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CHEMISTRY

PROJECT
(SESSION 2015-16)

PRESENTED BYBhavya Jain


Class 12-A

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Bhavya Jain, student of Class XIIthA, The
Srijan School, Model Town has completed the project having the aim
To Detect The Presence Of Different Anions And Cations In Different
Brands Of Toothpaste during the academic year 2015-16 for the
chemistry practical evaluation of CBSE 2016 and submitted
satisfactory report as compiled in the following pages under my
supervision.

Mr. BK Goel
Department of Chemistry
The Srijan School, Model Town

Acknowledgement
I would like to express my deep gratitude to my mentor/teacher Mr.
BK Goel who was a constant source of encouragement and valuable
advices. This project wouldnt have come to a successful completion
without his guidance.
I would also like to thank our lab assistant Mr. Jha who was always
there at my beck and call, serving me in every best possible way. He
made sure that all the requirements of the project were fulfilled.
Finally, I would like to thank my parents for being there with
continuing support morally and financially.
THANKYOU.

INDEX
1.Objective/Aim
2.Introduction
3.Sample collection
4.Requirements
5.Theory
6.Tests for different samples
7.Comparative table
8.Conclusion
9.Precautions
10.
Bibliography

OBJECTIVE/AIM
To Detect The Presence Of Different Anions
And Cations In Different Brands Of
Toothpaste.

Introduction
Theres a wide variety of toothpastes and related products available
today in the market for oral hygiene. However, for a common man,
differentiation on the basis of quality is really difficult with all the
fancy advertisements and offers.
A toothpaste contains a mildly abrasive substance such as calcium
carbonate and a detergent or soap, some sweetening agent other than
sugar and flavouring oils to make it pleasant to taste and smell. Some
toothpastes contains fluorides which make the enamel surface of the
tooth more resistant to bacterial activity and act against microorganisms as a metabolic poison. Generally any standard toothpaste
contain calcium carbonate, sodium monofluoro phosphate, sodium
lauryl sulphate, zinc sulphate, alum, some flavouring oils are also
added.
This project basically deals with the detection of various ions in
toothpaste that determine its quality, and thus, a comparison between
the prominent toothpaste brands.

SAMPLE COLLECTION

REQUIREMENTS
Toothpaste(s):
Colgate, Pepsodent, Close-UP, Dabur Red, Babool.

Chemicals:
Hydrochloric acid, dilute Sulphuric acid, concentrated
Sulphuric acid, Barium chloride, Ammonium chloride,
Ammonium hydroxide, Ammonium carbonate, Acetic
acid, Nitric acid, Silver nitrate, Calcium chloride,
PottasiumFerrocyanide, H2S gas.

Test tubes, Beakers, Flasks, flame, spatula etc.

THEORY
In qualitative analysis, the given compound is analysed for the
radicals, that is, cations and anions that it contains. The common
procedure of testing on unknown salt is to make its solution and then
test this solution for the ions present in it. Then Preliminary tests such
as colour, odour, dry heating, flame test etc. are performed. These
tests are common for all samples under salt analysis. Further, there are
separate procedures for detecting cations and anions.

IDENTIFICATION OF ACID RADICAL (ANION)


After the preliminary tests are over with, to identify the anion, three
indicatory tests are carried out. They can be divided in to three
categories each with separate group reagent. Therefore anion may be
identified by performing the following tests in the order given.
Dilute H2SO4 test
Concentrated H2SO4 test
Independent Group (SO42-, PO43-)
After an anion is indicated, confirmatory tests are carried out,
corresponding to the anion.

IDENTIFICATION OF BASIC RADICALS (CATION)


To identify the cations, we have been using the flame test(a
preliminary test) for indication. Whichever cation is indicated, it is
confirmed on the basis of corresponding tests.

TESTS FOR DIFFERENT SAMPLES

COLGATE
S.N
O.

EXPERIMENT

1.

Preliminary Tests
Colour

White

Odour

Minty smell(of
colgate)
Colourless,
CO32- may be
odourless gas. present.
Reddish Flame Ca2+ may be
present.
Colourless,
CO32- may be
odourless gas. present.

Dry Heating
Flame test
2.

3.

4.

OBSERVATION INFERENCE

Dil H2SO4 testTo the sample,


added some drops
of Dil H2SO4.
Confirmatory
tests.
To the sample
added MgSO4
solution.
Took an O.S,
added dil HCl.
Conc. H2SO4 testTo the sample
added some drops
of conc.H2SO4

A white ppt.

CO32-confirmed

Brisk
CO32-confirmed
effervescence.
No change
Conc. H2SO4
group absent

5.

Independent testsFor SO42- To the sample


added
BaCl2solution.
To the sample
added Lead
acetate soln.
For PO43-Added conc HNO3
to O.S and boiled.
Added ammonium
Molybdate soln in
excess and again
boiled.

White ppt.

SO42-confirmed.

White ppt.

SO42-confirmed.

Deep yellow
colouration.

PO43- confirmed.

OBSERVATI
ON
No change

INFERENCE

CATIONS
S.N
O.
6.

7.

8.

9.

EXPERIMENT

Group 0To the sample


added NaOH and
heated
Group-1
No change
To the sample
added dilute HCl
Group-II
No change
To the above test
tube added H2S
Group-III
No change
To the sample

Group 0
absent

Group I absent

Group II
absent
Group III
absent

10.

11.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)
13.

added NH4OH
and NH4Cl
Group-IV
To the above test
tube add H2S
Group-V
To the sample
added NH4OH,
and (NH4)2CO3
solution.
Dissolved the
ppt. in CH3COOH
and divided the
solution into 3
parts.
To the first part
added
K2CrO4solution
To the second
part added
(NH4)2SO4
To the third part
added (NH4)2C2O4
Group-VI
Took the filtrate
of above step
and added a few
drops of amm.
oxalate solution,
boiled, filtered.
Took the ppt,
boiled, added

No change

Group IV
absent

A white ppt.

Group V
present.

No change

Ba2+absent

No change

Sr2+absent

A white ppt.

Ca2+confirmed.

A white ppt.

Mg2+
confirmed.

NH4OH and NH4Cl


in excess. Add
(NH4)2HPO4 and
rubbed with a
glass rod.

PEPSODENT
S.N
O.
1.

EXPERIMENT
Preliminary tests
Colour
Odour
Dry Heating
Flame test

2.

3.

4.

Dil. H2SO4 testTo the sample,


added dil. H2SO4.
Confirmatory Tests
To the O.S added
dil HCl solution.
To the solution
added MgSO4
solution.
Conc. H2SO4 test-

Observation

Baby pink
That of
pepsodent.
White fumes,
pungent smell.
Reddish flame.

Inference

Colourless,
odourless gas.

Cl- may be
present.
Ca2+ may
be present.
CO32- may
be present.

Brisk
effervescence.
White ppt in
cold.

CO32confirmed.
CO32confirmed.

A colourless

Cl- may be

5.

To the sample
added conc. H2SO4
Confirmatory tests
To the sample
added MnO2 conc.
H2SO4. Heated.
To the sample
added dilute HNO3,
Boiled, cooled and
added AgNO3

pungent gas.

present.

Greenish,
yellow gas,
pungent smell.
A white ppt.

Clconfirmed
Clconfirmed

CATIONS
S.N
O.
6.

7.

8.

9.

EXPERIMENT
Group-0
To the sample
added NaOH and
heated
Group-I
To the sample
added dilute HCl
Group-II
To the above test
tube added H2S
Group-III
To the sample
added NH4Cl,
boiled, cooled,

OBSERVATIO INFERENC
N
E
No change
Group 0
absent

No change

Group I
absent

No change

Group II
absent

White Ppt.
Formed.

Group-III is
present.
Al3+
detected.

10.

11.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

13.

added NH4OH in
excess.
Lake testTo the ppt, added
dil HCl, 2 drops of
blue litmus, and
NH4OH dropwise.
To the filtrate of
group-III added
H2S solution.
To the sample
added NH4OH and
(NH4)2CO3 solution.
Dissolved the ppt.
in CH3COOH and
divided it into 3
parts.
To the first part
added
K2CrO4solution
To the second part
added (NH4)2SO4
solution
To the second part
added (NH4)2C2O4
and NH4OH
solution.
Group-VI
Took the filtrate of
above step and
added a few drops
of amm. oxalate

A blue ppt.
floating in
colourless
solution.

Al3+
confirmed

No change

Group IV
absent

A white ppt.

Group V
present.

No change

Ba2+ absent

A white ppt.

Ca2+
confirmed.

A white ppt.

Mg2+
confirmed.

solution, boiled,
filtered. Took the
ppt, boiled, added
NH4OH and NH4Cl
in excess. Add
(NH4)2HPO4 and
rubbed with a glass
rod.

CLOSE-UP
S.NO EXPERIMENT
.
1.
Preliminary Tests
Colour
Odour
Dry Heating
Flame test

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Red
Close up-smell
Suffocating
smell
Reddish flame.

SO32- may be
present.
Ca2+ may be

2.

Dil. H2SO4 testTo the sample,


added Dil. H2SO4

3.

Confirmatory tests
To the O.S added
BaCl2 solution.
To the ppt from
above step added
KMnO4solution.
Conc. H2SO4 TestTo the sample
added
conc.H2SO4solution.

4.

Colourless,
pungent smell,
turned acidified
K2Cr2O7 solution
green.
White ppt.
Pink colour
discharge.
No change

present.
SO32- may be
present.

SO32confirmed.
SO32confirmed.
Conc. H2SO4
group absent

CATIONS
S.N
O.
5.

6.

7.

8.

EXPERIMENT
Group-0
To the sample
added NaOH and
heated
Group-I
To the sample
added dilute HCl
Group-II
To the above test
tube added H2S
Group-III

OBSERVATIO
N
No change

INFERENCE

No change

GroupI absent

No change

Group II
absent

A brown ppt.

Group-III

Group 0
absent

9.

10.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

11.

To the sample
added NH4Cl,
boiled, cooled,
added NH4OH in
excess.
Dissolved the ppt.
in dilute HCl and
added Potassium
Ferrocyanide.
To the filtrate of
group-III added
H2S solution.
To the sample
added NH4OH and
(NH4)2CO3 solution.
Dissolved
CH3COOH and
divided into three
parts.
To the first part
added K2CrO4
solution
To the second part
added (NH4)2SO4
solution
To the third part
added
(NH4)2C2O4and
NH4OH
Group-VI
Took the filtrate of
above step and

present.
Fe3+ detected.

prussian blue
colour

Fe3+ confirmed

No change

Group IV
absent

A white ppt.

Group V
present

No change

Ba2+ absent

No change

Sr2+ absent

A white ppt.

Ca2+ present

No change

Mg2+absent

added a few drops


of amm. oxalate
solution, boiled,
filtered. Took the
ppt, boiled, added
NH4OH and NH4Cl
in excess. Add
(NH4)2HPO4 and
rubbed with a glass
rod.

Dabur-RED
S.NO EXPERIMENT
.
1.
Preliminary Tests
Colour
Odour
Dry Heating
Flame test

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Red
Dabur Red-smell
Colourless,
CO32- may be
odourless gas.
present.
Reddish flame.
Ca2+ may be
present.
No gas evolved. Dil. H2SO4
group
absent.

2.

Dil. H2SO4 testTo the sample,


added Dil. H2SO4

4.

Conc. H2SO4 TestNo gas evolved.


To the sample
added
conc.H2SO4solution
.

Conc. H2SO4
group absent

CATIONS
S.N
O.
5.

6.

7.

EXPERIMENT

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Group-0
To the sample
added NaOH and
heated
Group-I
To the sample
added dilute HCl
Group-II

No change

Group 0 absent

No change

Group I absent

No change

Group II absent

8.

9.

10.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

11.

To the above test


tube added H2S
Group-III
To the sample
added NH4Cl,
boiled, cooled,
added NH4OH in
excess.
To the filtrate of
group-III added
H2S solution.
To the sample
added NH4OH and
(NH4)2CO3 solution.
To the first part
added K2CrO4
solution
To the second part
added (NH4)2SO4
solution
To the third part
added
(NH4)2C2O4and
NH4OH
Group-VI
Took the filtrate of
above step and
added a few drops
of amm. oxalate
solution, boiled,
filtered. Took the
ppt, boiled, added

No change.

GroupIII absent

No change

Group IV absent

A white ppt.

Group V absent

No change

Ba2+ absent

No change

Sr2+ absent

No change

Ca2+ absent

No change

Mg2+absent

NH4OH and NH4Cl


in excess. Add
(NH4)2HPO4 and
rubbed with a glass
rod.

Babool
S.N
O.
1.

EXPERIMENT
Preliminary tests
Colour
Odour
Dry Heating
Flame test

2.

3.

4.

5.

Dil. H2SO4 testTo the sample,


added dil. H2SO4.
Confirmatory Tests
To the O.S added
dil HCl solution.
To the solution
added MgSO4
solution.
Conc. H2SO4 testTo the sample
added conc. H2SO4
Independent Group
Tests-

Observation

Reddish
Babool smell
Colourless
odourless gas.
Reddish flame.

Inference

Colourless,
odourless gas.

CO32 may be
present.
Ca2+ may be
present.
CO32- may
be present.

Brisk
effervescence.
White ppt in
cold.

CO32confirmed.
CO32confirmed.

No gas evolved. Conc. H2SO4


group
absent.

For SO42- To the sample


White ppt.
added
BaCl2solution.
To the sample
White ppt.
added Lead acetate
soln.
For PO43-Added conc HNO3
No change.
to O.S and boiled.
Added ammonium
Molybdate soln in
excess and again
boiled.

SO42confirmed.
SO42confirmed.

PO43absent.

CATIONS
S.N
O.
6.

7.

8.

9.

EXPERIMENT

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Group-0
To the sample
added NaOH and
heated
Group-I
To the sample
added dilute HCl
Group-II
To the above test
tube added H2S
Group-III
To the sample
added NH4Cl,

No change

Group 0
absent

No change

Group I
absent

No change

Group II
absent

No change.

Group-III
absent
.

10.

11.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

11.

boiled, cooled,
added NH4OH in
excess.
To the filtrate of
group-III added
H2S solution.
To the sample
added NH4OH and
(NH4)2CO3 solution.
To the first part
added K2CrO4
solution
To the second part
added (NH4)2SO4
solution
To the third part
added
(NH4)2C2O4and
NH4OH
Group-VI
Took the filtrate of
above step and
added a few drops
of amm. oxalate
solution, boiled,
filtered. Took the
ppt, boiled, added
NH4OH and NH4Cl
in excess. Add
(NH4)2HPO4 and
rubbed with a glass

No change

Group IV
absent

A white ppt.

Group V
absent

No change

Ba2+ absent

No change

Sr2+ absent

White ppt.

Ca2+ present.

No change

Mg2+absent

rod.

COMPARATIVE
INFERENCE TABLE
NAME OF
THE
TOOTHPAST
E
COLGATE
PEPSODENT
CLOSE-UP
Dabur-RED
Babool

Ca2+

CO32
-

SO32- C
l-

SO42- Al3+ Fe3+

Mg2+

CONCLUSION
On the basis of the comparative inference table, we see that
_________ is the best of all toothpastes as it contains a majority of the
essential constituents (anions and cations) of a toothpaste.

PRECAUTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Handle the chemicals carefully.


Use test tube holder to hold the test tube.
Never add water to conc. acids
Never touch any chemical with hands directly.
Use a dropper for concentrated Acids.
Dont smell the vapours from too close.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toothpaste
http://www.seminarsonly.com
https://www.scribd.com/doc/78515818/Chemistry-ProjectWork
http://www.britannica.com/topic/Colgate-Total
http://www.dabur.com/Export-Dabur%20Red%20Toothpaste