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60 visualizzazioni26 pagineCourse manual for students

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Course manual for students

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60 visualizzazioni26 pagineCourse manual for students

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August 2013

Depar tment of Mechanical & Aer ospace Engineer ing

MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I

Cour se Outline

1.

Review of statics in two-dimensions; types of common structural components; types of

support and reactions in 2D equilibrium; free body diagrams.

Friction problems: types of friction; equilibrium problems involving Coulomb friction general examples, friction between coaxial discs and flexible belts.

Definition of stress: normal stress; shear stress; complementary shear stress; hydrostatic

stress. Definition of strain: direct strain; engineering and natural strain; volumetric strain.

Influence of material properties: stress-strain diagrams; yield stress; ultimate stress;

measure of ductility; elastic deformation and plastic deformation. Hooke's law in onedimension; Poisson's ratio; thermal effects. General 3D Hooke's law for direct stresses;

bulk modulus. Shear stress-shear strain relation.

3.

Distinction between statically determinate and indeterminate stress systems. Principles

of solution. Examples in uniaxial and multiaxial stress systems.

4.

Torsion of circular sections: relation between stress, strain, angle of twist and torque.

Non-uniform circular shafts. Torque transmission by gear wheels.

5.

Shear force and bending moment diagrams; relationship between loads, shear force and

bending moment. Deformations in pure bending; direct stresses in bending; first and

second moments of area; simple bending formula; applications. Combined bending and

direct stress. Shear stress in bending; shear flow.

6.

Moment-curvature relationship. Slopes and delections by direct integration. Use of

Macaulay's step function. Deflections by superposition. Statically indeterminate beams

problems.

7.

Buckling Instability

Concepts of stable, neutral and unstable equilibrium. Euler's theory of strut buckling; end

conditions. Buckling of real struts. Applicationsof Euler's theory.

(a) Mechanics of Engineering Materials

Authors: P.P. Benham, R.J. Crawford and C.G. Armstrong

Publisher: Addison Wesley Longman

Edition: 1996

(b) Course Manual

i)

Mechanics of Solids

P.S. Steif

Pearson-Prentice Hall

1st Edition (2012)

ii)

Mechanics of Materials

R.C. Hibbeler

Pearson-Prentice Hall

8th Edition (2011)

iii)

Mechanics of Materials

J.M. Gere

Thomson Brooks/Cole

6th Edition (2004)

iv)

Mechanics of Materials

R.R. Craig, Jr.

John Wiley & Sons

3rd Edition (2011)

iv)

Mechanics of Materials

T.A. Philpot

John Wiley & Sons

2nd Edition (2011)

Assessment:

Laboratory Experiments

Mid-Term Examination

Final Examination

25%

15%

60%

Total

100%

NOTE:

a)

automatically r esults in a Fail gr ade for the cour se.

b)

must be suppor ted by a medical cer tificate dated no mor e than

one day after the missed session. The medical cer tificate must be

submitted to the instr uctor within 5 wor king days.

c)

component will constitute failur e in this cour se.

d)

in this cour se ar e encour aged to contact the Paul Menton Centr e.

e)

scientific/engineer ing log book for the labor ator y sessions. The

log book is submitted at the end of each session for gr ading.

Submissions in any other for m will not be accepted.

Depar tment of Mechanical & Aer ospace Engineer ing

MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I

Listed below are the various chapters in the textbook (Mechanics of Engineering Materials, P.P.

Benham, R.J. Crawford and C.G. Amstrong) which cover the range of topics in Solid Mechanics

taught in this course. Also listed are the problems at the end of these chapters that may be

attempted by students. Students are strongly encouraged to work on as many of these problems

as possible to help reinforce their understanding of the lectures. Difficulties with these problems

may be resolved at the scheduled PA classes which every student is expected to attend (and

attendance will be taken).

Some students may also find it helpful to read the relevant topics in other textbooks listed in the

Course Outline.

1.

Chapter 1, Sections 1.1 - 1.8 for Review of Statics.

For Friction Problems, see also the textbook used in ECOR Mechanics I for additional

reading material if required.

Suggested Problems: Problems 1.6 to 1.19, plus supplementary problem set in this

manual.

2.

Chapter 2, Section 2.1; and Chapter 3.

Suggested Problems: Problems 3.1, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7.

3.

Chapter 2 and Chapter 4.

Suggested Problems: Problems 2.1, 2.2, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9 and 2.13 in Chapter 2;

Problems 4.1 to 4.3, 4.5, 4.6 and 4.8 to 4.13 in Chapter 4.

4.

Tor sion

Chapter 1, Section 1.18 and Section 1.20; and Chapter 5, Sections 5.1 - 5.7.

Suggested Problems: Problems 5.1, 5.3 to 5.5, and 5.7 to 5.9.

5.

Chapter 1, Section 1.10; and Chapter 6, Sections 6.1 - 6.9, Sections 6.11, 6.12, 6.14 and

6.15.

Suggested Problems: Problems 1.28 in Chapter 1.

Problems 6.1 to 6.4, 6.7, 6.8, 6.10, 6.11, 6.22, 6.28 and 6.29 in

Chapter 6.

6.

Chapter 7, all sections except Sections 7.5 and 7.6; and Chapter 8, Sections 8.1 and 8.2.

Suggested Problems: Problems 7.1 to 7.3, 7.8, 7.10, 7.12 and 7.14 in Chapter 7.

Problems 8.1 to 8.7 in Chapter 8.

7.

Buckling Instability

Chapter 10, Sections 10.1 and 10.2.

Suggested Problems: Problems 10.1 to 10.5, plus supplementary problem set in this

manual.

Carleton University

Supplementary Problems: Friction

1.

Figure 1 shows two wedge blocks A and B, weighing 1000 N and 50 N, respectively, in

contact. The coefficient of friction between all contacting surfaces is 0.1. What would be

the smallest value of the force P required to push the block A upwards? What would be its

Am.: 887.3 N; 577.4 N.

value if there were no friction?

Figure 2

Figure 1

2.

The top block of the system shown in Figure 2 is free to move vertically. The mass of

each of the three blocks and the corresponding coefficients of friction for the pairs of

contacting surfaces are as indicated in the figure. What is the minimwn horizontal force P

that will cause slip to occur between the blocks?

Am.: J089 N.

3.

The schematic layout of a band brake applied to a brake drum of a hoist is shown in

Figure 3. The braking force P is applied at one end of a lever which is pivoted on a fixed

fulcrwn at F. The diameter of the drum is 1 m; the arc of contact between the belt and the

drum is 225; and the coefficient of friction is 0.3.

What is the force P required to give a braking torque of 5.5 kNm if the drum is rotating

(a) clockwise, and (b) anti-clockwise? Am.: 294 N; 4694 N.

a = 62.5em

b JOem

e = 2.5 em

Figure 3

4.

transmitting power. There are two pulleys, one 18 cm diameter and the other 8 cm

diameter, that are on parallel shafts 78 cm apart. They are connected by a cross belt. What

is the length of the belt required and the angle of lap between the belt and each pulley?

The maximum tension allowed in the belt is 200 N and the coefficient of friction between

the belt and the pulleys is 0.25. What is the power that can be transmitted by the belt

when the smaller pulley rotates at 450 rev/min? Ans.: 199 em: 3..177 rad; 219 W.

5.

A friction clutch consists of a single steel disc fixed to the driving shaft. Against this are

pressed to pressed to coaxial rings, one on each face, sliding in splines attached to the

driven shaf and faced with friction material of outer diameter 300 mm and inner diameter

125 mm. On each ring there is a spring load of 2 kN pressing it against the steel disc.

Calculate the maximum power which can be transmitted at 1200 rev/min, assuming (a)

that the pressure between the friction surfaces is uniform, and (b) that the surfaces wear

uniformly. Take the coefficient of friction as 0.35. Ans.: (a) 19.7 kW; (b) 18.7 kW.

Carleton University

Supplementary Problems: Buckling Instability

1.

The leg in Figure 1(a) acts as a column and can be modelled by two pin-connected

members that are attached to a torsional spring having a stiffness k (torque/rad), as shown

in Figure 1(b). Assuming that the bone material is rigid, detennine the critical buckling

load P. Ans.: P = 4k1L

p

rr--,..--P

4.57 m

(a)

Figure 1

(b)

Figure 2

2.

Figure 2 shows a vertical rod of diameter of 50 mm, Young's modulus 207 GPa, secured

in position by a guy wire when it is subjected to a horizontal load P. The guy wire has

an ultimate stress of 345 MPa and a diameter of 6.35 mm. What is the maximum value

of P that this system can withstand before failure as a load-carrying system can be

expected? Ans.: P = 7.726 kN

3.

Figure 3 shows a rock crusher; the arms AB and Be are 1.5 m in length. A pressure p

of 3.45 MPa is developed on the 127 mm piston D. The smallest that ex. gets is Hr.

Determine the thickness h of arms AB and Be, noting that the width is 50 mm as shown

in the figure. For safety, design for a 50% overload. The Young's modulus for all

members is 207 GPa. Ans.: h = 36.8 mm

Figure 3

4.

Figure 4 shows a steel connecting rod, 2.4 m long and a rectangular cross section of 100

x 50 mm. The piston has a diameter of 0.635 m. What is the maximum safe pressure

p in the cylinder when AB is locked horizontally? AB can be considered pin-ended for

bending in the plane of the figure, and fixed ended for bendi.ng in the plane normal to the

paper. Young's modulus for steel is 207 OPa. Ans.: p = 4/!7 MPa gauge.

Figure 4

5.

The wing strut shown in Figure 5 of an airplane has a standard 63.5 mm streamlined

section with the following area properties: second moments of area 111 = 16.911 x 104

mm4 , 122= 4.237 x let mm4 ; area of cross section A = 243 mm2 On a hard landing, the

resultant load is 4.45 kN. What factor of safety does the wing strut have? The strut is

pinned about the axis 2-2 and fixed about the axis 1-1. It is made of a steel with

Young's modulus of 207 OPa. Ans.: 1.17

1 - - - 2. 44m-----i

Resultant

Figure 5

Laboratory Experiments

CARLETON UNIVERSITY

Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

MAAE2202 Mechanics of Solids I

_______________________________________________________________________________

Experiment B: Torsion of a Hollow Circular Shaft

_______________________________________________________________________________

1.

2.

3.

OBJECTIVES

(a)

To obtain the torsional stiffness of a hollow circular shaft and the shear modulus of

the specimen material.

(b)

To verify the simple torsion formula for shear stresses in circular shafts.

APPARATUS

(a)

A rigid supporting frame with fixtures for holding a long circular bar at one end.

(b)

A shackle assembly mounted on the rigid frame with a threaded tie rod to prop up

the other end of the circular bar when it is carrying a load.

(c)

(d)

rectangular cross-bar welded on to it at the free end which serves as the torque arm.

(e)

A clamp-bracket to be mounted adjacent to the torque arm near the tip end of the

specimen.

(f)

PROCEDURE

(a)

Record the dimensions of the specimen. Note the orientations of the three strain

gauges which are bonded to the top surface of the specimen. Gauge (1) is aligned

in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the circular bar; gauge (3) is perpendicular

to the axis; and gauge (2) is aligned at an angle 45o to gauges (1) and (3).

(b)

Mount a dial gauge to measure the vertical deflection of the horizontal arm of the

clamp-bracket. Record also the distance from the fixed end along the longitudinal

axis of the bar of this position where the vertical displacement is measured.

(c)

Mount another dial gauge to measure the vertical deflection at the tip of the bar in

the plane of the longitudinal axis.

(d)

Place the weight hanger at an appropriate position on the torque arm of the bar.

(e)

Turn on the Switch and Balance unit and the strain indicator. Set the channel

readings for the three gauges to zero before any load is applied to the specimen.

Make sure that the shackle assembly is not resting on or propping up the bar when

carrying out this procedure.

(f)

(g)

Apply incremental magnitudes of torque to the circular bar by adding weights onto

the hanger. Do not exceed 40 kgf in the weight.

(h)

For each load applied in step (g), adjust the nut on the tie-rod at the top of the

supporting frame so that the vertical deflection as measured by the dial gauge at the

tip of the bar is zero. Verify that the strains recorded in gauges (1) and (3) are also

zero. Then record the strain as indicated by gauge (2). Also, record the vertical

deflections of the points on the arms of the clamp-brackets as noted in (b).

(f)

After the maximum load has been applied and the readings taken, remove all the

weights on the hanger and adjust the nut on the tie-rod again to make sure that the

shackle assembly is not resting or acting on the specimen. Check the readings of the

strain gauge channels and the dial gauge again. They should remain at zero.

4.

REQUIREMENTS

(a)

Explain why it is necessary in step 3(h) above to make sure the vertical deflection at the tip

of the bar, or the strains in the directions of strain gauges (1) and (3) are zero again before

the other readings are taken.

(b)

Plot a graph of the applied torque, T, versus the angle of twist, , for the circular bar

specimen tested. From the graph, determine the torsional stiffness, k = T/, of this bar.

Also determine the shear modulus (or modulus of rigidity) of the specimen material and

compare it with published values. Comment on the values obtained.

(c)

Convert the shear strains obtained at the outer surface of the circular bar to the

corresponding shear stresses, . Plot a graph of versus T showing the theoretical line for

the shear stresses on the outer surface of this bar and the experimental values. Comment on

any discrepancies in the results.

Note: A strain gauge can only measure the direct strain along the axis of the gauge.

The reading for gauge (2) is therefore the direct strain in the direction of this gauge.

However, as you will learn later in this course, in a pure shear condition as in this load

test, the magnitude of the shear strain in the plane of the circular cross-section can be

shown to be equal to TWICE the direct strain in the 45o plane of gauge (2).

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