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3rd edition

comprehensive
pharmacy review

EDITORS
Leon Shargel, Ph.D., R.Ph.
Alan H. Mutnick, Pharm.D., R.Ph.
Paul F. Souney, M.S., R.Ph.
Larry N. Swanson, Pharm.D., R.Ph.
Lawrence H. Block, Ph.D., R.Ph.

Williams &: Wilkins


A WAVERLY COMPANY
BALTIMORE PHILADELPHIA LONDON PARIS BANGKOK
BUENOS AIRES HONG KONG MUNICH SYDNEY TOKYO WROCLAW

Contents

PART I: PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES


1.

Drug Product Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Anton H. Amann, Leon Shargel

2 . Pharmaceutical Calculations and Statistics

James K. Drennen, III, Riccardo Boni

3 . Pharmaceutical Principles and Drug Dosage Forms

28

Lawrence H. Block, Andrew B. C. Yu

4 . Biopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems

77

Lawrence H. Block, Charles C. Collins

5 . Extemporaneous Prescription Compounding

90

Loyd V. Allen

6 . Pharmacokinetics

108

Leon Shargel

7 . Bioavailability and Bioequivalence

132

Leon Shargel

8 . Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

141

Edward F. La Sala, John D. Leary

9 . Microbiology

154

Ralph N. Blomster

1 0 . Immunology

165

Gail Coodman-Snitkoff, Vincent C. LoPresti

1 1 . Biotechnological Products

199

Andrew B. C. Yu, Godwin W. Fong

1 2 . Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Metabolism

210

Marc W. Harrold

1 3 . Pharmacodynamics
\

Nelson S. Yee, Leon Shargel

246

I 4 . Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System and


the Neuromuscular Junction

255

David C. Kosegarten, Edward F. LaSala

1 5 . Drugs Affecting the Central Nervous System

270

David C. Kosegarten, Edward F. LaSala, Scott F. Long

1 6 . Autocoids and Their Antagonists, Non-Narcotic Analgesic-Antipyretics


and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

294

David C. Kosegarten, Edward F. LaSala, Scott F. Long

1 7 . Drugs Affecting the Cardiovascular System


David C. Kosegarten, Edward F. LaSala, J. Edward

307

Moreton

1 8 . Diuretics

326

David C. Kosegarten, Edward F. LaSala, J. Edward

Moreton

1 9 . Hormones and Related Drugs

333

Marc W. Harrold, Pui-Kai Li

20.

Drug Interactions

352

Leon Shargel

2 1 . Nuclear Pharmacy

360

Stephen C. Dragotakes, Ronald J. Callahan

PART II: PHARMACY PRACTICE


2 2 . Pharmaceutical Care and the Scope of Pharmacy Practice

383

Peggy C. Yarborough

23.

Drug Information Resources

393

Paul F. Souney, Connie Lee Barnes

24.

Federal Pharmacy Law

403

Robert C. Pavlan, Jr.

2 5 . Reviewing and Dispensing Prescriptions and Medication Orders

428

Todd A. Brown

26.

Sterile Products

436

Ernest R. Anderson, Jr.

"27. Parapharmaceuticals, Home Diagnostics, and Medical Devices

452

Todd A. Brown

2 8 . Nonprescription Medication: An Overview


Larry N. Swanson
vi

463

29.

OTC Otic, Dental, and Ophthalmic Agents

471

Larry N. Swanson, Connie Lee Barnes, Constance A. McKenzie

30.

OTC Agents for Pediculosis, Acne, Sun Protection,


and Contact Dermatitis

488

Larry N. Swanson

3 1 . OTC Weight Control and Sleep Aids

508

Larry N. Swanson

32.

OTC Agents for Fever, Pain, Cough, Cold, and Allergic Rhinitis

518

Gerald E. Schumacher, Larry N. Swanson

33.

OTC Agents for Constipation, Diarrhea, Hemorrhoids, and Heartburn

536

Stephen H. Fuller, Larry N. Swanson, Julianne B. Pinson

34.

OTC Menstrual, Vaginal, and Contraceptive Agents

558

Constance A. McKenzie, Larry N. Swanson

3 5 . Clinical Toxicology

569

John J. Ponzillo

36.

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

584

Lyndon D. Braun

37.

Drug Use in Special Patient Populations: Pediatric, Pregnant, Geriatric

598

Alan H. Mutnick, H. William McGhee

38.

Common Clinical Laboratory Tests

611

Larry N. Swanson, D. Byron May

39.

Ischemic Heart Disease

630

Barbara Szymusiak-Mutnick

40.

Cardiac Arrhythmias

646

Alan H. Mutnick

4 1 . Systemic Hypertension

669

Alan H. Mutnick

42.

Congestive Heart Failure

691

Alan H. Mutnick

43.

Infectious Diseases

705

Paul F. Souney, Cheryl A. Stoukides

44.

Seizure Disorders

750

Azita Razzaghi

45.

Parkinson's Disease

769

Azita Razzaghi
vii

46.

Schizophrenia

782

Helen L. Figge

47.

Affective Disorders

791

Helen L. Figge

48.

Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

806

Laura Wilson, Mary Ann Dzurec

49.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

827

Larry N. Swanson

50.

Hyperuricemia and Gout

839

Larry N. Swanson

5 1 . Peptic Ulcer Disease

850

Paul F. Souney, Cheryl Stoukides

52.

Diabetes Mellitus

870

Helen L. Figge

53.

Thyroid Disease

" 882

John E. Janosik

54.

Renal Failure

899

Andrew L. Wilson

55.

Principles of Cancer Chemotherapy

915

Amy J. Becker

56.

Pain

928

David R. Platt

57.

Nutrition and the Hospitalized Patient

940

Robert A. Quercia, Kevin P. Keating

58.

Immunosuppressive Agents in Organ Transplantation

954

David I. Min

Appendix A: Prescription Dispensing Information and Metrology

961

Appendix B: Common Prescription Drugs and

969

Over-the-Counter Products
Appendix C: Reference Charts Useful for Patient Counseling

979

Appendix D: State and National Pharmacy Organizations

1001

Appendix E: Budgeting for Drug Information Resources

1016

Index

1018

viii