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Sep 16, 2015

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heat exchangers

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heat exchangers

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Heat Exchangers

A heat exchanger (HX) is a device which enables the

continuous transfer of heat between two fluid streams

separated by a solid wall.

Heat exchangers are used in numerous engineering systems

such as power generation, air conditioning, chemical

industries, food industries, aeroplanes, cars, etc. They are

usually classified according to flow arrangement and type of

construction.

(i) Concentric tube or double-pipe heat exchanger.

One fluid flows through the inner tube, the other fluid flows through the

annulus. Both fluid streams traverse the exchanger once only and this

arrangement is called a single-pass arrangement.

If both fluids flow in the same direction, HX is called a parallel-flow

type. If both fluids flow in opposite directions, HX is called a counterflow type.

Parallel-flow

Counter-flow

When the two fluid flow paths along the heat transfer surface are at right

angles, the heat exchanger is of the cross-flow type.

Each fluid is unmixed as it flows through the HX. The temperature of the

cross-flowing fluid is not uniform laterally and varies in x and y

directions.

Prof Andrew Tay

Temperature of the cross-flowing fluid is laterally uniform and varies in

the x direction only.

One fluid flows in the tubes while the other flows in a shell enclosing

the tubes.

In order to increase the effective heat transfer area per unit volume,

commercial HXs provide for multiple passes through the tubes; fluid

outside tubes in the shell may be routed back and forth by means of

baffles. The diagram above shows a shell and tube HX with one tube

passes and one shell pass in a cross-counter-flow arrangement.

Prof Andrew Tay

(b) Two shell passes and four tube passes.

Baffle Types

Compact heat exchangers have very large area per unit volume.

Heat transfer between two fluids A and B across a tube wall is

TA TB

q

TA

1

1

k

Rw

hi Ai

ho Ao

ho

hi

TB

ri

Rw

ro

1

hi Ai

Rw

1

ho Ao

Prof Andrew Tay

(13.1)

ln ro ri

tube wall thermal resistance (13.2)

2kL

inside/outside surface of the smaller tube.

Overall heat transfer coefficient, U is given by

q U i / o Ai / o TA TB

(13.3)

1

1

1

1

Rw

U i Ai U o Ao hi Ai

ho Ao

ME3122 Heat Transfer

(13.4)

9

Rw

ln ro ri

2kL

TA TB

1

1

Rw

hi Ai

ho Ao

(13.1)

(13.2)

ln

= 0, and k is high.

Hence from eqn (13.4):

1 1 1

U hi ho

(13.5)

since Ai Ao A; U i U o U

very high,

U hi or ho

Prof Andrew Tay

10

Physical Situation

Brick exterior wall, plaster interior, uninsulated

Frame exterior wall, plaster interior, uninsulated

Frame exterior wall, plaster interior, rock-wool insulation

Plate-glass window

Double plate-glass window

Steam condenser

Feedwater heater

Freon 12 condenser with water coolant

Water-to-water heat exchanger

Finned-tube heat exchanger, water in tubes, air across tubes

Water-to-oil heat exchanger, steam in tubes, air over tubes

Steam to light fuel oil

Steam to heavy fuel oil

Steam to kerosene or gasoline

Finned-tube heat exchanger, steam in tubes, air over tubes

Ammonia condenser, water in tubes

Alcohol condenser, water in tubes

Prof Andrew Tay

U (W/m2K)

2.55

1.42

0.4

6.2

2.3

1100-5600

1100-8500

280-850

850-1700

25-55

110-350

170-340

56-170

280-1140

28-280

850-1400

255-680

11

Over time the surfaces of the tube may be pitted

due to corrosion and/or covered with deposits,

leading to increased thermal resistance to heat

transfer between the two fluids, A and B, which

can be accounted for by Fouling Factors,

Rfi and Rfo .

1

hi Ai

Rfi

Ai

Rw

Rfo

Ao

Rfi

TA TB

Rfo

1

1

Rw

hi Ai Ai

Ao ho Ao

(13.6)

1

ho Ao

Prof Andrew Tay

12

13

There are generally two types of analysis performed on heat exchangers.

(a) Heat Exchanger Design

In this analysis, usually the inlet temperatures of the heating and

cooling fluids are known, and the heat exchanger type and area is

required to be determined in order to bring the outlet temperature of

one of the fluids to a specified value. All the inlet and outlet fluid

temperatures are known or can be easily determined. For this

analysis, the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method

is best used.

In this analysis, a heat exchanger is available and one is required to

determine its performance under various flow conditions. For this

analysis, the Effectiveness-NTU Method is best used.

14

The figure below illustrates the variations in fluid temperature for

both parallel and counter flow heat exchangers.

T T

hi

T T

hi

T1

T2

Tco T1

Tho

Tho

T

Tco

T2

Tci

Tci

1

Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

As can be seen, T between the hot and cold fluid streams is not

constant over the HX area. Hence, the rate of heat transfer between

the two fluid streams is

q UAT

(13.7)

Prof Andrew Tay

15

T

elemental area dA is

dq m h ch dTh m c cc dTc

dTh

dq

m h ch

dTc

(13.8)

dq

m c cc

Thi

T1

dq

T2

Tho

Tco

dA

Tci

1

1

d Th Tc d (T ) dq

m h ch m c cc

A

(13.9)

dq UdATh Tc UdAT

(13.10)

Eliminating dq

1

d T

1

U

dA

T

m h ch m c cc

(13.11)

16

Integrating

1

T2

1

ln

UA

T

m

c

m

c

c c

1

h h

(13.12)

q m h ch Th 2 Th1 m c cc Tc 2 Tc1

or

m h ch

q

Th1 Th 2

and

m c cc

q

Tc 2 Tc1

(13.13)

(13.14)

T

T T T T

ln 2 UA h1 h 2 c 2 c1

q

q

T1

(13.15)

Th 2 Tc 2 Th1 Tc1

T2 T1

q UA

UA

UATlm

lnT2 /T1

lnT2 /T1

(13.16)

Prof Andrew Tay

17

Capacity Rate, C m c p

(13.17)

(b) Cold fluid evaporating: Tc is constant and Cc is infinite.

(c) Ch = Cc : T is constant.

18

For other heat exchanger systems, the heat transfer is calculated using a

correction factor F applied to the LMTD for a counter flow doublepipe system with the same hot and cold fluid temperatures. Thus

q UAFTlm

(13.18)

The above recognizes the fact that the counter flow double-pipe heat

exchanger is the most efficient flow arrangement.

Correction Factor, F, values are available for various heat exchanger

systems, usually in the form of charts.

19

In the Correction Factor charts provided, the parameters P and R are

defined as

T1 T2

t t

P 2 1

(13.19)

and

R=

t

t

T1 t1

2

1

where t : tube side; T : shell side;

1 : inlet and 2 : outlet

and because

m c T

p S

T1 m c p t t1 t 2

R is also =

m c

m c

p t

(13.20)

p S

20

F can be seen as a correction factor for a heat exchanger, and is a

measure of the deviation of Tlm from the counter flow case. Also

values of P : 0 < P < 1

values of R : 0 R

Note:

When a phase change occurs, as in condensation or boiling

(evaporation), the fluid remains at essentially constant temperature in

the heat exchanger. Therefore,

P=0

(t2 = t1)

or

R=1

(T2 = T1)

and

F=1

21

1 : in

2 : out

Fig. 1: Correction Factor for Heat Exchanger with

One Shell Pass and Two (or Multiples of Two) Tube

Passes.

Prof Andrew Tay

22

with Two Shell Passes and Four (or Multiples of

Four) Tube Passes.

23

Fig. 3: Correction Factor for Single Pass CrossFlow Heat Exchangers with the Shell Side Fluid

Mixed, and the Other Fluid Unmixed.

Prof Andrew Tay

24

Fig. 4: Correction Factor for a Single Pass CrossFlow Heat Exchanger with Both Fluids Unmixed.

25

Example

Determine the heat transfer surface area required for a heat exchanger

constructed from 25.4 mm OD tube to cool 25000 kg/h of ethyl

alcohol solution (cp = 3.822 kJ/kgK ) from 65.6 C to 39.4 C using

22727 kg/hr of water available at 10 C. Assume that the overall heat

transfer coefficient based on the outer tube area is 568 W/m2K and

consider each of the following arrangements

a) parallel-flow double-pipe HX

b) counter-flow double-pipe HX

c) Shell and tube HX with 2 shell passes and 18 multiples of 4 tube

passes, alcohol flowing through the shell and water through the

tubes, and

d) Cross-flow HX, one tube pass and one shell pass, shell side mixed.

26

Solution:

Energy balance for determining the outlet temperature of water for each of the

4 arrangements:

q m h ch Th1 Th 2 m c cc Tc 2 Tc1

Tc 2 36.1 C

692778 W

LMTD

T2 T1

A q/U LMTD

692778

65.93 m 2

568 18.5

Prof Andrew Tay

27

We note that = = 26542 W/K (special case) and in this

case temperature difference T between hot and cold fluids is

constant, and T = 65.6 36.1 = 29.5 C

q UAT

A

692778

41.35 m 2

568 29.5

28

t t

36.1 10

P 2 1

0.47

T1 t1 65.6 10

m c t

R

m c s

T1 T2

1

t 2 t1

q UAFTlm

From F vs P chart (Fig. 2, multiple of 4 tube passes), F = 0.97;

So

L = A / (72 D ) = 7.45 m

For 72 tube segments of 25.4 mm OD tubes, L of 7.45 m is meaningful

as compared with parallel-flow and counter-flow double-pipe cases.

29

Again

From chart

Hence

P = 0.47

R = 1.0

F = 0.88

A = 41.35 / 0.88 = 46.99 m2

passes is sufficiently large.

30

The LMTD method is convenient when Tci, Tco, Thi, Tho are known or

easily determined. When either Tis or Tos need to be determined from

q, U or A, a trial & error procedure is needed. The -NTU method is

more convenient to use for this situation. Also, it provides a basis for

comparing various heat exchangers.

The effectiveness is defined as

Maximum possible heat transfer rate * *

(13.21)

temperature equal to maximum temperature difference present in

the heat exchanger.

31

c min .

one with the smaller/minimun value of capacity rate, ie m

(13.22)

This can be reasoned out as follows. If the temperature change for the

fluid with the minimum capacity rate is and that for the other fluid

is , then for energy balance,

q m c min TA m c max TB

(13.23)

Hence the fluid which can undergo a temperature change equal to the

maximum temperature difference in the HX, must be the one with the

minimum capacity rate m

c min .

We define the Capacity Rate Ratio,

Prof Andrew Tay

m c min

Cr

m c max

Cmin

Cmax

(13.24)

32

m h ch Thi Tho Thi Tho

h

m c cc Tco Tci Tco Tci

c

Thi

(13.25)

Tho

Tco

(13.26)

Tci

1

2 A

c min .

the minimum value of m

33

h

m c cc Tco Tci Tco Tci

c

(13.27)

Thi

Tco

Tho

(13.28)

Tci

1

2 A

In general,

T (minimum fluid )

(13.29)

The minimum fluid is always the one experiencing the larger T in the

HX and the maximum T is always (Thi Tci).

Prof Andrew Tay

34

For the parallel flow HX, we had

1

T

1

ln 2 UA

T

m

c

m

c

c c

1

h h

(13.12)

UA Cc

1

UA

Tho Tco

1

1

exp

1 Cr

i.e.

exp UA

exp

Thi Tci

Cc

C h Cc

Cc C h

(13.30)

Tho Tco Thi Cr Tci Tco Tco Thi Tci Cr Tci Tco Tci Tco

Thi Tci

Thi Tci

Thi Tci

1 1 Cr

Tci Tco

1 1 Cr if the cold fluid is the minimum fluid.

Thi Tci

1 exp UA / Cc 1 Cr / 1 Cr

Prof Andrew Tay

(13.31)

35

If the hot fluid is the minimum fluid, it can be shown that the expression

for the effectiveness is the same as eqn (13.30), except that Cc and Ch are

interchanged. Hence, the following expression will cater for both cases:

1 exp UA / Cmin 1 Cr

1 Cr

(13.32)

(13.33)

1 exp NTU 1 Cr

1 Cr

(13.34)

1 exp NTU 1 Cr

1 Cr exp NTU 1 Cr

ME3122 Heat Transfer

(13.35)

36

Andrew

2013 Prof

Prof

Tay Andrew Tay

ME4225

Industrial

Heat Transfer

ME3122

Heat Transfer

37

38

Expressions for (NTU, Cr), have been obtained for other heat

exchanger systems.

Often, these are presented in graphical form (-NTU charts) which are

more convenient to use.

39

40

41

42

If one fluid is boiling or condensing, the fluid temperature remains

constant and the other fluid is the fluid.

Why?

As q CmT is finite, if T 0, Cm .

Cm Cmax and Cr

Cmin

0

Cmax

1 - e -NTU

(13.36)

(13.37)

(13.38)

Eqns (13.36) to (13.38) apply for all types of heat exchangers if one of

the fluids is boiling or condensing.

43

Example

Water at the rate of 68 kg/min is heated from 35C to 75C by an oil

having a specific heat of 1.90 kJ/kgK. The oil enters the counter

flow double-pipe heat exchanger at 110C and leaves at 75C. The

overall heat transfer coefficient U is 320 W/m2K. Calculate the heat

exchanger area.

Calculate the water exit temperature if the mass flow rate of water is

reduced to 40 kg/min with other parameters unchanged. Calculate

also the total heat transfer rate under the new conditions.

Solution

a) Energy balance to heat exchanger

m h

m h ch Th m c cc Tc

68 418075 35

170.97 kg/ min

1900110 75

Capacity rates:

Tco Tci 75 35 40

0.533

Thi Tci 110 35 75

Cmin 284240

0.87

Cmax 324900

UA/Cmin = 1.05

A = 1.05284240/(32060) = 15.5 m2

Prof Andrew Tay

b)

= = 40 kg/min

= 40 4180 = 167200 J/min.K = 2787 W/K

Now

Cmin 167200

Cr

0.515

Cmax 324900

0.75

Tco 91.3 C

and

Example

A shell and tube heat exchanger with one shell pass and four tube

passes has 4.83 m2 of heat-transfer area. The overall heat transfer

coefficient is 320 W/m2K. It is proposed to cool a stream of oil (cp

= 2.22 kJ/kgK) at 120C, flowing at 1.50 kg/s, with cooling water

available at 13C and a flow of 0.63 kg/s.

Determine the exiting temperature of the 2 streams.

Solution

So water is the minimum fluid.

Cr

Cmin 2646

Cmax 3330

Cmin

2646

qact

q

0.35

qmax 2646120 13

q = 99093 W

99093 = 3330 (120 To2)

To2 = 120 29.8 = 90.2 C

99093 = 2646(Tw2 13)

Tw2 = 50.45 C

Prof Andrew Tay

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