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1. Forces and Interactions

It was Isaac Newton who first introduced the concepts of mass and force.
We review the different types of forces encountered in Newtonian mechanics
before we introduce Newtons Laws.
A force is an interaction between two bodies or between a body and its
environment. One intuitive type of force is a contact force, which often clearly
involves a direct interaction (or contact) between the surfaces or boundaries of
the bodies involved.
Different kinds of contact forces.
1. A body in contact with the surface of another object will experience a force that
is directed normal to that surface, opposite to its weight, called normal
reaction. Perhaps the simplest example of a normal force is that of a book
resting on a table. Since the book does not fall under its own weight it must
be that the table is exerting a force normal to its surface to keep the book at
2. There is a friction force that is oriented parallel to the surface of contact,
but in the direction opposite to that of the sliding , rolling whatever be
3. Finally, whenever an object is pulled, through a string or a rope attached to it, it
can be set in motion through a tension force
Contact forces are not the only agents through which bodies interact,
however. For example, electric and magnetic forces as well as the gravitational
force act over distances in vacuum and therefore do not require any type of
contact (or a series of contacts) to make themselves felt by bodies. Such forces
are referred to as long-range forces.

2. Identify the forces acting on an object and draw free-body diagrams

representing the forces acting.
A string that is taut is said to be under tension. Therefore we can say tension (T)
is the force that arises in any body when it is stretched. (Note that a string or
rope that is not taut has zero tension in it).

Normal Reaction force:

If a body touches another body, there is a reaction force(R) between the two
bodies. This force is perpendicular to the body exerting the force:

Drag Force:
Drag forces are forces that oppose the motion of a body through a fluid (gas or
liquid). They are directed opposite to the velocity of the body and generally
depend on the speed of that body. Higher speed equals higher drag force.

Up thrust:
An object placed in a fluid medium will experience up thrust. If the up thrust
force on a body is equal to the weight, the body will float in the fluid.

Frictional Forces:
Frictional forces (f) are forces that oppose the motion of a body f.

Newtons Three Laws of Motion

First Law of Motion:
The first law of motion is related to the law of inertia,

All objects have a tendency to resist the change in their state.

This tendency is called inertia of objects which depends on their mass as it
is also varied with their masses. Inertia increases with increasing the mass
of the object. An object with more mass has more tendencies to resist alters
its moving state.
The property of an object by virtue of which it cannot change its state
of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line its own, is called
Inertia is of three types:
(i) Inertia of Rest
When a bus or train starts to move suddenly, the passengers sitting in it falls
backward due to inertia of rest.
(ii) Inertia of Motion
When a moving bus or train stops suddenly, the passengers sitting in it jerks
in forward direction due to inertia of motion.
(iii) Inertia of Direction
We can protect yourself from rain by an umbrella because rain drops can not
change its direction its own due to inertia of direction.

The First Law States that

Every body continues its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line,
unless compelled by some external force to act otherwise.. This is also called as
Law of inertia.
Second Law of Motion:
Newton's second law of motion states that rate of change of momentum is
directly proportional to applied force and takes place in the same direction as
the applied force.

Momentum, p = mass x velocity

Momentum is a property of the body possessed by virtue of its mass and
velocity. It is the product of mass of the body and its velocity.
According to the second law of motion,
F change in momentum and time taken.
F = (m vf m vi) = F = m(vfvi)/t = ma
Hence we conclude from second law of motion that when the force is applied on
the mass m, then the acceleration is produced in it.
One Newton is the force applied on body of mass 1kg to produce an
acceleration of 1m/s2.
Third Law of Motion
According to the third law of motion . To every action there is equal and
opposite reaction.
Examples of Newtons Law of Motion
Newton's First Law Example
1) Why do the dry leaves and fruits fall when we shake the tree?
When we shake the tree, the fruits and dry leaves remain at their position
due to first law of motion, the inertia resist the motion, so, as the branches
shake, they get detached from the tree.
2) Passengers fall forward when bus suddenly stops. Why?
The passengers are in motion due to first law and as the bus suddenly

stops due to inertia their upper body opposes the force and continues to
remain in motion.
3) How do you say that Mass is measure of inertia?
When we push the empty box, it easily moves from its position but when
we apply the same force to the filled box, we are unable to move it, this is
because the box is filled now and its mass has increased, so, the capacity
of box to oppose the external force increases.
Thus, we conclude that the mass is measure of inertia, larger is the mass,
larger is the capacity of the body to oppose external force and hence larger is
Newton's Second Law Example
1) In case of an apple falling from a tree, the apple is accelerated. So, its
velocity changes as it is hanging on the tree and moves towards the ground.
Thus, by Newton's 2nd law there must be a force that acts on the apple to cause
this acceleration. If we call this force "gravity", then the associated acceleration
is "acceleration due to gravity".
Newtons Third Law Example
1) In case of inflated balloon, the air rushing outward is action while the balloon
going upward is reaction.

2) Same thing happens in the rocket propulsion.

The rocket leaves or exerts fuel with some force, the fuel in return produces an

equal force on the rocket, which makes the rocket accelerate in the forward

Additional notes
The variety of representations that we have investigated includes verbal
representations, pictorial representations, numerical representations, and
graphical representations (position-time graphs and velocity-time graphs).
We can investigate the use of equations to describe and represent the motion of
objects. These equations are known as kinematic equations.

There are a variety of quantities associated with the motion of objects displacement (and distance), velocity (and speed), acceleration, and time.

Knowledge of each of these quantities provides descriptive information about

an object's motion.
We can use the kinematic equations to predict the numerical values of
unknown quantities for an object's motion.