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Sep 15, 2015

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Optimum Power System Operation

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THE ECONOMIC THEMAL POWER

DISPATCH WITH EMISSION CONSTRAINT

IN VARIOUS GENERATION PLANTS

THENMALAR.K 1

Dr.A.ALLIRANI 2

Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Women,

Namakkal (Dist.), India

thenmalark@gmail.com

Principal,

S.R.S College of Engineering & Technology,

Salem (Dist.), India

allirani2004@gmail.com

optimization task in power system. It is the process of

allocating generation among the committed units such that

the constraints imposed are satisfied and the energy

requirements are minimized. There are three criteria in

solving the economic load dispatch problem. They are

minimizing the total generator operating cost, total

emission cost and scheduling the generator units. In this

paper Firefly Algorithm(FA) solution to economic dispatch

problem is very useful when addressing heavily

constrained optimization problem in terms of solution

accuracy. Results obtained from this technique clearly

demonstrate that the algorithm is more efficient in terms

of number of evolution to reach the global optimum point.

The result also shows that the solution method is practical

and valid for real time applications In this paper the

Firefly Algorithm(FA) solves economic load dispatch

(ELD) power system problem of three generator system,

six generator system with emission constraints and twelve

generator system with

introduced population-based

technique is utilized to solve the DED problem. A general

formulation of this algorithm is presented together with an

analytical mathematical modeling to solve this problem by

a single equivalent objective function. The results are

compared with those obtained by alternative techniques

proposed by the literature in order to show that it is

capable of yielding good optimal solutions with proper

selection of control parameters. The validity and quality of

the solution obtained Firefly Algorithm(FA) based

economic load dispatch method are checked and compared

with Artificial colony algorithm(ABC),Particle Swarm

Optimization Algorithm (PSO),simulated Annealing

Algorithm(SA)

Keywords: ABC-Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, DEDDynamic Economic Dispatch, FA-Firefly Algorithm, PSOParticle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

I.

INTRODUCTION

known for the economic dispatch problem as a convex

optimization problem and it assumes the whole of the

unit operating limit (Pmin) and the maximum generation

limit (Pmax) is available for operation. This paper work

deals with the economic scheduling problem namely the

economic thermal power dispatch. In seeking the

solution for the economic dispatch problem (EDP) the

main aim is to operate a power system in such a way to

supply all the loads at the minimum cost. The solution

technique which is applied to the economic load

dispatch is Firefly Algorithm.The ultimate goal of power

plants is to meet the required load demand with the

lowest operating costs possible while taking into

consideration practical equality and inequality

constraints algorithms. Optimal operation of electric

power system networks is a challenging real-world

engineering problem. Those linked optimization

problems are the unit commitment, optimal power flow,

and economic dispatch scheduling.

The recently introduced meta-heuristic methods are

the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, adapted

simulated annealing algorithm (SA),[14] firefly

algorithm (FA). These are a population-based technique

and inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of the

honeybee swarm, birds schooling, fish behavior. The

DED problem was one of the real-world optimization

problems that has benefited from the development of the

meta-heuristic algorithms. An evolutionary programming

(EP) technique [8] in and is adopted to solve the DED

problem. Simulating annealing method (SA), quantum

evolutionary algorithm (QEA), Particle Swarm

Optimization Algorithm (PSO)

and Tabu search

approach (TS) have been also designated to solve the

DED problem in [12],[13], respectively.

problems to be solved in the operation of power system.

The traditional method such as lambda iteration method,

the base point, the participation factors method and

gradient method are well known for the economic

July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

IEEE - 31661

-------- (4)

II.

OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

minimize the operating fuels costs of committed

generating units to meet the load demand, subject to

equality and inequality constraints over a predetermined

dispatch period, the results practical usefulness will be

degraded if the units valve-point effects are neglected.

Consequently, there are two models to represent the

units valve-point effects in the literature. The first

represents the units valve in terms of prohibited

operating zones which are included as inequality

constraints. The second form represents the units valvepoint effects as a rectified sinusoid term which is

superimposed on the approximate quadratic fuel cost

function. The general mathematical form of the DED

problem follows: [1]

A.

is to find the optimal combination of power generation,

which minimizes the total fuel cost, under some

constraints [14]. The ELD Problem can be,

mathematically,

formulated

as

the

following

optimization problem:

------ (1)

PGi : the power generated by generator i (MW), and

n : the number of generators

B.

Therefore, to incorporate the constraints of units ramprate limits in the real power output limit constraints. The

modified units real power outputs are evaluated as

follows:

-------- (5)

Where Fcost : the total fuel cost ($/hr) ai,bi,ci : the fuel

cost coefficients of generator i

D.

Problem Formulation

The economic dispatch problem is defined as to

minimize

Fi = (aiPi2 + biPi+ci). Rs / hr.

n

Ft = (aiPi2 + biPi+ci). Rs / hr.

i=1

--------- (6)

Subject to

1. Pi,min Pi Pi,max

n

2. Pi = PD + PL

--------- (7)

i = 1 (The system demand constraint)

Equality Constraint

equality constraints function to be as follows

Ei = di Pi2 + ei Pi + fi , kg / hr.

systems loss at a time t respectively. The multiplier RS

is set to a permissible amount of active power injected

by RS, PRS is the forecasted real power from RS

defined as to minimize

n

Ei = (di Pi2 + ei Pi + fi), kg / hr.

i=1

--------- (8)

Subject to

C. Inequality Constraint

the units ramp-rate limits, i.e., upper rate (URi) and

down rate (DRi), are considered as follows:

n

2. System demand constraint - Pi = PD + PL

i=1

-------- (2)

algorithm.

-------- (3)

Additional inequality constraints are the minimum and

maximum power output of each unit:

July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

IEEE - 31661

problem is defined as to minimize.

Start

n

n

i = Fi + h Ei , Rs / hr. --------- (9)

i=1

i=1

Insert variable x into load flow

n

i= (aiPi2 + biPi+ci)+h (diPi2 + eiPi + fi)

i=1

--------- (10)

Subject to

The operating constraints Pi,min Pi Pi,max

n

System demand constraint Pi = PD + PL

i=1

Once the value of price penalty factor is known

the above equation can be rewritten in terms of known

coefficients and the unknown outputs of the generators.

n

i = [(ai + hdi) Pi2 + (bi + hei) Pi + (bi + hfi) Rs / hr.

i=1

--------- (11)

locations

III.

FIREFLY ALGORITHM

of fireflies. There are about two thousand firefly species

where the flashes often unique for a particular species.

The flashing light is produced by a process of

bioluminescence where the exact functions of such

signaling systems are still on debating. Nevertheless,

two fundamental functions of such flashes are to attract

mating partners (communication) and to attract

potential. [9]

For simplicity, the following three ideal rules are

introduced in FA development. [12]

1)

attracted to other fireflies regardless of their

sex.

2)

brightness, thus for any two flashing fireflies,

the less brighter one will move towards the

brighter one.

3)

landscape of the objective function.

simply be proportional to the value of the objective or

fitness function.

Iteration Maximum

No

Yes

Run load flow program for final result

of optimal generation

Print results of the optimal dispatch, total

system loss and total generation cost

End

IV.

Suppose the following scenario: a group of birds are

randomly searching food in an area. There is only one

piece of food in the area being searched.[2] All the birds

do not know where the food is. But they know how far

the food is in each iteration. So what's the best strategy to

find the food? The effective one is to follow the bird,

which is nearest to the food. PSO learned from the

scenario and used it to solve the optimization problems.

In PSO, each single solution is a "bird" in the search

space. We call it "particle". All of particles have fitness

values, which are evaluated by the fitness function to be

optimized, and have velocities, which direct the flying of

the particles. The particles fly through the problem space

by following the current optimum particles.

PSO is initialized with a group of random

particles (solutions) and then searches for optima by

July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

IEEE - 31661

updated by following two "best" values. The first one is

the best solution (fitness) it has achieved so far. (The

fitness value is also stored.) This value is called pbest.

Another "best" value that is tracked by the particle

swarm optimizer is the best value, obtained so far by any

particle in the population. This best value is a global best

and called g-best. When a particle takes part of the

population as its topological neighbours, the best value is

a local best and is called p-best. After finding the two

best values, the particle updates its velocity and positions

with following equations .

ITER - current number of iteration

A.

Flow

Chart

of

OPTIMIZATION

SWARM

Start

Initialize particles with random

position and velocity

vectors

Pi(u+1) = Pi(u) + Vi(u+1)

PARTICLE

evaluate the fitness

------ (13)

The term rand( )* (pbesti - Pi(u)) is called

particle memory influence.

The term rand( ) * (gbesti - Pi(u)) is called

swarm influence.

Vi(u) is the velocity of ith particle at iteration

u must lie in the range

(pbest) then pbest=p

Vmin Vi Vmax

or fitness, with which regions are to be searched

between the present position and the target

position.

Position

solutions. If Vmin is too small, particles may not

explore sufficiently beyond local solutions.

set at 10-20% of the dynamic range on each

dimension.

towards pbest and gbest positions.

target regions before being tugged back. On the

other hand, high values result in abrupt

movement towards, or past, target regions.

set to be 2.0 according to past experiences.

a balance between global and local explorations,

thus requiring less iteration on average to find a

sufficiently optimal solution.

following equation,

------ (14)

Where w -is the inertia weighting factor

Wmax - maximum value of weighting factor

Wmin - minimum value of weighting factor

If g best is the

optimal solution

No

Yes

End

V.

based on the concept of Firefly algorithm method has

been tested on 3-generator system, 6-generator system

and 12-generator system.Multiple generator limits and

total operating cost of the system is simulated in order to

evaluate the correctness as well as accuracy of this

method

A.

having different characteristic. Their cost function

characteristics are given by following equations

F1=0.00533P12+11.669P1+213 Rs/Hr

F2=0.00889P22+10.333P2+ 200 Rs/Hr

F3=0.00741P32+10.833P3+240 Rs/Hr

July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

IEEE - 31661

work among inequality constraints only active power

constraints are constraints are considered. There

operating limit of maximum and minimum power are

also different. The unit operating ranges are:

50 MW P1 200 MW

7.5 MW P2 150 MW

45 MW P3 180 MW

B.

having different characteristic. Their cost function

characteristics are given by following equations.

Table 2: Fuel Cost Coefficient For Six Unit

System (PD=700mw)

knowing the loss coefficient. The Bmn loss coefficient

matrix is given by

Bmn =

0.0093 0.0228 0.0017

0.0028 0.0093 0.0179

testing this novel coding scheme on the three unit

system.

Here C1 = 1.99 and C2 = 1.99 Here the

maximum value of w is chosen 0.9 and minimum value

is chosen 0.4.the velocity limits are selected as V max=

0.5*Pmax and the minimum velocity is selected as V min=

-0.5*Pmin. There are 10 no of particles selected in the

population. For different value of C1 and C2 the cost

curve converges in the different region. So, the best

value is taken for the minimum cost of the problem.

P=

F=

a(p2)

b(p)

c

(Rs/hr)

pmin

(MW)

pmax

(MW)

F1

0.1524

38.539

756

10

125

F2

0.1058

46.159

451

10

150

F3

0.0280

40.396

1049

35

225

F4

0.0354

38.305

1243.

35

210

F5

0.0211

36.327

1658

130

325

F6

0.0179

38.270

1356

125

315

OBJE

CTIV

E

Econo

mic

Dispa

tch

Emiss

ion

Dispa

tch

Comb

ined

Econo

mic

system considered here is given below. The total

demand taken here is about 200 MW&700MW

1.0e+003 *

0.050000005801763

0.079584818649999

0.074549690507549

2.977211011227124

50.000005801763166

79.584818649999349

74.549690507549073

2.977211011227124e+003

Fuel

Cost

function

(PD= 700 MW)

out =

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

41.37

485

19.56

447

122.0

292

95.87

92

230.2

597

215.0

321

86.20

00

84.83

09

110.9

136

111.0

101

161.7

126

162.6

996

67.02

26

64.07

49

115.9

380

119.4

393

174.9

152

177.2

328

Objective

Economic

dispatch

Emission

dispatch

Combined economic

and emission dispatch

FA

39299.56

40135.56

6123.45

ABC

40103.23

41533.65

6476.53

PSO

40392.66

42998.72

66239.72

Objective

Economic

dispatch

Emission

dispatch

Combined

economic and

emission dispatch

FA

20123.78

22234.45

32521.09

ABC

22693.16

23764.62

33987.90

PSO

23456.32

24038.33

34760.11

C.

having different characteristic. Their cost function

characteristics are given by following equations.

July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

IEEE - 31661

System(PD=1200MW)

Fuel

cost

a(p2)

b(p)

C

(Rs/

hr)

pmin

(MW)

pmax

(MW)

F1

0.0051

2.2034

15

12

73

F2

0.0040

1.9104

25

26

93

F3

0.0039

1.8518

40

42

143

F4

0.0038

1.6966

32

18

700

F5

0.0021

1.8015

29

30

93

F6

0.0026

1.5354

72

100

350

F7

0.0029

1.2643

49

100

248

F8

0.0015

1.2130

82

40

190

F9

0.0013

1.1954

105

70

590

F10

0.0014

1.1285

100

40

113

F11

0.0013

1.1954

105

70

190

F12

0.0014

1.1285

100

40

113

(PD= 1200 MW)

Algorithm

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

Total

power

Fuel cost

FA

12

26

42

42.34

51.64

100

130

190

190

113

190

113

ABC

15

16

53

45.64

70.12

120

110

175

192

103

175

125

1199.98

1199.76

2.61E+003

2.7537

E+003

PSO

10

19.30

20

50

53.6

70

95

95

222

175

200

190

1199.99

VI.

with other technique results. The validity of the proposed

method is demonstrated with the help of three standard

test systems. The Emission Constrained Economic

Dispatch (ECED) provides lower cost in emission. This

property is revealed for various load conditions.

The computational results of table (IV) consist

of twelve generator test system. It shows that FA fuel

cost function is less than ABC and PSO. The claims of

some of the recent reports provide near optimal solution

for large computationally intensive problem. Many of the

hybrid algorithms only help to improve the solution

accuracy. But this algorithm is very well defined and the

solution accuracy is excellent and converges to near

global minimum with less search account. It is high

efficiency than other methods. Thus, it obtains the

solution with high accuracy. An Firefly algorithm has

been developed for the economic thermal power dispatch

problem of electric generating units. The algorithm was

implemented and tested on 3-generator test system, 6generator test system and 12- generator test system.

Firefly Algorithm is an efficient tool for the economic

scheduling for generating units with the given generator

constraints and other data. The quality of the solution

shows that an improved Firefly Algorithm Search offers

a promising viable approach for solves the economic

thermal power dispatch problem.

2.652E+003

(PD= 300 MW,700 MW and 1200 MW)

Uni

t

Power

Demand

(mw)

Algorithm

Fuel cost

(RS/HR)

300

FA

ABC

PSO

1.32 E+003

1.47 E+003

1.57 E+003

Total

Power

(MW)

329

327

325

FA

3.215E+003

725.8721

700

12

1200

ABC

PSO

FA

ABC

PSO

3.5623 E+003

3.691E+003

2.61E+003

2.7537 E+003

2.652E+003

723.33

719.4354

1199.98

1199.76

1199.98

July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

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IEEE - 31661

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