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Republic of the Philippines

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University

Mid-La Union campus
City of San Fernando, La Union

NAME: Rowell A. Balala

COURSE: Doctor of Philosophy - TEM
PROFESSOR: Zonia T. Florendo, Ed. D.
SUBJECT: Development Communication
The reason of studying communication theory is to make you a better
communicator, we should articulate more clearly the nature of communication
competence. Research indicates that communication competence is most often
understood as achieving a successful balance between effectiveness and
appropriateness (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1989). The theories of communication can
be use to rich source for a better understanding of the theoretical fieldwork of
communication. The fact is that we have been using theories of communication in
our daily lives, even if they havent been labeled as such. Theories simply provide
an abstract understanding of the communication process (Miller, 2002) . As an
abstract understanding, they move beyond describing a single event by providing a
means by which all such events can be understood. A theory can illuminate an
aspect of your communication so that you understand the process much more
clearly; theory also can hide things from your understanding or distort the relative
importance of things. We consider a communication theory to be any systematic
summary about the nature of the communication process.
The concept of theories of communications uses different process or
discipline of communication wherein ideas and other forms are transmitted in a
unique ways like in the Authoritarian theory, it describes that all forms of
communications are under the control of the governing elite or authorities or
influential bureaucrats. Authoritarians are necessary to control the media to protect
and prevent the people from the national threats through any form communication
(information or news). The mass media are many things to many people and serve
a variety of functions, depending on the type of political and economic system in
which the media function, the stage of development of the society, and the interests
and needs of specific individuals (Werner J. Severin. James W. Tankard,Jr, 2001)

The press is an instrument to enhance the rulers power in the country rather than
any threats. The authorities have all rights to permit any media and control it by
providing license to the media and make certain censorship. If any media violate
the government policies against license, then the authority has all right to cancel
the license and revoke it. The government have all right to restrict any sensitive
issues from press to maintain peace and security in the nation. The world has been
witness to authoritarian means of control over media by both dictatorial and
democratic governments.
In Libertarianism or Free Press Theory is based on the right of an individual,
and advocates absence of restraint. Every person has the right and free to express
their ideas and write and publish freely. A power without social responsibility. This
theory is just in contrast to the authoritarian approach to media. It is a free
marketplace of ideas where anyone can publish his/ her views and expressions but
cannot defame or be obscene. There shall be minimum checks and balances by the
government. The libertarians had a very modern approach which was
quintessential to serve the purposes of the modern society based on rise of
democracy, religious freedom, expansion of economic freedom, philosophical
climate of the enlightenment, undermined authoritarianism emphasis on personal
freedom and democracy. The reason behind the said philosophy was that people
are rational and can distinguish between truth and falsehood, and between good
and evil and therefore, be allowed to express their views and expressions.
However, Freedom of press can be abused. Absolute freedom is anarchy. Abolition
of censorship; but, also the introduction of press laws designed to protect
individual rights (protection of reputation, privacy, moral development of
individuals or groups, security of the state) could override the right of the press
while Social Responsibility Theory allows free press without any censorship but at
the same time the content of the press should be discussed in public panel and
media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional selfregulations or both. The theory lies between both authoritarian theory and
libertarian theory because it gives total media freedom in one hand but the external
controls in other hand. According to the theory media must be controlled by
community opinion and ethics. Media cannot violate peoples rights. Press can be

free and be comprehensive and objective but at the same time must be socially

The social responsibility theory is an outgrowth of the libertarian theory.

However, social responsibility goes beyond "objective" reporting to "interpretive"
reporting. Media has certain obligations to society which it must fulfil in all
circumstances: Informativeness, Truth, Accuracy, Objectivity, Balance.
In Soviet Media/Communist Theory, the government undertake or controls
the total media and communication to serve working classes and their interest.
Theory says the state have absolute power to control any media for the benefits of
people. The Soviet theory differs from the authoritarian theory in that the media
organizations have a certain responsibility to meet the wishes of their audience.
This theory is derived from the ideologies of Marx and Engel that "the ideas of the
ruling classes are the ruling ideas". It was thought that the entire mass media was
saturated with bourgeois ideology. Lenin thought of private ownership as being
incompatible with freedom of press and that modern technological means of
information must be controlled for enjoying effective freedom of press. The theory
advocated that the sole purpose of mass media was to educate the great masses of
workers and not to give out information. The public was encouraged to give
feedback as it was the only way the media would be able to cater to its interests.
They put end to the private ownership of the press and other media. The
government media provide positive thoughts to create a strong socialized society as
well as providing information, education, entertainment, motivation and
mobilization. The theory describe the whole purpose of the mass media is to
educate the greater masses of working class or workers. Here, the public was
encouraged to give feedback which would able to create interests towards the
media. Soviet media theory looks similar like authoritarian theory but the core part
is different from each other. In authoritarian theory is a one way communication,
there is no feedback allowed from the public but in Soviet media theory is a two
way communication at the same time the whole media is controlled or works under
the leadership. Private ownership is not allowed which leads the press without any
restriction and it can serve people without any authoritative blockades. Soviet
media theory allows some restriction based on the nation interest rather than
personal. Under communist theories like soviet media theory, the journalist or

press should support the leadership rather than a watchdog. If the leadership is
wrong the whole nation will suffer a lot.

Communication is central in our lives, in school, at work, and in our

personal activities and relationships. Communication theories helps in developing
understanding about the technical aspects of communication. It is aimed at
developing knowledge on how people communicate. Communication can be
influenced through persuasion with the intention of exerting control or through
cooperation with an aim of developing valued relations. Communication theory
develop insights into the complex nature of the different types of human
communication. Communication theory seeks to understand the different capacities
required for communication in order to develop channels that will successfully
carry and deliver the intended information. On the other hand, it gives us a
conceptual framework with which to study and improve our own communication
skills and those of others.
Spitzberg, B. H., and Cupach, W. R. (1984). Handbook of Interpersonal
Research. New York Springer-Verlag
Theories of Developmental Psychology. 5th Edition. Patricia H. Miller. University
of Georgia. 2002)
Werner J. Severin. James W. Tankard,Jr. (2001). Communication Theories: Origins,
Methods, And Uses In The Mass Media 5th Ed. Addison Wesley Longman,