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13.

Heat Exchangers
A heat exchanger (HX) is a device which enables the
continuous transfer of heat between two fluid streams
separated by a solid wall.
Heat exchangers are used in numerous engineering systems
such as power generation, air conditioning, chemical
industries, food industries, aeroplanes, cars, etc. They are
usually classified according to flow arrangement and type of
construction.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

13.1 Basic Types of Heat Exchangers


(i) Concentric tube or double-pipe heat exchanger.
One fluid flows through the inner tube, the other fluid flows through the
annulus. Both fluid streams traverse the exchanger once only and this
arrangement is called a single-pass arrangement.
If both fluids flow in the same direction, HX is called a parallel-flow
type. If both fluids flow in opposite directions, HX is called a counterflow type.

Parallel-flow

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Counter-flow

ME3122 Heat Transfer

(ii) Cross-flow heat exchangers


When the two fluid flow paths along the heat transfer surface are at right
angles, the heat exchanger is of the cross-flow type.

(a) Both fluids unmixed


Each fluid is unmixed as it flows through the HX. The temperature of the
cross-flowing fluid is not uniform laterally and varies in x and y
directions.
Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

(b) One unmixed, the other fully mixed


Temperature of the cross-flowing fluid is laterally uniform and varies in
the x direction only.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

(iii) Shell-and-tube heat exchangers


One fluid flows in the tubes while the other flows in a shell enclosing
the tubes.

In order to increase the effective heat transfer area per unit volume,
commercial HXs provide for multiple passes through the tubes; fluid
outside tubes in the shell may be routed back and forth by means of
baffles. The diagram above shows a shell and tube HX with one tube
passes and one shell pass in a cross-counter-flow arrangement.
Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

(a) One shell pass and two tube passes.


(b) Two shell passes and four tube passes.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

Baffle Types

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ME3122 Heat Transfer

(iv) Compact heat exchangers


Compact heat exchangers have very large area per unit volume.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

13.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient


Heat transfer between two fluids A and B across a tube wall is
TA TB
q

TA
1
1
k
Rw
hi Ai
ho Ao
ho

hi
TB

ri

Rw

ro
1
hi Ai

Rw

1
ho Ao

Thermal Resistance Network

From eqns (13.1) & (13.3):


Prof Andrew Tay

(13.1)

ln ro ri
tube wall thermal resistance (13.2)
2kL

where L = length of tube, and i/o refers to


inside/outside surface of the smaller tube.
Overall heat transfer coefficient, U is given by
q U i / o Ai / o TA TB

(13.3)

where Ui , Uo are based on Ai , Ao , respectively.


1
1
1
1

Rw
U i Ai U o Ao hi Ai
ho Ao
ME3122 Heat Transfer

(13.4)
9

For a double-pipe heat exchanger,

Rw

ln ro ri
2kL

TA TB
1
1
Rw
hi Ai
ho Ao

(13.1)

(13.2)

Rw is usually negligible for thin metallic tubes since ro ri


ln

= 0, and k is high.
Hence from eqn (13.4):

1 1 1

U hi ho

(13.5)

since Ai Ao A; U i U o U

Furthermore, if one of the fluids is boiling or condensing, where h is


very high,
U hi or ho
Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

10

Approximate Values of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients


Physical Situation
Brick exterior wall, plaster interior, uninsulated
Frame exterior wall, plaster interior, uninsulated
Frame exterior wall, plaster interior, rock-wool insulation
Plate-glass window
Double plate-glass window
Steam condenser
Feedwater heater
Freon 12 condenser with water coolant
Water-to-water heat exchanger
Finned-tube heat exchanger, water in tubes, air across tubes
Water-to-oil heat exchanger, steam in tubes, air over tubes
Steam to light fuel oil
Steam to heavy fuel oil
Steam to kerosene or gasoline
Finned-tube heat exchanger, steam in tubes, air over tubes
Ammonia condenser, water in tubes
Alcohol condenser, water in tubes
Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

U (W/m2K)
2.55
1.42
0.4
6.2
2.3
1100-5600
1100-8500
280-850
850-1700
25-55
110-350
170-340
56-170
280-1140
28-280
850-1400
255-680
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13.3 Fouling Factors


Over time the surfaces of the tube may be pitted
due to corrosion and/or covered with deposits,
leading to increased thermal resistance to heat
transfer between the two fluids, A and B, which
can be accounted for by Fouling Factors,
Rfi and Rfo .

1
hi Ai

Rfi
Ai

Rw

Rfo
Ao

Rfi

TA TB

Rfo

1
1

Rw

hi Ai Ai
Ao ho Ao

(13.6)

1
ho Ao

Thermal Resistance Network


Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

12

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

13

13.3 Heat Exchanger Analysis


There are generally two types of analysis performed on heat exchangers.
(a) Heat Exchanger Design
In this analysis, usually the inlet temperatures of the heating and
cooling fluids are known, and the heat exchanger type and area is
required to be determined in order to bring the outlet temperature of
one of the fluids to a specified value. All the inlet and outlet fluid
temperatures are known or can be easily determined. For this
analysis, the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method
is best used.

(b) Heat Exchanger Performance/Rating


In this analysis, a heat exchanger is available and one is required to
determine its performance under various flow conditions. For this
analysis, the Effectiveness-NTU Method is best used.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

14

13.4 Log Mean Temperature Difference Method


The figure below illustrates the variations in fluid temperature for
both parallel and counter flow heat exchangers.
T T
hi

T T
hi
T1

T2

Tco T1

Tho

Tho
T

Tco

T2

Tci

Tci
1

Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

As can be seen, T between the hot and cold fluid streams is not
constant over the HX area. Hence, the rate of heat transfer between
the two fluid streams is

q UAT

(13.7)

where T is some suitable mean temperature difference.


Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

15

Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger


T

Consider a parallel flow HX:

Heat transfer across


elemental area dA is
dq m h ch dTh m c cc dTc

dTh

dq
m h ch

dTc

(13.8)

dq
m c cc

Thi

T1

dq

T2

Tho
Tco

dA
Tci

1
1
d Th Tc d (T ) dq

m h ch m c cc

A
(13.9)

Now, dq is also given by

dq UdATh Tc UdAT

(13.10)

Eliminating dq

1
d T
1
U

dA
T
m h ch m c cc

(13.11)

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

16

Integrating

1
T2
1
ln

UA

T
m
c
m
c
c c
1
h h

(13.12)

The total heat transfer as given by the energy balance is


q m h ch Th 2 Th1 m c cc Tc 2 Tc1

or

m h ch

q
Th1 Th 2

and

m c cc

q
Tc 2 Tc1

(13.13)
(13.14)

Substituting and gives

T
T T T T
ln 2 UA h1 h 2 c 2 c1
q
q

T1

(13.15)

Th 2 Tc 2 Th1 Tc1
T2 T1
q UA
UA
UATlm
lnT2 /T1

lnT2 /T1

(13.16)

Log Mean Temp. Difference (LMTD)


Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

17

Special Operating Conditions


Capacity Rate, C m c p

(13.17)

(a) Hot fluid condensing: Th is constant and Ch is infinite.


(b) Cold fluid evaporating: Tc is constant and Cc is infinite.
(c) Ch = Cc : T is constant.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

18

13.5 Correction Factor Charts


For other heat exchanger systems, the heat transfer is calculated using a
correction factor F applied to the LMTD for a counter flow doublepipe system with the same hot and cold fluid temperatures. Thus

q UAFTlm

(13.18)

The above recognizes the fact that the counter flow double-pipe heat
exchanger is the most efficient flow arrangement.
Correction Factor, F, values are available for various heat exchanger
systems, usually in the form of charts.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

19

Correction Factor Charts


In the Correction Factor charts provided, the parameters P and R are
defined as
T1 T2
t t
P 2 1
(13.19)
and
R=
t

t
T1 t1
2
1
where t : tube side; T : shell side;
1 : inlet and 2 : outlet
and because

m c T
p S

T1 m c p t t1 t 2

R is also =

m c
m c

p t

(13.20)

p S

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

20

For all cases, F 1.0


F can be seen as a correction factor for a heat exchanger, and is a
measure of the deviation of Tlm from the counter flow case. Also
values of P : 0 < P < 1
values of R : 0 R
Note:
When a phase change occurs, as in condensation or boiling
(evaporation), the fluid remains at essentially constant temperature in
the heat exchanger. Therefore,
P=0

(t2 = t1)

or

R=1

(T2 = T1)

and

F=1

for boiling or condensation

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

21

1 : in
2 : out
Fig. 1: Correction Factor for Heat Exchanger with
One Shell Pass and Two (or Multiples of Two) Tube
Passes.
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ME3122 Heat Transfer

22

Fig. 2: Correction Factor for Heat Exchanger


with Two Shell Passes and Four (or Multiples of
Four) Tube Passes.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

23

Fig. 3: Correction Factor for Single Pass CrossFlow Heat Exchangers with the Shell Side Fluid
Mixed, and the Other Fluid Unmixed.
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ME3122 Heat Transfer

24

Fig. 4: Correction Factor for a Single Pass CrossFlow Heat Exchanger with Both Fluids Unmixed.

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ME3122 Heat Transfer

25

Example
Determine the heat transfer surface area required for a heat exchanger
constructed from 25.4 mm OD tube to cool 25000 kg/h of ethyl
alcohol solution (cp = 3.822 kJ/kgK ) from 65.6 C to 39.4 C using
22727 kg/hr of water available at 10 C. Assume that the overall heat
transfer coefficient based on the outer tube area is 568 W/m2K and
consider each of the following arrangements
a) parallel-flow double-pipe HX
b) counter-flow double-pipe HX
c) Shell and tube HX with 2 shell passes and 18 multiples of 4 tube
passes, alcohol flowing through the shell and water through the
tubes, and
d) Cross-flow HX, one tube pass and one shell pass, shell side mixed.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

26

Solution:
Energy balance for determining the outlet temperature of water for each of the
4 arrangements:
q m h ch Th1 Th 2 m c cc Tc 2 Tc1

25000 3.82265.6 39.4 22727 4.2 Tc 2 10


Tc 2 36.1 C

Heat transfer rate,

q m h ch Th1 Th 2 25000 3.82265.6 39.4


692778 W

a) Parallel flow double-pipe HX:


LMTD

39.4 36.1 65.6 10 18.5 C


T2 T1

ln T2 /T1 ln 39.4 36.1/ 65.6 10

A q/U LMTD

692778
65.93 m 2
568 18.5

L A / D 65.93 / 0.0254 826 m


Prof Andrew Tay

(Too long, needs multiple tube passes.)

ME3122 Heat Transfer

27

b) Counter flow double-pipe HX:


We note that = = 26542 W/K (special case) and in this
case temperature difference T between hot and cold fluids is
constant, and T = 65.6 36.1 = 29.5 C

q UAT
A

692778
41.35 m 2
568 29.5

L A / D 41.35 / 0.0254 518 m

Too long still, needs multiple tube passes.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

28

c) Shell and tube HX with multiple shell and tube passes:


t t
36.1 10
P 2 1
0.47
T1 t1 65.6 10

m c t
R
m c s

T1 T2

1
t 2 t1

q UAFTlm
From F vs P chart (Fig. 2, multiple of 4 tube passes), F = 0.97;
So

A = 41.35 / 0.97 = 42.63 m2

There are n = 18 4 = 72 tube segments: A = DL n


L = A / (72 D ) = 7.45 m
For 72 tube segments of 25.4 mm OD tubes, L of 7.45 m is meaningful
as compared with parallel-flow and counter-flow double-pipe cases.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

29

d) Crossflow HX, shell side mixed arrangement:


Again
From chart
Hence

P = 0.47
R = 1.0
F = 0.88
A = 41.35 / 0.88 = 46.99 m2

Corresponding L is physically reasonable if number of tube


passes is sufficiently large.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

30

13.6 Effectiveness-NTU Method


The LMTD method is convenient when Tci, Tco, Thi, Tho are known or
easily determined. When either Tis or Tos need to be determined from
q, U or A, a trial & error procedure is needed. The -NTU method is
more convenient to use for this situation. Also, it provides a basis for
comparing various heat exchangers.
The effectiveness is defined as

Actual heat transfer rate *


Maximum possible heat transfer rate * *

(13.21)

* actual rate of heat lost or gained by either fluid

** rate of heat gained by one fluid if it were to undergo a change in


temperature equal to maximum temperature difference present in
the heat exchanger.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

31

The fluid which attains this maximum change in temperature is the


c min .
one with the smaller/minimun value of capacity rate, ie m

qmax m c min Thi Tci

(13.22)

This can be reasoned out as follows. If the temperature change for the
fluid with the minimum capacity rate is and that for the other fluid
is , then for energy balance,

q m c min TA m c max TB

(13.23)

From the above equation, TA TB

Hence the fluid which can undergo a temperature change equal to the
maximum temperature difference in the HX, must be the one with the
minimum capacity rate m
c min .
We define the Capacity Rate Ratio,
Prof Andrew Tay

m c min
Cr
m c max

ME3122 Heat Transfer

Cmin

Cmax

(13.24)
32

For parallel flow heat exchanger:


m h ch Thi Tho Thi Tho
h

m h ch Thi Tci Thi Tci


m c cc Tco Tci Tco Tci
c

m c cc Thi Tci Thi Tci

Thi

(13.25)

Tho
Tco

(13.26)
Tci
1

2 A

The subscript on in the above equations denotes which fluid has


c min .
the minimum value of m

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

33

For counter flow heat exchanger:

m h ch Thi Tho Thi Tho


h

m h ch Thi Tci Thi Tci


m c cc Tco Tci Tco Tci
c

m c cc Thi Tci Thi Tci

(13.27)

Thi
Tco

Tho

(13.28)

Tci
1

2 A

In general,
T (minimum fluid )

Maximum temperature difference in HX

(13.29)

The minimum fluid is always the one experiencing the larger T in the
HX and the maximum T is always (Thi Tci).
Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

34

Derivation of Effectiveness of Heat Exchangers


For the parallel flow HX, we had

1
T
1
ln 2 UA

T
m
c
m
c
c c
1
h h

(13.12)

UA Cc
1
UA

Tho Tco
1
1
exp
1 Cr
i.e.
exp UA
exp
Thi Tci
Cc

C h Cc
Cc C h

Now Ch Thi Tho Cc Tco Tci . Tho Thi Cr Tci Tco

(13.30)

Substituting for Tho into LHS of eqn (13.30), we get


Tho Tco Thi Cr Tci Tco Tco Thi Tci Cr Tci Tco Tci Tco

Thi Tci
Thi Tci
Thi Tci

1 1 Cr

Tci Tco
1 1 Cr if the cold fluid is the minimum fluid.
Thi Tci

Equating the above with the RHS of eqn (13.30), we get

1 exp UA / Cc 1 Cr / 1 Cr
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ME3122 Heat Transfer

(13.31)
35

If the hot fluid is the minimum fluid, it can be shown that the expression
for the effectiveness is the same as eqn (13.30), except that Cc and Ch are
interchanged. Hence, the following expression will cater for both cases:

1 exp UA / Cmin 1 Cr
1 Cr

UA / Cmin NTU (Number of Transfer Units)

(13.32)
(13.33)

since it indicates the size of the HX. Hence,

1 exp NTU 1 Cr
1 Cr

(13.34)

Similarly, for the counter flow HX, it can be shown that

Prof Andrew Tay

1 exp NTU 1 Cr
1 Cr exp NTU 1 Cr
ME3122 Heat Transfer

(13.35)

36

Andrew
2013 Prof
Prof
Tay Andrew Tay

ME4225
Industrial
Heat Transfer
ME3122
Heat Transfer

37

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

38

13.7 -NTU Charts for Heat Exchangers


Expressions for (NTU, Cr), have been obtained for other heat
exchanger systems.
Often, these are presented in graphical form (-NTU charts) which are
more convenient to use.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

39

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

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Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

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Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

42

-NTU Method for Boilers and Condensers


If one fluid is boiling or condensing, the fluid temperature remains
constant and the other fluid is the fluid.
Why?

As q CmT is finite, if T 0, Cm .
Cm Cmax and Cr

Hence from eqn (13.34):

Cmin
0
Cmax

1 - e -NTU

and q qmax Cmin Thi Tci 1 - e -NTU

(13.36)

(13.37)
(13.38)

Eqns (13.36) to (13.38) apply for all types of heat exchangers if one of
the fluids is boiling or condensing.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

43

Example
Water at the rate of 68 kg/min is heated from 35C to 75C by an oil
having a specific heat of 1.90 kJ/kgK. The oil enters the counter
flow double-pipe heat exchanger at 110C and leaves at 75C. The
overall heat transfer coefficient U is 320 W/m2K. Calculate the heat
exchanger area.
Calculate the water exit temperature if the mass flow rate of water is
reduced to 40 kg/min with other parameters unchanged. Calculate
also the total heat transfer rate under the new conditions.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

Solution
a) Energy balance to heat exchanger
m h

m h ch Th m c cc Tc

68 418075 35
170.97 kg/ min
1900110 75

Capacity rates:

m h ch 1900 171 324900 J/min.K

m c cc 68 4180 284240 J/min.K

So water is the minimum capacity rate fluid.


Tco Tci 75 35 40

0.533
Thi Tci 110 35 75

Cmin 284240

0.87
Cmax 324900

From chart. NTU = 1.05 .


UA/Cmin = 1.05
A = 1.05284240/(32060) = 15.5 m2
Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

b)

= = 40 kg/min
= 40 4180 = 167200 J/min.K = 2787 W/K
Now

NTU = UA/Cmin = (320 15.5)/2787 = 1.78


Cmin 167200
Cr

0.515
Cmax 324900

Hence from chart,

0.75

Tco Tci Tco 35


Thi Tci 110 35


Tco 91.3 C

and

Prof Andrew Tay

q = 2787(91.3 - 35) = 156.8 kW

ME3122 Heat Transfer

Example
A shell and tube heat exchanger with one shell pass and four tube
passes has 4.83 m2 of heat-transfer area. The overall heat transfer
coefficient is 320 W/m2K. It is proposed to cool a stream of oil (cp
= 2.22 kJ/kgK) at 120C, flowing at 1.50 kg/s, with cooling water
available at 13C and a flow of 0.63 kg/s.
Determine the exiting temperature of the 2 streams.

Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer

Solution

m o co 1.50 2220 3330 W/K

m wcw 0.63 4200 2646 W/K


So water is the minimum fluid.
Cr

Cmin 2646

0.795 NTU UA 320 4.83 0.584


Cmax 3330
Cmin
2646

-NTU chart gives : 0.35


qact
q

0.35
qmax 2646120 13

q = 99093 W
99093 = 3330 (120 To2)
To2 = 120 29.8 = 90.2 C
99093 = 2646(Tw2 13)
Tw2 = 50.45 C
Prof Andrew Tay

ME3122 Heat Transfer