.57 m

(a)

Figure 1

(b)

Figure 2

2.

Figure 2 shows a vertical rod of diameter of 50 mm, Young's modulus 207 GPa, secured
in position by a guy wire when it is subjected to a horizontal load P. The guy wire has
an ultimate stress of 345 MPa and a diameter of 6.35 mm. What is the maximum value
of P that this system can withstand before failure as a load-carrying system can be
expected? Ans.: P = 7.726 kN

3.

Figure 3 shows a rock crusher; the arms AB and Be are 1.5 m in length. A pressure p
of 3.45 MPa is developed on the 127 mm piston D. The smallest that ex. gets is Hr.
Determine the thickness h of arms AB and Be, noting that the width is 50 mm as shown
in the figure. For safety, design for a 50% overload. The Young's modulus for all
members is 207 GPa. Ans.: h = 36.8 mm

Figure 3

4.

Figure 4 shows a steel connecting rod, 2.4 m long and a rectangular cross section of 100
x 50 mm. The piston has a diameter of 0.635 m. What is the maximum safe pressure
p in the cylinder when AB is locked horizontally? AB can be considered pin-ended for
bending in the plane of the figure, and fixed ended for bendi.ng in the plane normal to the
paper. Young's modulus for steel is 207 OPa. Ans.: p = 4/!7 MPa gauge.

Figure 4

5.

The wing strut shown in Figure 5 of an airplane has a standard 63.5 mm streamlined
section with the following area properties: second moments of area 111 = 16.911 x 104
mm4 , 122= 4.237 x let mm4 ; area of cross section A = 243 mm2 On a hard landing, the
resultant load is 4.45 kN. What factor of safety does the wing strut have? The strut is
pinned about the axis 2-2 and fixed about the axis 1-1. It is made of a steel with
Young's modulus of 207 OPa. Ans.: 1.17

1 - - - 2. 44m-----i
Resultant

Figure 5

## MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I

Laboratory Experiments

CARLETON UNIVERSITY
Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I
_______________________________________________________________________________
Experiment B: Torsion of a Hollow Circular Shaft
_______________________________________________________________________________
1.

2.

3.

OBJECTIVES
(a)

To obtain the torsional stiffness of a hollow circular shaft and the shear modulus of
the specimen material.

(b)

To verify the simple torsion formula for shear stresses in circular shafts.

APPARATUS
(a)

A rigid supporting frame with fixtures for holding a long circular bar at one end.

(b)

A shackle assembly mounted on the rigid frame with a threaded tie rod to prop up
the other end of the circular bar when it is carrying a load.

(c)

(d)

## A long, hollow, circular aluminium bar specimen. It has a short, horizontal,

rectangular cross-bar welded on to it at the free end which serves as the torque arm.

(e)

A clamp-bracket to be mounted adjacent to the torque arm near the tip end of the
specimen.

(f)

## Vernier caliper, weights and dial gauges.

PROCEDURE
(a)

Record the dimensions of the specimen. Note the orientations of the three strain
gauges which are bonded to the top surface of the specimen. Gauge (1) is aligned
in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the circular bar; gauge (3) is perpendicular
to the axis; and gauge (2) is aligned at an angle 45o to gauges (1) and (3).

(b)

Mount a dial gauge to measure the vertical deflection of the horizontal arm of the
clamp-bracket. Record also the distance from the fixed end along the longitudinal
axis of the bar of this position where the vertical displacement is measured.

(c)

Mount another dial gauge to measure the vertical deflection at the tip of the bar in
the plane of the longitudinal axis.

(d)

Place the weight hanger at an appropriate position on the torque arm of the bar.

(e)

Turn on the Switch and Balance unit and the strain indicator. Set the channel
readings for the three gauges to zero before any load is applied to the specimen.
Make sure that the shackle assembly is not resting on or propping up the bar when
carrying out this procedure.

(f)

## Set the dial gauge readings to zero.

(g)

Apply incremental magnitudes of torque to the circular bar by adding weights onto
the hanger. Do not exceed 40 kgf in the weight.

(h)

For each load applied in step (g), adjust the nut on the tie-rod at the top of the
supporting frame so that the vertical deflection as measured by the dial gauge at the
tip of the bar is zero. Verify that the strains recorded in gauges (1) and (3) are also
zero. Then record the strain as indicated by gauge (2). Also, record the vertical
deflections of the points on the arms of the clamp-brackets as noted in (b).

(f)

After the maximum load has been applied and the readings taken, remove all the
weights on the hanger and adjust the nut on the tie-rod again to make sure that the
shackle assembly is not resting or acting on the specimen. Check the readings of the
strain gauge channels and the dial gauge again. They should remain at zero.

4.

REQUIREMENTS

(a)

Explain why it is necessary in step 3(h) above to make sure the vertical deflection at the tip
of the bar, or the strains in the directions of strain gauges (1) and (3) are zero again before

(b)

Plot a graph of the applied torque, T, versus the angle of twist, , for the circular bar
specimen tested. From the graph, determine the torsional stiffness, k = T/, of this bar.
Also determine the shear modulus (or modulus of rigidity) of the specimen material and
compare it with published values. Comment on the values obtained.

(c)

Convert the shear strains obtained at the outer surface of the circular bar to the
corresponding shear stresses, . Plot a graph of versus T showing the theoretical line for
the shear stresses on the outer surface of this bar and the experimental values. Comment on
any discrepancies in the results.
Note: A strain gauge can only measure the direct strain along the axis of the gauge.
The reading for gauge (2) is therefore the direct strain in the direction of this gauge.
However, as you will learn later in this course, in a pure shear condition as in this load
test, the magnitude of the shear strain in the plane of the circular cross-section can be
shown to be equal to TWICE the direct strain in the 45o plane of gauge (2).