AAS 12213
A CLOSED FORM SOLUTION OF THE TWO BODY PROBLEM IN NONINERTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES
Daniel Condurache ^{*} and Vladimir Martinusi ^{†}
A comprehensive analysis, together with the derivation of a closed form solu
tion to the twobody problem in arbitrary noninertial reference frames are made within the present work. By using an efficient mathematical instrument, which is closely related to the attitude kinematics methods, the motion in the noninertial reference frame is completely solved. The closed form solutions
for the motion in the noninertial frame, the motion of the mass center, and the relative motion are presented in the paper. Dynamical characteristics analogue
to 
the linear momentum, angular momentum and total energy are introduced. 
In 
the general situation, these quantities may be determined as functions of 
time, and their derivation is presented within the paper. In the situation where the noninertial frame has only a rotation motion, these quantities become first integrals in a larger sense, with respect to an adequately defined differentiation rule.
INTRODUCTION
The paper approaches the twobody problem in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame, offering its solution in the most general case, where the noninertial frame has an arbitrary rotation and translation. To the knowledge of the authors, such a solution is not present in textbooks [1, 2, 3, 4], perhaps due to the unusual expression of the ﬁrst integrals.
The study of the problem in a noninertial frame, in place of the classical study in an inertial one, has two simple motivations here: ﬁrst, it is a problem which models real situations, for example the way a telescope orbiting Earth sees the relative motion between two attracting bodies, or it is the way the same motion is seen by an Earthﬁxed observer, from an Earthﬁxed reference frame, which rotates around the polar axis, and also translates in an orbit around the sun. Second, it is
a very interesting mathematical problem, which has not been approached comprehensively in the literature.
Assuming that the motion of the noninertial frame is known, the solution is determined by using
a tensorial instrument introduced in 1995 by one of the authors [5]. This method is similar to the
approach used in rigid body kinematics, based on proper orthogonal and skewsymmetric tensor valued functions, related by the Darboux equation, also known as the attitude kinematics equation. The paper is organized as follows. After the presentation of the nonlinear initial value problems which model the motion of two interacting bodies with respect to a general noninertial frame, the tensor method is presented, together with a vector differentiation operator, which makes the
^{∗} Professor, Department of Theoretical Mechanics, Technical University ”Gheorghe Asachi”, 700050, Iasi, Romania. Member AIAA, AAS. Email: daniel.condurache@gmail.com. ^{†} Postdoctoral Fellow, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion  Israel Institute of Technology, 32000, Haifa, Israel. Email: vladmartinus@gmail.com
1649
connection between the derivative in a rotating frame and the derivative in the inertial frame. One has to remark that all the computations are made in the noninertial frame, and the inertial one is used only as a catalyst in solving the problem. The study of the twobody problem in noninertial reference frames is made ﬁrst by studying the motion of the center of mass of the system, then by studying the relative motion of one body with respect to a reference frame attached to the other one, and the relative motion of both bodies with respect to a reference frame attached to the center of mass. The closed form solution for the motion of each body with respect to the original frame is also presented. The motion with respect to the frame attached to the mass center is comprehensively studied, and new ﬁrst integrals of the motion are obtained. These ﬁrst integrals allow to offer a geometrical visualization of the motion.
In the end, dynamical characteristics of the motion, analogue to the classical linear momentum, angular momentum and total energy are introduced, and a method to determine them is also offered. In the situation where the noninertial frame is only a rotational one, they become ﬁrst integrals of the motion, in a larger sense, and a generalized potential energy function is also introduced. Particularizing to the case where the reference frame has a constant instantaneous angular velocity, the aforementioned function becomes the classical potential energy. The present work constitutes the basis for future research, where the fullbody problem will be studied, where the internal torques of the system are going to be incorporated into the mathematical model.
PROBLEM FORMULATION
The mathematical model for the two body problem in noninertial reference frames is represented by the initial value problems (IVPs):
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎩
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎩
m _{1} ¨r _{1} + 2m _{1} ω × r˙ _{1} +m _{1} ω× (ω × r _{1} ) + m _{1} ω˙ × r _{1} + m _{1} a _{F} = F _{1}_{2} ,
^{}
r _{1} (t _{0} ) =
r˙ _{1} (t _{0} ) = v ^{0}
r ^{0}
1
1
m _{2} ¨r _{2} + 2m _{2} ω × r˙ _{2} +m _{2} ω× (ω × r _{2} ) + m _{2} ω˙ × r _{2} + m _{2} a _{F} = F _{2}_{1} ,
^{}
r _{2} (t _{0} ) =
r˙ _{2} (t _{0} ) = v ^{0}
r ^{0}
2
2
(1)
(2)
where r _{k} denotes the position vector, r˙ _{k} the velocity vector of the particle P _{k} , k = 1, 2, related to the reference frame where the motion takes place, m _{k} are the masses of the two particles, a _{F} is the acceleration and ω is the angular velocity of the noninertial reference frame where the motion takes place. The vector map of real variable ω is supposed to be differentiable, and a _{F} is supposed to be continuous. F _{i}_{j} denotes the force that acts upon the particle P _{i} due to the interaction with
particle P _{j} , i
(3)
From the principle of reciprocal interactions, it follows that:
= j, i, j = 1, 2. The approach is based on the assumption:
F _{i}_{j} = F _{i}_{j} (r _{i} − r _{j} ) , i
= j, i, j = 1, 2.
F _{1}_{2} + F _{2}_{1} = 0;
F _{1}_{2} × (r _{1} − r _{2} ) = 0.
^{(}^{4}^{)}
Within this paper, it is going to be proved that the twobody problem in noninertial reference frames may be solved exactly like in the inertial case, by solving two singleparticle problems:
1650
1. The motion of the center of the center mass, denoted with C; its position vector with respect to the noninertial frame F is denoted with r _{C} (also see Figure 1);
2. The relative motion of one particle related to a reference frame associated to the other one, for example the motion of particle P _{2} related to P _{1} . This motion is described by the vector map r=r _{2} − r _{1} , where r _{2} is the solution to IVP (2) and r _{1} is the solution to IVP (1).
Figure 1. The twobody problem in a noninertial reference frame.
The closed form solution will be presented with the help of a tensor instrument, ﬁrst introduced in Ref. [5]. It is based on proper orthogonal and skewsymmetric tensor maps of real variable. A key role is played by a vector differentiation operator, which relates the motion in a rotating reference frame to the motion in an inertial frame.
By using this tensor instrument, the following results are presented herein:
• An explicit solution for the general motion of the center of mass;
• A representation theorem of the relative motion; the problem is reduced to the study of the motion of one mass point in an arbitrary central force ﬁeld;
• novel ﬁrst integrals, replicas to the linear momentum, angular momentum and energy conser vation laws.
TENSORIAL CONSIDERATIONS
This section introduces the main mathematical instruments used in this paper. A tensorial map and a vectorial differential operator will be deﬁned. The following denotations are introduced:
• V _{3} the threedimensional space of free vectors;
• V ^{R} the set of functions of real variable, with values in V _{3} ;
3
• SO _{3} the special orthogonal group of second order tensors:
SO _{3} = ^{} Q  Q ^{T} Q = I _{3} , det (Q)=1 ^{} ;
• SO ^{R} the set of functions of real variable, with values in SO _{3} ;
3
1651
(5)
• so _{3} the Liealgebra of skewsymmetric second order tensors:
SO _{3} = ω  ω ^{T} = −ω ;
• so ^{R} the set of functions of real variable, with values in so _{3} .
3
(6)
A Tensor Operator
The precession with arbitrary angular velocity ω is related to proper orthogonal tensor maps of real variable by a tensor IVP, similar to the one from attitude kinematics, which is also referred to as the Darboux equation.
Lemma 1 Consider the IVP:
˙
Q = Qω ; Q (t _{0} ) = I _{3} , t _{0} ≥ 0.
Then there exist a unique solution Q ∈ SO ^{R} , for any continuous map ω ∈ so ^{R} 3 ^{.}
3
(7)
Proof. From the existence and uniqueness theorem, it follows that IVP (7) has a unique solution Q = Q (t). One has to prove that Q is in SO ^{R} , meaning that Q ^{T} Q = I _{3} and det (Q)=1.
3
QQ ^{T} + Q Q ^{T} = Qω Q ^{T} − Qω Q ^{T} = 0 _{3} , so QQ ^{T} is a constant
differentiable function that satisﬁes ^{} QQ ^{T} ^{} (t _{0} ) = I _{3} . Then, QQ ^{T} = I _{3} . Using that det (Q) is also a continuous function which satisﬁes det (Q) ∈ {−1, 1} and det (Q (t _{0} )) = det I _{3} = 1, it follows that det (Q)=1. So Q ∈ SO ^{R}
We have that
d
_{d}_{t} ^{} QQ ^{T} ^{} =
˙
˙
3 .
Remark 2 Lemma 1 is the wellknown Darboux problem (also named the attitude kinematics equation) (also see Ref [6]): determining the rotation tensor when the instantaneous angular ve locity is known. The link between the rotation tensor map and the skewsymmetric tensor associated to the angular velocity vector is given by IVP (7).
The solution to IVP (7) will be denoted F _{ω} . tensorial orthogonal map.
Lemma 3 The map F _{ω} satisﬁes:
The next result presents the properties of this
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
F _{ω} is invertible; F _{ω} u · F _{ω} v = u · v, (∀) u, v ∈ V ^{R} ;
F _{ω} u = u , (∀) u ∈ V ^{R} ;
3
3
F _{ω} (u × v) = F _{ω} u × F _{ω} v, (∀) u, v ∈ V ^{R} ;
3
d
_{d}_{t} F _{ω} u=F _{ω} u + ω × u , (∀) u ∈ V ^{R} , differentiable;
·
3
_{2} F _{ω} u=F _{ω} u + 2ω × u + ω × (ω × u) + ω × u , (∀) u ∈ V ^{R} , differentiable.
dt
··
·
·
3
d
^{2}
The proof of Lemma 3 may be performed by elementary manipulations, therefore it is omitted.
1652
Comments and Remarks
1. The following denotation is introduced:
Δ
(F _{ω} ) ^{−}^{1} = R _{−}_{ω}
(8)
Since F _{ω} is the solution to IVP (1), it follows that R _{−}_{ω} is the proper orthogonal tensor map associated to the instantaneous angular velocity −ω, therefore it obeys the IVP:
˙
R −ω + ω R _{−}_{ω} = 0; R _{−}_{ω} (t _{0} ) = I _{3} .
(9)
2. There exists a numerical solution of the initial value problem (9) when the instantaneous angular velocity ω is an arbitrary continuous vector function. This is known as the Peano Baker solution, it is obtained by iteration [7] and it is presented as a limit of inﬁnitesimal integrals.
with
T
[ω (t _{1} ) ,
R _{−}_{ω} (t) = I _{3} +
∞
n=1
,
ω
(t _{n} )]
_{=} (−1) ^{n}
Δ
2
^{n}
t t
1
n!
t
0
σ∈P(n)
dt _{1}
⎡
⎣
n−1
k=1
t
0
^{θ}
dt _{n} T [ω (t _{1} ) ,
^{t} σ(k) ^{−} ^{t} σ(k+1)
,
ω
(t _{n} )] ,
n
ω
p=1
^{} t σ(p) ^{} ⎤ ⎦
θ (t) = 1, ^{0}^{,}
^{t} ^{≤} ^{t} 0 ^{0} t>t
,
and P (n) denotes the group of permutations of the set {1,
, n} , n ≥ 2.
,
(10)
(11)
(12)
• In case ω has ﬁxed direction, ω = ωωˆ, with ωˆ constant unit vector and ω : R → R,
then R _{−}_{ω}
since ω (t _{1} ) ω (t _{2} ) = ω (t _{2} ) ω (t _{1} ), (∀) t _{1}_{,}_{2} ∈ R, (also see Refs. [5, 8, 9]), has the explicit expression:
⎝
R _{−}_{ω} (t) = exp ⎛
−
t
t
0
ω (s) ds ⎠ ⎞ = I _{3} − sin ϕ (t) ^{ω} + [1 − cos ϕ (t)] ^{ω}
ω
ω
2
,
(13)
where
ϕ (t) =
t
t 0
ω (s) ds.
(14)
• If ω is constant, then R _{−}_{ω} has the explicit expression:
R _{−}_{ω}_{(}_{t}_{)} = exp [− (t − t _{0} ) ω ] = I _{3} −sin [ω (t − t _{0} )] ^{ω} +{1 − cos [ω (t − t _{0} )]} ^{ω}
ω
ω
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2
.
(15)
• If vector ω has a regular precession with angular velocity ω _{1} around a ﬁxed axis, ex pressed mathematically like:
ω = R _{1} ω _{0} ; ω _{0} = ω (t _{0} ) ;
R _{1} = exp [(t − t _{0} ) ω _{1} ] ,
(16)
then the IVP (9) still has a time–explicit solution [10, 11], expressed like:
R _{−}_{ω} (t) = exp [(t − t _{0} ) ω _{1} ] exp [− (t − t _{0} ) (ω
_{1} + ω _{0} )] ,
(17)
and written explicitly:
R _{−}_{ω} =
I _{3} + sin [ω _{1} (t − t _{0} )] ^{ω}
ω
1
1
+ {1 − cos [ω _{1} (t − t _{0} )]} ^{ω}
ω
1 2 ×
1
I _{3} − sin [α (t − t _{0} )] ^{α} + {1 − cos [α (t − t _{0} )]} ^{α} 2 ,
α
α
(18)
where:
(19)
• A comprehensive study, together with a closedform solution to the IVP (9) in the gen eral case, may be found in Ref. [10]
α
= ω _{1} + ω _{0} .
Remark 4 Equations (13), (15) and(18) provide the closed form solution to the Darboux equation in the situation where vector ω has ﬁxed direction, it is constant, and it has a regular precession, respectively.
A Vector Differentiation Operator
A vector differential operator related to the angular velocity ω is introduced. It relates the deriva tive of a vector valued function in an inertial reference frame to the derivative of the same vector function expressed in a rotating reference frame. Like the regular derivative, it admits an inverse operator, deﬁned within this section. This derivation rule will prove to be useful in the study of the motion with respect to a noninertial reference frame.
Deﬁne the vector valued function differentiation rule ( ) ^{} : V ^{R} −→ V ^{R} by:
3
3
·
( ) ^{} = ()+ ω× ( )
For any arbitrary vectorial map u : R −→ V ^{R} , it stands:
3
u ^{} = u˙ + ω × u
(20)
(21)
The next result presents the properties of this operator, together with the link to the previously deﬁned tensor valued function F _{ω} .
Lemma 5 The following afﬁrmations hold:
·
1. ω ^{} = ω;
1654
2. (u+v) ^{} = u ^{} + v ^{} , (∀) u, v ∈C ^{2} ^{} V
R ^{}
3
.
3. (λu) ^{} = λu+λu ^{} , (∀) u ∈C ^{2} ^{} V
4. (u × v) ^{} = u ^{} × v+u × v ^{} , (∀) u, v ∈C ^{2} ^{} V
˙
R ^{} , (∀) λ : R → R, differentiable.
3
R ^{}
3
.
5. u ^{} · v+u · v ^{} = u˙ · v+u · v˙ = _{d}_{t} (u · v) , (∀) u, v ∈C ^{2} ^{} V
6. u ^{}^{} = u¨ + 2ω × u˙ + ω× (ω × u) + ω˙ × u, (∀) u ∈C ^{2} ^{} V
d
R
3
R ^{}
3
.
^{}
.
d
7. _{d}_{t} (F _{ω} u) = F _{ω} (u ^{} ) , (∀) u ∈C ^{2} ^{} V
3
R
^{}
.
8. F _{ω} u _{t}_{=}_{t} _{0} = u (t _{0} ) ;
d
_{d}_{t} (F _{ω} u)
^{} t=t _{0}
= u˙ (t _{0} ) + ω (t _{0} ) × u (t _{0} ) ;
The proof to Lemma 5 may be made by elementary mathematical manipulations, therefore it will not be presented here.
The vector differentiation deﬁned in Equation (20) makes the connection between the derivative of a vector referred to a reference frame which rotates with angular velocity ω (denoted with a dot above) and the derivative of the same vector referred to an inertial reference frame (denoted with prime), as it is depicted in Figure 2.
Figure 2. The vector differentiation operator transports the derivative from the ro tating reference frame to the inertial reference frame.
The antiderivation rule associated to the differentiaition rule ( ) ^{} is presented below.
Lemma 6 Consider b=b (t) a continuous vector valued function. Then the solution to the IVP:
is expressed like:
u ^{} = b, u (t _{0} ) = u _{0}
u = R _{−}_{ω} ⎡ ^{⎣} u 0 +
t
t
0
R ^{T} _{−}_{ω} (s) b (s) ds ⎦ ⎤
where R _{−}_{ω} is deﬁned in Equation (8).
(22)
(23)
Proof. Apply the tensor operator F _{ω} to IVP (22) and take into account point (8.) from Lemma 5. It follows that:
_{d}_{t} (F _{ω} u) = F _{ω} b; F _{ω} u _{t}_{=}_{t} _{0} = u _{0}
(24)
d
1655
By using point (7) from Lemma 5, together with the initial conditions from Equation (22), it follows:
F _{ω} u=u _{0} +
t
t 0
^{T}
R _{−}_{ω}
(s) b (s) ds.
Equation (23) is obtained by applying R _{−}_{ω} to the equality (25). The proof is ﬁnalized.
(25)
Remark 7 From Lemma 6 it follows that if a vector map u : R _{+} −→ V ^{R} obeys the IVP:
u ^{} = 0, u (t _{0} ) = u _{0} ,
then vector u is the rotation with angular velocity −ω of a constant vector u _{0} = u (t _{0} ):
(27)
This remark will help to offer a geometrical interpretation of the ﬁrst integrals of this particular dynamical system.
u=R _{−}_{ω} u _{0} .
(26)
3
THE STUDY OF THE TWO BODY PROBLEM IN NONINERTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES
This is the main section of the paper, presenting the theoretical study of the twobody problem with respect to a noninertial reference frame. The motion of the center of mass, the relative motion of a particle with respect to an adequately chosen reference frame attached to the other one, the prime integrals of the dynamical system formed by the two mass points, the relative motion of the two particles with respect to a reference frame attached to the center of mass are presented, with closed form equations of motion and novel features. The essential result is presented within Theorem 9, which relates the inertial and the noninertial approaches of the studied problem via an proper orthogonal tensor map of real variable.
The Motion of The Center of Mass
This Section presents the closed form solution for the motion of the center of mass. Introduce the denotation:
(28)
m _{1} + m _{2} Vector r _{C} models the position of the center of mass of the dynamical system comprising the two
mass points with respect to the noninertial reference frame to which the motion is referred. The the
following afﬁrmation hold: r˙ C = m 1 r˙ 1 + m 2 r˙ 2
(29)
By summarizing eqs (1) and (2) and taking into account Equations (1) and (2), it follows that the vector function r _{C} obeys the IVP:
_{r} _{C} _{=} _{m} 1 _{r} 1 _{+} _{m} 2 _{r} 2
.
m _{1} + m _{2}
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
¨r _{C} + 2ω × r˙ _{C} + ω × (ω × r _{C} ) + ω˙ × r _{C} + a _{F} = 0,
⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ r _{C} (t _{0} ) = ^{m} ^{1} ^{r} ^{0}
⎪ m _{1} + m _{2}
_{1} + m _{2} r ^{0}
2
+
m _{2} v ^{0}
2
⎨
⎪
⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎩ r˙ _{C}
(t _{0} ) = ^{m} ^{1} ^{v} ^{0}
1
m _{1} + m _{2}
= Δ r ^{0}
C
Δ
= v ^{0}
C
(30)
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Theorem 8 The solution to IVP (30) is:
r _{C} (t) = R _{−}_{ω}
⎧
⎨
⎩
^{r}
_{C} + ^{} v ^{0} _{C} + ω ^{0} × r _{C} ^{0} ^{} (t − t _{0} ) −
^{0}
where ω ^{0} = ω (t _{0} ).
t
t 0
⎡
⎣
t
0
s
R ^{T} _{−}_{ω} (τ) a _{F} (τ) dτ ⎦ ⎤ ds
⎫
⎬
⎭
, t ≥ t _{0} .
(31)
Proof. Remark that IVP (30) may be written with the help of the differential operator ( ) ^{} like:
⎧
⎨
_{r}
^{}
_{C}
= −a _{F} ,
r
_{C}
(t _{0} ) = r ^{0}
C
^{,}
⎩ r ^{} _{C} (t _{0} ) = v _{C} ^{0} + ω ^{0} × r ^{0}
C ^{.}
(32)
Apply the tensor operator F _{ω} to IVP (32) and make the change of variable:
then IVP (32) transforms into:
⎧
⎨
⎩
ρ
C
Δ
=
F _{ω} r _{C} ;
ρ¨ _{C} = −F _{ω} a _{F} ,
ρ
ρ˙ _{C} (t _{0} ) = v _{C}
(t _{0} ) =
r C ^{0} ^{,}
_{C}
^{0} + ω ^{0} × r ^{0}
C ^{.}
(33)
(34)
By solving IVP (34) through direct integration, the solution to IVP (32) is obtained by taking into account substitution (33), and it is expressed like:
r _{C} (t) = R _{−}_{ω}
⎧
⎨
⎩
^{r} ^{0}
_{C}
The proof is ﬁnalized.
REMARKS
+ ^{} v ^{0} _{C}
+ ω ^{0} × r _{C} ^{0} ^{} (t − t _{0} ) −
t
t 0
⎡
⎣
t
0
s
R ^{T} _{−}_{ω} (τ) a _{F} (τ) dτ ⎦ ⎤ ds
⎫
⎬
⎭
.
(35)
• In the situation when the acceleration of the noninertial frame {F} is null, a _{F} = 0, since
R ^{} , it follows that at any moment of time the mass center is
R _{−}_{ω} u = u , (∀) u ∈ ^{} V
situated on a variable sphere that has an increasing radius:
3
R (t) = ^{} ^{} r ^{0} _{C} + ^{} v _{C}
^{0}
+ ω ^{0} × r ^{0} _{C} ^{} (t − t _{0} ) ^{} ^{} , t ≥ t _{0} .
(36)
If v ^{0} _{C} + ω ^{0} × r _{C} ^{0} = 0, then the motion of the center of mass takes place on a sphere with
constant radius r ^{0} C ^{.}
• In case vector ω has a ﬁxed direction, or it has a regular precession, then the law of motion of the mass center r _{C} = r _{C} (t) may be written explicitly, also by taking into account the expressions (13) and (18) of the tensor map R _{−}_{ω} .
1657
Figure 3. If a _{F} = 0, the motion of the center of mass takes place on a ruled (conical) surface, generated by a straight line which rotates with angular velocity −ω.
• If a _{F} = 0, then the hodograph of the vector map that models the motion of the mass center is a curve that is situated on a ruled surface generated by the rotation with angular velocity −ω of the straight line:
(37)
r=r _{C}
^{0}
+ ^{} v ^{0} _{C} + ω ^{0} × r _{C} ^{0} ^{} (t − t _{0} ) , t ≥ t _{0} .
In this situation, the motion of the mass center may be decomposed into two:
– a rectilinear uniform motion with velocity v _{C} ^{0} + ω ^{0} × r ^{0} C ^{;}
– a rotation with angular velocity −ω of the straight line where the rectilinear motion
takes place.
The trajectory generated by these two independent motions is situated on a conical surface (surface generated by a straight line with a ﬁxed point, see Figure 3).
The Mathematical Model of The Relative Motion
The motion of particle P _{1} (m _{1} ) related to particle P _{2} (m _{2} ) , referred to the noninertial frame {F} , is modeled by the vector valued function:
(38)
r=r _{2} − r _{1} ,
where r _{1} , r _{2} are the solutions to IVPs (1) and (2). After simple manipulations, it follows that vector r obeys the IVP:
where:
_{⎧}
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
¨r + 2ω × r˙ + ω× (ω × r) + ω˙ × r = ^{F} ^{2}^{1}
m
Δ
r (t _{0} ) = r ^{0} − r ^{0} = r ^{0}
2
1
Δ
r˙ (t _{0} ) = v ^{0} − v ^{0} = v ^{0}
2
1
m
Δ
_{=}
^{m} ^{1} ^{m} 2 m _{1} + _{m} _{2}
, 
(39) 
(40) 
denotes the reduced mass of the system. The present approach will refer to the situation where F _{2}_{1} is a central force, namely it may be written like:
F _{2}_{1} = f (r) ˆr,
(41)
1658
where f : R _{+} −→ R is a scalar continuous function of real positive variable and ˆr denotes the unit
Δ
vector associated to r, deﬁned by: ˆr =r/r. It follows that the relative motion of P _{1} (m _{1} ) related to P _{2} (m _{2} ) , referred to frame {F} , is modeled by the IVP:
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
¨r + 2ω × r˙ + ω × (ω × r) + ω˙ × r = ^{f} ^{(}^{r}^{)} ˆr,
m
^{} r
r˙
(t _{0} ) =
(t _{0} ) = v ^{0}
r ^{0}
(42)
The Closed Form Solution of The Relative Motion
The IVP (42) models the motion of a particle having the mass deﬁned in Equation (40); the motion is related to the noninertial reference frame {F}. The solution to IVP (42) is determined within the next result (also see Ref. [12,13]).
Theorem 9 The solution to IVP (42) is obtained by applying the tensor operator R _{−}_{ω} to the solu tion to the IVP:
where ω ^{0} = ω (t _{0} ) .
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
_{ρ}_{¨} _{=} f (ρ)
_{m}
ρˆ
ρ
ρ˙ (t _{0} ) = v ^{0} + ω ^{0} × r ^{0}
(t _{0} ) =
r ^{0}
Proof. Eq (42) may be written using the previous considerations:
_{r} _{}_{} _{=} f (r)
m
ˆr.
, 
(43) 
(44) 
Apply operator F _{ω} to Equation (44) and perform the same change of variable deﬁned in Equation
(33), ρ =F _{ω} r; then IVP (43) is obtained by simple manipulations, also by taking into account
Lemma 3. The proof is ﬁnalized.
Theorem 9 offers a simple way to solve the two body problem in noninertial reference frames, by following the steps: (i) solve IVP (43); (ii) apply R _{−}_{ω} to the solution to IVP (43)to determine the solution to IVP (42).
Δ
The First Integrals of The Relative Motion
The ﬁrst integrals associated to IVP (42) are determined. They are deduced with the help of the tensor instrument previously introduced within the present work. The following denotation is made:
h 0
Δ
= r ^{0} × ^{} v ^{0} + ω ^{0} × r ^{0} ^{} .
1659
(45)
Theorem 10 The ﬁrst integrals of IVP (42) are:
Δ
r × (r˙ + ω × r) = R _{−}_{ω} h _{0} = h
(46)
(replica to the speciﬁc angular momentum conservation law);
mr˙ ^{2}
2
+ m (ω, r, r˙) + ^{m} (ω × r) ^{2} −
2
Δ
f (r) dr = constant = E
(replica to the speciﬁc energy conservation law).
(47)
Proof. By using operator ( ) ^{} previously introduced, it follows that:
^{} r × r ^{} ^{} ^{} = r × r ^{}^{} = 0
and by using Lemma 6 one may write:
r × r ^{} = R _{−}_{ω} ^{} r × r ^{} ^{}^{} ^{} _{t}_{=}_{t} _{0} = R _{−}_{ω} h _{0} .
(48)
(49)
The existence of the ﬁrst integral deﬁned in Equation (47) is proved by direct computations, by
differentiating with respect to the time variable t the quantity from the left hand side.
Remarks
1. The ﬁrst integral (46) shows that the hodograph of the vector map h deﬁned in Equation (46) is a spherical curve, which is ”drawn” by the extremity of vector h _{0} = h (t _{0} ) while precessing with the instantaneous angular velocity −ω (see Figure 4, left). If vector ω has a
Figure 4.
direction, the hodograph of h is a circular section, and it ”sweeps” the surface of a
circular cone.
Left: The hodograph of h is a spherical curve; Right: If ω has a ﬁxed
ﬁxed direction, deﬁned by the constant unit vector ω,ˆ then the hodograph of h (t) is a circular section, ”drawn” by the extremity of vector h _{0} = h (t _{0} ) while precessing around a ﬁxed axis deﬁned by the unit vector ωˆ. Vector h ”sweeps” the lateral surface of a right circular cone with the instantaneous angular velocity −ω (see Figure 4, right). As it follows from Equation (13), its explicit expression is:
h = (h _{0} · ωˆ) ωˆ − sin ϕ (t) (ωˆ × Ω _{0} ) − cos ϕ (t) [ωˆ× (ωˆ × h _{0} )] ,
1660
(50)
where
ϕ (t) =
t
t 0
ω (τ ) dτ.
(51)
2. The ﬁrst integral (47) has an energetic meaning. It emphasizes the existence of a generalized potential energy function [14]:
V
(t, r, r˙) = m (ω, r, r˙) + ^{m} (ω × r) ^{2} −
2
The ﬁrst integral (47) may be rewritten:
m
2
r ^{2} + V t, r, r = constant.
·
·
f 
(r) dr. 
(52) 
(53) 
If ω has a constant direction, then ω (t) = ω (t) ω,ˆ with ωˆ constant. Since r× (r˙ + ω × r) = R _{−}_{ω} h _{0} , by dotmultiplying this relation with ω, it follows:
ω, r, r + (ω × r) ^{2}
·
= R _{−}_{ω} h _{0} · ω = h _{0} · (R _{−}_{ω} ) ^{T} ω = h _{0} · ω
(54)
(If ω has constant direction, then R _{−}_{ω} ω = R ^{T} _{−}_{ω} ω = ω). Consequently, ω, r, r +
(ω × r) ^{2} = h _{0} · ω, and in correlation with (52) it follows that:
·
V
= m h _{0} · ω− _{2} (ω × r) ^{2} −
1
f (r) dr.
(55)
In this situation, V = V (t, r).
If ω is a constant vector, from (55) it follows that V = V (r) (i.e. V represents the classical speciﬁc potential energy).
The Laws of Motion in the NonInertial Reference Frame
From Equations (28) and (28) it follows that:
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
r _{1} (t)
=
r
_{C}
r _{2} (t) = r _{C}
(t)
(t)
−
+
m _{1} ^{m} + ^{2} _{m} 2 r (t) ;
m _{1} ^{m} + ^{1} _{m} 2 r (t) .
(56)
The vector function r _{C} (t) is the solution to IVP (30) and it has the explicit expression given in Equation (31). The vector function r (t) is the solution to IVP (42).
The First Integrals of the TwoBody System in The NonInertial Frame
The global dynamical characteristics of the system of two particles is studied herein. By introduc ing the analogues of the classic dynamical characteristics of a system of particles (linear momentum, angular momentum, kinetic energy), timevarying quantities are described in place of the classic in ertial conservation laws. By solving the differential equations derived within this Section, one may
1661
determine the expressions for the analogue quantities deﬁned herein. However, a complete set of ﬁrst integrals may be determined if the noninertial frame {F} where the motion is referred to has only a rotation motion, namely when a _{F} = 0.
It is known that the classic (inertial) dynamical characteristics of a twoparticle system are:
(linear momentum);
(angular momentum);
P =
2
k=1
m _{k} r˙ _{k}
K =
2
k=1
m _{k} (r _{k} × r˙ _{k} )
E kin = ^{1}
2
2
k=1
^{2}
m _{k} r˙ _{k}
(57)
(58)
(59)
(kinetic energy).
In a noninertial reference frame, the conservation laws of the quantities deﬁned above are not valid anymore.
Deﬁne:
H =
2
k=1
(generalized linear momentum);
L =
2
k=1
m _{k}
(generalized angular momentum);
T = ^{1}
2
2
k=1
m _{k} (r˙ _{k} + ω × r _{k} ) 
(60) 

[r _{k} × (r˙ _{k} 
+ ω × r _{k} )] 
(61) 
m _{k} (r˙ _{k} + ω × r _{k} ) ^{2} 
(62) 
(generalized kinetic energy).
It is natural to search for a link between generalized linear momentum, angular momentum and energy deﬁned in Equations (60) – (62) and their classic counterparts expressed in Equations (57) – (59). One may write:
⎧
⎨
⎩
H 
= P + (m _{1} + m _{2} ) ω × r _{C} 

L 
= 
K+I _{0} ω 
T = E kin + V C
where the following notations were used:
I 0
=
V C =
2
k=1
2
k=1
m _{k} ˜r _{k} ˜r ^{T} ;
k
m _{k} (ω, r _{k} , r˙ _{k} ) + m _{k} ^{(}^{ω} ^{×} ^{r} ^{k} ^{)} 2
2
1662
(63)
(64)
(65)
(r _{C} is deﬁned in Equation (28), I _{0} is analogous with the the inertia tensor related to the noninertial frame).
The following result may be stated:
Theorem 11 The following afﬁrmations hold:
˙
H + ω × H = − (m _{1} + m _{2} ) a _{F} ;
˙
L + ω × L = − (m _{1} + m _{2} ) r _{C} × a _{F} ;
_{d}_{t} T −
d
f (r) dr = −H · a _{F} .
(66)
(67)
(68)
Proof. Remark that the differential equations from the two IVPs (1,2) which model the motion of the two particles with respect to {F} may be written compactly:
_{m} k _{r}
k
+ m _{k} a _{F} = (−1) ^{k} F _{2}_{1} , k = 1, 2.
(69)
Remark that the vector function H deﬁned in Equation (60) may be rewritten like:
H =
2
k=1
m _{k} r _{k} ^{} .
(70)
By adding the two relations expressed in Equation (69), Equation (66) is obtained, also keeping in mind the deﬁnition of the vector differential operator ( ) ^{} from Equation (20).
By cross multiplying with r _{k} in Equation (69) and then adding the two relations, it follows:
˙
L + ω × L=L ^{} = −
2
k=1
m _{k} r _{k} × a _{F} + (r _{2} − r _{1} ) × F _{2}_{1} = − (m _{1} + m _{2} ) r _{C} × a _{F} ,
where Equations (4) and (28) were taken into account.
Notice that:
˙
T =
2
k=1
m _{k} r ^{} k ^{·}
d
dt ^{r} ^{}
k ^{=}
2
k=1
m _{k} r ^{} k ^{·}
dt ^{r} _{k} + ω × r ^{} k ^{=}
d
2
k=1
m _{k} r ^{}
_{k} · r ^{}^{}
k ^{.}
(71)
(72)
By dotmultiplying with r _{k} ^{} in Equation (69) and adding the obtained equalities, it follows that:
˙
T
= −
2
k=1
m _{k} r _{k} ^{} · a _{F} + ^{} r ^{} _{2} − r _{1} ^{} ^{} · F _{2}_{1} = −H · a _{F} + f (r) r ^{} · ˆr,
(73)
where Equations (38), (40) and (41) were taken into account. Now take into account that:
f (r) r ^{} · ˆr =f (r) ^{r}^{˙} r ^{·} ^{r}
^{=} _{d}_{r} f (r) dr ^{d}^{r}
d
dt ^{=}
_{d}_{t}
d
f (r) dr .
By replacing Equation (74) into (73), Equation (68) is obtained. The proof is ﬁnalized.
1663
(74)
Remark 12 Assuming that the acceleration a _{F}
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