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MOHAMMAD HATTA

MOHAMMAD HATTA Mohammad Athar is the son H. Muhammad Djamil and Siti Saleha. He was born

Mohammad Athar is the son H. Muhammad Djamil and Siti Saleha. He was born on the 12th of August 1902, in Fort de Kock (Bukittinggi). Mohammad Athar is more well known as Mohammad Hatta or Bung Hatta. He is also known as "Bapak Koperasi". His father died when he was only 7 months. After his father died, Mohammad Hatta's mother, re-married to another man, called Agus Haji Ning. Mohammad Hatta grew up, surrounded by people who really understand Islam. Mohammad Hatta started his formal education in a private school. After a while, he moved to a public school, but his education stopped when he was in grade 3. Later on, he moved to Europeesche Lager School (ELS). This is equivalent to Elementary School at that time. Mohammad Hatta finished ELS in 1913. After finishing ELS, he moved to Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs (MULO), which is equivalent to Middle School. He finished this stage of education in 1917. After MULO, Mohammad Hatta moved to Prins Hendrik School. Mohammad Hatta started to take interest in politics during his study in Handless Hogeschool, Amsterdam, from 1921 - 1932. In 1922, Mohammad Hatta joined a community called Indonesische Vereniging, this commutnity later changed its name to Perhimpoenan Indonesia (PI). Perhimpoenan Indonesia is a community created by the Indonesiancitizens who lived in Dutch at that time. Mohammad Hatta was the treasurer of the Indonesische Vereniging at that time. In that community, Mohammad Hatta was also in charge of the publication of a magazine called Hidia

Putera. Hindia Putera is a magazine produced by Perhimpoenan Indonesia. Hindia Putera then changed its name to "Majalah Indonesia Merdeka". In 1925, Mohammad Hatta was elected to be the head of Perhimpoenan Indonesia. He was the head of Perhimpoenan Indonesia from 1925 until 1930. Unfortunately, this community lead him to jail. In 1926, a member of "Partai Komunis Indonesia" (PKI), which is a party that is very against the colonialism of Dutch in Indonesia, offered Mohammad Hatta and the members of Perhimpoenan Indonesia to join the community and fight against the Dutch, because of this, the Dutch accused Mohammad Hatta of joining an illegal party. At that time, Mohammad Hatta had not agreed to join the party, this resulted in a bad relationship between Mohammad Hatta and PKI. On September 23, 1927, Mohammad Hatta was caught by the Dutch, due to the same reason. He was accused of joining PKI to fight against the colonialism of Dutch in Indonesia. In 1927, Mohammad Hatta presented a speech regarding the accusation, called Indonesia Vrij. On the 22nd of March 1928, Mohammad Hatta was released from prison. In 1932, after finishing his study, Mohammad Hata returned back to Indonesia, but unfortunately, he was captured by the Dutch in 1934. Mohammad Hatta was exiled from Batavia (Jakarta) to Boven Digul, Papua. Mohammad Hatta stayed in Digul until 1937. In Digul Hatta was paid a little amount of money for farming. As a custody in Digul, Hatta was very diligent. He organises his time wisely and during his free time, he usually reads books to increase his knowledge. Mohammad Hatta also gave lessons to his fellow friends in Digul. In 1937, Mohammad Hatta, along with Sutan Syahrir were moved again to Banda Naira. In Banda Naira, Mohammad Hatta started to write in newspapers. This gave him much more money, than if he was only farming. By the 9th of March 1942, Hatta was released from being a custody of the Dutch. When he got back to Jakarta, Hatta was offered by general Harada of Japan to work for Nippon (Japan) and to be given a high position, but he refused to take the offer and chose be an adviser for Nippon. Mohammad Hatta used this opportunity to defend the rights of Indonesia. After the lost of Japan to America, the rising generation (golongan muda) of Indonesia pushed Bung Karno and Hatta to proclaim Indonesia's independence as soon as possible, before the Dutch comes back to take control of Indonesia. Bung Karno and Mohammad Hatta keeps refusing to declare the independence, because they think Indonesia is not ready enough to be an independent country. Until the 15th of August, 1945, the rising generation held a meeting and decided that they will force Ir. Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim Indonesia's independence the following

day. The rising generation thought this was the best time to proclaim their independence, because at that time, they are not under the control of any other country. On the 16th of August, Soekarni, Yusuf Kunto and Singgih, three men who are also the rising generation of Indonesia kidnapped Soekarno and Hatta. These three men took them to Rengasdengklok. In Rengasdengklok, the rising generation pushed Bung Karno and Mohammad Hatta to proclaim their Independence that same night. At that time, occurred a commotion between the rising generation and Bung Karno and Bung Hatta. In the evening, Mr. Achmad Soebarjo came to settle the commotion. After a while, Bung Karno, Bung Hatta and the rising generation decided that they will proclaim their independence the next day. After the decision had been made, Bung Hatta and Bung Karno were taken back to Jakarta. They gathered all members of PPKI (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia) to prepare for the proclamation. By 4.00 am, Ir. Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta and Mr. Achmad Soebarjo had already written the proclamation text, which is then typed by Sayuti Melik. In the morning, Ir. Soekarno along with Hatta proclaimed Indonesia's independence. Mohammad Hatta married with Rahmi Rachim on November 18, 1945 in the village of Megamendung, Bogor, West Java. They have three daughters, Meutia Farida, Gemala Rabi'a, and Halide Fatma. The two oldest daughters are married.The first with Dr. Sri-Edi Swasono and the second with Drs. Mohammad Chalil Baridjambek. Hatta had witnessed the birth of two grandchildren, namely Sri Juwita Hanum Swasono and Mohammad Athar Baridjambek.

Mohammad Hatta became Indonesia's first vice president from 18 August 1945 until 1 December 1956. He resigned from being vice president, because of some disagreements with Soekarno. Hatta died on 14 March 1980 in Jakarta and was buried in Jakarta's Tanah Kusir public cemetery. He was declared a "Proclamation Hero" by the Suharto government in 1986.