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Mat E 202

Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

Before answering the following questions re-read the syllabus for formatting your solutions,
and keep in mind the following:
State your assumptions.
Being concise, clearly organized, and neat are essential components of a
good solution.
Show your work, and comment if necessary.
Use appropriate SI units and decimal places.
Doing a unit balance is more powerful than you think.
Dont forget you have a demonstration kit it may come in handy.
There will be 6 homework assignments this semester (each with equal weight) totaling 10%
of your final grade. Doing the homework is essential for learning the material for your
individual performance on the midterm and final exams. You may be tempted to just
divide the questions and do each question on your own. A much better approach is to try each
question yourself, have a team meeting, then decide on the best approach, then go and do
your portion. Meeting again to discuss the detailed solution is a good way to check each
others work and teach each other what you learned.
The homework will be graded with minor comments and feedback (including s and s
where you were correct and mistaken respectively). Detailed solutions will be posted on
eClass on or shortly after the due date.
It is your responsibility to check your solutions to the posted solutions and determine your
errors (if any) - get in the habit of doing this, as the exams will have a component that will
test your ability to assess solutions for correctness (a real professional skill that you will
need when the solutions dont exist in the back of the book, or from your instructor!)
The grading rubric is as follows:
Each question* on each assignment will be worth 2 points, and will be assigned a point value
based on the following rules:
0
1
2

questioned unanswered (left blank)


more incorrect than correct (major conceptual issues)
more correct than incorrect (minor conceptual issues)

*Multipart questions will be graded individually per part.

When in doubt, state your assumptions when answering a question.

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

1. Assemble yourselves into a group of 3 or 4 people only. These groups are permanent for
the semester. Your group mates can be anyone whom is currently registered in Mat E 202
this semester (from any current section, and you need not be in the same lecture or lab
section).
Write down names of all group members along with their lecture section number in
ascending alphabetical order by last name (refer to the syllabus).
You will have to do this formatting for every assignment. If you dont keep to the
formatting you will be docked we need to know this information to keep track of your
grades and to return the homework in the appropriate lecture section.
2. List and describe all type(s) of atomic/molecular bonds present in the following classes of
materials:
a. Metals
d. Composites
b. Ceramics
e. Glasses
c. Polymers
f. Electronic material
(i.e. semiconductors)
Note: For d - f, conceptually state the basic constituents of the materials that you
describe. (For example, composites may have polymer or glass matrices with
metal or ceramic fillers. Glasses may mean soda-lime glasses, metallic glasses
or polymer glasses. Semiconductors can be made of many different materials.
Freely select the ones you like and describe about them.)
a.) Metallic bonding
< Additional notes >
i) Metallic materials have between one and three unbound valence electrons. These
electrons are not bound to any particular atom in the solid but are free to drift through the
entire metal. They may be thought of as a sea of electrons or as belonging to the metal
as a whole rather than any particular atom.
ii) Metallic bonding is non-directional in nature and allows relatively easy movement of
atoms.
b.) Ionic bonding + Covalent bonding
(+ Secondary bonding)
< Additional notes >
- Ionic bonding metals give their valence electrons to a non-metal, which converts
both atoms into charged ions. Thus, the attractive bonding forces are Coulombic; that is,
the attraction of the positive and negative charged ions. The bonding is non directional.
- Covalent bonding the sharing of electrons between adjacent atoms. Relative
direction between atoms is governed by the shapes of orbitals.
- Only very few solids are 100% covalent bonding (diamond, silicon, germanium, ).
100% ionic bonding is not possible because it is not possible to donate the valence
electron at 100%. Instead, most ceramic materials have both ionic and covalent bonds in
nature, and the ratio between the two can be described as the difference between
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Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

electronegativity (
; see Chapter 2.8 in Callister 9th
edition)
- In practice, many ceramic materials, including porcelains, are layered materials,
meaning that covalent and ionic bonding holds the structure within each layer, whereas
secondary bonding holds structure between the layers (see below)

Generally, consists of clays called kaolinites


(Al2Si2O5(OH)4)

c.) Covalent bonding + Secondary bonding


< Additional Notes >
- Polymers are long chain molecules of repeating molecular units. In most cases, they are
made of a Carbon backbone with Hydrogen (or other) side groups. Covalent bonding
holds the long chain molecule together as a unit. Between folded chains or adjacent
chains, secondary bonding binds the material. (see below) More discussion will be
available in Chapter 11 of e-text.
Atomic description of
polymer chains

Chain configuration of
multiple molecules
(semicrystalline polymer)

d.) Polymer matrix + ceramic fillers: Covalent + Secondary + Ionic


Polymer matrix + metal fillers: Covalent + Secondary + Metallic
Glass matrix + carbon fibers: Covalent + Ionic (+ Secondary)

( Multiple combinations are possible. Importantly, students must demonstrate their


knowledge about the nature of composite materials )
e.) Soda lime glass (or other ceramic-based glasses): Covalent + Ionic
Same as ceramics
Metallic glass: Metallic

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

Same as metals
Glassy polymers: Covalent + Secondary
f.) Single crystalline Si and Ge: Covalent Bonding (100%)
III-V Semiconductor materials (GaAs, GaN, InAs, ): Covalent + Ionic
Transition metal oxide semiconductors (ZnOx, CuOx, InOx, ): Ionic + Covalent

NOTE: all materials have secondary bonds present (dipole interactions) however their strength is
weak and does not often play a role as the dictator for materials properties.
3. Under which class of materials would the following materials be categorized? What are/is the
primary bond type(s) in each material/object?
a. Portland cement
g. Photo magnet on your
b. Beam for bridges
refrigerator
c. Tennis ball
h. Solid state hard disk
d. Thumb tacks
(data storage part)
e. Non-stick coating on a frying fan
i. Nacre shell
f. Magnet in Macformers
(childrens toy)
a.) Portland cement is a composite material mostly composed of calcium silicate (CaO.SiO2)
Ionic + Covalent
b.) Beam for bridges are mostly steels
Metallic
c.) Modern tennis balls are made of polymers
Covalent + Secondary
< Note >
Historically, tennis balls were made of leather filled with horsehair. Modern tennis balls
are made by joining two caps of rubber, with a pressurized gas inside. The gas pressure is
calibrated to induce the desired amount of bounciness. Its then covered with glue, and
then felt, which could be composed of wool or synthetic fibers such as Nylon. So the ball
is mostly composed of polymer, and the primary bond type is covalent.
d.) Thumb tacks are (all metal) or (metal pin + plastic head)
Metallic + (Covalent + Secondary)
< Note >
Traditionally thumbtacks used to be made of brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc.
These thumbtacks also called brass tacks are still in use. In these cases the only type of
atomic bond present would be metallic bond. Today many thumbtacks have a plastic head
for easier handling. In these cases the pin itself has metallic bonds, while the head is
mainly composed of covalent bonds and secondary dipole interactions among the chains.
e.) A most typical example of non-stick coating on a frying fan is Teflon (PTFE) polymer
Covalent + Secondary
< Note >
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is by far the most common material used for non-stick

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

f.)

g.)

h.)

i.)

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

cookware. It is a thermoplastic polymer usually known by the trademark Teflon. Like


other polymers, covalent bonds are dominant throughout the material. Recently other
types of non-stick coatings have started to appear on the market, due to health concerns
associated with PTFE. Most of these new materials are ceramics based on silicon, in
which case again covalent bonds would dominate the structure, with the possibility of
observing ionic bonds, depending on what other elements are introduced into the
structure.
Macformers contains strong neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B), which is one of the best
permanent magnetic material available today. This material has metallic bonding in
nature, whereas there is covalent nature in the bonding between Fe and B.
Metallic ( + Covalent )
Refrigerator magnets are usually made of high-coercivity ferromagnetic compound
(mostly Fe2O3) mixed with a plastic binder. Therefore
Ionic + Covalent ( + Secondary )
The data storage part of solid-state disk is single-crystalline-silicon-based
semiconductors. (Note, there is no disk in SSD; it is composed of NAND flash nonvolatile memory nowadays.)
Covalent
However, data storage part of conventional hard-drives are ferromagnetic thin films,
CoCr alloys and their derivatives. (Note, layers of other types of materials are also
included)
Metallic
Nacre shell is a very interesting class of composite material. It has an alternating
structure of biogenic aragonite (calcium carbonate; CaCO3) tablet layers and organic
sheets. (See pictures below) As you can see, biomineralization provides a diverse
collection of fantastic self-assembled structures!

Ionic + Covalent (+ Secondary)

4. Materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are used for grinding and
polishing applications. Rationalize the choice of these materials for this application (discuss
structure property relationship)

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

In grinding and polishing you need a material harder and stronger than the material you
are grinding or polishing. SiC and Si3N4) exhibit primarily covalent bonding and as a
result are both very hard and strong ,brittle and have a high melting temperature. The
brittleness helps in the formation of sharp angular grinding media while the high melting
prevents limits high degradation due to high temperatures that can occur the surface of
the grinding media.

5. On one set of axes, draw a schematic tensile stress strain curve for each of the following (be
sure to label the axes, and include units see syllabus for graph construction guide):
a. A stiff ceramic (e.g., silicon carbide)
b. A strong and tough metal (e.g., pearlitic carbon steel)
c. A strong but brittle metal (e.g., martensitic carbon steel)
d. A semiconductor (e.g., doped Si)
e. A compliant polymer (e.g., polyethylene)
(You dont have to look up property data, but it may help you sort out relative differences)

6. The resilience modulus, Ur, is defined as the elastic energy storage per unit volume of a
material; area under the elastic portion of a stress strain curve Ur =

2
. Basically, resilience
2E

is the amount of energy a material can withstand without permanent deformation.

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

a. Perform a unit balance to show that the resilience modulus is in units [J/m3].

b. Would you consider an aluminum diving board or piano wire to have a higher
resilience? State your assumptions and explain your answer.

Aluminum diving boards diving boards are usually composed of a single piece of
strengthened aluminum alloy. Aluminum and its alloys have a combination of a
low modulus (70 GPa) and moderate yield strength. A piano wire is be made from
relatively high carbon steel - in other words a steel with a relatively high yield
strength 2 to 4 times higher than the aluminum however it also has a modulus
3x (210 GPa) that of aluminum. As Ur = 2/2E, the piano wire should have the
higher resilience.
c. Describe two applications where a high resilience would be required.

i) Golf Balls When a golf ball is struck with a golf club the ball compresses and
absorbs a large amount of energy. This compression is followed by an expansion.
The ball must survive this process without plastically deforming and thus requires
a high resilience
ii) Rubber tires are a good example, and have large resilience -large energy
absorption while maintaining elastic response.
and many others
7. Understanding stress, strain, and the transition between elastic and plastic deformation helps
us to design engineering structures. Such information should help you to answer practical
questions, such as:
a. A 3M packaging tape dispenser is shown in the image below. If a jagged metal
strip is used to help cut the tape, discuss the possibility of replacing it with a
jagged ceramic strip.

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

First of all, the case of metals vs. ceramics is a very general one, and there are many modern
high-tech alloys and ceramics that invalidate the traditional assumptions about their respective
categories to various degrees. But as a rule of thumb, ceramics are harder yet more brittle. This
means replacing a jagged metal with a ceramic piece would decrease its vulnerability to wear
and, thus it would be less likely to lose its sharpness.
However, during use the piece will be exposed to various stress regimes, due not just to normal
use, but accidents like falling off the table, etc. Many such accidents will lead to terminal failure
of the ceramic piece, while probably not affecting the metal in large. In conclusion, it seems that
the disadvantages of using a ceramic material heavily outweigh the advantages, and metal is a
more appropriate choice.
b. Are there limitations to the number of times a U-bend it Bendable fork or spoon
can be adjusted? See image below as well as web site:
http://products.disabled-world.com/1_475272797/u-bend-it-bendable-fork-andspoon.html

Each time a piece of metal is bent, it undergoes a certain amount of strain hardening. It means
although the original shape of the piece can be recovered, this is no longer the same material, and
does not exhibit the same properties. Also each time the material gets slightly more brittle and
prone to fracture. Eventually the material will be too strong to bend by hand and/or too brittle to
withstand the deformation smoothly.
< FURTHER READING >
Further reading 1: Every time plastic deformation happens, the existing dislocations multiply in
number. Materials deform plastically, when dislocations (and other defects in some cases) move.
Now there is a certain amount of stress required to overcome the forces that are keeping every

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

dislocation at its place. Hence the greater the number of dislocations, the greater the overall
stress required to move them. This is why the material gets harder and harder to bend.
Further reading 2: There is another type of mechanical failure known as fatigue. You'll learn
more about it later. Now, according to the manufacturers website, the metallic parts are stainless
steel. This means they likely have a fatigue limit. Failure due to fatigue would be the most likely
cause of failure in these utensils. The stress to permanently bend the utensil would surpass the
fatigue limit, and the number of cycles required for failure would be very low due to a high stress
amplitude.

Mat E 202
Winter 2014

Assignment #1

Assigned: Jan 8, 2014


Due: Jan 20, 2014

INTENDED LEARNING GOALS FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT


Declarative knowledge
Types of atomic bonds
Classes of materials
Definitions of elastic and plastic deformation, toughness
Procedural knowledge
Determination of bond type from class of material
Tensile test curve construction (stress-strain diagrams)
Proper use of units, nomenclature, and vocabulary
Conditional knowledge
Determining bond type and class of materials for any material
Conceptualizing elastic and plastic deformation response for different applied stresses and
applications
Reflective knowledge
Connection between bond type and elastic and plastic deformation response
Difference in deformation response in different materials and designs
Bond type is the single most important characteristic of a material because most properties
can be derived from the nature of the atomic bond (and you thought you would never need
chemistry again!)

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