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Management Model (cultural, subjective):

Their effectiveness in modern setting.
1.0 Introduction.
Society today is a community that is structured and regulated society.
Humans are born into the organization, receiving education in the organization and
most of the time spent in the organization, such as at homes, schools, offices,
companies, associations and others. In short, human life today cannot be separated
from the organization. As modern society is now more emphasis rationalization,
efficiency and performance, the role of the organization is critical and challenging.
One way to do is to coordinate human activity in the organization with the resources
available in order to be processed through leadership or effective management and
competent. Management process like this is a contribution to the community and
individuals to meet the various demand and sometimes this demand can become as
pressure to them.
Similarly, the management and organization of schools, although there are
many problems faced or pressure, but the use of education management models
indirectly can help the organization manage the school administrators to be a better
schools. There are six models of educational management which is Formal Models,
Collegial Models, Political Models, subjective Models, ambiguity and Cultural Models
There are many definitions that were introduced by experts in the field of
management. Which definition is simple and easy to understand management
involves planning, preparing, directing and controlling the efforts of members of the
organization and use of all resources in an efficient and effective to achieve
organizational goals.
Planning process by an organization such as the educational institution refers
to the goals and objectives identified in the initial planning of a programme. The
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purpose and specific objectives refer to the establishment of an educational

organization that aims to be achieved. Planning also involves strategies to be
adopted during the programme that will take place to achieve the goals set. In short
the planning process is trying to organize a programme or project in accordance with
the strategy based on organizational goals.
The process involves preparing the organization structure and staff
organization. In an organizational structure is an essential element in any information
about the distribution of employment by activity and level of authority given. Besides,
the management of human resources planning involving staff, orientation training,
safety and welfare programme.
Directing the process to be implemented to ensure that all organizational
activities carried out properly, smoothly and in harmony. Several factors are involved
in this process is the motivation, leadership and communication systems.
Process control is to be orderly and structured along the current programme
to ensure that organizational performance has been achieved as planned. This
process has several important issuers, such as identifying problems in the
preparation and completion of certain steps that must be taken. Surveillance is also
a humanitarian aspect of the matter that must be addressed such as the nature of
the relationship with the staff performance and behaviour.
2.0 Research objective and research questions

How do leaders form, sustain, and transmit moral commitments?

Under what conditions are those processes most effective?
What is the impact of ethics officers, codes, training programs, and similar

How do standards and practices vary across context and culture?
What can we do at the individual, organizational, and societal level to foster
moral leadership?

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3.0 Overview of Management Model (cultural, subjective): Their effectiveness

in modern setting.
3.1 What is Effectiveness.
Effectiveness means capability in producing effect (setting right targets
to achieve an overall goal). In management, effectiveness relates to getting
the right things done in order to produce desired amount or success in
achieving the goal. A concept of how effective an organization is in achieving








effectiveness is the degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal

by providing a product or services that customers value.

a. PLANNING, Select goals & ways to attain them.

From, planning in organizations and public

policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan;
and the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to
create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it is a fundamental property of
intelligent behavior. This thought process is essential to the creation and
refinement of a plan, or integration of it with other plans, that is, it combines
forecasting of developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react
to them. An important, albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the
relationship it holds with forecasting. Forecasting can be described as
predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the
future should look like.

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b. ORGANIZING, Assign responsibility or task

From, organizing is the act of rearranging
elements following one or more rules.

c. LEADING, Use influence to motivate employees




establishing direction and influencing people to follow that direction.

d. CONTROLLING, Monitor activities & make corrections (RESOURCES

such as human, financial, materials, technology and information).
There are many definitions about controlling, such as:

A process of monitoring performance and taking action to ensure

desired results.

It sees to it that the right things happen, in the right ways, and at the
right time.

Done well, it ensures that the overall directions of individuals and

groups are consistent with short and long range plans.

It helps ensure that objectives and accomplishments are consistent

with one another throughout an organization.

It helps maintain compliance with essential organizational rules and


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An abstract concept that basically impossible to measure but can be

determined through certain proxy aspects.
Proxy aspects may include; type of a school, student population,
attaining distinctively outstanding academic quality, producing excellent all
rounded students who went on to establish successful careers & maintaining
the education policy well.
Effectiveness in organizations is achieved through proper goals &
objective of the organization. Assessing organizational effectiveness is very
complex. Planning, Organizing, Leading & Controlling are the four main
functions relates closely to maximize the inputs to achieve the output
(effectiveness) Contingency approaches are the main criteria for measuring

3.4 What is Cultural Model

3.4.1 What is Culture?
Culture or cultures (from the Sanskrit word buddayah, which is
the plural of the word Buddhi, which means character or intellect)
discussing general matters of human kindness and common sense. In
the broad sense also means that all things are taken or done by man,
as opposed to "the natural" 'is not created or can be changed by man.

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In the English language, culture referred to as a culture, which

originated from the Latin colore word meaning to grow or work.
According to Andreas Eppink, the culture is values, norms,
knowledge and social structures, religious, artistic and intellectual
production in addition to the special features of forming a society. This
clamed was supported by Edward B. Taylor. He looked at culture as a
holistic concept of a complex that knowledge, beliefs, arts, ethics, laws,
customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a
member of the community. Anthropologist of the archipelago nature, ie
Selo Soemardjan and Soelaiman Soemardi was held as a means of
cultural production of works of art, taste, and the creation within the
From all this sense, culture can be summed up as a whole way
of life, including inventions and ideas that fit with the spiritual and
physical needs of the practice for the well-being of a community group.

3.4.2 What is Cultural Model?

Cultural models are models that emphasize school culture.
Cultural models are also closely linked with the values and norms,
patterns of behaviour and responses of the same. Elements in the
model such as creative, innovative, and so forth. Normally, the use of
this model may change the cultural environment of the ecology of the
physical condition of the people in the organization, social system of

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governance and organizational structure and culture of values, beliefs

and norms.
3.4.3 The Characteristic of Culture Model
The main feature of this model is that it focuses on the
characteristics of the informal organization.
This model focuses on the values, beliefs and norms of
individual and someone in the organization. It reviews the relevance of
these features with the characteristics of the organization.
Cultural models are manifested by symbols and Rituals rather
than through the formal structure of the organization (Bush, 2003).
This model adheres to the principle that the beliefs, values and
ideology are the heart of an organization. Why it is the heart? Heart is
one of the most important organs in the human body. Heart will pump
blood that rich with oxygen throughout the body for it to function
properly. When a person and the body system is function properly that
individual will prevail if ells the individual will become a bad person.
Each individual in the organization has certain characteristics which will
affect the assessment to be made against a colleague.
An example of the use of cultural models is a school that has
their own unique culture. For example, a national school is located on
Peel Street in Kuala Lumpur found that school management is so
concerned with school beauty. Thus the school management has
always had the idea to implement projects related to school
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decorations or landscape include a self-help once a month, holding

jogathon collect donations to fund the school's landscaping. Indirectly,
students in this school are also cultivated, such as the cleanliness of
class and class cheer competition is made and the prizes given at
weekly basics during the school assemblies. In addition, students are
always encouraged to maintain the cleanliness of school and many
bins will be provided so that they have enough facilities to make sure
the school are clean. In the opinion of school administrators, if schools
are happy and clean so that teaching and learning can walk with ease
and happily. This is because students can learn in a comfortable
situation. In addition, school administrators always ensure that the
office space and administrative rooms are in a neat and beautiful. This
is because in their opinion will give visitors a good initial impression of
the whole school if a school like this. Typically for this kind of culture
many administrators are among women.
Another example is a national school is located in Nilai, Negeri
Sembilan. School culture is completely different culture in the school.
This is because the administrators of this school are not directly
concerned with school beauty but the culture is more potential for
students to develop both in terms of academic or extracurricular.
Therefore, although the school environment is not fun, but never had a
serious discipline problems. School teachers do not feel overloaded
with other side work. So, teacher will fill fun to teach in schools.
Teacher is a counsellor or adviser if there is competition to be
represented by the student. School culture is one of the co curricular
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activities held in the morning session and was proven effective when
accompanied by a lot of competition these students to achieve a
remarkable victory. Similarly with the academics, the school is also
among the best. Yet if we look to the office environment and
administrators rooms, certainly the fill of decorating is no there. These
are two examples of the cultural use of this model in school
management. Indeed, each school has its own culture which makes it
an even more unique school.
3.4.4 The Leadership style.
Form of leadership that was used in the cultural model is as


Moral Leadership - Based on values, principles and

Instructional leader is use for the followings;
The teaching and learning in the curriculum
The teaching and learning in co-curricular
Creating a knowledge culture
Creating a culture of support, guidance
To create a learning infrastructure

3.5 What is Subjective Model

The following models of education management models are subjective.
Models are more concerned about the subjective views of individuals from the
group. This means that individual interests can help the organization or group.
It also gives priority to individuals in an organization. If seen in the formal
model of school management and the subjective model of formal models is
possible to achieve while subjective model to look at the people or members

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of the organization. In addition, formal models to promote the organization

and the subjective model emphasize the values found in each individual.
Usually, a principal is taking or the adoption of this model would argue
subjective (reject) the structure of the school.
For example, subjective use of this model in the management of such
schools are discipline problems, such as coming late to school, do not follow
school rules and so forth. Perhaps the teachers have their own views and
agree with any decision of the problem, but maybe at another teacher
perceptions will change. It is subjective in making any decision has no
objective meaning and structure.
Another example is a meeting of teachers, administrators do everything
possible to adopt this model of subjective will try to seek the views or opinions
of each teacher. This is because the administrators are more concerned about
the individual in the school. They are also not in accordance with the structure
of school because he was more concerned with each individual or member, or
teacher in the organization.
3.5.1 The Characteristic of Subjective Model
3.5.2 The Leadership style.
Postmodern Leadership - In the modern leadership theory,
leadership plays a star role (taking the lead, became the head), all else
becomes a player, supporting character, and an increase in play, the
drama of leadership. In a postmodern leadership, we analyze how the
leaders and players to be enslaved by the story, the boy playing and

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his rhetoric. Postmodern leaders are part of the drama without the
leadership of a head, in which the head is the head behind the mask at








comprising a networked set of diverse, self-managed, self-controlled

teams with many centers of coordination that fold and unfold according
to the requirements of the tasks. Likewise, these teams are organized
in flat design, employees are highly empowered and involved in the
job, information is fluid and continuous improvement is emphasized
throughout (Boje and Dennehy, 2000).
In short the postmodern leadership can be summarising as bellow;

Long term profit goals.

Flexible production.
Worker is an investment.
Horizontal planning.
Internal and external customer focus.
Planning leads to disorder and confusion.


Work teams, multi-skilled workers.

Labour-management cooperation.
Flexible networks with permeable boundaries.
Flat is better.
Diversity is strength.
Many-voices and diversity is an asset.
Efficiency decreases with specialization,
formalization, reutilisation, fragmentation, and
division of labour.


Authority delegated to leaders by teams.

Intrinsic, empowered, ownership over work
People are self-disciplined.
Women and minorities equally paid.
Polyvocal/polylogic discourse.

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Team incentives.


Theory S (Servant Leadership)

Decentralized with few layers and wide spans.
People centered.
Tracks for women and minorities.


Decentralized control.
Quality control is everyone's job.
Two-way surveillance.
Cut red tape.
Dump procedures.
Train people.
Measure process criteria.
Information is given to all.

4.0 Conclusion.
Indeed, both models in management education have a different approach in
terms of concepts in school management. School management cannot be based on
a model only because of reliability models are applied in order of importance and is
dependent on the events, situations and participants, but also depends on a number
of considerations that overlap.
In conclusion, both models of educational management have its own characteristics,
and indeed can be applied in school management. This is because the school is a
very broad field and covers many aspects such as curriculum, extra curriculum,
student affairs, and so forth. From the aspects that were mentioned more branches
inside. Then use these models not only focus on one model for a school but these
models can be used in various aspects of school management.

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Dr. Foo Say Fooi:Peranan Pemimpin,


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