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Chapter I


A. Introduction
Seamen are an exceptional category of people, because they spend most part of their
lives being at sea. They are affected by environmental risk factors in everyday
activities. The total majority of seamen lives and works in conditions that are
extremely harmful to their health. The factors that affect them are: vibration, noise,
electromagnetic field, long term stress, the changes in time and climatic zones, etc. It
has a great negative influence on their health condition and their lives.
-Malakauskiene (2005)

One of the factors that greatly affect the health of our seamen is work-related stress.
Everyday we would encounter or hear stories about how its hard for our fellow kababayan
to navigate and conquer the sea. They work hard and spend most of their time away from
their families, its because they would want to provide the best for their loved ones. They
wouldnt mind bearing their sacrifices of leaving their families, as long they would know
their families would live comfortably. And when they do have to work in the depth of the
sea, its like working as prisoners carrying their sadness and sacrificing their own mental
Due to the isolated work environment aboard ships, it is of paramount importance for
seamen to be in optimum condition at all times, such that they can respond to any
emergencies on board; after all, the ship is their home. However, rules governing the way of
life aboard merchant ships, such as work scheduling, are less stringent than those of naval
vessels, resulting in a possible neglect of the welfare of merchant seamen. This may lead to
decreased job satisfaction and mental and physical wellbeing, thus contributing to the onset
of stress that further exacerbates the problem of poor performance of duties. This paper aims
to find a model that would allow for the seamens optimum performance while under stress.
Stress is defined here as the psychological and physical state that is induced due to various
factors, as discussed later in this paper. This state results in the person being unable to

perform his duties with the usual diligence, accuracy and efficiency; in order words, the
stressed seafarer is unable to perform to his full, optimum potential
But how does work-related stress affect the mental state of a seafarer? Various studies
have already mentioned the impact of work-related stress that is common to those who are
working in the sea. The researchers would like to conduct a study based on these phenomena
as they would like to have a deeper meaning of whats is really like to work as seafarers and
that could be a helpful guide for them to become prepared for this job.

B. Background of the Study

Seafaring is a working activity with particular characteristics and is performed in
specific contexts from a physical and psychosocial point of view. Work-related stress
affecting seafarers has particular characteristics often different from stress that can be
appreciated in other working activities. These include many possible dangers in the form of
accidents, injuries, and diseases. Seafaring risks depend on the type of activity or work on
board. This activity must be regarded as strenuous due to the multitude of factors within and
without the ship that come to bear on it (Shultz, 2002)
The nature of working life has changed significantly during the last decades. There
are now more work demands than ever before: turn around times are shorter, vessels visit
high numbers of ports, crew sizes are reduced, crew must take on many roles onboard, and
they are required to complete many different forms of paper-work. One of the effects of this
high demand is stress, and this recognized as one of the most prominent modern day workrelated problems (Tirilli, 2004)
Stress is the response to an event or situation. It is part of the normal process of
adaptation to environment and consists of adaptive behavioral responses (coping). It is
commonly considered as the result of a relationship with the environment that an individual
appraises as significant for his/her wellbeing and in which the demands tax or exceed
available coping resources. Exposure of subjects to a stressor of physical, social, or
environmental nature for a long time may make difficult to cope with it. When a stressor
becomes dysfunctional a condition named distress is generated (Allen, et. al, 2008)
Symptoms of work-related stress are many and varied, such as mood swings,

behavioral changes, decreased effectiveness or productivity at work, feelings of inadequacy,

inability to concentrate, excessive smoking, increased use of alcohol and medicines, and
health problems. Uncontrolled stress can, at its worst, lead to work fatigue. Work fatigue is
the reaction people have to excessive demands or pressures. When individuals suffer from
fatigue the normal amount of sleep and rest doesnt seem to be enough, and they may feel
continuously exhausted. Fatigue also has implications for work and may manifest itself in
lowered professional self-esteem and in an increased feeling that you cant cope at work. The
experience of stress is different for every person, and it affects organizations at every level
(Leszczynska and Jezewska, 2006).
Some people are affected more than others, but when individual employees suffer
from work-related stress, it affects the whole organization. Not only does this have
implications for the productivity and efficiency of those working onboard, but it may also
negatively effect their well-being, and ultimately the safety of the vessel itself.
Stress may also increase work absence (due to illness or otherwise) which will not
only have economic implications for seafarers, managers and owners, but may additionally
cause practical difficulties, as owners and managers will have to find staff to crew vessels.
C. Statement Of the Problem
Seafaring is a particular profession, in which workers are usually exposed to several
stressors that are related to the different duties on board ships. This paper will review the
main publications of different factors influencing seafarers with the aim of discovering
specific stress factors related to a specific duty on board.
This study entitled Work-Related Stress at Sea Self Estimation By Maritime
Students in Local Setting attempts to examine the comparison of the self-evaluation of the
work-related stress in students of the maritime students of CELTECH College.
Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What are the physical and psychological work-related stressors that affect the wellbeing of seafarers?
2. What are the effects of these stressors in the quality of life of those who works onboard?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the physical stressors and psychological

stressors of the seafarers towards their work environment and to their well-being?
D. Statement of Hypotheses
The hypothesis to be tested at .05 level of significance is:
Ho There is no significant relationship between the physical stressors and
psychological stressors of the seafarers towards their work environment and to their wellbeing.

E. Significance of the Study

The purpose of the study is to deepen and broaden the awareness on the prevailing
work conditions of the seafarers in a local setting.
Result of this study will be of importance to the following:
Filipino Seafarers They will benefit from this because the contents and findings
would reveal the actual scenarios and reactions towards a given situation abroad the ship.
From the situations, the seafarers can compare and assess their own experiences and reactions
are able to assess the logic of their decisions relative to the pursuance of their career.
Shipping Companies This study will provide insights on the problems encountered
by ship-crewing companies who are providing the manning or crewing needs of their fleets of
ships. They can better understand the influence of good physical, emotional and social setting
aboard the ships over the physical and mental fitness of the seafarers.
Maritime Schools The findings of the study will be able to help them develop
programs and enhancement of subject towards building up the emotional and social strengths
of the maritime students. It will improve the level of knowledge and skill of the students.
Researcher This study will help further knowledge on the awareness of the real life
situations of working on-board and how it can be a guide to develop a healthy lifestyle
program catered to the well being of our seafarers. Also, the current study provides an agenda
for future research and development in response to continuous search for contemporary

approaches to address further the relevance of awareness of the real life situations of working

F. Scope and Limitations

The researcher will focus on Work Related Stress At Sea Self Estimation By Mritime
Students In CELTECH College. The main respondents of this study are BSMT 3 rd year
sections A, B and C.
The sample consists of maritime students and officers in CELTECH College. Even
though this study reported on the of the real life situations of working on-board, these cannot
be generalized. Due to the nature of the sample, the results may not be representative of all
seafarers in the Philippines. Only the maritime students and officers of CELTECH College
will serve as the respondents of the study. Exempted from the study are those who are not
part of this school.
The time frame for this study is from June up to October 2015, for processes and
analysis, writing up for the report and final thesis. Thus, any or all developments that
occurred thereafter are deemed excluded. These developments may contain situations in the
transpiration alternatives and other future trends that may influence the findings, observations
and recommendations of the study.

G. Conceptual Framework
Formulation of the problem
And the research questions


Frameworks of

Data Gathering



Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study

The first step in doing this research was the formulation of the problem and the
creation of the research questions. Thereafter, the proponents think about the methodology
that will best fit the problem under research. Next, the researchers will gather secondary data
in the form of books and articles in order to improve our understanding of the research
problem. At this time, the researchers will have to start write the research outline, the
questionnaire about the self-evaluation of the work-related stress of the maritime students of
CELTECH College and in experienced merchant marine officers will be based on the
knowledge of the theoretical research.
Thereby, several decisions in data gathering such as the form of the questions, the
language used in the questionnaire, as well as the procedure in performing the survey
instrument has to be made. The questionnaire will be tested and later will be delivered to
selected respondents. After which the respondents answer the questionnaires, it will be

collected and a period of editing and analyzing the data will begin. These results will be used
to get a deeper understanding of the study. During the entire time between determining the
methodology and the end of writing down the analysis the frameworks of reference was
created. Finally, adding the conclusion and the closing comments will be completed for this

Chapter 2
Through the review of related literature and related studies, researchers were provided
the knowledge and background on the topic or subject being studied. A collection of
extensive related literature is an essential part of a research paper in a way that it serves as the
framework of the study to make it substantial, credible, and reliable. It serves as the feet of a
research study so it can stand on its own and make it strong enough for future researches to
build upon.
The researchers gathered all literatures, both foreign and local, that are deemed
important to the topic at hand.
Foreign Literature and Studies
There is little literature on combating stress for personnel at sea. However, there have
been studies regarding the causes of stress for personnel at sea. Among these factors, sleep
has been identified as having a strong causal relationship [with] performance (Miller &
Firehammer, 2007). Studies conducted have shown that personnel with little sleep miss
sensitive pattern changes when undertaking vigilance tasks.
Furthermore, impermanent lack of sleep results in a deprivation of human
performance for at least three days after sleeping hours have returned to the normal 8 hours
per night, without the degradation of performance being noticed by the personnel themselves.
These two scenarios are dangerous on their own and when combined, it becomes extremely
dangerous, particularly when sailing through busy channels and during storms and fogs or at
night when visibility is extremely low.
According to Miller (2007), cites critical levels of fatigue between 8% to 21%, driven
primarily by personnel on the 4 hours on, 8 hours of schedule on merchant ships. Although 8
hours are the universally agreeable period of sleep, the seamen virtually never get to enjoy a
full 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep due to the need to attend to other personal matters such as
showers and phone calls home, and the cycle of day/night rotation upsets the circadian
rhythm. Food, or the quality of food, is another factor that contributes to the onset of stress in
marine personnel. In a comparison of health-related behavior and stress at sea and ashore,
seamen showed more frequent occurrences of and higher levels of stress at sea than ashore.

This may be attributed to the disrupted sleep that they are able to get, and the lack of
proper relaxation exercises due to space and time constraints. Poor health (relatively
speaking) due to food of lower nutritional value than ashore coupled with the sleep
deprivation frequently experienced by seafarers (Miller & Firehammer, 2007) results in an
individual who is not performing at his optimum. In addition, he might not have the mental
energy to cope with the demands of being away from home on the close confines of a ship,
leading to high levels of stress.
Monitoring the nutritional value of food served on board the different ships and
voyages is recommended. Alcoholism is also a problem in the merchant navy, with alcohol a
fast and easy way to escape the boredom of long journeys between ports. The periods
between access to alcohol would result in extremely high stress levels for alcoholic seamen.
As promotions for seafarers are based on performance reports conducted by their superiors
(eg captains or chief engineers), Implicit Stress Theory as postulated by Perrewe et al may
hold the key to yet another reason for stress at sea. The Implicit Stress Theory predicts that
raters will judge individuals performance as lower if those individuals are perceived to be
under stress (Perrewe et al, 1993).
As such, seafarers are stressed by the idea that they must not appear to be stressed,
resulting in a boomerang effect. However, what stressed individuals lack in performance,
they make up for in perceived commitment, which is an asset today, as the marine sector
faces a shortage of marine personnel. At the same time, these committed personnel are also
at the highest risk of burnout (Perrewe et al, 1993), which may lead to an overall shortened
service time. One has to bear in mind though, that commitment and burnout are perceived by
the rater and may not actually be experienced by the individual himself.

The Concept of Stress

Stress as a psychological factor has been studied at length by psychologists and
organizational behavior practitioners. The type of stress discussed in this paper is slightly
more complicated in that it does not deal solely with organizational stress (which may be
alleviated automatically in a lesser or greater extent when the individual leaves the
workplace) nor does it deal solely with psychological stress (because seafarers deal with
stress within the framework of an organization: they are consistently within the organizer for
extended periods of time). Although it may be argued that psychological stress is the all
encompassing term for stress that is experienced, the author would like to define here, that

psychological stress as mentioned in this context, refers to the stress perceived or experienced
by a person as a result of his personality and/or character; that is, what Kenny and Cooper
(2003) term personal trouble.
It has been recommended that the idea of organizational stress be eradicated and
replaced with occupational stressors due to the issue of coping with stress being different
from the issue of dealing with stress. Before proposing the eradication of the idea of
organizational stress, Kenny and Cooper (2003) propose in their paper, Occupational Stress
and Management, the idea of occupational stress as being influenced by two factors:
personal trouble and public concern. The former concerns itself with the personality of
the individual, while the latter is related to the work characteristics. In this paper, we will
continue using this concept to define the causes of stress in seafarers, and address the issue of
work performance through these two factors.
In addition, there are various factors that have a significance difference for the
merchant navy when we talk about organizational stress.
Differences between merchant navy stress and organizational stress
- Organization as family when aboard ship (when we discuss commitment, is it to the
ship as a home or to the company as a home or to the paycheck as a home?) - Work load
requirements (work load for each officer/rating in the merchant navy is predetermined and
responsibility charts are well-delineated: in the event of mischance, blame can be dished out
according to those charts, it is highly unlikely that work load requirements change)
- Working time (for each officer working time is also fixed based on number of watch
hours. Although these may change due to unforeseen circumstances such as sickness or
storm, there is little variation on the number of work hours)
- Management levels (merchant navy works on a highly bureaucratic, hierarchical and
authoritarian system. Each ships crew answers to the captain of the vessel. There is little or
no room for dissidence when the captains word is the last word. Compare this to where
suggestions/complaints can be brought up to a level higher. On a ship this is not immediately
possible and one rarely sees the impact till the ship is brought to shore, which may be months
- Suggestion of 24 hour accessibility and info overload as a possible stress point: this
is not particularly applicable as seafarers have all along have to deal with this issue Seafarers dun expect shore mgmt to make things better for them; they accept that this is a
high-stress high-risk high-paying (solely monetary value) job, whereas normal org people


have higher expectations of HR and management to help alleviate this issue through Staff
welfare services. Seafarers have little staff welfare (Cooper and Kenny, 2003).
Job Stressors
In the profession of seafaring the physical and mental load has been considered high.
Both the work conditions and the content of the work contain many potential stress factors.
The maneuvering of the ship has many mentally stressing phases for both the deck and
engine room officers and crews. The work of the crew as a whole has proved to be primarily
physically heavy, and that of the officers mentally loading. Though computerization has
shifted the work load more towards mental stress, the physical load of the crew can be great
at times, and accident risk is involved (Siegrist, 2006).
The most serious problems of seamen's work conditions are noise and vibration. In
addition, rough seas may cause both functional and health disturbances (Allen et. al, 2007).
The climatic conditions on board are often poor in both hot and cold climates, and extreme
changes in humidity and temperature are possible.
The social organization of a ship is traditionally hierarchical, and seafarers are
separated from society and families for long periods of time. On board, living is restricted in
terms of both leisure-time activities and social contacts. If social conflicts break out, they are
impossible to escape. According to the study conducted by Nolan (2003) has given the
following examples of the restrictions on seamen: inability to obtain things and services and
the lack of sexual relationships, freedom, independence and private life, and security. Many
of these social and psychological problems have been confirmed in empirical studies.
Information concerning the mental health of seafarers is rather inconsistent.
According to some sources their mental health problems are increasing. The number and type
of disturbances vary, but it seems that, on the average, a seaman is more subject to mental
health disturbances than the general population (Jezewska et. al, 2006). In addition mental
health problems may have more serious consequences on board a ship than elsewhere. In
studies on the neuroses and functional health disorders of seafarers, a connection has been
found between work conditions, work time, and neurotic types of mental disorders.
It is supposed that both individual characteristics and work conditions influence a
person's perception of stress and health. The properties of work and living conditions expose


the individual to potential health risks and stress factors. They may be biological,
psychological, social, or sociocultural. The individual's perception of these factors is
especially important, not only because of the modifying effect of consciousness, but also
because these perceptions guide behavior, eg, the health behavior of the individual (Hsieh,
Stress is an important psychological concept that can affect health, well-being and job
performance in negative dimensions, (Heszene, 2002). It is regarded as a force that pushes a
physical or psychological factor beyond its range of stability, producing a strain within the
individual. Stress is the process by which environmental events (stressors or challenges)
threaten us and how these threats are interpreted, and how they make us feel.
Stress is a state within the organism characterized by general adaptation syndrome. In
other words, it is the nonspecific response of the body to the demand made upon it (Dudek et.
al, 1999). Stress may be acute or chronic in nature. It exists in different forms. It may be
psychological, emotional, social, and occupational or job related.
Stress experienced by workers at work is called job stress. It may be due to a number
of factors such as poor working condition, excessive work load, shift work, long hours of
work, role ambiguity, role conflicts, poor relationships, with the boss, colleagues or
subordinate officers, risk and danger, to mention a few. Certain responses indicate the
presence of job stress in an individual, or group. It may manifest by the presence of headache,
sleep disturbances, difficulty in concentration, short temper, upset stomach, job
dissatisfaction and low morale (Sek and Pasikowski 2001).
There are a number of workplace factors, called job stressors that make jobs stressful
and difficult for number of employees in services as well as manufacturing industries.
Additional stressors concern interpersonal relationships at work, such as conflicts with the
behavior of supervisors, conflicts with colleagues, conflicts with subordinates and conflicts
with management policies (Ratajczak, 2000).
As is characteristically found in various studies, higher levels of stressors (e.g., heavy
workload and uncertainty about supervisors expectations) were associated with physical
symptoms, such as headaches, and poor job attitudes.
Job-related psychosocial stressors are often attributable to high job demands, shift


work, external work controls and the limited scope for decision-making. The effort-reward
model is increasingly used to assess job-related stress, mainly with regard to cardio-vascular
diseases. Seafaring is associated with special mental, psychosocial and physical stressors and
cannot be compared with jobs ashore. The working and living conditions in seafaring are
characterized by long-time separation from family and home for months, growing economic
pressure as well as considerable and partly extreme psychosocial problems.
Another study conducted by Rengamani and Murugan, found the following:
The Physical stressors such as heat in workplaces, noise, ship movement, sea
sickness, hard physical work, lifting, carrying, lack of exercise and climatic changes
during the voyage are considered as the most vital factors in influencing the seafarers
stress when they are on-board.
The Psychosocial stressors such as irregular shift, long working times per day,
irregular working times & the lack of sleep would actually put the seafarers in great
stress. The psychosocial stressors of the seafarers may even lead to accidents.
The Social stressors / problems due to migration such as separation from the family,
long stay on board, conflicts between crew members & isolation will enable the
seafarers to completely delink from the social life.
The High work demand such as time pressure, hectic activities, high volume of work,
high responsibility for the own activities, pressure due to decision-making, monotony
& lack of independence are considered as the most important factors of stress.
The High management tasks such as insufficient qualification of subordinate crew
members & high responsibility for the work of other crew members will affect the
morale of the seafarers (p.49).
In their study reveals that the long working days, heat in work places, separation from
their family, time pressure/ hectic activities, and insufficient qualifications of subordinate
crewmembers are the most important stressors on board. The seafarers with higher stress due
to heat in shipboard operations had shorter job duration at sea. The stressors of heat and noise
show that physical stressors on ships currently are still very important in spite of the
increasing mechanization in seafaring.


Local Literature and Studies

When exposed to the four major types of stressors such as personal problems, job
requirements, job requirements, organizational requirements and interrelationships, most of
the seafarers were affected by their personal problems. It is because they felt that these
concerned their own familys financial, health, and routine problems (Villaluz and Oblepias,
Filipino seafarers in all levels working aboard ship shared the same feeling that
economic factors, behavior factors and physical factors hampered their career development
except for social factors. The support level groups felt that social factors hindered the
seafarers desire for career growth. They were easily affected by homesickness; the foods
served aboardship as we as the [presence of different nationalities to work wit (Anacta, 2011)

Theoretical Framework
According to (Leszczynka and Jezewska, 2006), Stress is defined as a mental state,
which both reflects a broader process of an interaction between an individual and his/her
work environment, and is also its element. This process is based on a sequence of relations
between objective work environment and perception of the worker, between perception of the
worker and dealing with stress, between going through stress, behavioral changes,
physiological functions and changes in health state.


Objective Work

Going through

Perception of the



Health State

Figure 2. Process of Stress

In the considerations on the work in maritime environment the particularly important

is the concept of mental stress, as well as the share and role of underlying psychosocial
factors. The exposure to harmful physical factors adds to the psychosocial ones. In such an
approach we deal with at least two processes: a direct somatic mechanism and psychological
effect of stress. These two mechanisms are not alternative explanations of the interaction
between the state of health and harmful factors. They constitute a unity, exerting their
influence within various scopes and in diversified ways.
The degree of becoming aware of stress changes with development of this state.
Relations between the objective work environment and its perception by the worker, between
perception and going through stress, as well as between going through stress and changes in
behaviour, physiological functions and state of health are a kind of variable interaction.
Although coping with stress is an essential element of this process the degree of its
understanding is poor and requires conscious training and education.

Definition of Terms

Seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember

in their operation and maintenance. (
Work-related stress the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or
other types of demand placed on them at work. (
Psychological stress refers to the emotional and physiological reactions
experienced when an individual confronts a situation in which the demands go beyond their
coping resources. (
Fatigue extreme tiredness, typically resulting from mental or physical exertion or
illness. (

Chapter 3

This chapter presents the methodology of the study. Specifically, it discusses the
research design, research setting, and respondents of the study, research instruments, datagathering procedure, and the statistical tools used in data analysis.

Research Design
The research used descriptive research. Descriptive study describes and interprets
information in an attempt to answer the what is question.

It is concerned with the

conditions that exists, processes that are going on, effects that are evident, or trends that are
developing. It is primarily concerned with the present, although it often considers past events
and influences as they relate to current conditions (Best and Khan, 2003). Since the study
will be employing the survey method to explore the relationship of physical and
psychological work-related stressors of seafarers in a local setting, the descriptive research
method is most applicable.
Questionnaires with combined physical and psychological work-related stressors
scales were being handed out to the participants.
Research Environment
To test the application acceptability, the convenience sampling method was applied.
The convenience sampling (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993), a general type of non-probability
sampling technique which involved the process of selecting out people in the most
convenient and fastest way to immediately get their reactions to a certain hot and
controversial issue. The setting was conducted in the CELTHEC College. Measures to
preserve confidentiality will be properly observed and practiced.


Research Instrument

A survey instrument was administered containing questions covering variables to

Subjective Work Assessment Questionnaire in a work-related stress at sea carried out by the
maritime students. As shown in Appendix A, the survey questionnaires have two parts.
Part I contains physical and psychological work-related stressors that affect the wellbeing of seafarers.
Part II consists of the effects of these stressors in the quality of life of those who
works on-board.
The researchers used Lickert Scale method to tabulate the results of the evaluation on
the physical and psychological work-related stressors. The following point-scale values with
their equivalent interpretation are used.


4.51 5.00

Strongly Agree

3.51 4.50


2.51 3.50


1.51 2.50


1.00 1.50

Strongly Disagree

The questionnaire designed for the evaluation of subjective perception of work and
the individual feeling of work-related stress, allows the individual estimation of the feeling of
stress, as well as the effects of these stressors in the quality of life of those works on-board.


Respondents of the Study

The researchers distributed questionnaires to a total of 60 maritime students were
asked to participate in the study. All the respondents are BSMT 3rd year sections A, B and C.

Data Gathering Procedures

Preparation of Materials
There were 60 copies of the questionnaire that contains the Subjective Work
Assessment Questionnaire. Sixty 60) participants came from CELTECH COllege.
Approximately, thirteen boxes of Monggol pencils will be prepared for the utilization of the
participants during the testing procedure.

Experiment Proper
Preparation of the Participants A letter of request was submitted along with a
sample of the questionnaire to the President of the institution to ask for their
permission in conducting the study. The letter contains the need for the participation
of the maritime students to a study that attempts to examine the comparison of the
self-evaluation of the work-related stress in students of the maritime students of
CELTECH College. The letter would state that the study aimed to contribute to
existing literature on how the institution can be more helpful to individual growth and
well-being. A total of 60 participants were randomly chosen to participate in this
study. The subjects were given consent forms, which included various information
and data regarding the study. Only those who agreed to sign the consent forms were
included in the study.

Administration of the Subjective Work Assessment Questionnaire


The questionnaire, which contained the combined measure of the Subjective Work
Assessment Questionnaire, were given to the participants.. A maximum of 20 minutes
were allotted for the participants to complete their answers.

Data gathered were edited, tabulated/encoded, processed and interpreted/analyzed.

Statistical Treatment
The data that were obtained from the instrument used in the survey were treated
independently. The following statistical tools were used in the interpreting the data.
The Lickert Scale
It was used to describe the relevance of the respondents answer. The weighted mean
(x) is the sum of the weighted mean (fw) (WM) divided by the number of items (N). This
is measured of central tendency or the point where most of the scores cluster.
X = WM
Weighted Mean
In order to give quantities being averaged in their proper degree of importance, it is
necessary to assign them weight and then calculate the weighted mean. It was used to
determine the adequacy of the questionnaires.
The mean was used to measure and determine the average assessment of the medical
employees on the relationship between motivation and self-esteem
Spearmans rho
The mean and Spearmans rho calculator was used to perform the analyses to
addresses the research questions. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and a
Spearmans rho correlation. Descriptive statistics included measurements of frequencies,
percentages, means, and standard deviations. The Spearmans rho correlation showed the
degree to which subjects maintained the same relative position on two measures (McMillan


& Schumacher, 2006). A Likert-type scale falls within the ordinal level of measurement
(Jamieson, 2004).

Chapter 4

This chapter presents the results and discussion of data gathered based on the
following: a) physical and psychological work-related stressors; and b) effects of these
stressors in the qulaitty of life those who works on board.
The data gathered were tabulated, statically treated and analyzed accordingly in
relation to the specific problems of the investigation.

Research Question 1: What are the physical and psychological work-related stressors
that affect the well-being of seafarers?
Table 1. Physical and Psychological work-related stressors
Physical Stressor


1. There is so much heat in workplaces.


2. A lot of noise going around.


3. Evident of hard physical work, lifting, and carrying.


4. Not having a proper exercise.


5. Climate changes during the voyage.


6. High work demand that is time pressure and hectic activities.


Psychological Stressor


7. Constant shifting schedules.


8. Long working times per day.


9. Theres an evident of irregular working times.


10. Theres an evident of lack of sleep.


11. Feeling of isolation.


12. Homesickness due to separation from the family.


In Table 1 physical stressors, it shows the highest stressor is high work demand and
the lowest stressor is climate changes during the voyage. On the other hand, in psychological
stressor, the highest is homesickness and the lowest is constant shifting schedules.

Research Question 2: What are the effects of these stressors in the quality of life of those
who works on-board?
Table 2. Effects of these stressors in the quality of life those who works on-board.
Physical Stressor


13. How satisfied with your health?


14. How easily do you get tired?


15. How satisfied are you with your sleep?


16. Do you have enough energy for everyday life?


Psychological Stressor


17. How would you rate your quality of life while working on-


18. How much do you enjoy life?


19. To what extent do you feel your life to be meaningful?


20. How well are you able to concentrate?



21. How satisfied are you with yourself?


22. How often do you have negative feelings, such as blue

mood, despair, anxiety?


In Table 2 effect of physical stressors, it shows the highest effect is easily get tired and
the lowest effect is being satisfied in his/her health. On the other hand, in psychological
stressor, the highest is feeling negative moods and the lowest is able to concentrate.

Research Question 3: Is there a significant relationship between the physical stressors

and psychological stressors of the seafarers towards their work environment and to
their well-being?

Based on Table 1, using the Spearmans Rho Calculator, it shows:

The value of R is 0.14286 and the two-tailed value of P is 0.78717. By normal standards, the
association between the two variables would not be considered statistically significant

Chapter 5

This chapter summarizes the study on the research made in work motivation and selfesteem of health workers in the hospital setting. The conclusions given were drawn from the
outcomes of the research and observations on the impact made. Recommendations were
based from findings and conclusions of the study.


This study was conducted to examine the comparison of the self-evaluation of the
work-related stress in students of the maritime students of CELTECH College.
The method of research to be used in this study was the descriptive method. The
process involved the interpretation of the meaning what was being described, what were the
processes and evaluation of the developed study. To gather data, the researcher used the
survey technique.
The set of respondents was composed of 60 maritime students who were asked to
participate in the study. All the respondents are BSMT 3rd year sections A, B and C.
The researchers gave survey forms of sixty (60) questionnaires to the respondents.
Questionnaires with combined physical and psychological work-related stressors scales were
being handed out to the participants.

The data gathered were arranged in table format for ease analysis and interpretation of
frequency distribution and percentage. Weighted means were used to determine the degree of
opinions of the participants on various items. Next, the Spearmans rho correlation showed
the degree to which subjects maintained the same relative position on two measures.

The following conclusions have been drawn based on the findings presented:
1. In Table 1 physical stressors, it shows the highest stressor is high work demand
and the lowest stressor is climate changes during the voyage. On the other hand, in


psychological stressor, the highest is homesickness and the lowest is constant

shifting schedules. This clearly indicates that the seafares, have a sort of mental
strain while accomplishing their tasks. In addition, the seafares have a strong
feeling of homesickness that may cause of sadness by the long distance from
home as well as by missing social contacts due to the fact that these ships only
stop a few times in ports.
2. In Table 2 effect of physical stressors, it shows the highest effect is easily get tired
and the lowest effect is being satisfied in his/her health. On the other hand, in
psychological stressor, the highest is feeling negative moods and the lowest is able
to concentrate.
3. That the findings found out that there is no significant differences on the
assessments of the maritime students in terms of relationship between the physical
stressors and psychological stressors of the seafarer towards their work and to
their well-being.
4. This study reveals that the long working days, heat in work place, separation from
their family, and time pressure/hectic activities are the most important stressors on

Based on the conclusions that the researches made, they have formulated the
following recommendations:
1.) School administrators, teachers, and guidance counselors must effectively prepare their
maritime students to the real world of life on-board.
2.) Maritime students must be able to physically, mentally, and emotionally prepared before
going on-board so that they can perform well in their job functions on board.


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