Sei sulla pagina 1di 24

Piping Terms Glossary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-VW-X-Y-Z
(If you have any to add, please email info@pipingdesigners.com)
This list is intended to include most commonly used abbreviations and acronym found in Piping Engineering
and Design work. It has been compiled and prepared to aid both the newcomer and others with a convenient
list for mutual use and understanding. If you have any other abbreviations or acronyms you want to add or feel
should be added, please email info@pipingdesigners.com.
Abbreviation

Definition with Description, Meaning or Source

Or Acronym

A
A

Absolute - (See ABS)

Air Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Analog signal - This is normally the indication of the existence of and type signal from some
instrument in the plant back to the control room panel
Inlet Nozzle - See Note #1

Pipe Anchors This is a fixed anchor restricting the pipe movement at a specific support from
moving in any (horizontal of vertical) direction.

A/G

Above Ground The most common use for this abbreviation is on a P&ID to indicate that
portion of a line that is to be or will be above ground.

ABS

Absolute - Unit of measure. This term is normally used along with another qualifier as in
Absolute Pressure.

AC
AC

Air Conditioner - Equipment designation


Air to Close This is normally found on a P&ID at a control valve and indicates that the control
valve is a spring to open and therefore needs air to close.

AC

Combustion -

ADAPT.

Adaptive control mode -

AFC

Approved For Construction This is a status indicator for engineering documents such as Flow
Diagrams, Specifications, Drawings, etc. This indication (note) is normally stamped on a
document in red so that it is very visible. The Approved part of the note normally means that the
Client has done the Approving.

AFD

Approved For Design This is also a status indicator. But in this case the document is normally
an early schematic drawing such as a P&ID. The Approval is still by the Client.

AG

Above Ground

AGA

American Gas Association

AISC

American Institute of Steel Construction

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

AO

Air to Open - This is normally found on a P&ID at a control valve and indicates that the control
valve is a spring to close and therefore need air to open.

AP

Plant Air Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

API

American Petroleum Institute

AS

Air Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

AS

Sprinkler system

ASA

American Standard Association -

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers -

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials -

ATM

Atmosphere

AVG.

Average

AWS

American Welding Society -

AWWA

American Waterworks Association -

B
B

Outlet Nozzle See Note #1

BA

Base Anchor This is a type of support often used under piping low to grade or floor surface. It
is rigidly connects the piping to the paving or floor surface.

BBE

Beveled Both Ends This is an end prep qualifier for piping fittings such as reducers and
swedges.

BBL

Barrel This is most commonly used when discussing the plant capacity (100,000 Bpd) or the
capacity of a tank. It normally refers to a 55 Gallon Barrel but one should remember that a
barrel actually holds only 42 US gallons.

BBP

Bottom of base plate The Base Plate in this case is the bottom ring plate of a vertical vessel
support or the bottom plate of a saddle support of a piece of horizontal equipment.

BC

Bolt Circle This might be for a flange, a Vertical vessel support or for a Manhole.

BD

Blow down - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

BF

Blind / Blank Flange

BFW

Boiler Feed Water This is the cleaned, treated, preheated high pressure water that is pumped
into a Boiler to make steam.

BG

Base Guides This is a type of support under low piping that is designed to allow the pipe to
move back and forth in a specific direction.

BL

Battery limit This is the invisible boundary around specific portion of a process plant (i.e.: The
Crude Unit Battery Limits)

BLE

Beveled Large End - This is an end prep qualifier for piping fittings such as reducers and
swedges.

BLK

Black

BLVD

Boulevard As in a type of street

BVLD

Beveled This would normally refer to the end preparation for pipe and fittings.

BOF

Bottom of Face of Flange This would be used as a reference point clarification when used with
an elevation (i.e.: BOF Elev. 109 - 0) for a flange on a vertical line.

BOM

Bill of Material This term can have two meanings. First there is the BOM that is included as a
part of an individual document such as a piping isometric. The second is the summary of the
material from all documents or isometrics.

BOP

Bottom of Pipe This refers to the bottom of a pipe when lying in the horizontal position.

BS

British Standard

BSE

Beveled Small End - This is an end prep qualifier for piping fittings such as reducers and
swedges.

BTM

Bottom

BTU

British thermal unit - Unit of measure

BW

Butt Weld or Butt Welded Butt welding means that the end of the pipe, fitting and/or flange are
beveled to a specific contour as defined by the Code (per different wall thicknesses) then welded
together.

C
C
C

Centigrade or Celsius - Unit of measure


Clean Drain This is a system qualifier that would appear on P&IDs, Underground and other
Drawings to designate the Clean Drain system.

Condensate Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Condensate Nozzle - See Note #1

C
CC

C-C
CDO

Cradles The term Cradle, when used on piping drawings normally refers to a curved section of
metal plate (approx 120 degrees) and about 24 (610mm) long. This metal (normally steel) is
fitted on the underside of an insulated line (outside the insulation) at each pipe support so that
the weight of the line at the support does not crush the insulation.
Patchboard or matrix board connection Corrosion Coupon This is a piece of metal that is welded to a holder of some type and placed
inside the process fluid. From time to time the thickness of this is removed and measured to
determine the amount of corrosion taking place in the system itself.
Centre to Centre Refers to the type of dimension (i.e.: Center to Center of two pipes)
Certified Dimension Outline This refers to a vendor drawing such as an Exchanger, a Pump or
any other purchased equipment which has been reviewed by your company, your requirements
for modifications have accepted and incorporated by the Vendor and they have signed (Certified)
that they will build and deliver what is shown on this drawing.

CENT

Centigrade - Unit of measure

CFM

Cubic Feet per Minute

CHU

Centigrade Heat Unit

CI

Cast Iron -

cL

CM

Centerline The centerline is the primary locating reference point used for the location of all
objects such as Pipes Tanks, Vessels, Pumps, Structural Pipe Supports, Structures, Roads, etc.
in Process Plant engineering and design.
Centimeter -

CO

Chain Operated This will apply to an operating valve that could not be located with-in reach
and has been fitted with a device that used a chain from below to open or close.

CO

Clean Out This is commonly used on underground drawings to indicate the location of cleanout points for buried systems.

COP

Critical Operating Parameters -

Cr

Chromium A metal found in some alloy pipe

CrMO

Chrome Moly A material often used in process plants for higher pressure and temperature
services.

CS

Carbon Steel The most common material currently used in process plants such as Refineries
and Power Plants.

CS

Cold Spring This is an indication that action has been taken to reduce the effect of stress by
an expanding line due to the operating temperature. Example: A long line will expand 6 (152
mm) at normal operation conditions. That 6 (152mm) of growth will result in excessive stress on
some point of the system. You determine that you need to reduce the excessive stress. To do
this you calculate what the true dimension for the long run should be but you call for the shop
(or the Field) to remove one half the expected growth, in this case 3 (76mm) from the true
dimension. This is called Cold Spring or Cold Springing the line.

CSC

Car Seal Closed This is normally a designation that appears at a valve symbol on a P&ID
(placed there by the Process Engineer) to indicate that this valve is to be fitted with a locking
device of some sort to prevent inadvertent or unauthorized opening. This designation shall be
placed on all subsequent piping drawings showing that valve and the piping material control
group may be required to purchase the device.

CSO

Car Seal Open Same as CSC but indicated that the valve is to be in the Open position.

CTR

Center As in the center of a circle

CU

Cubic

CV

Control Valve The term Control Valve is commonly used for a wide range of actuator
operated valves. The type of valve body is most often a Globe type but can also be a Ball,
Butterfly, Pinch or other type. The actuator can be Pneumatic, Solenoid, Electric Motor or other
type.

CWP

Construction Work Package A Construction Work Package is the identification of and all the
paperwork including drawings, material lists, Specifications and contracts defining a segment of
work for an EPCM process plant project. (Example: Underground Piping CWP, Aboveground
Piping CWP, Insulation CWP, Electrical CWP, etc.)

CWR

Cooling Water Return Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

CYR

Cycle Water Return Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

CYS

Cycle Water Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

D
D

Derivative control mode Commonly used with instrumentation

Digital signal Commonly used with instrumentation

Drain Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Drain or Draw off Connection - See Note #1

DCS

Distributed Control System Commonly used with instrumentation

DEG

Degree - Unit of measure

DIA

Diameter -

DIFF

Difference, used in math meaning to Subtract

DIM

Dimension

DIN

Deutsche Industry Norm [German Standard]

DIR

Direct-acting -

DO

Drawing Office -

dP

Delta P, Pressure differential

DRG

Drawing [Not Preferred] see DWG

DS

Dummy Support A Dummy Support is a stub of pipe 3 to 7 long (1 meter to 2 meters long)
that is attached to an elbow where a line leaves the pipe way short of the next support. The stub
will extent to reach the next structural pipe support and provide support for the line.

DW

Drywall -

DWG

Drawing The most commonly used and the more proper abbreviation for the term Drawing

E
E

East - As in a direction. Often used with Coordinate method of defining location or position of in
item of equipment.
Voltage signal - Commonly used with instrumentation or Electrical

ECN

Engineering Change Notice This is a part of the system used to control and track costs within a
Lump-Sum contract. All changes, whether they are Client originated of the result of late design
development is identified, given a DCN number, written up, reviewed through the project
approval process. If the DCN is accepted then the change is made and the cost is added to (or
deducted from) the contract.

ECN

Engineering Charge Number (Same as DCN)

E-E

End to End Used to clarify a dimension.

EFW

Electric-Fusion-Welded Refers to one of the ways that rolled and welded pipe is made.

EL

Elbow (Not Preferred)

EL

Elevation -

ELB

Elbowlet (Not Preferred)

ELL

Elbow (Preferred)

EOL

Elbow-let A special shaped piping fitting that allows for a branch attachment onto an elbow
and provides built-in reinforcement for the attachment point.

EOP

End of Pipe A term used as a part of the dimensional designation when locating the end of a
piece of pipe such as a vent to atmosphere.

EA

Engineer/Architectural - This can mean a type of company or a type of project. An AE company


or project only does some engineering and then only produces conceptual drawings. They
cannot and do not produce detailed engineering drawings or bills of materials because they do
not purchase any equipment required to for detailed design.

EPC

Engineering, Procurement & Construction - This can mean a type of company or a type of
project. An EPC Company or Project means a full service capability of Engineering, Procurement
and Construction of the complete process plant.

EPC&C

Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Commissioning - Indicates type of company or


project that is done by one contractor that includes Engineering, Design, Procurement,
Construction and Commissioning (also see LSTK)

EPCM

Engineering, Procurement & Construction Management - This can mean a type of company or a
type of project. An EPCM Company or Project means a full service capability of Engineering,
Procurement and the construction portion of the project is executed by Sub-Contractors under
the Management of the EPCM Contractor.

ERW

Electric-Resistance-Welded - Refers to one of the ways that rolled and welded pipe is made.

ES

Electric Supply

ESS

Emergency Shutdown System

ESV

Emergency Shutdown Valve This is used to identify certain valves that are manually or motor
operated that shall be closed in case of a fire, explosion or Terrorist attack.

ET

Electrically Traced This indicates a pipe line (or piece of equipment) that shall be provided
with heat tracing via electric resistance cable.

ETA

Estimated Time (of) Arrival Term used in procurement to indicate when an item will arrive at a
destination.

F
F

Fahrenheit - Unit of measure relating to temperature

Feed Nozzle - See Note #1

(F)

Furnished Indicated that the object or item is supplied with something else.

F&D

Faced and Drilled Means that the indicated surface has been machined smooth and drilled to
accept some other object.

(F&P)

Furnished & Piped Similar to Furnished but is further clarified to indicate that the required
piping is also included as Furnished.

FAB

Fabrication Can be a noun or a verb. A Fabrication can mean a piping spool that is a
Fabrication. Or it can be used to say the pipe spool is in Fabrication.

FAHR

Fahrenheit - Unit of measure

FBW

Furnace-Butt-Welded - Refers to one of the ways that rolled and welded pipe is made.

FC

Fail Closed This means that in case of power failure of loss of instrument air the valve (or
other object) will default to a closed and safe position.

FCN

Field Charge Number A system for numeric indexing, identification and control of changes
originating from the field.

FD

Flex-Disc Valve Normally relates to a type of Gate valve that has a special design for the disc
that is intended to insure a tight closure.

FD&SF

Faced, Drilled and Spot-Faced -

FE
FEED

Flanged End Meaning that an object has flanged connections.


Front End Engineering & Design - The FEED part of a project would be characterized as the first
twenty percent (20%) to thirty percent (30%) of the engineering of a project. The FEED
Contractor may have been awarded all or a part of the project. They are now working with the
Client (and Licensors if applicable) to prepare the front end requirements for the project. The
heaviest work load during this FEED part will be in the Process Engineering group. However,
there are some Piping activities that start at this time (Also see Pre-FEED)

FF

Face to Face As in Face-to-Face dimension

FF

Flange Face [dimensioning] -

FF

Flat Face (d)

FF

Full Face [of gasket]

FFW

FG
FI

Final Fit Weld - Refers to a piping weld that is to be made in the field (Point of installation) as
opposed to being made in a pipe fabrication shop. This weld can only be pipe-to-pipe or pipe-tofitting. The pipe component is to be fabricated long with (6 to 9) of extra length for final field fitup. This weld (for this line) is to be made only after all other Field Welds have been completed.
Fuel Gas - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number
Fail Indeterminate - This means that in case of power failure of loss of instrument air the valve
(or other object) will default in place or current position.

FIV

Fire Isolation Valve (See ESV)

FL

Fail Locked (See FI)

FLG

Flange

FLGD

Flanged End

FMU

Fitting Make Up This means that two or more commonly manufactured piping fittings or
flanges are welded together without any pipe between the items.

FO

Fail Open - This means that in case of power failure of loss of instrument air the valve (or other
object) will default to an open and safe position.

FOB

Flat on Bottom A term most commonly used with eccentric reducers and other non-concentric
objects.

FOB

Free on Board A legal term commonly used in contracts and or procurement

FOB

Freight on Board - A legal term commonly used in contracts and or procurement

FOT

Flat on Top - A term most commonly used with eccentric reducers or other non-concentric
objects.

FP

Full Port Valve This term often used with Ball Valves means that the Port or opening in the
ball is the same size as the adjoining pipe inside diameter.

FPT

Female Pipe Thread

FRP
FS

[Glass] Fiber Reinforced Pipe


Base Supports Indicates a type of secondary support that is normally used under one side of
a Control Valve Manifold.

FS

Far Side

FS

Field Supports Indicates any of a number of secondary type pipe supports.

FS

Forged Steel -

FTG

FV
FW

FW

Fitting This is a universal term that applies to many trades and trade material (piping,
electrical, etc.). For piping it includes elbows, TEEs and O-Lets.
Full Vacuum
Field Weld Refers to a weld (normally in piping) that is to be made in the field (Point of
installation) as opposed to being made in a pipe fabrication shop. This weld can be pipe-to-pipe,
pipe-to-fitting or fitting-to-fitting. The pipe and fitting components on both sides of this weld are
dimensionally correct and no trimming is to be done without the approval of the Design Office.
Fire Water - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

G
G

Gas Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Glycol Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Gram - Unit of measure

Level Gauge or Gauge Glass -

Pipe Guides -

GAL

Gallon - Unit of measure

GALV

Galvanized Rust resistant plating added to metal objects

GO

Gear Operated Used in conjunction with a valve description.

GPH

Gallon per Hour - Unit of measure

GPM

Gallon per Minute - Unit of measure

GR

Grade Is commonly used for both Paved or Unpaved surfaces of a process plant

GS

Gas Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

GT

Glycol Traced Commonly used to define a type of heat tracing

GV

Gauge Valve A valve used for isolation with various types of instruments

H
H

Hand hole - See Note #1

Horizontal A direction or physical attitude

Hot condensate drain - See Note #1

Hour Commonly used with Instruments or units of measure

Hydraulic signal - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

H. PT.

High Point (see HP)

HDR

Header May be used when defining a main supply pipe for a utility, example: HP Steam
Header. Or it can be used to define a physical feature associated with a piping configuration,
example: The Weld-O-Let was used to add a branch to the Header.

HEX

Hexagonal A shape with six sides

Hg

Mercury - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

HH

Hand hole - See Note #1

HOA

Hand / Off / Auto Common electrical terminology for Pump controls

HP

High Point Used to define the reference for the highest point of the concrete paving or other
service material. (Also see HPP)

HP

High Pressure -

HP

Horse Power -

HPC

High Pressure Condensate Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

HPP

High Point of (finished) Pavement (See HP)

HPS

High Pressure Steam Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

HPT

Hose-Pipe Thread -

HR

Hanger Rods A device that is intended to provide support from above for an object such as a
pipe

HR

Hour - Unit of measure

HS

Hose Station (See US)

HS

Hydraulic Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

HTR

Heater Relates to a type of equipment found on a project

HVAC

Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Can indicate the Profession, the Equipment or the
Work.

I
I

Current (electrical) signal

Inorganic waste Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Interlock

IA

Instrument Air Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

IAS

Instrument Air Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

ID

Inside Diameter common usage terminology

ID

Internal Diameter not common usage terminology

IE

Invert Elevation (See Inv. El.)

IFA

Issued For Approval This is an indication of Status for an engineering or design document
issued as a part of a Process Plant Project. This normally means issued to the Client for the
required Approval.

IFB

Issued For Bid - This is an indication of Status for an engineering or design document issued
as a part of a Process Plant Project. This normally means a document that is intended for a
Contractor or Sub-Contractor to use to prepare his (her) bid.

IFC

Issued For Construction - This is an indication of Status for an engineering or design


document issued as a part of a Process Plant Project. This normally means that the data shown
on the document is complete and approved for fabrication and or construction.

IMP

Imperial This normally applies to units of measure such as feet and inches or opposite of
metric.

INS

Insulation Applies to the non-metallic coverings applied to piping systems or equipment for the
conservation or retention of heat or cold.

INST
Inv. El.

Instrumentation Invert Elevation This is the bottom point of the inside diameter of a Drain system pipe. It is the
point used to set and insure the correct slope of the pipe for drainage.

IPS

Iron Pipe Size -

IRI

Industrial Risk Insurers -

IS

Inside Screw [of valve stem] Refers to a type of Valve design.

IS&Y

Inside Screw and Yoke - Refers to a type of Valve design.

ISBL

Inside Battery Limits (or Onsite) Refers to any single or collection of inter-related and interconnected process units that performs an integrated process function. Typically any Onsite Unit
could be made to function independently of another Onsite Unit.

ISO

Isometric drawing - In piping this term refers to a semi-3 dimensional drawing representation of
a pipe line or part of a pipe line. The Isometric should contain ALL the graphics, dimensions,

identification and technical data necessary to purchase material, fabricate, test and install the
displayed piping.

J
J

Pump out Nozzle - See Note #1

K
K

Carbonate Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Kilo, times one thousand, x 1000

KG

Kilo Gram

L
L

Level Instrument Nozzle - See Note #1

Liquid Used as a qualifier for Process (and other) information. Example: HLL = High Liquid
Level)

**LL

Liquid Level (** Denotes suffix (es), for high, low, high high, low low, etc.) i.e. LLLL - Low Low
Liquid Level

L.PT.

Low Point Often used in defining the other critical elevation point (see HP) for paving.

LA

Level Alarm Defines a type of instrument

LB, Lb

Pound weight - Unit of measure

LC
LC

Level Controller - Defines a type of instrument


Lock Closed - Commonly used with valves that must remain closed unless special authority is
granted otherwise.

LG

Level Gauge - Defines a type of instrument

LI

Level Indicator - Defines a type of instrument

LIC

Level Indicating Controller - Defines a type of instrument

LO

Lock Open Commonly used with valves that must remain open unless special authority is
granted otherwise.

LOL

Low Oxygen Level

LP

Low Point - (See L.PT.)

LP

LPC

Low Pressure Commonly used to define a condition or quality of a commodity. Example: LP


Alarm)
Low Pressure Condensate - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

LPS

Low Pressure Steam - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

LR

Long Radius [Of Elbow] LR is equal to 1.5 times the nominal diameter

LS

Level Switch - Defines a type of instrument

LSTK

Lump Sum Turn Key Indicates the type of company or a project that is done by one contractor
that includes Engineering, Design, Procurement, Construction and Commissioning (also see
EPC&C)

LT

Level Transmitter - Defines a type of instrument

LT

Light-wall [Of Pipe] -

M
M

Manhole - See Note #1

Mega, times one million, x 1 000 000 - Unit of measure

Meter - Unit of measure

Motor actuator

Motorized Used to indicate that a Valve is Motorized (Has a motor operator).

M/C

Machine

MACH

Machined

MATL

Material

MAWP

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Most often used with vessels or piping systems

MAX

Maximum

MAX

Maximum control mode

MCC

Motor Control Center Defines a building with a collection of electrical equipment

MFR

Manufacturer

MI

Malleable Iron

MIN

Minimum

MIN

Minimum control mode

MIN

Minute [Of time]

mm

Millimeter

Mo

Molybdenum An element found in pipe steel.

MOS

Maintenance Override Switch

MP

Medium Pressure

MPC

Medium Pressure Condensate - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

MPS

Medium Pressure Steam - Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

MPT

Male Pipe Thread

MS

Mild Steel

MSF

Mill Scale Free Means that the pipe (or other item) has been or must be wire brushed or sand
blasted.

MSS

Manufacturers' Standardization Society Applies to the Valve and Fittings Industry

MT

Magnetic Particle Inspection (See NDE)

MTO

Material Take Off Describes both the act of doing the task and the product of the task.

MW

Manway - See Note #1

N
N

Nitrogen Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

North This can be True North, Plant North, Platform North or Magnetic North.

North - As in a direction. Often used with Coordinate method of defining location or position of
in item of equipment.

Reboiler Connection - See Note #1

NC

Normally Closed This is used to designate the normal setting of a valve.

NDE

Non-Destructive Examination This refers to a grouping of 5 methods used to indicate the


quality of a weld on vessels or piping. These are VT, RT, MT, PT, and UT (See:
http://www.ndt.net/article/0698/hayes/hayes.htm)

NEMA

National Electrical Manufacturers' Association

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

NG

Natural Gas Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Ni

Nickel

NIC

Not in Contact

NIPP

Swaged Nipple

NLL

Normal Liquid Level

NNF

Normally No Flow

NO

Normally Open

NPS

Nominal Pipe Size

NPSC

Straight pipe thread in pipe couplings

NPSF

Dryseal straight pipe thread (lubricant optional)

NPSH

Net positive suction head

NPSH

Net Positive Suction Head

NPSH

Straight pipe thread for hose couplings and nipples

NPSI

Dryseal internal straight pipe thread

NPSL

Straight pipe thread for locknut and locknut pipe thread

NPSM

Straight pipe threads for mechanical joints

NPT

National Pipe Thread

NPT

Taper Pipe Thread

NPTF

Dryseal taper pipe thread (lubricant optional)

NRS

Near Side

NS

Nitrogen Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

NV

Needle Valve

O
O

Electromagnetic or sonic signal

Oil Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Organic Waste Drain

OD

Outside Diameter

Offsite

(See OSBL)

OG

Oxygen Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Onsite

(See ISBL)

OP

Operating Valve

OPT

Optimizing control mode

OS

Outside Screw [Valve stem]

OS&Y

Outside Screw and Yoke [Valve stem]

OSBL

OSHA
OVHD

OWD
OX

Outside Battery Limits (Offsite) -- In a process plant (Refinery, Chemical, Petrochemical, Power,
etc.), any supporting facility that is not a direct part of the primary or secondary process reaction
train or utility block.
Operation Safety and Health Act (USA)
Overhead This is used to define a specific piece of equipment (i.e.: OVHD Condenser) a
specific nozzle on a vessel (i.e.: OVHD Nozzle) of the product in the line (i.e.: Crude OVHD)
Oily Water Drain Used to define the commodity in a Line Number
Oxide - A chemical element

P
P

All process lines

Pneumatic signal

Pressure Connection - See Note #1

Proportional control mode

Purge or flushing device

P&ID

Piping and Instrument Diagram The primary document produced by the Process Engineer to
define in detail what is required for any process plant.

PA

Plant Air Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

PBE

Plain Both Ends [Swage, etc.]

PC

Pressure Controller

PC

Pumped Condensate Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

PCV

Pressure Control Valve

PE

Plain End [Pipe, etc.]

PFD

Process Flow Diagram Indicated a preliminary schematic drawing produced by the Process
Engineer to define the simplified process concept. It is the precursor to the P&ID.

PFI

Pipe Fabrication Institute

PG

Pilot Gas Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

PI

Pressure Indicator A direct reading gage or indicator.

PIV

Post Indicator Valve Common type valve used for shut-off of underground water lines to a fire
hydrant or fire Monitor.

PLC

Programmable Logic Controller

PO

Pump Out Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

POE

Plain One End [Nipple, etc.]

POS

Point of Support

PR

Pressure Regulator

Pre-FEED

A Pre-FEED project is one where someone is conceptually defining a proposed new


project. Many Clients will perform the Pre-FEED part of a project with their own staff. Clients may
also obtain the services of an engineering company to develop the Pre-FEED project
package. The objective of contracting out the Pre-FEED package is three-fold. First, the Client
may need the expertise of the engineering company to objectively look at the project goals and
determine if it feasible. Second, the Client wants a package that they can issue to other selected
Contractors for bidding purposes. Third, the Client will want the Pre-FEED Contractor to prepare
a realistic estimate of total-installed-cost (TIC) for their internal requisition for funding and to
evaluate the other bids. (Also see FEED)

PRV

Pressure Reducing Valve This is a valve functional description not a specific valve
manufacturer of specific valve type.

PRV

Pressure Relief Valve This is a valve functional description not a specific valve manufacturer
of specific valve type. Lots of companies make valves that are designed to open when the
pressure inside a vessel or system goes above a specific set pressure. (Also see PSV)

PS

Pipe Support This is a general term and can mean any type of primary or secondary devices
used to hold up pipe.

PS

Pre-Spring This is the technique of adding a small amount to the dimension of an actual
length of pipe required to reach from point A to point B. This practice is to compensate fro
systems in cryogenic service where the pipe would shrink due to the negative coefficient of
expansion.

PS

Process Sewer - Used to define the commodity or service in a Line Number

PSI

Pound per Square Inch Defines a unit of measure related to pressure.

PSIA

Pound per Square Inch Absolute - Defines a unit of measure related to pressure.

PSIG

Pound per Square Inch Gage - Defines a unit of measure related to pressure.

PSV

Pressure Safety Valve (also see PRV)

PT

PT
PU

Pressure Tap Sometimes used to define the future purpose of a valved and plugged
connection.
(Liquid) Penetrate Inspection (See NDE)
Pick-Ups Used to define a type of secondary pipe support. This method (short length of Angle
Iron and U Bolts) uses a larger size pipe to provide support for a smaller pipe line.

Pup

PW
PWHT

A Pup piece is a short length of pipe required between two fittings, a fitting and a flange or
between two flanges to make-up a required dimensional distance.
Potable Water Used to define the commodity in a Line Number
Post Weld Heat Treated This is the action of applying heat to piping to relieve stress built up in
the material due to the welding during fabrication.

R
R

Automatic-reset control mode Used in the electrical and controls systems.

Radius -

Reflux Nozzle - See Note #1

Reset - Used in the electrical and controls systems.

Reset of fail-locked device - Used in the electrical and controls systems.

Resistance (signal) - Used in the electrical and controls systems.

R/L

Random Length Often used in the purchase of pipe. Single Random Length = 20 feet (+/-)
7meters (+/-). Double Random Length = 40 feet (+/-) 14 meters (+/-)

RED

Reducer Used in Concentric Reducer (Conc Red) or Eccentric Reducer (Ecc Red)

RED

Reducing -

REF

Reference -

REQ

Requisition Term used in Procurement activities or the actual document.

REQ

Required -

REV

Reverse-acting -

RF

Raised Face A type of flange face.

RFI

Request for Information - Term used in Procurement activities or the actual document.

RFP

Request for Purchase - Term used in Procurement activities or the actual document.

RFQ

Request for Quote - Term used in Procurement activities or the actual document.

RJ

Ring Joint (see RJT) -

RPM

Revolutions per Minute -

RS

Rising Stem [Of valve] -

RT

Reducing Tee -

RT

Radiographic Inspection (See NDE)

RTD

Resistance (-type) temperature detector -

RTJ

Ring Type Joint A type of flange facing/gasket

RW

Raw Water Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

S
S

S
S

Pipe Shoes A device used under Hot Insulated pipes to raise the pipe up off the primary pipe
support level thus protects the insulation.
Solenoid actuator South - As in a direction. Often used with Coordinate method of defining location or position of
in item of equipment.

Steam or Sample Connection - See Note #1

Storm Water Drain Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

S.G.

Specific Gravity -

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers -

SC

Sample Connection -

SC

Steam Condensate Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

SCH

Schedule [Of pipe] Relates to the wall thickness of pipe

SCRD

Screwed Method of joining some types of pipe, fittings and valves.

SCV

Sample Point Valve -

SCV/T

Sample Point Valve with Thief -

SD

Shut Down -

SECT

Section A View in mechanical drafting (similar to Elevation used in Architectural drafting)

SF

Spot-Faced The machining-off the back side of an object (i.e.: a flange) to provide a true flat
surface for the bolt head or nut.

Si

Silicon -

SKT

Socket - Method of joining some types of pipe, fittings and valves.

SMLS

Seamless A type of pipe

SO

Slip-On A type of flange

SO

Steam Out See Note #1

SOL

Sock-o-let A device used to make an integral reinforced branch for socket-weld (size) pipe

SP

Sample Point -

SP

Set Point -

SP

Standard Practice [MSS term] -

SP

Steam Pressure -

Spec

Specification A narrative description for the requirements of almost anything

Spool

In piping a "Spool" is a contiguous fabricated part if an isometric or a


pipe line.
Example: a spool can be small such as a flange, an elbow and another
flange. Or it can be large such as a contiguous fabricated configuration
not to exceed the designated shipping size set for the project.

SQ

Square -

SQ.RT

Square Root -

SR

Short Radius [Of Elbow] -

SS

Sanitary Sewer Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

SS

Spring Supports -

SS

Stainless Steel -

SS

Steam Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

SSO

Intermittent hot process drain Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

SST

Stainless Steel -

SSV

Soft Seat Valve -

ST

Steam Traced -

ST

Steam Tracing -

ST

Steam Trap -

ST

Support Trunnions -

STD

Standard -

STM

Steam Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

STR

Straight -

STS

Storm Sewer Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

SW

Socket Welding -

SWG

Swage -

SWG

Swaged Nipple -

SWP

Standard Working Pressure -

SWP

Steam Working Pressure -

T
T

Temperature -

Temperature Connection - See Note #1

Threaded -

Trap -

T&C

Threaded and Coupled [Pipe] Pipe purchased from the supplier with both ends threaded and a
coupling installed on one end (only) of each length.

T/F.F

Tangent to Face of Flange -

T/T

Tangent to Tangent Used define the distance of the straight side of a vessel.

TB

Traced Valve Body Term used where Heat Tracing is used for process lines or equipment.

TBB

Traced Body & Bonnet - Term used where Heat Tracing is used for process lines or equipment.

TBE

Thread Both Ends - Used with Swedge Nipples

TC

Temperature Controller -

TC

Test Connection -

TE

Threaded End -

TEF

Teflon -

TEMA

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers' Association -

TGT

Tangent -

TI

Temperature Indicator Indicates a direct reading gage or indicator.

TL

Tangent Line Indicates the point on a cylindrical vessel where the straight side intersects the
curvature of the knuckle radius of the head.

TLE

Thread Large End Used with Swedge Nipples

TOC

Top of Concrete -

TOE

Threaded One End [Nipple or Swege] -

TOL

Thread-o-let - A device used to make an integral reinforced branch for Threaded (size) pipe

TOP

Top of Pipe -

TOS

Top of Steel -

TOS

Top of Support -

TPI

Threads per Inch -

TS

Twin Seal A type of Gate Valve.

TSE

Thread Small End - Used with Swedge Nipples

TSE

Threaded Small End - Used with Swedge Nipples

TYP.

Typical -

U
U/G

Underground A type of drawing or a buried piping system

UA

Utility Air Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

UDD

Utility Distribution Diagram A Plot Plan oriented drawing showing the main distribution headers
with all the branches in the proper sequence.

UFD

Utility Flow Diagram Similar to a (process) P&ID but used for the drawing use to define the
generation of a plant utility service (Steam, Plant Air, Cooling Water, etc.).

UG

Underground (See U/G)

UNC

Unified Coarse [Bolt thread] -

UNF

Unified Fine [Bolt thread] -

UNO

Unless Noted Otherwise -

UNS

Unified Selected [Bolt thread] -

UON

Unless Otherwise Noted -

US

UT

Utility Station A collection of multiple services (Steam, Plant Air, Plant Water, Nitrogen, etc.)
arranged in locations at grade or on platforms for use by maintenance and clean-up.
Ultrasonic Inspection (See NDE)

V
V

Valve -

Vanadium An element found in some piping materials

Vapor Outlet or Vent Connection - See Note #1

Vent Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

Vertical -

VB

Vortex Breaker A device fabricated and installed inside a vessel as a part of the pump suction
nozzle to prevent the formation of a Vortex.

Vert

Vertical

VT

Visual Inspection (See NDE)

W
W

Relief Valve Nozzle - See Note #1

Water Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

W/
WC

West As in the direction. Often used with Coordinate method of defining location or position of
in item of equipment.
With Water Column A piping configuration that allows for the attachment of multiple level and
pressure instruments on a Tank or Vessel.

WE

Welded End Often used with a valve to indicate the type of end connections.

WGT

Weight -

WLD

Weld(ed) -

WN

Welding Neck Indicated the type of Flange

WOG

Water, Oil and Gas -

WOL

Weld-o-let A self reinforced branch fitting for butt weld continuation

WP

Working Point Used on drawings with sloping pipe lines to indicate the point where key
information is given (Locating coordinates and elevations).

WP

Working Pressure -

WS

Water Supply Used to define the commodity in a Line Number

WT

Weight -

X
x

Multiply -

Unclassified actuator Used with instruments

XH

Extra-Heavy Refers to the Wall Schedule of pipe

XS

Extra-Strong (See XH)

XXH

Double Extra Heavy - Refers to the Wall Schedule of pipe

XXS

Double-Extra-Strong (See XXH)


Notes:

#1

This Abbreviation is intended to indicate the specific purpose or function for a nozzle on a
vessel. However, the use of this specific letter for this specific purpose or function is not
universal throughout the engineering community.