Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

11/08/2015

Coursera

Segment1:MusicalNotes

HelpCenter

Segment1
Firstlyhereisanexampleofsomeearlymusic,writtenbeforethestandardisedstave/staffcameintouse:

Ithinkyoucanseehowthiswasproblematic.
Namingthenotes:
Herearethesevenalphabeticalnotenamesinascendingorder.NotetheledgerlineforthelastA,to
temporarilyextendthestave/staff:

HeretheyaredescendingfromAwithmoreledgerlines:

Themnemonicsforlearningthepositionofthenotesinthetrebleclef:

(Foragenderneutralversiontry:EveryGreenBusDrivesFast!)
Herearethenotesonapianokeyboard:

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

1/2

11/08/2015

Coursera

Finallyweintroducedtheoctave.Herearethesevennotenamesshowninadjacentoctavesonthe
stave.Notethatwhenthelowernoteisontheline,itsoctaveaboveisonaspaceandvisaversa:

ThislowerCwithoneledgerlineiscalled'middleC

Youcanfinditrightinthemiddleofthekeyboard(thenotenamesaresometimeswrittenonelectronic
keyboards,butonarealpianoitsnearthelockofthelid).

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

2/2

11/08/2015

Segment2:Octaves

Coursera

HelpCenter

Intervals
Hereistheintervalofasecondasshowninthevideo:

Atapproximately3minutes20secondsinthesegment,Zackgivesseveralexamplesofmoreintervals,
andheretheyareintheorderheplayedthem:

Tonesandsemitones:
Notethatusingonlywhitenoteswehaveidentifiedtwosetsofsemitones.ThefirstsetisbetweenBand
C:

TheothersetisbetweenEandF:

Theseintervalscanmostclearlybeseenonakeyboardbecausethereisnoblackkeybetweenthemif
data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

1/2

11/08/2015

Coursera

youlookbackatthekeyboardgraphicyouwillseethis.
TheCmajorscale:
Knowingthedifferencebetweenthesetones(T)andsemitones(S),allowsustoderivetheCmajorscale:

Cisthetonichere,andthisscaleisanexampleofadiatonicscaleonethathasapatternof2
semitonesand5tonesgoingfromoneoctavetothenext.

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

2/2

11/08/2015

Segment3:MoreonScales

Coursera

HelpCenter

TheAnaturalminorscale/Aeolianmode:

Whenthepatternoftonesandsemitonesisdifferent,thescalesoundsdifferentformallyithasa
differentquality.
Hereisanexampleofthatdifferentquality.ThisisGodRestYeMerryGentlemen,theChristmasCarol
thatIplayedonflute,(writtenbyanunknowncomposer,butprobablydatingbacktotheSeventeenth
Century).

Ifyouarenewtoreadingnotationdontworry,youcanstillfollowthenotesofthistuneandnoticehow
themelodykeepscomingbacktotheA.
WealsonamedtheAnaturalminortheAeolianmodewewillnowmoveontothemodes.Different
modesaresimplyfoundbystartingourmajorscaleonadifferentnotethisthenarithmeticallyrearranges
thepatternofthose5tonesand2semitonesthefollowingmodesareallthereforealsodiatonic.
Herearethenamesaswerefertothemtoday:TheSevenDiatonicModes(showingthepatternsof
tonesandsemitones)

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

1/3

11/08/2015

Coursera

Amnemonicforrememberingthemodesis:
IDontPunchLikeMuhammadALi.Togetafeelforthespecialqualitiesofeachdifferentmode,try
playingthemyourselfatakeyboard.Noticethedifferentsequenceoftonesandsemitones.
Alsotrythisexercise.IfyouknowthesongScarboroughFair,findthenoteDplaytwoDsandthenanA,
(thebeginningofthesong)keeptryingtoplayitbyear(yesIknowthisisaliteracybasedcourse,but
thatdoesntmeanyoushouldntuseyourearsitsanimportantskill).Ifyoumanagetogetthroughthe
data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

2/3

11/08/2015

Coursera

tunelistentohowthatDfeelslikehome.Trysingingthescalewhilethesongisinyourmemory.Itmight
bequitehard,butplayingaroundlikethiswillhelpyoutoexperiencetonality,anditwillhelpdevelopyour
generalmusicianship.
AnothersongintheDorianmodeisWhatShallWedoWithaDrunkenSailor.Toplaythissongwithwhite
notesyouhavetostartonAandgodowntoaDwhatshallwedowiththedrunken(that'stheDon
ken).
Musicdoesntalwaysstartonitstonic,butitoftenfinishesonit,andthissongfinishesonD,whichagain
shouldfeellikehome.
Ofcourseyoucandothiswithsimplesongsbasedonthemajorscale.YoucanbeginTwinkleTwinkle
LittleStaronCinordertokeepitonwhitenotes.FrereJacques(alsocalledBrotherJohnorAreYou
Sleeping),startsandfinishesonC,butMaryHadaLittleLambwouldstartonE(the3rd).
Ontheotherhand,youcouldplayalongwithourversionofSheMovedThroughtheFair,andseeifyou
canfeeltheGasthetonicnote.JustkeepplayingthenoteGandseehowit'fits'Anyway,tryit
improviseonakeyboardoryourowninstrument!

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

3/3

11/08/2015

Coursera

Segment4:IntroductiontoChords

HelpCenter

TheCmajorandAminortriadsAtriadisathreenotechord.
DerivingtheCmajortriadfromtheCmajorscale:

DerivingtheAminortriadfromtheAnaturalminorscale:

Herearethetwotriadsstandingalone,CmajorandAminor:

WecansayherethatCmajoristhetonicoftheCmajorscale,andAminoristhetonicoftheAminor
scale.
Understandingtheinternalstructureofthetriadsmajorandminor:
Firstlywewillunderstandtheintervalbetweenthebottomnoteandthetopnote,bybreakingitdown
intosemitones,andaddingthoseup.ForCmajor,itsCandG:

Thisintervalisaperfectfifthanintervalthatspanssevensemitones.WegetthesamethingforAminor
betweenAandE:

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

1/2

11/08/2015

Coursera

NowweneedtofindtheintervalbetweenthebottomandmiddlenoteofthetriadofCmajor:

...whichgivesusamajorthird
AndforAminor:

Herewehavetheminorthirdsmallerbyonesemitone,i.e.theminorthirdspansonly3semitones.Itis
thisdifferenceinthesizeortheintervalofthethirdthatmakesallthedifference(perceptually)between
thesetwochords.
HerewehaveallthetriadsasplayedbyZackstartingatabout5minutesinthevideo:

InthenextsegmentwearegoingtobeginlookingathowthesetriadsrelatetotheCmajorscale,starting
withthethreeprimarychords.

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

2/2

11/08/2015

Coursera

Segment5:PrimaryChords

HelpCenter

Thethreeprimarychords:

SowehavetheCmajortonictriad,builtonthetonicofthescale.Thesubdominanttriadisbuiltonthe
fourthnote,andthedominanttriadonthefifth.Theromannumeralswrittenunderneathrefertothese
scaledegreesandareanotherimportantmeansofidentifyingthedifferenttriadsinthescale.Wewilluse
thismuchmoreinthecominglectures.
(notethesearetheonlymajorchordsD,E,andAareminorandofcoursetheBisdiminished)
At3minutesinthevideo,Iharmonisedeachnoteofthemajorscalewithoneoftheseprimarychords
thefollowingshowsthisinnotation,alsowiththenamesofeachchordinleadsheetchordsymbols:

Afinalwordonallthesechords.Wearedescribingthemasquitefixedentitiesweidentifydifferenttriads,
wesaywhichnotesgobestwithwhichchordetc.Historicallymusicwasaroundforalongtimebefore
chordswereidentifiedinthisway.Inearlychurchmusic,monksbegansingingdifferentmelodicpartsat
thesametime(harmonisingeachother'svoices).Thisdevelopedintothetechniqueknown
ascounterpoint(thetermmeansnoteagainstnote).Ascounterpointbecamemorecomplex,three
voicessingingdifferentnotesmightarrivetogetherandformthekindofchordswehavebeenidentifying.
Slowlypeoplebegantorealisethatthesecouldbeextractedandusedmoreexplicitlyinthewaywedo
now.RameauinhisTreatiseonharmony(1722)isgenerallycreditedwithfirstdescribingtriadicchords,
aswenowknowthem,(buttheywouldalreadyhavebeeninuse).Inthetwentiethcentury,someclassical
musicbegantodispensewithtriadicharmony,butinjazz,rock,pop,andfolk,chordscontinuetobethe
mainwaymostmusiciansthinkofharmony.(Visitcertainpop/rockmusicforumsonlineandyouwillsee
countlesspostsfrompeopleaskingforthechordstoplayawholevarietyofsongs).

Postscript
data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

1/2

11/08/2015

Coursera

ThroughoutthislecturethereareplaceswhereIwouldlovetosaymore.Placeswherewehavehadtosimplify
certaintruths.Thefollowinginformationisforyourinterest,ratherthanyourfundamentalunderstandingofthe
fundamentalsofmusictheory.

Octaves

Inthefirstsegmentweidentifiedtheoctaveontheguitarbyhalvingthestring.Thisbringsupaphenomenon
formallyknownastheharmonicseries.IfyoukeephalvingastringandplayingityoudontJUSTkeepgettingthe
nextoctaveitbecomesmoreinterestingthanthatthereisamathematicalrelationship,whichPythagorasisoften
citedasthediscovererof(althoughothershadprobablyfigureditoutbefore).Ifyouareinterested:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic_series_(music)

Semitones

Inthesecondsegmentweintroducedsemitones,butsmallerintervalsexistandareusedinlotsofmusic.Theyare
formallycalledMicrotones.Awellknownexamplewouldbesingersorguitarists'bending'anoteupordownin
Blues,RockandJazz.Classicalmusicfromthemidtwentiethcenturyoftenusedmicrotones,asdoesmuchmusic
fromotherculturesaroundtheworld.

Moreonmodes

Thereismuchmoretosayaboutmodesandotherkindsofscalesforinstancewehaventeven
touchedonpentatonicscales,whichareverycommoninallkindsofmusic.Foraverydetailed
articleonthemodesandtheirhistorycheckwikipediahere:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(music)
Andforpentatonicscaleshere:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentatonic_scale

data:text/html;charset=utf-8,%3Ch2%20class%3D%22course-page-header%22%20style%3D%22box-sizing%3A%20border-box

2/2