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equations

Shayak Bhattacharjee

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India

The torque developed in a three phase AC squirrel cage motor is usually expressed in terms of

resistances and reactances of the stator, the rotor, and the motor as a whole. We use Maxwells

equations to find the torque in terms of geometrical parameters. This formulation allows us to

estimate the torque developed by a motor without knowing the details of its circuitry. VC 2012

American Association of Physics Teachers.

[DOI: 10.1119/1.3633696]

I. INTRODUCTION

The analysis of the induction motor is generally the domain

of electrical engineering. In this paper, we present an alternative analysis based on physical considerations. Our results are

in terms of geometrical parameters of the motor rather than in

terms of reactances of the different components.

The standard procedure1 for evaluating the performance

of a three-phase AC squirrel cage motor is a perphase analysis of a circuit containing Thevenin equivalents of the stator,

rotor, and load. That is, each phase of the circuit is analyzed

separately and then the results for the three phases are combined. The analysis proceeds as for a transformer, with the

coupling between windings taken to be a function of the rotation speed. The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 1. Here R1

and X1 refers to the resistance and the reactance of the stator,

R2 and X2 to those of the rotor, and Req and Xeq are the equivalent parameters for the motor as a whole. V1 is the voltage

applied to the stator. From Thevenins theorem, we have

Req iXeq R1 iX1 jjRc jjiXm ;

(1)

combination of R1 and R2, and Rc is the coupling resistor, as

shown in Fig. 1. The equivalent voltage is given by

V~eq V1

Rc jjiXm

:

R1 iX1 Rc jjiXm

(2)

R2

3 jV~eq j2

s

"

# ;

2

R2

2

Req

Xeq X2 f1

s

the radius R. The cage has radius r and height h, the conductor

bars have thickness s in the radial direction, and conductivity r.

The conductor is arranged in the form of vertical bars instead

of as a continuous cylindrical shell for the purpose of constraining eddy currents in all directions other than the vertical. As we

shall see, it is only the vertical eddies that contribute to the torque. The bars are placed close together so that we can treat the

conductor as a continuous cylindrical shell without appreciable

error. The orientations of the dipoles are shown in Fig. 3.

Three phase alternating voltage at frequency X is supplied

to the motor, one phase to each dipole. Hence the currents

through dipoles 1, 2, and 3 are I0 sin Xt, I0 sin (Xt 2p=3),

and I0 sin(Xt 4p=3), respectively.

We now consider a point on a circle of radius r at an angle

h from a reference line, which without loss of generality we

may select as the line joining the center of the cage to dipole

1. We show a schematic diagram in Fig. 3.

The expression for the field of a magnetic dipole is cumbersome, and therefore we use the vector potential. The vec~ is

tor potential of a magnetic dipole of moment m

~~

r

~ l0 m

A

;

3

4p j~

rj

(4)

where ~

r is the position vector of the field point P (see Fig. 3)

relative to the dipole. In our case the dipoles are oriented

~ is in the z direction at

with their axes in the x-y plane and A

all points in the x-y plane. For simplicity, we use a twodimensional geometry.

(3)

the stator, f2 is the angular frequency of the rotor, and

s (f1 f2)=f1. We see that the torque is expressed in terms

of the resistances and reactances of the various components.

In this paper we will derive an expression for C based

entirely on Maxwells equations. Our derivation requires no

more knowledge of electromagnetism than can be acquired

from a standard undergraduate text.2

II. DERIVATION

We show the top and front views of a squirrel cage motor in

Fig. 2. The three magnetic dipoles, each assumed to be ideal,

43

http://aapt.org/ajp

the Thevenin equivalent circuit.

C 2012 American Association of Physics Teachers

V

43

~ M^. We define

~

r R^ r cos h^ r sin h^| and M

~0

A

~

A

;

l0 =4p

(5)

and obtain

~0

A

Mr sin h

R2

r2

^

k;

(6)

where ^, ^|, and k^ are the unit vectors in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. Likewise for dipole 2,

p

3

1

Mr

sin

h

0

2 Mr cos h

2

^

~

A

k;

(7)

R2 r2 2Rr cosh 2p=33=2

and for dipole 3,

p

3

1

Mr

sin

h

0

2 Mr cos h

2

^

~

A

k:

(8)

R2 r2 2Rr cosh 4p=33=2

at a point P on the circumference of the cage.

1

3r

R3 R4 cos a , substitute the result into Eqs. (6)(8) and

combine them to obtain

p

1

1

1

3

0

~j

jA

M0 r sin h M1 r sin h

M1 r cos h M2 r sin h

3

R

2

2

2

p

3

3r

M2 r cos h 4 M0 r sin h cos h ;

9

2

R

where M0, M1, and M2 are the strengths of dipoles 1, 2, and

3, respectively.

Equation (9) has the form

p

1

r

1

3

0

~

jA j 2

M0 sin h M1 sin h

M1 cos h

R

R

2

2

p

1

3

M2 cos h

M2 sin h

2

2

2

r

3M0 sin h cos h

10

R

which is a power series in r=R. We assume r R and retain

only the first-order terms.

We use the fact that the dipole moment is proportional to

the current flowing through it, and let M be the peak strength

of each dipole in the motor. Then

Fig. 2. (a) Top view of a three-phase squirrel cage AC motor. The cage of

the motor has a radius r, the radial extension of each conducting bar is s, and

R(> r) is the distance between the center of the core and the center of a

dipole. (b) Front view of the motor. The height of the cage is h.

44

M0 M sin Xt

(11a)

M1 M sinXt 2p=3

(11b)

M2 M sinXt 4p=3:

(11c)

We substitute Eq. (11) into the first term of Eq. (10) and

obtain

p

rM

1

1

3

0

~

sin Xt

A 3 sin Xt sin h

cos Xt

R

2

2

2

p

p

1

1

3

sin Xt

cos Xt

sin h 3 cos h

2

2

2

p

^

sin h 3 cos h k;

(12)

Shayak Bhattacharjee

44

^

~ 3l0 rM cosh Xtk:

A

8p R3

(13)

~ A

~ and changing to cylindrical coordinates

~ r

By using B

q, h, and z we obtain

^

~ 3l0 M sinh Xt^

q cosh Xth:

B

8p R3

(14)

Thus B

current is in the ^

z direction (due to the conducting bars), the

~ when crossed with the current, creates a

h^ component of B,

radial force which produces zero torque. Hence in the subsequent analysis, we will consider only the q^ component of the

magnetic field.

Let x be the rotation rate of the cage and define

B0

3l0 M

:

8p R3

(15)

Qualitatively the rotating B

that the rotation of the cage is clockwise. We now quantify

this drag using techniques similar to those found in Refs.

36. Consider a time t0 and a point at the angle h. We use a

frame moving at speed Xr in the h^ direction. In this frame

~ B0 sinh Xt0 ^

B

r and is constant in time and the cage

moves with speed (X x)r in the h^ direction. Then we

obtain the induced electric field

~ ~

~ B0 X xr sinh Xt0 ^z:

E

vB

(16)

only for small E, or equivalently, for small values of X x

from Eq. (16). We also note that J~ can be assumed constant

through an element of cross sectional area srdh (s is the conductor thickness and s r). We obtain the infinitesimal

current

dI rB0 X xr sinh Xt0 srdh:

(17)

~ I~

~ is

The infinitesimal force, from F

l B,

^

~ rhB2 X xrsin2 h Xt0 srdh h;

dF

0

(18)

by leff whose value is between l0 and lcore. The entire lcore

will not act because the dipoles are mounted in air.

We see that the torque is proportional to the difference

between the rotational frequency and the excitation frequency. Note that for low frequencies, the Thevenin circuit

answer in Eq. (3) also yields a torque proportional to X x.

If we use the condition s 1 in Eq. (3) (where the slip factor s 1 x=X, we obtain a simplified expression for the

torque,

C

3sjV~eq j2

;

f1 R2

(22)

which shows that the torque depends linearly on the frequency difference, which is referred to as the slip frequency.

The torque as a function of the slip has been experimentally measured and also calculated numerically (see Fig. 4).7

As expected, the torque increases linearly in the low slip

region. The saturation at a slip frequency around 10 Hz is a

~

consequence of the breakdown of linear response. As E

~

increases, the first correction to J appears in the form

~ r0 jEj

~ 2 E.

~ For practical applications, the motor genJ~ rE

erally operates in the linear regime.

III. APPLICATION

We apply Eq. (21) to a motor of type 6FXA7059 manufactured by Crompton Greaves9 and obtain an estimate for the

torque from the data and the picture in Fig. 5. The motor

weighs 2050 kg and has six dipoles that are powered with

2180 Volts. The continuous (maximum) ratings are a current

of 370 A (450 A), a speed of 1583 rpm (3174 rpm), and a

torque of 6930 Nm (10000 Nm).

We note from Fig. 5 that h=R 2 and R=r 3. The current

value indicates a copper wire of double zero gauge, which is

thicker than gauge zero. For equal weights of the stator and

rotor there is approximately 240 m of wire in each dipole. If

we assume a density of 6000 kg m3 for the laminated iron

cage, we obtain r 0.16 m, R 0.5 m, and h 1 m. Another

assumption is that the dipoles are squares of side 20 cm so

that the six dipoles cover a third of the circumference of the

cage. Each dipole has about 360 turns of wire, and the

d~

C rhr3 sB20 X xsin2 h Xt0 dh ^z:

(19)

Because B

times are identical except for a shift by an angle which

becomes irrelevant when we integrate over the whole cage.

Hence the torque does not vary with time as long as X and x

are constant, and we may evaluate it by setting t0 0 in Eq.

(19) and integrating over the whole range of h: 0 h 2p.

Hence

~

C prhr3 sB20 X x^z:

(20)

cage. Its magnitude is given by

9l2 M2 r3 hrs

C 0

X x:

64pR6

45

(21)

Fig. 4. The torque as a function of the slip frequency. The data are taken

from Ref. 7. The circles and squares correspond to experimental data and

numerical calculations respectively. Points where the two coincide are

shown as diamonds.

Shayak Bhattacharjee

45

sets I 370 A, C 6930 Nm, and I 450 A, C 10000 Nm.

We see that I changes by a factor of 1.22, and the torque

changes by a factor of 1.44 which is consistent with Eq. (21).

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am grateful to KVPY, Government of India, for a

fellowship.

1

and consider 4% slip operation at 25 Hz, the torque is about

8000 Nm. Thus, we see this derivation has produced a good

estimate for the torque, starting from information which

would not have yielded an answer from the Thevenin

formulation.

We conclude by noting an important feature of our result.

The dipole moment M is proportional to the input current,

and hence the torque as given by Eq. (21) depends quadratically on the input current. This result is not contained in the

Thevenin circuit analysis. We have looked for data with

46

The Electrical Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. CRC, Boca Raton, FL,

2006.

2

D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Pearson Education, Saddle River, NJ, 2008).

3

C. S. MacLatchy, P. Backman, and L. Bogan, A quantitative magnetic

braking experiment, Am. J. Phys. 61(12), 10961101 (1993).

4

K. D. Hahn, E. M. Johnson, A. Brokken, and S. Baldwin, Eddy current

damping of a magnet moving through a pipe, Am. J. Phys. 66(12),

10661076 (1998).

5

B. A. Knyazev, I. A. Kotelnikov, A. A. Tyutin, and V. S. Cherkasskii,

Braking of a magnetic dipole moving with an arbitrary velocity through a

conducting pipe,, Phys. Usp. 49(9), 937946 (2006).

6

Y. Levin, F. L. da Silveira, and F. B. Rizzato, Electromagnetic braking: A

simple quantitative model, Am. J. Phys. 74(9), 815817 (2006).

7

E. Vassent, G. Meunier, A. Foggia, and G. Reyne, Simulation of induction

machine operation using a step by step finite element method coupled with

circuits and mechanical equations, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27(6), 52325234

(1991).

8

hindianrail.wikia.com=wiki=WAP5i.

9

hwww.cgglobal.com=frontend=ProductDetail.aspx?id=bUPousS3GXk=i.

Shayak Bhattacharjee

46

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