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# 1.

Aim :

## USE OF VERNIER CALLIPERS

To determine volume of solid sphere and measure inner diameter, depth of hollow cylinder.

Diagram :

Formula :

## Volume of solid sphere (V) =

4
R3
3

Procedure :
1.

Note the smallest division on the main scale of vernier callipers and the total number of divisions on
the vernier scale, hence find the least count vernier callipers using the formula
Least count =

2.

## smallest division on the main scale of vernier callipers ( s )

Total number of divisions on vernier scale ( N )

To find the zero error of vernier callipers bring the two jaws of vernier callipers in contact. Observe
and conclude according to the following given conditions.

Page 1

a)
If zero division of main scale coincides with
zero division of vernier scale.

There is no
zero error.

## If zero division of vernier scale is on right

(ahead) of zero division of main scale and if
m th division of vernier scale coincides with
some division on main scale.

Zero error

## If zero division of vernier scale is on left

(behind) of zero division of main scale and if
m th division of vernier scale coincides with
some division on main scale.

Zero error =

b)
= +m L.C.

c)

- (N - m)
L. C.

3.

## To determine the volume of sphere

Hold the given solid sphere between the lower jaws of vernier callipers as shown. Note the position
of the zero mark of vernier scale on the main scale.Let this main scale reading be A. Note the
vernier division (n) that coincides with some division on main scale. Then calculate the total reading
(T) with formula T = A + (n L.C.) Take atleast three independent reading for different positions of
the sphere. Apply correction according to zero error (T Z) and find the mean value of diameter
D
(D). Hence radius of sphere (R) =
2

4.

To Find the inner diameter of hollow cylinder use upper jaws as shown in the figure. For depth use
depth gauze of the vernier callipers.

5.

Obs
No.

Description

Symbol

Value

Unit

1.

cm

2.

3.

Least count

L. C. =

S
N

cm

4.

## Zero error (with proper sign)

Z. E. (Z)

cm.

Observation table
Object

Obs.
No.

Dimensions

Main
Scale
A cm

Vernier
Scale
Division
Coinciding
n

Vernier
Scale
n LC = B
cm

Total
T=A+B
cm

Corrected Mean
T Z cm
cm

1
Sphere

Diameter
2
3

1
Cylinder

Inner
diameter

2
3

1
Cylinder

Depth
2
3

Symbol
Calculations :
Radius of the sphere R = ----- cm
Volume of sphere

4
3
V = R
3
R
4
V = (3.142) ( )3
3
V = ---------- cm 3
V
Result :
i)
Volume of the sphere = ________ cm 3

Value
4

Log

3.142

R3

ii)

iii)

3
Al(

D
ND

Precautions :
i)

## While taking reading, do not press the jaws too hard.

ii)

The different reading for diameter of an object should be taken a t different positions.

iii)

Page 3

2.
Aim

## USE OF MICROMETER SCREW GAUGE

To measure cross sectional area of uniform wire and the thickness of plate.

Diagram :

Formula :
Least count =

## Pitch of the screw

=
Total number of divisions

P
N

on circular scale
Procedure :
I)

## To find the least count of screw gauge :

Note the value of the smallest division on main scale of screw gauge and total no. of divisions on the
circular scale of micrometer screw gauze. Note the distance travelled by the screw on main scale for
10 complete rotations of circular scale. Hence find the pitch of the screw and least count of the screw
gauze.

II)

## To find the zero error :

Bring the two jaws of gauge in contact with each other. Observe and conclude according to the
following given conditions.

a)
If zero of circular scale coincides
with reference line.

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## There is no zero error. (Z) = 0

b)
If zero of circular scale is below
There is Positive error (Z)
reference line.
= + (m L.C.)
If mth division of circular scale
coincides with reference line.
c)
If zero of circular scale is above
the reference line.

= -[(N m) L.C.]

## -If mth division of circular scale

coincides with reference line and
N is total number of division on
circular scale.

III)

To determine the diameter of wire, hold the wire between the jaws of micrometer and note down the
main scale reading (A) and the circular scale division that coincides with reference line, hence
calculate the total reading (T) with the following formula T = A + B. Take three independent
readings for different positions of the wire.
Find the corrected reading according to the zero error (T Z) and find the mean value of diameter
of wire. Do the similar procedure for finding thickness of the plate.

Observations :
Obs.
No.

Description

Symbol

Value

Unit

1.

cm

2.

3.

cm

4.

cm

5.

6.

7.

8.

## Zero error ( m L.C.)

10

L.C.=

Page 5

P
N

cm

div

cm

Observation Table :
For diameter of the wire and thickness of the plate.
Object

Obs.
No.

Dimensions

Main
Scale
A cm

Circular
C.S.D. L.C.
=B

Total
T=A+B

Corrected
T Z cm

Mean
cm

1.
Diameter
Wire

D = -----cm
D
r = ----2

2.
3.

1.
Thickness
Plate

2.

t = -------

3.

Calculations :
Area of cross-section
of wire a = r 2
a

= 3.142 ( -----) 2

= ---- cm 2

Results : i)
ii)

Symbol

Value
3.142

Log

r 2 = ---

--Antilog =

## Cross sectional area of wire (a) = _______ cm 2

Thickness of plate (t) = _______ cm

Precautions :
1)
While rotating the micrometer screw, do not apply an excessive pressure on the object.
2)
Use the ratchet to avoid the excessive pressure.
3)
4)
The screw should more freely without friction.
5)
The zero correction, with proper sign should be noted very carefully and added algebraically.

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3. SPHEROMETER
Aim :

Diagram :

R

d2 h

6h 2

## where d = mean distance between two legs of a spherometer

h = sagitta of the spherical surface.

Procedure :
i)
Press the spherometer on a plane paper so that it produces impressions of the tips of its three legs on
the paper. Measure the distance d 1 , d 2 , d 3 between the three marks of the legs. Hence find the mean
ii)

## distance d between the legs.

Find the least count of the spherometer and Place the spherometer on the plane glass plate.
Rotate the screw till the tip of the screw just touches the glass surface. This can be ensured by
observing that the tip of the screw coincides with its image in the glass plate.

iii)

Note down the main scale reading (A), by observing position of the edge of the circular scale on the
main scale. Note circular scale reading (B) by observing the circular scale division coinciding with
the edge of the main scale hence find the total reading (A + B). In this way, take three observations
and calculate its mean.

iv)

Raise the screw through some distance. Place the spherometer on a concave surface / convex surface
of the watch glass. Rotate the screw so that its tip and all legs of the spherometer touch the surface.

v)

## Take three observations and calculate its mean.

Observations :
i)

Distance between the legs, d 1 = _______ cm, d 2 = _______ cm, d 3 = _______ cm.
mean distance, d =

ii)
iii)
iv)

d1 d2 d3
= ________ cm
3

## Smallest division on main scale = ________ cm.

Distance through which the screw advances on the main scale in 10 rotations of the circular scale,
l = _____ cm.
l
Pitch of the screw, P =
= _____ cm.
10
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v)
vi)

## Total number of divisions on the circular scale, N = _____

P
Least count (L. C.) of the spherometer =
______ cm.
N

Surface

Obs.
No.

Plane glass
surface

M. S. R.
A cm.

Coinciding
Circular scale
Division
C

C. S. R.
B=C L.C.

T=A+B = cm

Mean

X = ____ cm.
2
3

Concave
surface

1
Y = ____cm.
2
3

Convex
Surface

1
Z=

cm.

2
3
Calculations :
Sagitta for the concave surface, h 1 = Y X = ________ cm
Sagitta for the convex surface, h 2 = Z X = ________ cm.
R1

d 2 h1

6h1 2

R2

d 2 h2

6h2 2

Calculation Table :
For R1

For R2

log d 2 a
log 6h 1 = b =
ab = c

log d 2 a
log 6h 2 = b =
ab = c

h1
h
R 2 = Antilog c 2
2
2
Radius of curvature i) for concave surface = ____________ cm.

R 1 = Antilog c
Result :

Precautions :
i)

## ii) Consider lowest mark on the main scale as zero mark.

iii) Rotate the screw gradually so that tip of the screw just touches the centre of the curved surface.
Page 8

4. STATIC FRICTION
Aim : To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find
coefficient of static friction between a block and a horizontal surface.
Apparatus : Rectangular wooden block with hook, string , rough balance, weight box, pan, horizontal
plane surface with pully.
Diagram :

Formula :

P
W

## where P is the effort and W is the Load.

Procedure :
Note the weight of wooden block and pan separately using rough balance.
Keep the wooden block on horizontal surface. Tie one end of string to the hook of the block, pass the
string over pully and connect its free end to the pan. The string should be parallel to the horizontal plane.
Add the weight gradually to the pan till the block just begins to move on horizontal plane. Note the
weight (P 1) in the pan. Find the effort (P = P 0 + P 1 ) required to move the wooden block (load)
Place a weight of 50 g on the block and repeat the above procedure. Take five readings by
increasing the weight on block by steps of 50 g. Calculate the coefficient of static friction using the formula.
Plot the graph of effort (P) along Y-axis and load (W) along X-axis. Calculate the slope which gives
the value of coefficient of static friction s.
Observations :
1)
Mass of the empty block, W 0 = ________ g wt
2)

3)

## Acceleration due to gravity, g = 980 cm/s 2

Page 9

Obs.
No.

Mass on
the block
W1 g

W = W 1+ W 0
g wt

Mass in the
Pan P 1 g wt

Effort
P = P1 + P 0
g wt

Coeff. of
Static
Friction =
s = P/W.

1
2
3
4
5
Mean s = ___________
Calculations :
Observation

Log (P) = a
Log (W) = b
(a b) = c
Antilog of c = s
Graph

Result :
1)
Coefficient of static friction by calculation, s = _________
2)

## Coefficient of static friction by graph, s = _________

Precautions :
1)
The string (between block and pully) should be parallel to horizontal plane.
2)
The pan should hang freely without touching the table.
3)
Starting position of the block must be same for all readings.
4)
Clean the horizontal surface and wooden block with blotting paper (or cloth paper)

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5. OHMS LAW
Aim : To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus
current.
Apparatus : Uniform metal wire of unknown resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, battery / power supply,
rheostat, meter scale, one way key, connecting wires etc.
Circuit Diagram :

Formulae : 1)
2)

R=

V
I

## Resistance per cm of a wire = =

R
L

Procedure :
Arrange the apparatus as shown in the circuit diagram and make the connections.Determine the least
count of voltmeter and ammeter. Close the key (K) and adjust the rheostat, such that a minimum current
passes through the resistance wire. Note down potential difference (V) and corresponding current (I).
Repeat the above step for different values (V) and corresponding current (I). Calculate the resistance in each
case. Plot the graph of V versus I. Determine the slope of a graph, which is the resistance (R) of wire.
Observations :
1)

2)

3)

Sr. No.

I
(mA)

I
(A)

V
(volt)

1
2
3
4
5

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R=

V
( )
I

Calculations :
Obs. No.

log V = a
log I = b
a b=c
R = antilog c
1)

/ cm
L -------------

Graph :

Slope =

AB
BC

Slope =

2)

## Resistance per cm of wire = =

V
R ---------------
I

slope
= - - - - - / cm
L

Result :
1)

Unknown resistance of

2)

3)

4)

Precautions :
1)

## The connections should be neat and tight.

2)

The key should be inserted only, while taking the observations to avoid the heating of resistance.

3)

If the deflection of the pointer in the voltmeter or ammeter is between any two divisions, then adjust
the rheostat so that the pointer coincides exactly with one of the division and then take the readings.

Page 12

6. R. I. OF LIQUID
Aim : To determine the R. I. of a liquid (water) by using concave mirror.
Apparatus : Concave mirror, plane mirror, retort stand, index pin, string, half meter scale, liquid
(water).
Ray diagrams :

Formula :
1)

## R. I. of liquid using concave mirror = =

R1
R2

where R 1 is the distance between pole of mirror and pin without liquid. R 2 is the distance between
surface of water and pin.
Procedure : R. I. of Liquid using concave mirror :
1)
2)

Keep the concave mirror on the horizontal surface, with its reflecting surface upwards.
Fix index pin horizontally in a clamp with retort stand and keep its tip on vertical line through pole
of mirror.
Coincide tips of the index pin and its image. (a) Move the index pin up and down and remove the
parallax between tips of the pin and its image seen in the concave mirror.
Note the distance (R 1) between tip of index pin and pole of concave mirror using half meter scale.

3)
4)
5)

Take small quantity of water in concave mirror, lower the index pin and remove the parallax
between its tip and tip of the image as seen through water. Note the distance (R 2 ) between tip of
index pin and surface of the water using half meter scale.
Using formula determine R. I. of liquid.
Take three independent sets of R 1 and R 2 .

6)
7)

Observation table :
Obs.
No.

Distance between
Pin and mirror
Without liquid
R 1 (cm)

Distance between
Pin & surface
of liquid
R 2 (cm)

1
2
Page 13

R. I. of
Liquid
R
1
R2

Mean
R. I. of
liquid

Calculations :
1)

R1
R2

Symbol

Value

Log

R1

____

R2

____

Antilog=

Result :
(1)
R. I. of given liquid using concave mirror
= ______
Precautions :
1)
The tip of the pin should lie on the principal axis of concave mirror.
2)
While removing the parallax, the eye should be kept at a minimum distance of 30 cm from the index
pin.
3)
Parallax should be removed between index pin and image of index pin.
4)
Take sufficient quantity of liquid in the concave mirror.
5)
The liquid should be clean and transparent.
6)
The index pin should be clamped horizontally.

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